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  • 151.
    Bergström, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Tracing Subliminal Memory Traces2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

     

    This study aims to explore subliminally encoded memory traces over time in an Attentional Blink (AB) paradigm. The AB paradigm consisted of a Rapid Serial Visual Presentation (RSVP) of numbers among which two targets (T1) a simple math task, and (T2) a single letter (A, S, D, or F) were to be identified. Two direct behavioral measures, T2 accuracy and T2 Response Time (RT) were used. Conscious perception was measured with the subjective Perceptual Awareness Scale (PAS). The expectations was to find a decline in T2 accuracy, and increase in RT over three memory storage lengths (150ms, 3000ms, 7000ms). There were 21 participants, 21-32 years of age, out of which 8 were female. Each of the memory storage lengths showed significant behavioral effects (p< .001), which indicates unconscious perception. However, the repeated measure ANOVA did not find any significant differences for the three memory storage lengths (p> .05) over time. Thus, it was concluded that subliminally encoded memory traces seem to be able to persist for at least 7000ms without end in sight. The result challenge the 500ms limit usually accepted, and thus there is reason to continue to trace subliminal memory traces.

  • 152.
    Bergström, Jan
    et al.
    Karolinska institutet, Department of clinical Neuroscience, Center for Psychiatry Research,Stockholm, Sweden.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Karolinska institutet, Department of clinical Neuroscience, Center for Psychiatry Research,Stockholm, Sweden, Linköping University, Department of Behaioural Sciences and Learning, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping, Sweden.
    Ljotsson, Brjann
    Karolinska institutet, Department of clinical Neuroscience, Center for Psychiatry Research,Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ruck, Christian
    Karolinska institutet, Department of clinical Neuroscience, Center for Psychiatry Research,Stockholm, Sweden.
    Andreewitch, Sergej
    Karolinska institutet, Department of clinical Neuroscience, Center for Psychiatry Research,Stockholm, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Andreas
    Mid Sweden University, Department of Social Sciences, Section of Psychology, Östersund, Sweden.
    Carlbring, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Andersson, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Department of Social Sciences, Section of Psychology, Östersund, Sweden.
    Lindefors, Nils
    Mid Sweden University, Department of Social Sciences, Section of Psychology, Östersund, Sweden.
    Internet-versus group-administered cognitive behaviour therapy for panic disorder in a psychiatric setting: a randomised trial2010In: BMC Psychiatry, ISSN 1471-244X, E-ISSN 1471-244X, Vol. 10, no 54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Internet administered cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) is a promising new way to deliver psychological treatment, but its effectiveness in regular care settings and in relation to more traditional CBT group treatment has not yet been determined. The primary aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of Internetand group administered CBT for panic disorder (with or without agoraphobia) in a randomised trial within a regular psychiatric care setting. The second aim of the study was to establish the cost-effectiveness of these interventions.

    Methods: Patients referred for treatment by their physician, or self-referred, were telephone-screened by a psychiatric nurse. Patients fulfilling screening criteria underwent an in-person structured clinical interview carried out by a psychiatrist. A total of 113 consecutive patients were then randomly assigned to 10 weeks of either guided Internet delivered CBT (n = 53) or group CBT (n = 60). After treatment, and at a 6-month follow-up, patients were again assessed by the psychiatrist, blind to treatment condition.

    Results: Immediately after randomization 9 patients dropped out, leaving 104 patients who started treatment. Patients in both treatment conditions showed  significant improvement on the main outcome measure, the Panic Disorder Severity Scale (PDSS) after treatment. For the Internet treatment the within-group effect size (pre-post) on the PDSS was Cohen's d = 1.73, and for the group treatment it was d = 1.63. Between group effect sizes were low and treatment effects were maintained at 6-months follow-up. We found no statistically significant differences between the two treatment conditions using a mixed models approach to account for missing data. Group CBT utilised considerably more therapist time than did Internet CBT. Defining effect as proportion of PDSS responders, the cost-effectiveness analysis concerning therapist time showed that Internet treatment had superior cost-effectiveness ratios in relation to group treatment both at post-treatment and follow-up.

    Conclusions: This study provides support for the effectiveness of Internet CBT in a psychiatric setting for patients with panic disorder, and suggests that it is equally effective as the more widely used group administered CBT in reducing panic-and agoraphobic symptoms, as well as being more cost effective with respect to therapist time.

  • 153.
    Bergström, Markus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ett Excel-baserat informationssystem för IKEAs personalavdelningar2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    IKEA HaparandaTornio employ some two-hundred people in its furniture retail store.

    Keeping track of staff statistics and employee information has previously been achieved

    through the use of a basic Microsoft Office Excel spreadsheet. The store’s human resources

    department requested an upgrade to this system with the hope of speeding up and

    simplifying the administrative process, as well as to make it easier to monitor HR-related

    target statistics. The following report documents the development process of that upgrade as

    carried out by the author. The project draws on research in usability design and cognitive

    psychology to develop a user-friendly interface. Particular focus has been put on features

    related to the administration of employee information, including adding, editing and

    deleting personnel entries, as well as a clean and informative statistical interface. The result

    is an Excel-based information system that uses VBA programming to achieve said goals.

    The vast majority of planned features were implemented, although some were revised or

    scaled-down due to limitations in Excel. Overall the project goal was reached, but work will

    continue in order to enhance the final result.

