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  • 151.
    Jakobsson, Ulrika
    et al.
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    Öster, Johanna
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    Beröringens betydelse för patienter vid omvårdnad: En litteraturöversikt2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Touch is a part of life, something that occurs constantly in the contact between oneself and things or other people. It can be used by the nurse in the nursing care, in regard to create an equal relationship and to confirm and put the patient at the center.

    Aim

    This study's aim was to illuminate the meaning of touch for patients in nursing care.

    Method

    Literature review was chosen as the method for this study, to illuminate existing knowledge of the meaning of touch for patients in nursing care. Both qualitative and quantitative articles were used in this review.

    Results

    The result consists of twelve articles and is presented in three main themes which are alleviate suffering, the non-verbal communication between patient and nurse, and caring relationship between patient and nurse.

    Conclusion

    Touch as nursing care intervention may seem soothing to the patient's perceived pain and anxiety. The touch offers an opportunity for the patient and the nurse to create togetherness, it conveys comfort and support to the patient, who also feels the nurse's presence through it.

  • 152.
    Jansson, Sofia
    et al.
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    Stén, Desirée
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    I dödens väntrum: Att inte veta när man ska dö, när man vet att man ska dö2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Living with an incurable cancer diagnosis and finding oneself at the end of life is a crisis related state. The patient often has to struggle through a series of challenging events, meaning that they are in need of great support. The blog phenomenon has begun to spread amongst younger people as an alternative supporting coping. Through blogging the person is sharing his/her experiences whilst it increases a sense of meaningfulness and decreasing the feeling of isolation. Aim: The aim of the study was to, based on blogs, illuminate the experience of having incurable cancer and being at the end of life. Method: The blogs were read and analyzed using a qualitative content analysis. Six blogs, each containing blog posts of the persons last year in life, were analyzed. Results: The experience was illustrated based on the comprehensive theme ”Living in the waiting room of death” built on three themes and eight sub themes, all showing similarities as well as differences of the experience, which suggests great complexity and ambivalence. Conclusion: The study contributes to important awareness of the experience of having an incurable cancer and being at life’s end. The study shows the complexity of coping with cancer and handling the fact that there is no more cure. The experience was characterized by a complicated suffering, with ambivalent feelings and thoughts of being in a state of uncertainty, containing more complex aspects than just being hopeful and/or miserable.

  • 153.
    Johansson Andreasson, Louise
    et al.
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    Åkerström, Karin
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    Män, depression och copingstrategier: en litteraturstudie2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract:

    Men suffering from depression are compared to women under-diagnosed. One of the reasons for this is that men do not seek professional help to the same extent as women do. Another reason is that men's symptom are different from women's. Men also commit suicide because of mental disorder more often than women. The aim of this study was to describe the coping strategies that men with depression use to handle their life situation. The method that has been used is systematic literature based study. Ten articles that respond against the aim of this study has been audited. The result can be divided into two themes, emotion-oriented coping strategies and problem-oriented coping strategies. These were divided into subthemes where five were more common. They were, using self-medication, seeking support from peers, considering suicide, seeking professional help and trying to rest and reflect. Throughout the study we found that gender plays an important role in how depression is coped with.

    Health professionals need to know more about coping-strategies used by males in order to find which support is relevant in acknowledging depression at an earlier stage. The theoretical perspective Sense of coherence (SOC) can support health professionals in making men regain their health.

  • 154. Johansson, Caroline
    et al.
    Berggren, Ingela
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Division of Nursing. University West, Department of Nursing. University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level. University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - graduate level.
    Child health nurses' experiences of language assessment in children: A Swedish study2017In: Journal of Health Visiting, ISSN 2050-8719, Vol. 5, no 4, p. 187-195Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to discover Swedish child healthcare (CHC) nurses' experiences of language assessment in children who do not have Swedish as their mother tongue. A CHC nurse has qualifications in child health, and their role is to promote good health and prevent illness. As immigration to Sweden is at the highest level ever recorded (Statistics Sweden, 2014), there is an increasing need for language assessment. In this study, ‘mother tongue’ is defined as the language a child learns first, which is synonymous with the term ‘first language’ (Oxford Learner's Dictionaries, 2016). The CHC nurses in this study were Swedish-speaking, but conducted speech and language assessments among children who did not speak Swedish; for example, who had a mother tongue other than Swedish. It is important to acquire knowledge of CHC nurses' experiences of language assessment.

  • 155. Johansson Mahic, Maria
    et al.
    Skyvell Nilsson, Maria
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    Att forma en medarbetare eller att undervisa en student2014In: Nordic Journal of Vocational Education and Training, ISSN 2242-458X, E-ISSN 2242-458X, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Genom cooperative education (co-op) ges studenter möjlighet att inomutbildningen, praktiskt tillämpa sina kunskaper på en arbetsplats. Under co-op tilldelasstudenten en av arbetsgivaren utsedd handledare. Co-op är ett trepartssamarbete mellanhögskola, student och arbetsplats. Merparten av tidigare studier fokuserar studenternasupplevelse av co-op eller vad co-op kan innebära för studentens studiemotivation, framtidakarriär och möjlighet till arbete. Syftet med denna fenomenografiska studie är att beskrivahandledares uppfattning om handlednings syfte. Studien kan därmed bidra till kunskap om denutbildningssituationen studenter ställs inför i co-op. Studiens resultat, som är baserad påintervjuer, visar fyra olika uppfattningar om handlednings syfte: Stödja in i gemenskapen, Delgespecifikt kunskapsinnehåll, Att få möjlighet att lära och Bidra till produktionen. Handledarnasuppfattningar indikerar att studenten förväntas praktiskt tillämpa teoretisk kunskap och fåarbets- och yrkesrelaterade erfarenheter genom ett socialt lärande. Variationerna i handledarnasuppfattningar antyder även att det samlade kunskapsinnehållet som studenten får ta del av underco-op kan variera stort. Utifrån resultatet diskuteras möjligheter och hinder för studentenslärande under co-op.

  • 156.
    Jonsson, Bosse
    et al.
    Mälardalens University, Eskilstuna.
    Skyvell Nilsson, Maria
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    Pennbrant, Sandra
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture.
    Dahlborg Lyckhage, Elisabeth
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, postgraduate level.
    From work integrated learning to learning integrated work: A pedagogical model to develop praxis in nursing education2014In: Journal of Nursing Education and Practice, ISSN 1925-4040, E-ISSN 1925-4059, Vol. 4, no 11, p. 91-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The move from student to nurse has been described as difficult for newly registered nurses. Newly registered nurses’ feelings of lacking competence can reduce the opportunity to develop professional competence. Entering the nursing profession requires a high degree of adaptation. The difference between the professional competence conveyed during education and the competence demanded in working life is substantial and needs to be taken seriously. The aim of this paper is to propose a model for developing professional competence. The theoretical discussion starts with a model showing processes newly registered nurses must manage to achieve a sense of competence. These processes are highlighted by discussing how they relate to praxis in the Aristotelian tradition, situated learning and Work Integrated Learning (WIL). Learning Integrated Work (LIW) is a pedagogical approach aiming to integrate scientific knowledge with practical knowledge, and to provide an analytical perspective where students have the opportunity to develop metacognitive skills and praxis  by learning in and by clinical practice experiences. One way to achieve this is to learn from the knowledge and skills used when performing practical work. The aims of WIL and LIW are to identify both practical knowledge generated by nurses in the course of their professional activities and theoretical knowledge generated in the academy, and to elaborate an understanding constituting the essence of both theoretical and practical knowledge. By integrating theoretical and practical vocational knowledge, one promotes professionalization, including the ability to perform the expected tasks and to have a critical and development-oriented attitude in daily work.

  • 157.
    Josefsson, Josefine
    et al.
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    Johansson, Anna
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    Hur sjuksköterskan kan lindra det existentiella lidandet hos patienter inom palliativ vård: En litteraturbaserad studie grundad på analys av kvalitativ forskning2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: When a patient suffer from a disease and is in need of palliative care, it is normal to have existential questions and thoughts. For some patients these questions can be painful and the nurse need to have knowledge about dealing with these kind of questions and thoughts to be able to relieve and/or prevent this kind of suffering.

    Aim: The aim was to describe how the nurse can prevent the existential suffering among patients with palliative care.

    Method: A literature-based study was based on eight qualitative studies.

    Results: The results showed that nurses meet patients in the palliative care environment which may suffer from existential problems when their questions and thoughts don´t get answered. It showed that the most important a nurse can do is to give time to these calls and build up a safe relation to the patient. This allows the nurse to read the patients existential questions and observing possibly suffering. The result is organized in two categories "To see and confirm" and " To listen and give support" and see subcategories " Use body language", " Create reliable relationship", respond to the existential questions", "Give the patient time", " take help from others in hard situations" and "to focus on other things"

    Conclusion: It is easy to only focus on the physical illness while caring for a patient and believe that it is creating suffering. Extensive human suffering is not shown at first sight although it is just as important to relieve.

  • 158.
    Jäderström, Alexandra
    et al.
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    Nikkilä, Louise
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    Fysisk aktivitet hos personer med psykisk ohälsa2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Mental illness is a common disease and it often needs to be treated. Physical activity has a positive outcome in mental and physical health. Therefore, a review of the benefits of physical activity can present physical activity as an adjunct treatment for mental illness.

    Aim:

    The purpose of this study was to examine experiences of physical activity in individuals with mental illness.

    Method:

    Qualitative Literary Review with systematic literature search. Eleven qualitative studies were analyzed.

    Results:

    The experience of physical activity in individuals with mental illness was along with support from others perceived as something positive. The three main themes that appeared from the experience of physical activity were Enabling factors, Obstructive factors and Outcomes of physical activity.

    Conclusion:

    Physical activity may be of value to apply in the care of individuals with mental illness.

  • 159.
    Jönsson, Ulrika
    et al.
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    Karfunkel, Emmy
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    Kvinnors upplevelser och erfarenheter av att donera bröstmjölk: En litteraturöversikt2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Breast milk has many good qualities and recommendations declare that breast milk alone is the most favorable choice for newborn babies up to six months of age. When the mother can´t provide her own breast milk for her baby, donor milk is a valuable source. Unfortunately the demand is often higher than the supply and thereby milk banks suffer from shortages. Aim: Highlighting women's experiences of being milk donors. Method: The study has been conducted as a literature review in which existing research has been used. Results: A common reason why women donate breast milk is that they have a surplus of breast milk. Milk donors are empathetic and have an altruistic attitude toward milk donation. Women who donate breastmilk value good support from both family and professionals. Knowledge about milk donation and need of breastmilk is motivating for women. Some women who encountered difficulties chose to donate directly to needy families instead of to the milk bank. Conclusion: Lack of information and knowledge are barriers to donation. Nurses should have a good knowledge of the donation process from the woman's perspective and experiences, in order to meet women's needs for information, counseling, care and support. Strive should be to as far as possible facilitate the woman during the donation.

  • 160.
    Kajavand, Shadi
    et al.
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    Kazemi, Bibi
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    Att hitta styrkan: Kvinnors upplevelse av att leva med bröstcancer2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Breast cancer has increased dramatically during the twentieth century in the Western world. There are about 8000 women diagnosed with breast cancer every year in Sweden, which represents 30% of all cancer diagnosis by women. There are many, both mental and physical difficulties that the women have to go through during and after treatment. They have to endure pain, fear and uncertainty. Many women may feel that they have lost their identity after surgery, and they may also feel less attractive and sexually attracted.

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to illuminate women's experiences of breast cancer.

    Method: A systematic literature review was made and 10 high-quality scientific papers were selected, analyzed and categorized. All articles are written from the patient's perspective and highlight their experience of living with breast cancer.

    Result: The results were divided into four themes; pain, support, lost and challenges. There are also eight subthemes; next of kin and friend support, nurse support, losing a limb, losing the identity, adversity, belief in the future, body pain and soul pain.

    Conclusion:

    This study shows the importance of support from next of kin and friends. The nurses need to support the women with problems in their relationship. Breast reconstruction surgery was important for the women. Nurses should ask more questions about the chronic pain that may come up after the surgery.

  • 161.
    Kanber, Nesrin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    Mass, Erika
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    Kvinnors känslor i samband med bröstcancer: en studie baserad på bloggar2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer disease among women in Sweden today. Being diagnosed with cancer is experienced as a crisis and evokes many strong feelings. Aim: The aim of this study was to describe women's feelings when they have received a breast cancer diagnosis and the feelings during the course of treatment. Method: The study was conducted by analyzing the text from nine blogs written by mothers with breast cancer of the ages 18-50. The working process used in this study was "To analyze stories (narratives)". Results: Nine categories were found: Sense of chaos, feeling of despair, feelings of anxiety, feeling of being at the mercy, sense of vulnerability, feelings of guilt, feelings of being excited, the feeling of being confident and feeling of joy in life. Conclusion: During the women’s breast cancer illness and treatment many emotions occur, both positive and negative. It is important for nurses to have an understanding of what emotions these women experiences to be able to help these women in their illness and give good care

  • 162.
    Karlsson, AnnaSofia
    et al.
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    Balsbo, Karin
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    Patienters upplevelser av vårdrelationen till sjuksköterskan på en akutmottagning2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The goal of health care is that caring staff has to promote good caring communication towards the patients. It takes insight, understanding, knowledge and skill to be able to support a person in crisis.

    Aim

    The aim of this study was to describe patient's experiences of the caring relationship towards the nurse at an emergency department.

    Method

    A literature based study was made on nine qualitative studies with focus on the caring relationship between nurses and patients.

    Results

    The results of the study showed lack of caring, communication, and time to create a caring relationship. The nurses strained work situation also had a negative impact on the patient's experience at the emergency department. The main themes that emerged were; Interest's importance for a good care relationship with subthemes; Not to question, To be seen and To be ignored. Main theme; The importance of involvement in a good caring relationship with subthemes; Not receive information, To feel powerless and Healthcare procedures as a barrier. Lack of these parts could cause feelings of frustration among the patients, which led to a negative experience at the emergency department.