  • 154.
    Bergström, Sten Sture
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gustafsson, Karl-Arne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Concave and convex phases in ambigous figures showing colour shifts: Mach´s figure and the AMBEGUJAS phenomen2011In: Perception, ISSN 0301-0066, E-ISSN 1468-4233, Vol. 40, p. 30-38Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 155.
    Bergström, Sten-Sture
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The AMBEGUAS phenomenon and colour constancy2004In: Perception, ISSN 0301-0066, E-ISSN 1468-4233, Vol. 33, no 7, p. 831-835Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 156.
    Berman, Anne H.
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Center for Psychiatric Research, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Farzanfar, Ramesh
    Medical Information Systems Unit (MISU), Boston University Medical Campus, Boston, MA, USA .
    Kristiansson, Marianne
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Center for Research in Psychiatry, Social and Forensic Psychiatry Research Program Karolinska Institutet/National Board of Forensic, Medicine, Dept of Forensic Psychiatry in Stockholm, Huddinge, Sweden .
    Carlbring, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Friedman, Robert H.
    Medical Information Systems Unit (MISU), Boston University Medical Campus, Boston, MA, USA .
    Design and Development of a Telephone-Linked Care (TLC) System to Reduce Impulsivity among Violent Forensic Outpatients and Probationers2012In: Journal of medical systems, ISSN 0148-5598, E-ISSN 1573-689X, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 1031-1042Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Forensic services face the challenge of reducing relapse among clients with a history of violent crime. An automated interactive voice response (IVR) service of the complex Telephone-Linked Care (TLC) type, with a focus on reducing impulsivity, could improve the adequacy of service responses to client needs. Theoretically based in Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT), Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) and Motivational Interviewing (MI), the forensic TLC system offers interactive conversations on coping with the emotions of anger, shame and loneliness; activities of daily life such as getting out of bed, asking for help, visiting social services and taking medication; and other areas such as hearing voices, drinking alcohol and self-critical thoughts. We describe the user´s flow through the system, with an in-depth synopsis of the hearing voices intervention. Issues regarding voluntary versus mandatory use of the system are addressed in connection with prospective introduction of the system in forensic settings.

  • 157.
    Bern, Sofia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography, Transportation Research Unit (TRUM). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Haugen, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography, Transportation Research Unit (TRUM).
    Jansson, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography, Transportation Research Unit (TRUM). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Nordlund, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography, Transportation Research Unit (TRUM). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Olsson, Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Westin, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    ”Det är ju som vilken annan bil som helst”: röster om elbilar2015Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 158.
    Bern, Sofia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography, Transportation Research Unit (TRUM).
    Jansson, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography, Transportation Research Unit (TRUM). RiseB.
    Nordlund, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography, Transportation Research Unit (TRUM).
    Nyman, Emma
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography, Transportation Research Unit (TRUM).
    Mobilitet och tillgänglighet – framtidens resande2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Trafikverket har gett TRUM (Transportforskningsenheten vid Umeå Universitet) i uppdrag att utreda framtidens mobilitet innefattande frågor såsom privatpersoners attityder och normer till resande med bil och däribland självkörande bilar, betalningsvilja, syn på ägande inställning till individuellt resande gentemot kollektivt resande, samt intressenters förväntningar på ett framtida tillgängligt transportsystem. Därutöver önskar Trafikverket ökad förståelse kring arbetssätt och metoder för att möta teknikutveckling och framtida mobilitet. Syftet med föreliggande rapport är att svara på dessa frågeställningar utifrån litteraturstudier och intervjuer.

    Det huvudsakliga underlaget för rapporten är en genomgång av litteratur relaterad till transporter, mobilitet och historiska såväl som framtida trender. Fokus har varit på persontransporter kopplat till människors beteende, samt vad privatpersoner, framtidsspanare och företrädare för bil- och teknikbranschen tror kommer att hända med personresande i framtiden. Utöver litteraturstudien genomfördes sex intervjuer under januari och februari 2016. Intervjuerna gjordes med syfte att öka förståelsen för hur människor resonerar kring mobilitet och transporter i dagsläget och hur de tror att vi kommer att resa i framtiden. Utifrån litteraturgenomgången och intervjuerna kan konstateras att attityder till elbilar generellt sett är positiva. Hinder för ett bredare genombrott utgörs av uppfattade prisskillnader, räckviddsångest och uppfattad brist på laddinfrastruktur. Som drivkrafter kan nämnas ökat miljömedvetande och alltmer positiva attityder bland flera olika aktörer, till exempel teknikutvecklare. När det gäller självkörande bilar är attityderna mer varierande. Bland annat lyfts säkerhetsfaktorer, tillgänglighet och det faktum att flera bilmodeller redan idag utrustas med olika typer av autonomifunktioner. Enligt olika bedömningar kommer koncept såsom Mobility as a Service och liknande att leda till förändrade attityder och normer när det gäller både privat och kollektivt resande. Avslutningsvis lämnas förslag på hur dessa och andra förändringar kan följas och förstås utifrån ett planeringsperspektiv. Olika metoder och perspektiv är viktiga för att skapa en bild över framtida utveckling redan idag, framförallt kopplat till de miljöutmaningar samhället står inför.

  • 159.
    Bern, Sofia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography, Transportation Research Unit (TRUM).
    Jansson, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography, Transportation Research Unit (TRUM).
    Nordlund, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nyman, Emma
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography, Transportation Research Unit (TRUM).
    Westin, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History. Dept. of Geography and Economic History, Umeå University.
    Mobilitet och tillgänglighet – framtidens resande.2016Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 160.
    Bertilsdotter Rosqvist, Hanna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Nordlund, Lisa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Kaiser, Niclas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Developing an authentic sex: deconstructing developmental–psychological discourses of transgenderism in a clinical setting2014In: Feminism and Psychology, ISSN 0959-3535, E-ISSN 1461-7161, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 20-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper is based on a broader study of the use of discourses of transgenderism among sex-reassignment evaluators in Sweden. In this paper we explore how a developmental–psychological discourse was reproduced by the evaluators in their discursive negotiations of transsexualism. We found that maturity and authenticity are two key concepts that illuminate how the developmental–psychological discourse both clashes with and works together with a medical–pathological discourse of transgenderism. The developmental–psychological discourse can help to produce a definition of transgenderism that is more diverse regarding male/female dichotomies. This in turn can create a wider range of possible subject positions for patients who are seeking help. The developmental–psychological discourse also imposes additional limitations regarding the subject positions available to transgender persons through a demand for maturity and for having gone through all of the steps in the expected identity development process. The developmental–psychological repertoire casts transgenderism as an identity crisis.

  • 161.
    Bertilsson, Frida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Test-enhanced learning and the effects of individual differences in cognition and personality2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Test-enhanced learning refers to the well-established finding that repeated testing of a material will result in better recall of the material than repeated study will do, i.e. the testing effect. However, an under-researched aspect is how the effect of test-enhanced learning may vary due to individual differences in cognitive abilities and personality characteristics. The overarching purpose of this thesis is two-folded. First to evaluate the effects of test-enhanced learning. Second to investigate the relationship between working memory capacity, Need for Cognition, Grit, and test-enhanced learning. The within-subjects intervention consisted of 60 Swedish-Swahili word pairs. Subjects repeatedly studied 30 items and were repeatedly tested on 30 items. The effect of the intervention was measured immediately after training, 1 week later and 4 weeks later. The results showed that test-enhanced learning led to improved learning compared to restudy at all retention tests, replicating the testing effect. No association was found between either repeated testing or repeated study and WMC, NFC, or Grit.  