    Conclusion

    This study revealed the shortcomings when it comes to creating and maintaining a good caring relationship. Awareness will be created about the importance of the caring relationship.

  • 163.
    Karlsson, Bengt
    et al.
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    Alphonce, Carl Erik
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    Upplevelser av mötet med personal inom somatisk sjukvård beskrivet av personer med panikångest: En narrativ studie2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    How are patients with panic disorder treated at their meeting with primary caregivers.

    Aim

    To describe experiences of patients with panic disorder and their meeting with care staff within somatic healthcare.

    Method

    The used method was a narrative study based on blogs found on the Internet. 11 blogs was selected, read, studied and narrative analysed.

    Results

    The results contains of two themes: encountered with ignorance and encountered with knowledge. Within these two themes six sub-themes were created. The patients experienced when encountered with ignorance not being taken seriously, being treated badly, being stigmatised, which resulted in a feeling of shame. Furthermore they did not get the help they expected but when encountered by knowledge they experienced early diagnosis and follow up.

    Conclusion

    Patients with panic disorder was often sent home without any action or follow up, and they felt a great betrayal of the health care. A deeper knowledge within care staff in how to treat patients experi-encing panic attacks would lessen the suffering

  • 164.
    Karlsson, Eva
    et al.
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    Milefors, Jenny
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    Skolsköterskors erfarenheter av att arbeta med rökprevention2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Everyone who smokes is at risk of a variety of diseases. A study from 2013 shows that 16 % of girls and 12 % of boys in 9th grade smokes. Part of the school nurses work is health promotion, including smoke prevention. Collaboration with other staff within the school is important for this. Aim: To illustrate the school nurse's experiences of preventative measures concerning tobacco use in secondary schools. Method: A qualitative interview study with an inductive approach was used. Eight nurses at secondary schools in the Västra Götaland region participated in the study. Data was analyzed by qualitative content analysis according to Graneheim and Lundman. Results: The school nurse's role in smoke prevention is carried out on an individual- and a grouplevel. At the individual level they revealed that parents' attitude to smoking greatly affect the student's attitude. Many school nurses experienced the health dialogue as the most important tool in the smoke preventative work, there they have an opportunity to a holistic approach. At the group level it is pursued based on tobacco policies in schools, where a clear commitment to the policy of all staff is essential. The school nurses stressed the collaboration with teachers and parents. Conclusion: It is important that school nurses have a flexibility to prioritize health dialogue when it is perceived positively by both students and school nurses. Through conversation, a relationship is built which opens up the possibility of preservation of student health

  • 165.
    Karlsson, Josefin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    Thorén, Carolina
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    När livet förändras: En självbiografistudie om föräldrars upplevelse av att leva med ett barn med cancer.2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Cancer is the most common cause of death among children in Sweden. The disease and the treatment cause suffering among the children, which also affects their parents. Research has shown that parents of children with cancer have poorer health. It is the nurse’s responsebility to help, not only the child, but also the parents in their difficult situation.

    Aim: The aim of this study was to describe parents’ experience of living with a child diagnosed with cancer.

    Method: The method in this study was a literature study, where four autobiographies were analysed. The text was analysed according to qualitative content analysis.

    Results: The analysis of the autobiographies revealed four categories in which parents’ experiences and feelings were described. The four categories were: Experiences and adaptation of grief; Experiences of insecurity; Experiences of powerlessness; Experiences of hope.

    Conclusion: The study showed that parents wanted to be able to be at home together with the sick child. To make this possible, the parents needed support by home care. The parents also suffered of the powerlessness they felt when they couldn't help their child. To make the parents more involved, it is important that the nurse encourage the parents to participate. Finally, the parents described the importance of feeling joy and hope.

    This study provides information about how parents experience living with a child who has cancer. This information gives the nurse opportunity to adjust the care and also to support and help the parents.

     

  • 166.
    Kempe, Sofia
    et al.
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    Kristoffersson, Elinor
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    Att skapa allians till klienter med psykisk ohälsa påanstalt ur kriminalvårdares perspektiv: en kvalitativ intervjustudie om att väva samman momenten2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Previous studies show that mental ill health is common within institutions. The prison environment is a highly contributory factor. The working alliance has proven to be a profi-cient tool used to reduce mental ill health. Clients are requesting relationships from prison officers but little research has been done on the elements that create alliances.

    Aim:

    To illuminate the perceived circumstances needed to create a working alliance to clients with mental ill health within institutions from a prison officers’ perspective.

    Method:

    An empirical qualitative study was conducted with narrative character. Ten interviews were conducted with prison officers. The interviews were transcribed and then analyzed with con-tent analysis. Manifest and latent content was interpreted during analysis. The result of the analysis was summarized in five different themes.

    Results:

    The themes were; "cooperation", "introspection", "respect", "opportunities and obstacles" and "everyday encounters". Each theme included various sub-themes to further describe various phenomenon. These themes describe the different unique elements that are experienced by prison officers in order to create alliances with clients.

    Conclusion:

    By applying these themes in the work routine correctional officers experi-enced a working alliance. But further research would be needed as this study did not include a prison with female clients and also through observational studies for more precise expressions of the different phenomena. This study may contribute to a greater understanding of caring in prisons, and that mental ill health will be reduced

  • 167.
    Kjellberg, Stina
    et al.
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    Larsson, Elin
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    Hälsofrämjande arbete med barn med överviktig: Ur skolsköterskans perspektiv2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    The number of overweight children is expected to increase in coming years. The child's living habits be established during school years and has an impact for health throughout life. The school nurse meet the children in their everyday life and have therefore a central role in health promotion work with children with overweight.

    Aim: To describe the school nurse's experiences of health promotion work with overweight children from preschool to grade three.

    Method: The study was carried out as a qualitative interview study with ten nurses. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyze the material.

    Results: By creating a good relationship with the parents and pupils, the school nurses were given opportunities to provide support. Knowledge of the parents and parental responsibility was insufficient in many families, which could lead to unhealthy habits. It was revealed that school nurses felt that the subject was difficult because of its complexity. The school nurses felt that collaboration between different professions were important. Lack of time was felt to be a difficulty at work.

    Conclusion: To be able to work with the health of overweight children, it was essential to ask for permission, create commitment and to make parents aware. Professional experience, a professional attitude and intuition were important factors for the difficult and sensitive topic. Lack of time and a certain lack of resources limited the school nurse's work

  • 168.
    Kjellsson, Caroline
    et al.
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    Litsegård, Sofia
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    Vem är jag utan mitt bröst - Konsekvenserna av att ha genomgått en mastektomi: En litteraturbaserad studie2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer diagnosis among women. In Sweden around 8000 women are diagnosed with breast cancer every year. Due to the number of breast cancer diagnosis, a nurse will probably meet women who are affected by breast cancer in the working life. Aim: The aim of the study was to describe women´s experiences of breast cancer after a mastectomy. Method: A literature study of eleven scientific qualitative articles were made. Results: The women had different point of views after a mastectomy. The following two major themes emerged: "The woman´s perception of her body" and "Experiences in social contexts". The two themes generated six subthemes: "To live in a foreign body", "To feel disfigured", "To accept the change", "To experience a pressure from the others", "To live in a relationship" and "To feel feminine". Conclusion: The women had varied experiences after a mastectomy. Most of the women experienced their body as foreign and unattractive. The group of women who did not experienced their body as foreign where older and they didn't care so much about their appearance.