  • 162.
    Bertilsson, Frida
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Kron, Charlotta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Trafiksäkerhet ur ambulansförares perspektiv: En kvalitativ studie2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate paramedics’ view on traffic safety. This was to highlight factors that create traffic risks and thereby give suggestions for improvements that will reduce the risk factors. Sixteen paramedics at an ambulance station in a medium-sized Swedish city were interviewed using a semi-structured interview method. A thematic analysis was performed on the content of the interviews. The analysis demonstrated four main themes regarding traffic risk factors and one theme regarding the participants’ suggestions for improvements. The conducted study shows that the interviewed paramedics have a clear safety philosophy. However, many improvements can be made regarding, for example, the driver’s environment in the ambulance as well as the interaction between ambulances and other road users.

  • 163.
    Bertilsson, Frida
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stenlund, Tova
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The Testing Effect and Its Relation to Working Memory Capacity and Personality Characteristics2017In: Journal of Cognitive Education and Psychology, ISSN 1945-8959, E-ISSN 1810-7621, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 241-259Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Retrieval practice is known to lead to better retention of a to-be-learned material than restudy (i.e., the testing effect). However, few studies have investigated retrieval practice in relation to working memory capacity (WMC) and personality characteristics such as grittiness (Grit) and need for cognition (NFC). In two experiments, we examined retrieval practice and restudy of Swahili–Swedish word pairs in relation to individual differences in Grit and NFC. In Experiment 1, using a between-subjects design, a significant main effect of retention interval was qualified by a Group × Retention Interval interaction. However, there were no effects of Grit or NFC. In Experiment 2, a within-subjects design was used, and a measure of WMC was included. The analyses revealed a testing effect; but again, WMC, Grit, and NFC were not significantly associated with performance. These results indicate that retrieval practice levels out the playing field regarding WMC, NFC, and Grit.

  • 164.
    Bilić, Katja
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Relationship between memory performance, visuospatial function and functional lateralization in adults2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Age-related decline in memory and other cognitive functions, such as visuospatial functions is widely studied and well documented. In recent years, some studies have also found relationships between memory performance and functional body lateralization, with individuals who are inconsistently lateralized (e.g. have inconsistent handedness) scoring higher on episodic memory tests. The objectives of this study were to investigate relationships and possible differences between episodic and semantic memory performance, and visuospatial functions as a function of functional lateralization consistency in a large population-based study. In total, 1283 adult men and women participants, with age ranging from 25 to 100 years, were tested within the Betula prospective cohort study (Nilsson et al., 1997) where they were included in the fifth wave (T5) of data collection. Participants were divided into groups of consistent or inconsistent functional lateralization regarding respective hand-, foot-, and eyedness. Results revealed weak to moderate relationship between variables of functional laterality and its consistency. While age was significant predictor of memory performance and visuospatial functions, sex and functional laterality consistency variables were insignificant. Results are discussed in relation to previous studies and to hemispheric interaction theory. 

  • 165.
    Billing, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Simulation of Corticospinal Interaction for Motor Control2004Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 166.
    Birbas, Nicole
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Terneborg, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Second language proficiency and its effects on cognitive functions:: Relations between bilingualism and tactile and visual versions of the Simon task2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Bilinguals have repeatedly shown to have better results than monolinguals in non-verbal cognitive tasks that require inhibition of distracting stimuli. Evidence suggests that this enhanced performance is due to training effects of non domain specific executive functions, and that this gain in cognitive performance can contribute to a cognitive reserve in old age. One of the most frequently used methods when studying the relationship between second language proficiency and cognitive abilities is the Simon task in the visual sensory modality. The present study aimed to determine if the advantage found in the visual Simon task also could apply to a tactile Simon task. The sample consisted of 40 individuals aged 43 to 64 with different levels in their second language. An operational span test (OSPAN) was used to control for working memory capacity. No significant correlation was found between bilingualism and the Simon effect in either modality. Since the study has low statistical power and a small range in second language proficiency, it was concluded that further research investigating whether the bilingual advantage found in the visual Simon task can be found across modalities is necessary before any conclusions regarding a relationship between bilingualism and cognitive control can be made. 

  • 167.
    Birkfeldt, Jens
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ea, Wållgren
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Implicit Realtional Develompent in Cross-neurotype Realtionships2020Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Most human beings have a need to engage in romantic relationships. Non-verbal/ implicit communication is suggested to be essential to sustaining strong intimate relationships. Given that high functioning autism (HFA) affects non-verbal/ implicit communication and social reciprocity, adults with HFA often find it challenging relating to their neurotypical (NT) partner and vice versa. This paper aims to explore the experiences of how differences in ability to engage in non-verbal/ implicit behaviors affect the dynamic of relationships where one individual has HFA and the other identifies as neurotypical (HFA-NT relationships). In-depth one-on-one interviews were conducted with 7 participants (4 HFA, 3 NT). Data was analyzed with a qualitative content analysis and revealed three themes: A relationship like any other, There are consequences of living in a neurotypical world and Creating mutual understanding with the use of direct communication. The results indicate that HFA-NT relationships included in our study share many characteristics with most romantic relationships, but that their individual differences in ability to engage in implicit behaviors create relational challenges and are the source of many conflicts. Results also imply that the HFA-NT relationships included in our study rely on the use of direct communication to create mutual understanding. Findings are discussed as a potential consequence of living in a world formed by neurotypical norms.