  • 169.
    Kämäräinen, Teija
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    Att vänta: Patienter drabbade av cancer och deras upplevelser av tiden mellan diagnos och behandling2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Cancer is the leading cause of death all over the world. The global incidence is expected to increase with over 70 % the next twenty years, and every third person is expected to get cancer in Sweden. The need for adequate cancer-care is expected to increase. Patients experience the care as fragmented, the waiting-time as to long and the possibility to influence owns care are small.

    Aim: The aim of this study was to elucidate patients' experiences during wait-time for treatment with the perspective of patients suffering from cancer.

    Method: A literature-based study based on analysis of nine qualitative articles was conducted.

    Results: A diagnose of cancer creates a state of chaos and crisis which leads to patients seeking for support and information. The experiences during waiting-time for treatment are individual which creates a need for patient-centered care. Patients experience a new existential awareness and may suffer from death-anxiety due to an uncertain future. During the waiting-time patients became vulnerable and needed much support from family, other patients and caregivers. Patients experienced that their own time stood still but the world around them kept running as usual which created a feeling of vacuum and gap in time.

    Conclusion: All patients experience the wait-time different which indicates the need for patient-centered care. Patients express the need and importance of the navigation nurse which helps in coordinating the care and shorten the wait-times. Due to the demanding wait-time is a patient-centered care with psychosocial support and help from a navigation nurse necessary.

  • 170.
    Lappalainen, Minna
    et al.
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    Pettersson, Linn
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    Hur BVC-sköterskan identifierar och hanterar ärenden där barn far illa: a critical incident study2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Child abuse is a public health problem and statistics show that the number of crimes is increasing but few of them are reported. The Primary Child Health Care reaches the majority of parents and their newborns. This means that the Primary Child Health Care Nurse has a big responsibility for discovering child abuse, because it could affect the child’s physical and psychological well-being in the future.

    Aim:

    The aim of the study was to describe how the Primary Child Health Care Nurse identified and handled cases of child abuse.

    Method:

    The study was conducted through interviews with eight nurses in Primary Child Health Care using Critical Incident Technique (CIT). The nurses were asked to describe critical incidents where they identified and handled cases of child abuse.

    Results:

    The results of the study shows that the Primary Child Health Care Nurse identifies cases of child abuse through intuition, by confronting the parents and by having an open dialogue with them. The results also shows that the Primary Child Health Care Nurse handles cases of child abuse through support and advice from the boss, colleagues, social services and preschool, together with the guidelines that were used in the workplace.

    Conclusion:

    Primary Child Health Care Nurses use strategies developed from practice, e.g. intuition, ability to have an open dialogue and courage to confront parents to discuss sensitive things. Furthermore, the study underlines the value of supportive managers and colleagues. The results indicate the need of research that clarify techniques for identifying child maltreatment. The result also put focus on the need of resources to the Primary Child Health Care Nurse in order to handle cases of child abuse

  • 171.
    Larsson, Anna
    et al.
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    Wiman, Ann
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    Patienters upplevelser av livsstilsförändringar vid diabetes typ 2: en systematisk litteraturstudie2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Diabetes type 2 is a fast growing illness and a global health problem, often a result from less appropriate standard of living. Lifestyle changes related to diet and physical activity are important lifestyle changes regarding to get control of the self-management and to avoid vascular complications.

    Aim

    The aim of this study was to describe patient's experiences of lifestyle changes in diabetes type 2.

    Method

    A literature study was carried through based on 12 qualitative scientific articles.

    Results

    The analysis result into two main themes and eight subthemes. Main themes where barriers and motivators for lifestyle changes and the subthemes where struggle, denial, lack of knowledge, alienation, support, motivation, acceptance and knowledge.

    Conclusion

    This study shows that lifestyle changes are experienced different by patient with diabetes and nurses should therefore be aware of the unique and specific demands these patients require. This is important for providing a good diabetic healthcare and to help patients with their self-management

  • 172.
    Larsson, Jennie
    et al.
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    Prütz, Caroline
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    Upplevelser av att leva med tarmstomi: En litteraturstudie2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Intestinal diseases that can cause a person to receive a stoma may include colorectal cancer, Crohn's disease and Ulcerative colitis.

    Aim: The aim of the study was to describe experiences of living with intestinal stoma.

    Method: A qualitative literature study in which eleven scientific articles have been analyzed according to Fribergs (2006a) analysis model.

    Result: The result was based on two categories which are experiences of altered body image, and experienced changes in social life. The result showed that patients with stoma felt that their body image changed and it was hard to accept the altered body image and thereby self image. Difficulties in controlling emissions, odor and leakage contributed to the experience of loss of control with limited social life as a result. The stoma also resulted in a change in everyday life which required careful planning. The sexual activity was affected due to altered body image. Despite the constraints of everyday life support, a functioning self care and acceptance contributed to a better quality of life.

    Conclusion: It can be concluded it's clear from the result that it is important for the patient to receive accurate information both before and after ostomy to get an adequate picture of what it means to live with a stoma. By supporting the patient and customizing information and creating a patient-centered care quality of life can significantly improve.

  • 173.
    Larsson,, Linnea
    et al.
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    Prorokovic, Tania
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    Att förstå det som är svårt att se: en kvalitativ studie om bemötandet av kvinnor med borderline personlighetsstörning2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 174.
    Larsson, Malin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    Hallerfors, Caroline
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    Orsaker till suicidtankar och suicid i fängelse: En litteraturöversikt2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract: Background: In prisons they are struggling in order to prevent inmates to commit suicide. However, the difficult conditions that occur in prisons can contribute to suicide. In countries such as Sweden, it appears that the individuals who are in need of psychiatric care do not get it. This is due to the difficulties which arise when the individual need care outside the prison. In institutions, there are not only more suicidal behavior, but many of the individuals who are imprisoned have demonstrated both suicidal ideation and suicidal behavior in the past.

    Aim: The purpose of the review was to highlight the causes of suicide and suicide ideation in prison inmates.

    Method: The method used was a literature review. Material has been collected through both systematic and unsystematic searches. 10 articles were included.

    Results: The result that emerged in the overview were three main themes; mental health, prison environment and other conditions. Subthemes to these were; previous suicide attempt, previous mental illness, prison-related and criminal causes, feelings of hopelessness, sadness and guilt and finally the lack of help and support.

    Conclusion: In order to prevent and remedy this problem, it is important to really find out the most common causes of the problem. And the staff in prisons must be able to detect signals on mental health. One must also be able to work preventively against it. There must be offered better knowledge and correctional should therefore take outside help when required.