  • 168.
    Bjurmar, Frida
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sundholm, Elina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Följder av extrem prematuritet: En jämförelse mellan sexåringar födda extremt prematurt och en matchad kontrollgrupp avseende utfall på Brown ADD Scales2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Children born extremely preterm (22-27 weeks of gestation) are at increased risk for neurologic, behavioral and cognitive difficulties. The main purpose of this study was to investigate indication of ADHD-complications in children at the age of six years, born extremely preterm (n=40) in comparison to age-matched children born at term (n=40). Brown ADD Scales was used for comparisons between the two groups of children. The result showed significant differences between the children born extremely preterm and the term born on all eight clusters comprised Brown ADD Scales; where the children born extremely preterm show a higher complexity of problems than the term born. At a group level, children born extremely preterm, did not score above the boundary that indicates the need for further ADHD investigation. However, results show that the children born in the earliest gestational ages (22-25 weeks of gestation) among the extremely preterm born, score just above the boundary for further investigation. No significant sex difference between the children born extremely preterm and the control children was found. Furthermore, no significant difference regarding the mother’s education level was found within the group of children born extremely preterm. Although the children born extremely preterm did exhibit greater problems and complexities regarding executive functions and higher level of ADHD-tendencies, as a group they did not reach the level of clinical difficulties. Consequently, individual evaluation has to be taken in to account for further evaluations and development of support for children born extremely preterm. An extremely preterm birth should be considered as a risk factor, among other things for the ADHD-complications this study consider.

  • 169.
    Bjurström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Socialsekreterares psykosociala arbetsmiljö relaterad till utbrändhet2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has shown that the psychosocial work environment is related to psychosocial ill health and burnout. However, there is limited research about the psychosocial work environment for social workers. The object was to examine the prevalence of burnout and the relation to psychosocial work environment. Methods – A survey with 151 questions were sent by e-mail to the respondents. The survey consisted of a questionnaire using the QPS Nordic and Shirom-Melamed Burnout Questionnaire (SMBQ). Results - 43 of 143 of the invited social care workers participated in the survey corresponding to a rate of 30 %. The result showed a significant group difference between high and low burnout employees for the subscales control of work tempo, role clarity, positive challenges, support from manager and interaction between work and private life. Conclusion – Burnout is more common for the participating social care workers compared to previous research in the common population of Sweden.

  • 170.
    Björk, Carina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    de Zayo Bergström, Susanne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Aspekter av vuxenblivande: Adopterade från Sydkorea och Colombia berättar2010Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Abstract / introduktion

    Studiens syfte var att undersöka upplevelser kring aspekter av vuxenblivandet bland adopterade; såsom studier, flytta hemifrån, skaffa partner, bilda familj och arbete. Frågeställningarna berörde även om adoptionsidentiteten, kön och ursprungsland hade någon betydelse för upplevelserna av vuxenblivandeprocessen.

    Semistrukturerade intervjuer genomfördes med sex kvinnor och sex män födda 1969-1992 i Sydkorea och Colombia/El Salvador. Materialet analyserades med en induktiv och deduktiv tematisk analys. Resultatanalysen synliggjorde att den stora variationen i upplevelser och erfarenheter i stor utsträckning relaterade till familjrelationer och etnisk självidentitet och extern etnicitetsidentifiering. Vuxenblivandet som en positiv respektive problematisk erfarenhet kunde även relateras till individuellt förhållningssätt.

  • 171.
    Björk, Johanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Could musical mastery affect how attractive a person is rated as a prospective partner?2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Evolutionary psychology explains and predicts human behaviour based on its adaptive value. Some apparently non-adaptive behaviours such as humans’ devotion to music can be explained by sexual selection of costly signals, since it takes time and effort to learn to play an instrument well. Here, participants rated pictures of persons of the opposite sex that were said to play a piece of music that was heard while watching each picture. The music performances were either of low, medium, or high level of skill, and a better performance was predicted to lead to higher ratings of partner attractiveness because it is more costly. No effect of the music was found, except that women rated men as less desirable for a long-term relationships when the skill level was high than when it was medium.

  • 172.
    Björk, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Män möter mödravård: om betydelsen av "vi" i mötet med mödrahälsovård, förlossningsvård och BB-vård2016Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In contemporary Sweden it is a matter of course that prospective fathers should be involved in pregnancy, childbirth and care of the newborn. Most fathers are present at the visits to the antenatal clinic, including the ultrasound examination; they participate in parental education classes; and they are present at the birth of their child. Yet many fathers express dissatisfaction with prenatal care, delivery care and postnatal care: they frequently feel excluded, invisible and irrelevant. This study is an attempt to better understand those experiences of exclusion, invisibility and irrelevancy.

    The study is based on interviews with ten Swedish fathers. Their narratives about their encounter with prenatal, delivery and postnatal care were analysed with a phenomenological--hermeneutic narrative approach. Special attention was paid to the way the major characters were positioned in the father's narratives.

    The results can be summarised in three points: (1) The strong focus in health care on the physical aspects of pregnancy and childbirth may make it difficult for prospective and new fathers to find a meaningful position in the encounter with prenatal, delivery and postnatal care. (2) The narratives of the interviewed fathers can be roughly divided into "we"-narratives where the father found an untroubled position and "I"-narratives where he didn't. I take this to mean that the fathers sought a "we"-position where pregnancy and childbirth could become a joint concern for the mother and the father. (3) The difficulty of finding an untroubled position in the encounter with prenatal, delivery and postnatal care is first and foremost a consequence of the fact that the prospective/new father is not pregnant, not of the fact that he is a man. It is whether the body is pregnant or not that matters, not the sex category to which the body belongs. The desired "we"-position can therefore be characterised as gender irrelevant.

    One conclusion is that for prenatal, delivery, and postnatal care to truly involve the expectant mother's partner in pregnancy, childbirth and care of the newborn, they need to seriously consider the question of how they can help the prospective mother's partner to find a position that better includes him/her in this encounter. One possibility is the "we"-position that this study emphasizes. This is a position in which pregnancy, childbirth and care of the newborn is a joint concern for both parents. Making way for a "we"-position also means widening the time perspective from the here-and-now of pregnancy, beyond the approaching childbirth to what comes next: parenthood -- no matter who was pregnant.

  • 173.
    Björn, Sandra
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Terndal, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Klientskattad tidig respons i studentledda psykoterapier relaterat till behandlingsresultat2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 174.
    Blide, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Att orka lämna ett misshandelsförhållande: Anknytningens beydelse2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies have found that insecure anxious and insecure ambivalent attachment predicts staying longer in interpartner violent relationships than do secure attachment. The purpose of the current study was to investigate whether this result was replicated, and whether attachment seemed to have any connection with returning to the relationship after the first breakup. Other known factors shown to influence women's decision to stay; felt economic dependence, felt social support and children had together with the perpetrator, was also studied. The results showed no significant correlation. Possible shortcomings in the study are discussed and the relatively small sample (31 women) and the choice of instrument raised as possible explanations for the outcome of the study.