  • 175.
    Lenngerd, Nina
    et al.
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    Björk, mimi
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    Konsekvenser av sömnbrist hos sjuksköterskor: En litteraturstudie2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Sleep is crucial to maintaining good mental and physical health, it helps to repair and restore our brain and body. Sleep affects our language abilities, ability to concentrate, reading comprehension and the brain's ability to summarize what we hear. If our sleep is neglected, it compromises our performance, our mood and our interpersonal relationships. Sleep deprivation can lead to impaired decision-making capacity and increased risk-taking. This may cause the work performance to deteriorate.

    Aim:The aim of this study was to investigate sleep deprivation by nurses and its impact on work capacity.

    Method:A literature review based on an analysis of quantitative research.

    Results:The result showed that sleep deprivation often resulted in the nurses’ having difficulty staying awake during the daytime, and involuntary sleep episodes during working hours occurred. Lack of sleep had a negative effect on nurses' job performance, which often resulted in accidents and medical injuries related to decreased concentration and attention. Sleep deprivation was associated with the presence of depression and anxiety. Sleep deprivation also resulted in increased absenteeism, more health care visits, and somatic symptoms.

    Conclusion/Clinical significance: Nurse’s sleep should be fulfilled, as it is an essential basic need. Sleep deprivation can affect the nurse negatively and consequently patient safety. Since sleep deprivation can be equated with intoxication, the authors consider that it is crucial to recognize and discourage sleep deprivation to prevent healthcare-associated injuries

  • 176.
    Lilienberg, Lotta
    et al.
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    Rölvåg, Sivert
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    Sjuksköterskans arbete på en akutmottagning,sett ur ett omvårdnadsperspektiv: en litteraturstudie2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this study was to describe the nurse’s work at an emergency department trough a perspective of caring.

    Method: A literature review has been made of twelve studies published between the years of 2002 – 2012. The focus of all the studies was on Swedish emergency departments.  

    Results: The researchers found four themes that they choose to use as a way of describing the nurses work in the emergency room as detailed as possible. These themes were: ‘The emergency room’, ‘the nurse’s job assignments at an emergency department’, ‘the patient’s experiences’ and ‘lifeworld and communication’. This study shows that it is problematic for the nurses to give a caring nursing. The emergency department is more focused on medicine than caring, as there are certain parameters to follow as a nurse at an emergency department.  Lack of time and manpower has been a consistent factor in this study to explain the inability to give good caring at the emergency department.

    Conclusion: High workload leads to short time with each patient. This leads to a lack of patient care in the emergency room. In the short meetings with patients, important information could get lost and this could lead to inferior nursing. This study shows that some nurses developed strategies to make a fast and correct assessment of the patient. Other nurses developed strategies to make the patients feel more comfortable. Examples were to make eye contact, touch the patient in a comforting way and take the time to really listen to the patient during the short time they had with each patient.

  • 177.
    Liljenkvist, Nathalie
    et al.
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    Wik, Malin
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    Du är en hel kvinna, både med eller utan barn: Upplevelsen av att drabbas av missfall - en litteraturbaserad studie2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A miscarriage creates emotional stress, and for most women it is a trauma. As a nurse it is important to meet both her psychological and physical needs. The aim of the study was to describe women's experience when having a miscarriage. An analysis of twelve qualitative studies was performed. As a result of the analysis five themes and eleven subthemes emerged.

    The results showed that most women who suffered after a miscarriage experienced it as a sudden announcement, a body in pain, self-esteem is affected, feelings of sadness, and moving on. Many women felt very disappointed towards healthcare when their feelings were not met appropriately. The nurse has a very important role to provide emotional support. If the patient is ignored in the encounter, he/she will not be treated as a whole person with unique and individual needs. The nurse should respect each individual patient and meet the requirements for good nursing care including psychological, physical and emotional aspects. This is important for helping the patient in the best possible way in the grieving-process.

  • 178.
    Liljeqvist, Christine
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    Föräldrars och närståendes till sjuka barn upplevelser av bemötandet i vård- situationen: en litteraturstudie2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Parents most often want to feel involved in the care of their hospitalized children. Health professionals believe that parents should be included and allowed to participate in care for their own child. How do parents experi-ence personal treatment and attitude from nurses and other healthcare pro-fessionals in association when their child is requiring healthcare? There is a need for greater knowledge and insight into how parents perceive rela-tions in different care situations, in order to understand what is required to respond to their personal needs.

    Aim: To describe parents and relatives to unwell children experiences of

    a treatment within the healthcare settings Method: A literature review, content analysis based on five studies. Results: Previous experience of affectionate care influenced the perception of

    a caring situation, to meet the families' needs increased confidence, a good continuity in the care circuit increased confidence, experiences of commu-nication under the care situation, experiences of involvement in care

    Conclusion: Parents in this study constantly recur to the importance of good communi-cation, information, sincerity and dialogue. It lies on the nurse's responsi-bility to ensure that parents and caregivers recognize the importance of their presence and that they also take place.

  • 179.
    Lilljeqvist, Evelina
    et al.
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    Svensson, Emma
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    Faktorer av betydelse vid risk för undernäring hos äldre: En litteraturöversikt2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Fluid and nutrition is essential for us to survive. Malnutrition is a recurring problem in elderly care and the elderly are particularly vulnerable to the consequences of malnutrition. The knowledge about how malnutrition should be treated in care varies. The aim was to illuminate the factors that are important in the risk of malnutrition in the elderly. Method: Literature review was chosen as the method for this study. Both qualitative and quantitative articles were used in this review.

    Results: Four themes were identified as important factors in risk of malnutrition in the elderly as a nurse should be aware of in order to attract attention to and be able to prevent malnutrition in the elderly. The themes are life-world perspective, to discover, educating and to put in initiatives. Conclusion: To have good knowledge of the factors that contribute to the risk of malnutrition is significant in nurses' prevention work. To regularly check the weight, and the use of screening tools are important building blocks. Training of staff but also of patients is an important part of prevention.

  • 180.
    Lindberg, Astrid
    et al.
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    Lindqvist, Erica
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    Sjuksköterskans attityder och upplevelser i mötet med patienter med självskadebeteende2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Patients who deliberate self harm often feel disappointed with the health care. The consequence of this may be that the patient avoid to seek help after self harming. Nurses' often experience these patients to be difficult and hard to deal with. Both patients' and nurses' thoughts about the situation may affect the situation in a negative way. A good relationship between the caregiver and patient is important. Therefore it is important for the nurses' to know about their attitudes about self harming patients.

    Aim: To explore nurses' attitudes and experiences meeting patients who deliberate self harm.

    Method: A literature review was made out of seven qualitative articles.

    Results: Five themes were extracted. They described experiences and attitudes towards patientswho deliberate self harm. The themes were understanding and acceptance, the need of support, inadequacy, the negative view of the patient and frustration and powerlessness. The theme understanding and acceptance described how the nurses' understood their patients and why they self harmed. The theme called need of support highlighted the importance of support by colleagues and management. The third theme inadequacy reflects the nurses' feelings of inability to handle these patients. The theme that described the negative view of the patient includes many attitudes regarding self harm. Frustration and powerlessness is the theme that showed how nurses'reacted in a self harming situation.