  • 175.
    Blomberg, Victor
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Yng, Isabella
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    UTVÄRDERING UTAV STRESSINTERVENTION: DELTAGARES UPPLEVELSER UTAV PILOTINSATS2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Vindeln municipality in cooperation with the Swedish Social Insurance Agency and samordningsförbundet Umeåregionen have conducted a pilot programme to prevent sick leave due to perceived unhealthy stress. The aim of this thesis is to analyse if the participants have been able to change or reflect over their own life situation after the programme, and what aspect of the programme have influenced this. In total six participants partook and finished the programme. To collect data semi-structured interviews were performed with all the participants and to further conduct a thematic analysis. The thesis concludes that all participants have gone through a behavioural change, with a personal development and increased self-awareness. Long term effects of the programme cannot be proven within this thesis due to the short time period between the finished programme and the interview. Further can this thesis neither say anything regarding preventing sick leave, which can be evaluated in the future to determine the success of the programme. On another note what this thesis have contributed with is an explanation regarding how and why intervention programmes could be successful.

  • 176.
    Blomgren, Anna-Sara
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Svahn, Kajsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sambandet mellan anknytningsmönster, tidsperspektiv och copingstrategier hos ungdomar2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Adolescence involves a development in several areas in life; for instance coping strategies, exploring of close relationships and reflective reasoning of past, present and future. This study aimed to examine the influence of attachment and time perspective on coping strategies among 150 adolescents in third grade in upper secondary school (17-20 years). Self-report instruments included were: Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA), Swedish Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (S-ZTPI) and Brief Cope (BC). A theoretical model was tested using hierarchal regression analyses. The result indicated a number of statistically significant correlations. Most of them were found in attachment to parents, time perspective and coping strategies. Time perspective was found to be a distinct predictor for coping. Attachment was also found to predict coping but in a minor extension and was found absent when both attachment and time perspective were used as predictors. Attachment to peers did not correlate as clearly to time perspective but was shown to more acute predict the coping strategy Support from Others (Stöd från Andra). Women’s self-reported scores indicated higher results compared to men.  A discussion of prediction value of time perspective, whether it is possible to measure attachment with self-report instruments and explanations of gender differences, was held.

  • 177.
    Blomgren, Anna-Sara
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Svahn, Kajsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Åström, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Coping Strategies in Late Adolescence: Relationships to Parental Attachment and Time Perspective2016In: The Journal of Genetic Psychology, ISSN 0022-1325, E-ISSN 1940-0896, Vol. 177, no 3, p. 85-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The authors investigated adolescents' use of coping strategies in relation to attachment to parents and time perspective. Adolescents in Grade 3 upper secondary school (M age = 18.3 years, SD = 0.6 years; n = 160) completed the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment, the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory, and the Brief COPE. Correlational analyses showed that attachment to parents was associated with a more favorable view of the past (higher past positive and lower past negative), a less fatalistic view of the present, and a more favorable view of the future (higher future positive and lower future negative). Parental attachment accounted for significant variance in composite coping scores (adaptive and maladaptive) when entered before, but not after, time perspective subscales in hierarchical regression analyses. However, time perspective (mainly present hedonistic and positive or negative future) predicted adaptive or maladaptive coping over and beyond attachment. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that most of the relationship between adolescents' attachment to parents and coping is mediated by individual differences in time perspective. By contrast, factors other than attachment to parents (e.g., temperament) must be considered to fully account for the relationship between time perspective and coping.

  • 178.
    Blomqvist, Daniela
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Mot god arbetshälsa för undersköterskor2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Assistant nurses belong to the occupational group with the highest number of sick –leave absence in the nursing profession.The work can be both physically and mentally strenuous. The purpose of thisstudy is to identify what assistant nurses think they need in order to experiencea good working environment.Thishas been investigatedthroughan interview study, where five assistant nurses participated anonymously.All participants were women between the ages of 29 and 50, working in elderly care and healthcare departments.The results showed that,what the assistant nursesconsider necessary in order to achieve a good working environmentis,that the demandsat work are in balance with the available resources. Particularly important was the support fromthe supervisorand colleagues.A fair and clear division of labor at the workplace was also considered to contribute to an attractive and health-promoting workplace.The resultsprovides healthcare facilities indications of what assistant nurses themselves value in the work environment and how work-related stress can be prevented.

  • 179. Blomqvist, Maria
    et al.
    Lindh, Christel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Percieved unequal treatment at work regarding age and gender associated with gastric and musculoskeletal symptoms in public sector in Sweden2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has been made regarding ill physical health related to work, also regarding inequality at work. Though whether these two issues would be associated has been less studied.

    This longitudinal study aimed to examine the relation between perceived unequal treatment at work regarding age and gender and gastric and musculoskeletal symptoms. A total of 123 individuals participated in the study by answering a questionnaire and one year later 92 of them answered the same questionnaire. The results showed an association between perceived unequal treatment at work regarding age and gender and musculoskeletal and gastric symptoms, both when the symptoms were combined as a total measure and separately. Perceived unequal treatment at work regarding age and gender also predicted gastric and musculoskeletal symptoms combined as a total measure one year later. The study concludes that there is much to gain in making changes regarding inequality at workplaces, not only for the employees but also at an organizational and societal level.

  • 180.
    Blomstedt, Yulia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Sahlén, Klas Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Nilsson, Ingeborg
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Brändström, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Elderly care in Swedish welfare state: implications of the population ageing2013In: Global aging issues and policies: understanding the importance of comprehending and studying the aging process / [ed] Yushi Li, Springfield: Charles C. Thomas Publisher Ltd., 2013, p. 226-244Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 181.
    Boberg, Rebecka
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wallström, Sofia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    A study of twins born preterm: Functional lateralization, cognition, and brain volumes in twin and single-born children at early school ages2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Earlier research has found that preterm birth with low gestational age (GA) and low birth weight (BW) is associated with an increased risk of long-term effects such as atypical lateralization, cognitive deficits and smaller brain volume. Similar consequences have been found in twins. This study compares twins born preterm (n=22, Mean GA=32.1, Mean BW=1781) with GA and BW matched singletons (n=24) and singletons born full term (n=22) on functional laterality, cognition (WISC-IV) and brain volume (SyMRI) at early school ages (M=7.8 years). The result showed that twins had a higher prevalence of left-handedness than both singleton groups. The preterm (PT) singletons show less right ear preference on the Dichotic Listening test than full term (FT) singletons. It was found that the FT-group performed higher than both PT-groups on cognition. Smaller brain volumes were associated with lower performances on WISC-IV in the group of twins. Furthermore it was found that the PT-singletons had smaller Total Brain volume as well as smaller Grey Matter than FT-singletons. No differences were found between the twins and the PT-singletons on intra pair comparisons. Combined with the associations found between GA, BW and cognitive performance and brain volumes the results indicate that low GA and BW are greater risk factors for long-term effects on development than twin-ship per se. 

  • 182.
    Bodin, Tora
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Expected later information access invites shorter reading time and possible comprehension loss2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With the increased use of technology in society, there are concerns about how reading is affected by the constant access to an incessantly increasing amount of information. The present study examined how reading strategies and resulting memory and comprehension is affected by the belief that information to be remembered would continue to be available. In a within- participant experiment, twenty-seven participants were instructed to read six texts, and led to believe that they would have access to some of the texts while later answering comprehension questions. The results showed that participants spent significantly longer time reading texts they believed would not be accessible later, compared to those they believed they would have access to (p= .0007, d = 0.47). The participants did achieve slightly higher scores on the comprehension questions for the texts they believed they would not have access to, compared to the other condition, but the effect was not significant. The findings have implications for potential changes to reading strategies in response to increased use of technology as an external memory and information storage. I discuss how these strategies could have affected the raise of Fake News, inasmuch as increased information load from the Internet leads to a less meticulous reading style.

  • 183. Boettcher, Johanna
    et al.
    Hasselrot, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sund, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Carlbring, Per
    Combining Attention Training with Internet-Based Cognitive-Behavioural Self-Help for Social Anxiety: A Randomised Controlled Trial2014In: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, ISSN 1650-6073, E-ISSN 1651-2316, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 34-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Guided Internet-based cognitive-behavioural self-help (ICBT) has been proven to be effective for social anxiety disorder (SAD) by several independent research groups. However, as the proportion of clinical significant change has room for improvement, new treatments should be developed and investigated. A novel treatment is attention bias modification (ABM). This study aimed at evaluating the combination of ABM and ICBT. We compared two groups, one group receiving ICBT and ABM targeting attentional avoidance and the other group receiving ICBT and control training. ABM and control training tasks were both based on the dot-probe paradigm. A total of 133 participants, diagnosed with SAD, were randomised to these two groups. The attention training group (N=66) received 2 weeks of daily attention training followed by 9 weeks of ICBT. The control group (N=67) received 2 weeks of daily control training, also followed by 9 weeks of ICBT. Social anxiety measures as well as the attention bias were assessed at pre-assessment, at week 2, and at post-treatment. Results showed no significant differences between the attention training group and the control group. Both groups improved substantially on social anxiety symptoms from pre- to post-assessment (d(within)=1.39-1.41), but showed no change in attention processes (d(within)=0.10-0.17). In this trial, the attention modification training failed to induce differential change in attention bias. Results demonstrate that the applied ABM procedure with its focus on the reduction of attentional avoidance was ineffective in the Internet-based setting. The results do not suggest that adding ABM targeting attentional avoidance to ICBT results in better outcomes than ICBT alone.

  • 184. Boettcher, Johanna
    et al.
    Leek, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Matson, Lisa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Holmes, Emily A.
    Browning, Michael
    MacLeod, Colin
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Carlbring, Per
    Internet-Based Attention Bias Modification for Social Anxiety: A Randomised Controlled Comparison of Training towards Negative and Training Towards Positive Cues2013In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 9, p. e71760-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biases in attention processes are thought to play a crucial role in the aetiology and maintenance of Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD). The goal of the present study was to examine the efficacy of a programme intended to train attention towards positive cues and a programme intended to train attention towards negative cues. In a randomised, controlled, double-blind design, the impact of these two training conditions on both selective attention and social anxiety were compared to that of a control training condition. A modified dot probe task was used, and delivered via the internet. A total of 129 individuals, diagnosed with SAD, were randomly assigned to one of these three conditions and took part in a 14-day programme with daily training/control sessions. Participants in all three groups did not on average display an attentional bias prior to the training. Critically, results on change in attention bias implied that significantly differential change in selective attention to threat was not detected in the three conditions. However, symptoms of social anxiety reduced significantly from pre- to follow-up-assessment in all three conditions (d(within) = 0.63-1.24), with the procedure intended to train attention towards threat cues producing, relative to the control condition, a significantly greater reduction of social fears. There were no significant differences in social anxiety outcome between the training condition intended to induce attentional bias towards positive cues and the control condition. To our knowledge, this is the first RCT where a condition intended to induce attention bias to negative cues yielded greater emotional benefits than a control condition. Intriguingly, changes in symptoms are unlikely to be by the mechanism of change in attention processes since there was no change detected in bias per se. Implications of this finding for future research on attention bias modification in social anxiety are discussed. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01463137

  • 185.
    Boettcher, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, Stockholm, Sweden and Free Univ Berlin, D-14195 Berlin, Germany.
    Åström, Viktor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Påhlsson, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Schenstrom, Ola
    Mindfulness Ctr, Bethesda, MD USA.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Karolinska Inst, S-10401 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm Univ, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Internet-Based Mindfulness Treatment for Anxiety Disorders: A Randomized Controlled Trial2014In: Behavior Therapy, ISSN 0005-7894, E-ISSN 1878-1888, Vol. 45, no 2, p. 241-253Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mindfulness-based interventions have proven effective for the trans diagnostic treatment of heterogeneous anxiety disorders. So far, no study has investigated the potential of mindfulness-based treatments when delivered remotely via the Internet. The current trial aims at evaluating the efficacy of a stand-alone, unguided, Internet-based mindfulness treatment program for anxiety. Ninety-one participants diagnosed with social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, or anxiety disorder not otherwise specified were randomly assigned to a mindfulness treatment group (MTG) or to an online discussion forum control group (CG). Mindfulness treatment consisted of 96 audio files with instructions for various mindfulness meditation exercises. Primary and secondary outcome measures were assessed at pre-, post-treatment, and at 6-months follow-up. Participants of the MTG showed a larger decrease of symptoms of anxiety, depression, and insomnia from pre- to postassessment than participants of the CG (Cohen's d(between) = 0.36-0.99). Within effect sizes were large in the MTG (d = 0.82-1.58) and small to moderate in the CG (d = 0.45-0.76). In contrast to participants of the CG, participants of the MTG also achieved a moderate improvement in their quality of life. The study provided encouraging results for an Internet-based mindfulness protocol in the treatment of primary anxiety disorders. Future replications of these results will show whether Web-based mindfulness meditation can constitute a valid alternative to existing, evidence-based cognitive-behavioural Internet treatments.