    Conclusion: The need of knowledge and education for the nurses' were essential. Also the supportfrom colleagues and management were important. To give good care to patients who self harm, nurses' need to know their attitudes and be able to put them aside. This study has shown the importance of debriefing and support in the workgroup. Otherwise the nurse may be run-down by all the feelings regarding these patients. These findings indicate a lot about what the nurses' needs. Not to be forgotten is that especially the patient wins a lot if the nurse can give good health care.

  • 181.
    Lindeberg, Stephanie
    et al.
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    Mellgren, Jennie
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    Personers upplevelser och hantering av irritablebowel syndrome (IBS) i vardagen2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common disorder in today's society. Previous research indicates that over 20% of the world's total population are exposed to the diagnosis of IBS. Two thirds of the persons affected with IBS are of the female sex.

    Aim: The aim of this study was to describe how persons handle and experience irritable bowel syndrome in everyday life.

    Method: This study was a literature review study. Both quantitative and qualitative articles were used. Databases such as Cinahl and PubMed were used to find relevant articles that could answer to the aim of this study.

    Results: The results were categorized into four head categories such as experience of control; the experience of managing their life situation; experience of being in a vulnerable situation; experience of being limited; and nine subcategories, such as to feel in control; not to feel in control; being able to manage strategies in their daily life; to feel understanding and support from others; not to feel dignified when treated by health professionals; to feel different as man and woman; not to accept their disease; to feel guilt and shame; and to feel the influence of their illness in everyday life. Persons with IBS experienced that coping strategies and support from others were important. They felt dissatisfaction with healthcare support and how they had to transcend their gender and taboo.

    Conclusion: This study shows that there are slight differences in how the persons with the experience of IBS manage their everyday lives. People tend to manage their symptoms with various coping strategies. Support from family and friends were important, such as the ability to predict their symptoms and knowing what food they could eat.

  • 182.
    Lindgren, Frida
    et al.
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    Pettersson Norrbin, Marianne
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    Faktorer som påverkar sjuksköterskans följsamhet till riktlinjer: En litteraturstudie2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Cross infection is a global health problem. The cost for cross infection increases every year. Florence Nightingale focused her attention on preventing cross infections by using good hygiene and as a nurse that is one of your more important tasks. Nurses have guidelines for how hygiene should be implemented in practice. The aim of this study is to investigate factors that influence nurses´ compliance to guidelines regarding hygiene. A literature review was used to analyze scientific articles related to the topic. The result showed that education increases nurses´ compliance to follow guidelines. Furthermore compliance to hand hygiene was higher after contact with the patient then before. The result also showed that the nurses were more worried about attracting an infection from the patient then giving an infection to the patient. The studies revealed that nurses want more education about guidelines and the latest research on the subject. The authors think that nurses need more education about hygiene in order to understand the importance of following guidelines. Nurses also need time for both reading updated information infection control and implementing the hygiene guidelines more frequently in practice.

  • 183.
    Lindholm, Therese
    et al.
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    Erlandsson, Sofia
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    Det värsta har hänt- mitt barn har drabbats av cancer: En litteraturbaserad studie om föräldrars upplevelser under sjukdomstiden2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    About 250 000 children develops cancer every year. Most of them has a parent and a family who also is getting affected. During this time the parents go through a crisis and the nurse had a central role to help them through the hard time. Aim: The aim of this study was to illuminate parent´s experiences of living with a child with a cancer diagnose during the illness. Method: A literature -based study, qualitative content analysis of 14 qualitative articles. Result: The results are presented in three main themes: "The emotional roller coaster", "The balance of the uncertain" and "The swinging of the support". Conclusion: The parents experienced a lot of feelings during the child's illness and they changed their view of life. A fear of the unknown and a feeling of losing the sense of normality were expressed by the parents. A shuttle between security and disappointment appeared during the entire duration of the illness. Therefore it was important for the parents to get continuous information, opportunities for participation and support from someone they could rely on to feel safe.

  • 184.
    Lindita, Shehu
    et al.
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    Hansson, Madeleine
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    Patienter med mekanisk ventilation: upplevelser på intensivvårdsavdelning2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    To be intubated means that the power of speech is prevented. Patients also have limited mobility and are affected cognitively related to diagnosis and disease extent. In order to offer intubated patients optimal care ICU nurses should have knowledge about patients' experiences.

    Aim:

    The purpose of this study was to illuminate mechanical ventilated patients´ experiences of intensive care.

    Method:

    The study has been conducted as a literature review in which ten scientific articles have been used.

    Results:

    The result is presented in three themes and ten subthemes. Intense feelings with the subthemes: being betrayed by one's own body, dramatic experiences, experience of misunderstanding. Vulnerable as crystal with subthemes: to put one's life into a machine, to experience oneself invisible and to experience hopelessness. A ray of hope with subthemes: To have an urge for information, to have the will to live, to be given the opportunity and relatives become the life line.

    Conclusion:

    The results of the study shows a complex situation for the patient and for the nurse. After all there were some positive experience, such as that the patient did appreciate when the nurse made an effort in communicating. An effort could for example be, when the nurse helped the patient through communication difficulties. The results of the study were that the patient got strong overwhelming feelings, which made him feel extremely vulnerable and at the same time invisible. The nurse need deep understanding for the patient situation, to prevent unnecessarily suffering.

  • 185.
    Lindskog, Therese
    et al.
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    Sjöberg, Johan
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    Sjuksköterskors upplevelse av palliativ vård vid livets slut2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Recent research within the subject shows that the nurse can experience feelings such as anxiousness, helplessness and disappointment in palliative care for the patients. To have a greater understanding of the feelings the nurse may experience and what it means for the nurse to care for the patients in their last stages of life, further research is required to increase the quality of the palliative care given by the nurses.

    Aim:

    the purpose of the study was to elucidate nurse's experience of caring for palliative patients at end of life.

    Method:

    A literature-based study based on the analysis of qualitative data.

    Results

    : This study resulted in three main theme, which was named "Experience of feelings", "Experience of hardship" and "Experience of support".

    Conclusion:

    the main conclusion that can be drawn from this study is a lack of sufficient resources in the field of palliative care, such as economic funding, lack of staff resources and equipment. It shows that nurses are not given sufficient time to establish a good relationship with the patients. A good relationship between the nurse and the patient is vital in order to enable the nurse to give the best palliative care to the patient.

    Palliative care today lacks not only in resources, but also a common view that provides guidelines for how to provide palliative care.

  • 186.
    Lodén, Emelie
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    Kvinnors upplevelse av depression och sjukdomens påverkan på det dagliga livet: en innehållsanalys av självbiografier2011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The lifeworld describes the experience of being a humanbeing, how we experience life and how we live our lifes. When a disease, such as depression occurs, the whole lifeworld can be filled with suffering. Depression is an affective disease, which means it involves the emotions. The patient gets dejected and the emotional devotion abates. Broken sleep, anxiety, pain, concentrations difficulties, fatigue and reduced appetite is some of the symptoms. Depression is a disease that increases, especially with women. The gender differences can be explained by biological, social and psychological reasons. Earlier research shows that suffering is central. Depressed women isolate them self from the world and it is hard for them to make people around them to understand. They have suicidal thoughts.