  • 186.
    Boman, Mimmi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The effect age and gender have on our will to crowd fund a festival: A survey study2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study explored if gender and age were variables that affect our will to crowd fund (funding with many small investors instead of one large). Previous studies have found that men are generally more prone to taking risks than women are and adolescents are more likely to take risks then adults are. They were therefore hypothesized to be more likely to crowd fund. A survey was designed to examine age and gender differences in the respondent’s attitude towards a crowd funded festival. The survey was distributed online as links on webpages and on paper in a shopping mall and got 67 respondents. The study did not show a general gender difference or age difference but pointed to tendencies to the contrary of the hypotheses. That younger adults and men would be more willing to crowd fund could not be proven. This could be due to a lack of respondents, because their willingness to take risks does not apply to crowd funding or because of lacking validity.

  • 187.
    Borgström Persson, Anton
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Söderström, Celina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The testing effect and its relation to item difficulty and successful retrievals2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It has repeatedly been demonstrated that when tests are included in a learning phase instead of only additional study it results in enhanced long-term retention. This phenomenon is known as the testing effect. If long-term retention benefits more from easier or more difficult items are still unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the testing effect in relation to item difficulty, specifically if long- term retention is better for more difficult items compared to easier items. Additionally, if retention is better for more difficult items even if the number of times an item has been successfully retrieved during the learning phase is held constant. 80 participants were included and divided into a study-test group and a study group. To measure learning a cued recall test was used during three sessions with sevens days intervals. The test consisted of 60 word-pairs divided into easier and more difficult word-pairs. Easier word-pairs were more semantically associated than more difficult word-pairs. The results showed a testing effect and that a greater number of easier items were successfully retrieved at the delayed tests. The proportion of retention for more difficult items were greater when both easier and more difficult items had been successfully retrieved the same amount of times.

  • 188.
    Braf, Irma
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Vallström, Cecilia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Det sociala stödets associationer med ateroskleros och dess riskfaktorer2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Cardiovascular disease is one of the leading causes of death in Sweden and it is therefore of great importance to identify early risk factors. Atherosclerosis is plaque in the artery walls and the major cause of cardiovascular disease. This study has a quasi-experimental and correlative design and investigates social support and its association with atherosclerosis and its biomedical and behavioural risk factors. In this study 3532 individuals, aged 40, 50 and 60 years, participated. Gender and presence of atherosclerosis were evenly distributed. Men and women were studied separately. The participants underwent clinical examination, an ultrasound assessment of plaque formation and answered a questionnaire on social support. The subscales social integration (AVSI) and emotional social support (AVAT) from the questionnaire were used for measuring social support. The results from the statistical analyses showed that there are associations between social support and atherosclerosis. Social support also seems to be associated with behavioural and biomedical risk factors. Perceived emotional social support appears to explain the presence of risk factors and atherosclerosis better than social integration. Path analysis were conducted and resulted in a model that indicates that there are empirical support for associations between social support, behavioural and biomedical risk factors and atherosclerosis. The effect of perceived social support on atherosclerosis seems to be mediated by the behavioural risk factors. The result of the study implicates that social support has an impact on behaviours that affects the physical health and in the extension the risk of developing atherosclerosis.

  • 189.
    Brantmo, Carolina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Valjani, Sanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ätstörningar bland elitidrottande kvinnor - Riskfaktorer och stödinsatser2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Förekomsten  av  ätstörningar  är  ett  känt  fenomen  bland  elitidrottare.  Syftet  med  studien  var  att  undersöka  vilka  riskfaktorer  som  ligger  bakom  utvecklingen  av  ätstörningar  bland  elitidrottande  kvinnor.  Syftet  var  även  att  utforska  vilket  stöd  kvinnorna  hade  behövt  i  ett  initialt  skede  av  sjukdomen.  Studien  var  kvalitativ  och  baserades  på  fem  semistrukturerade  intervjuer.  Alla  fem  informanter  hade  tränat  eller  tränade  friidrott  på  elitnivå  och  hade  tidigare  haft  en  ätstörning.  Analysmetoden  som  användes  var  Interpretative  phenomenological  analysis  (IPA).  Resultaten  visade  att  insjuknandet  i  en  ätstörning  varit  en  process  över  tid  och  att  det  inte  varit  någon  enskild  riskfaktor  som  orsakt  någon  av  ätstörningarna  bland  informanterna.  En  viktig  slutsats  var  att  kunskap  om  ätstörningar  bland  tränare  och  aktiva  är  viktigt.  Ett  sätt  att  nå  ut  med  kunskap  är  att  idrottsföreningar  implementerar  utbildningsinsatser  om  ätstörningar  till  idrottare  och  tränare. 

  • 190.
    Brehmer, Berndt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Policy conflict as a function of policy similarity and policy complexity1971Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Brehmer,B. Policy conflict as a function of policy similarity and policy complexity. Umeå Psychological Reports, No. 33, 1970. -The experiment tests the hypotheses, derived frcm the results of earlier studies on policy conflict, that subjects with similar policies will decrease their agreement in a policy conflict situation, and that subjects with cogni-tively complex policies will decrease their agreement more than subjects with cognitively simple policies. The results support the hypotheses, and show that the decrease in agreement is due to the decrease in policy consistency which, in turn, is due to the manner in which the subjects change their policies in the conflict situation.