    Aim

    The aim with the study was to describe women's experience of depression and how the disease affects their daily life.

    Method

    A content analysis of narratives, with a qualitative approach.

    Results

    The result shows that women with depression suffer deeply because of their disease. The suffering consists of fear, helplessness, tearing, and feelings of incomprehension, loneliness and suicidal thoughts. The suffering affects the daily life and changes the sick person's whole life world.

    Conclusion

    Depression is a condition that must be taken just as serious as a somatic disease, because of the enormous and devastating effects it has on the person's life. It also effect the society, because of the large number of suicidal victims and increasing numbers of patients that will seek medical service for help in the future. It is necessary to change the attitude, initiative and readiness to help this people.

  • 187.
    Lorentsson, Anncatrin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    Hallin, Elin
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    Barns upplevelser av mötet med vårdpersonal: En litteraturstudie2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The general nurse meets children in various situation in nursing care. Children often associate care with fear and insecurity. By listening to children's experiences in meeting with health care professionals, the nurse gets important knowledge to apply in the care to create a good meeting with the kids and give them security.

    Aim: The aim of the study was to illustrate children´s experiences of the meeting with health care professionals.

    Method: The method used was a literature study, based on qualitative research.

    Results: Five themes emerged in connection to children's experiences of meeting with health care professionals. These five themes were named as participation, communication, attitude, skills and appearance.

    Conclusion: Children want to be informed and be involved in decisions regarding their care. They want to be treated by smiling medical professionals with high skills and a professional appearance.

  • 188.
    Lundberg, Annelie
    et al.
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    Lundblad, Madeleine
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    Hur fatigue påverkar detdagliga livet hos människor som drabbats av Multipel Skleros.: Litteraturöversikt2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Fatigue is a non-specific symptom that is common among individuals with Multiple sclerosis (MS) and this symptom has a major impact on their daily life. Fatigue is described as an overwhelming feeling of tiredness and becomes unpredictable from day to day.

    Aim: The aim of this study was to find out how fatigue affects the daily life of people diagnosed by MS.

    Method: A literature review with nine articles with qualitative approach was made. Similarities and differences were analyzed. Analyses was made according to Friberg (2012).

    Results: The results showed that there is a lack of understanding of fatigue that has a major negative impact on people diagnosed with MS. The feeling of not being able to rely on their body affects the participation and the future seems uncertain.

    Conclusion: There is a lack of knowledge among nurses and people in general about how people with MS-related fatigue perceive their daily lives. Further research is needed on how health professionals themselves perceive that they manage and treat patients with MS-related fatigue and what they can do to support and help these people. This information is an asset to be able to respond and meet their needs and desires.

  • 189.
    Lyberg, Anne
    et al.
    Centre for Women’s, Family and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Buskerud and Vestfold University College, Kongsberg.
    Holm, Anne Lise
    Centre for Women’s, Family and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Buskerud and Vestfold University College, Kongsberg.
    Lassenius, Erna
    Centre for Women’s, Family and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Vestfold University College.
    Berggren, Ingela
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level. Centre for Women’s, Family and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Buskerud and Vestfold University College, Kongsberg.
    Severinsson, Elisabeth
    Centre for Women’s, Family and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Buskerud and Vestfold University College, Kongsberg.
    Older Persons’ Experiences of Depressive Ill-Health and Family Support2013In: Nursing Research and Practice, ISSN 2090-1429, E-ISSN 2090-1437, p. 1-8, article id 837529Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to explore experiences of the meaning of family support among older persons with depressive illhealth.Data were collected from twenty-nine participants through semistructured interviews and analysed using interpretative hermeneutic and reflective methodology. The findings revealed a main theme, hovering between feelings of belongingness and aloneness in relationships with family members, based on two themes: a sense of being worthy and a sense of being unworthy.Experiences of support and lack of support from family members were not opposites but connected in internal relationships andcan be pictured as a movement on a continuum of ambiguity. Family support promotes the emotional needs of older persons withdepressive ill-health to be confirmed. The family plays a vital role, not always by direct assistance, but indirectly by supporting theolder person's own "guiding principles" for managing her/his situation. The feelings of aloneness as well as shame and guilt at pooror absent family responsiveness should be adequately addressed. Innovative nursing care can lead to improvement by focusing on acquiescence to the older person's life situation.

  • 190.
    Löfgren, Ida
    et al.
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    Severinsson, Sofie
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    Motiverande samtal i vården av överviktiga barn: En litteraturöversikt2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Childhood overweight was one of the most common diseases in our time. Overweight children showed a lower quality of life and had a risk of being bullied and isolated from the world. Motivational interviewing as a treatment focus on the patient and their willingness to change. Empowerment had an important role in that process. The nurse's work included meeting patients of different ages in different types of care. Motivational interviewing fit well into the nurse's values and norms of pediatric care.

    Aim:

    To illuminate children's and parents experience of motivational interviewing in the care of overweight children.

    Method:

    The method used was a literature review with focus on both qualitative and quantitative facts. The nine studies included in this review had been published between the years of 2008-2013.

    Results:

    The analysis showed conflicting results in three areas. When nurses used motivational interviewing in the care of overweight children's experiences as if it gave support, motivation and self-confidence. Some children described lack of support and an insufficient relation with the caregivers. The family together took a greater responsibility in both diet and exercise.

    Conclusion:

    The result of this study showed that parents and children had mixed feelings about motivational interviewing. There was no conclusion to make about motivational interviewing being an effective treatment method for overweight children. The use of motivational interviewing cannot be dismiss due to the positive feelings that was shown in the result.

  • 191.
    Maalouf, Yazzmine
    et al.
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    Simaei, Sadaf
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    Icke farmakologiska behandlingsmetoder vid depression hos äldre: en litteraturstudie2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The background of this study was that many elderly people in our society suffer from depression, without treatment depression can reduce their quality of life, which is high among elderly people (Spires, 2006). Treatment is therefore vital, however the most common method of treatment is medications which older people are sensitive to because of its side effects. Other treatment than drugs can therefore be used to increase the quality of life of older people and reduce unnecessary side effects from drugs.

    The purpose (aim) of this study is to find out which non-pharmacological treatment that has positive impact on the elderly with depression. The method was a literature overview where articles were analyzed and summarized to a result. The results showed that several other non-pharmacological treatments could be used to reduce depression in older people. Music, physical activity and therapies are methods that have a good effect on depression in the elderly and can increase their quality of life. Conclusion of this study is that older people with depression should be treated for their mental illness health. Care workers should have the idea that other treatment than drug can be used and that other nursing has a good effect on elderly with depression

  • 192.
    Magnusson, Emelie
    et al.
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    Hagberg Ryngefors, Pauline
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    Livet med obotlig sjukdom: En självbiografistudie om upplevelsen av dagligt livvid Amyotrofisk lateralskleros2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurological disease which atrophies and paralyses the body. Life with this illness means being exposed to severe strain and everyday could bring new losses. The mind remains unaffected throughout the course of this irreversible disease and eventually most patients loose their ability to talk.