  • 191.
    Brehmer, Berndt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Policy formation in uncertain inference situations1971Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 192.
    Brehmer, Berndt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The roles of policy differences and inconsistency in policy conflict1969Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Brehmer,B. The roles of policy differences and inconsistency in policy conflict. Umeå Psychological Reports, No. 18, 1970. - Disagreement caused by policy differences is shown to be a function of two factors: the systematic differences between the policies and the consistency of these policies. The relative importance of the two factors is studied in an illustrative experiment involving decision making under conditions of uncertainty. The results of the experiment indicate that in the beginning of the conflict period,most disagreement is caused by systematic diffe- .rences in policy. These differences are, however,rapidly reduced. At the same time, the consistency of the policies decreases so that at the end of the conflict period, most of the disagreement is caused by lack of consistency in the policies.Due to this lack of consistency, the actual differences between the decisions made by the subjects are not very much reduced, despite the fact that the systematic differences between their policies have all but disappeared.

  • 193.
    Brehmer, Berndt
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindberg, Lars-Åke
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Omission of feedback in single-cue probability learning1971Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Brehmer,B.,and Lindberg, L. Omission of feedback in single-cue probability learning. Umeå Psychological Reports, No. 46, 1971. - The effects of the omission of feedback in single-cue probability learning was studied as a function of the sign and magnitude of the correlation between cue and criterion variables, the magnitude of the slope relating the criterion values to the cue values, and the magnitude of the unaccounted for variance in the task in three experiments. Replicating earlier findings, the results of these experiments show that the omission of feedback results in an increase in the correlations between cues and judgments. This increase in correlations is due to an increase in the slopes of the regression lines relating the subjects' judgments to the cue values.

  • 194.
    Brinck, Olivia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Larsson, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    WORKPLACE VALUES, SUSTAINABLE EMPLOYMENT AND TURNOVER INTENTION: A GENERATIONAL PERSPECTIVE2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    What makes a person willing to leave their job? What makes an employment sustainable?Research have been conducted to explain employee turnover based on three different aspects; a person’s intent to leave, company failure to satisfy the employee’s expectations of the work and sustainable employment. This thesis aimed to investigate work values, employee turnover intention and sustainable employment among the Millennial generation at Company X, a Swedish company working with logistics (n = 59). The millennial generation in this study were defined as people born between 1979-1994. The participants were divided into three age groups: under 24 years of age, between 24 and 39 years and over 39 years. The study applied a combined qualitative and quantitative method. The Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire II (COPSOQ) was used and analyzed using ANOVA and regression analysis. Four supplementary semi-structured interviews were conducted, and the data was analyzed using thematic analysis. The quantitative results showed no significant difference between age groups and the COPSOQ dimensions except on the scale Health and Wellbeing. Work and Private life predicted sustainable employment and Cooperation and Leadership significantly predicted turnover intention. Results from the qualitative data helped to identify the underlying causes for sustainable employment and turnover intention. Conclusion: The study suggested that individual factors better explain sustainable employment and turnover intention at Company X rather than generational differences.

  • 195.
    Brodén, Andrea
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lundbladh, Amanda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The effects of sleep disturbances on memory2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this thesis was to examine the effects of sleep quality and non-restorative sleep on both subjective and objective memory function in an elderly population. Data was drawn from a longitudinal study in Umeå and consisted initially of 956 persons. After excluding people under 65 years of age and controlling for missing values the remaining sample consisted of 389 male (n=185) and female (n=204) persons. Linear multiple regressions were performed to analyze if sleep quality disturbance and non-restorative sleep predicted subjective and objective memory function. The result showed that both high values of sleep quality disturbances and non-restorative sleep were predictive of subjective memory complaints. However, neither of the two sleep dimensions were predictive of objective memory function. Future research should focus on the longitudinal effects of sleep disturbances on objective memory performance as well as the effect of sleep disturbances on episodic memory. 

  • 196.
    Broman, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Psychology.
    Lateralization of human olfaction: cognitive functions and electrophysiology2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis lateralization of olfactory functions was investigated by both behavioral and electrophysiological assessment, the latter with the olfactory event-related potential (OERP) technique. The olfactory sense is primarily ipsilateral in that a stimulus that is presented to one nostril is initially processed in the same hemisphere. This makes it possible to observe differences between stimulated nostrils as an indication of hemispheric difference. Study I explored differences in olfactory cognitive functions with respect to side of rhinal stimulation and demonstrated that familiarity ratings are higher at right- compared to left-nostril stimulation. No differences were found in episodic recognition memory or free identification, possibly reflecting inter-hemispheric interactions in higher cognitive functions. Effects of repetition priming were present in odor identification and tended to be more pronounced when tested via left nostril. Study II further investigated the effect of previous exposure in odor identification by a different experimental set-up, and demonstrated effects of repetition priming when tested via left- but not right-nostril stimulation. This finding indicates the importance of reconsidering possible sequential effects in olfactory research. Study III examined methodological aspects of an OERP protocol with respect to stimulus duration, which was used in Study IV. No differences in amplitudes or latencies where found between the stimulus durations of 150, 200 and 250 ms, suggesting the commonly used duration of 200 ms in a standard protocol. Study IV investigated laterality effects in OERPs with respect to side of stimulation and electrode site. The results showed consistent amplitudes and latencies regardless of rhinal side of stimulation. Larger amplitudes were demonstrated on left hemisphere and midline compared to right hemisphere, possibly explained by smaller N1/P2 amplitudes at the right-hemisphere sites at left-nostril stimulation. Apart from a proposed OERP protocol, the findings support the notions of a right-hemisphere predominance in processes related to olfactory perception and indicate, in accordance with other findings, a left-side advantage in conceptual repetition priming.

  • 197.
    Broman, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gilbert, Paul
    Murphy, Claire
    Olfactory event-related potentials from varying stimulus duration in young and elderly adultsManuscript (Other academic)
  • 198.
    Broman, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Olsson, Mats
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lateralization of olfactory cognitive functions: effects of rhinal side of stimulation2001In: Chemical senses, ISSN 0379-864X, Vol. 26, no 9, p. 1187-1192Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 199.
    Broman, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wising, Annah
    Effects of repetition priming and stimulated nostril on odor identificationManuscript (Other academic)
  • 200.
    Brooman, Daniel S
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Food aversions, food neophobia, and disgust: interrelations and gender differences2001Conference paper (Refereed)
1234567 151 - 200 of 2241
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