    Aim

    The aim of this study was to describe patients’ experiences of daily life with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Method

    A qualitative content analysis of four autobiographies was used to describe patients’ own perspective of living with an incurable disease.

    Results

    The result showed that patients suffering from ALS felt sorrow, regret over previous abilities, reconciliation with their disease and feelings of pleasure. Living with the illness was an emotional roller coaster and the patients could experience both happiness and sadness. They found ways to manage life with ALS and the patients’ could feel well-being despite visible signs of disease.

    Conclusion

    Although each patient’s experience is unique some thoughts and feelings were similar. This led to four categories illustrating how patients describe daily living. Nurses should have knowledge of how patients’ experience ALS to be able to provide support and optimal nursing care.

    Keywords

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurological disease which atrophies and paralyses the body. Life with this illness means being exposed to severe strain and everyday could bring new losses. The mind remains unaffected throughout the course of this irreversible disease and eventually most patients loose their ability to talk.

    Aim

    The aim of this study was to describe patients’ experiences of daily life with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Method

    A qualitative content analysis of four autobiographies was used to describe patients’ own perspective of living with an incurable disease.

    Results

    The result showed that patients suffering from ALS felt sorrow, regret over previous abilities, reconciliation with their disease and feelings of pleasure. Living with the illness was an emotional roller coaster and the patients could experience both happiness and sadness. They found ways to manage life with ALS and the patients’ could feel well-being despite visible signs of disease.

    Conclusion

    Although each patient’s experience is unique some thoughts and feelings were similar. This led to four categories illustrating how patients describe daily living. Nurses should have knowledge of how patients’ experience ALS to be able to provide support and optimal nursing care.

     

  • 193.
    Maisa, Lisa
    et al.
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    Orsbeck, Ida
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    Sjuksköterskors upplevelser av patientrelaterat våld på akutmottagningar: en litteraturbaserad studie2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Health care has been identified as one of the most violent workplaces globally, and emergency departments is one of the most vulnerable areas for such violence. In this context, nurses have been identified as the largest risk group. The purpose of this study was to describe nurses' experiences of patient-related violence in emergency departments. A literature-based study with ten qualitative articles was conducted. The result revealed a number of experiences among nurses regarding patient-related violence. Feelings of frustration, vulnerability, a desire to reach out to the patient and a sense of lack of trust were themes that emerged. In connection with the emergency department where patients are treated for a variety of diseases and conditions, it is unlikely that patient-related violence can be completely eliminated. However, it is possible to improve the prevention and management regarding threats and violence in the workplace. Further research is required to identify risks and thereby be able to offer suggestions to the prevention regarding patient-related violence in the emergency departments.

  • 194.
    Mannrös, Manal
    et al.
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    Ottosson, Lisa
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    Patienter med Parkinsons sjukdom och deras erfarenheter i det dagliga livet2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    About 20 000 people in Sweden suffer from Parkinson's disease. It is a chronical degenerative neurodisease which results in lack of dopamin. The motor symptoms is for example rigidity, tremor and bradykinesea, apart from these symptoms other psychological and cognitive symptoms will appear. Aim: The aim of this study is to illustrate the experience of daily life from patients who suffers from Parkinsons disese.

    Method:

    9 qualitative empirial studies were compiled and analysed by Friberg's analytical method, literature review. This formed the result of this study. The database used for the data collecting process was CINAHL.

    Results:

    The result of this study became three main categories and 8 subcategories. The result showed that the symptoms influence the daily life and the family of patients with PD. The patients with PD had to change their activities and adapt to the illness when the disease became more advanced. Some felt insecure about being in public. This led to the people with PD stayed home more often and got socially isolated. The disease was unpredictable and inhibited spontaneity. PD changed patients' self-image as well as everyday life. The symptoms affected everything so it was important to receive support and a lot of the patients got it from their family. Several patients managed the disease through positive thinking and living for the day.

    Conclusion:

    This study results shows that the disease varied from patient to patient. The patient felt misunderstood, isolated and controlled by medication. They felt that they have lost control and identity.

  • 195.
    Matei, Diana
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    Hemlöshet och psykisk ohälsa: Upplevelser av stödjande eller begränsande faktorer2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Homeless persons who suffer of mental illness are one group which is marginalized worldwide. Homeless people have a fragmentary contact with healthcare and many of those who have drug abuse problems and mental illness are still undiagnosed. Still, this is not their only issue when various state agencies argue about who will take responsibility for this persons. Aim: To describe the factors that are perceived supportive or restrictive by homeless people with mental illness. Method: The material has been gathered via systematic and unsystematic searches and the study was designed as a literature review. The articles which responded to the aim of this study were included and it resulted in twelve articles. Results: The approach and attitudes of the healthcare workers is experienced negatively by the homeless persons because of their discrimination and stigmatization. Experiences suck as lack of coordination and cooperation between healthcare, lack of health insurance, social isolation and poor paid jobs or no jobs at all are also common. Still, there were some positive experience such as healthcare workers and staff who listened, care and implicated themselves in the homeless person’s problems and situation, they gave them presents or made jokes. Conclusion: The healthcare workers needs knowledge about homeless people’s experience of various factors that promote or sets limits in promoting health. This knowledge is needed in order to improve the healthcare workers approach.

  • 196.
    Matilainen, Cecilia
    et al.
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    Johansson, Jessica
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    Unga vuxna cancerpatienters upplevelser av sin sjukdom: En självbiografisk studie2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Every year about 600 people in age 15-29 years in Sweden diagnosis with cancer. To be a young adult and diagnose with cancer is a life changing experience and affects the daily life for the patient. The aim of the study was to describe the young adult’s experiences of their disease. The methods used in this study were a literature study based on autobiography. Five books were analyzed. Four themes emerged from the analysis of the autobiographies; experience of anxiety, the feeling of loss, experience of despair; experience of joy, hope and gratitude. This study shows how life changes when a young adult gets a cancer diagnosis and how it affects their living. The study points out how important it is for the nurse to have acknowledged about this special target

  • 197.
    Mattila, Line
    et al.
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    Jacobsson, Sofia
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    Att förlora en person till följd av suicid: En litteraturöversikt ur de närståendes perspektiv2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Each year, over one million people around the world die as a result of suicide. About 1500 of those are in Sweden. In each case an estimated six kindred’s are to be affected. These people are in great need of support. Despite this, research shows that nurses experience difficulties to support the suicide survivors. Aim: The aim of this study was to describe kindred’s experiences after the loss of someone close as a result of suicide. Method: In order to capture the kindred’s experience of losing someone close as a result of suicide, a literature-based study were chosen, where nine scientific qualitative articles were analyzed. Results: The results are presented in four different themes, and eight subthemes, which all highlights kindred’s experience of losing someone close as a result of suicide. The themes where to feel an overwhelming grief; to feel judged by others and themselves; to feel the need of support; that life changes. Conclusion: Being related to someone who has died as a result of suicide causes great suffering and a changed life-world. The following study shows that most suicide survivors don’t get the support they need after the suicide. A better understanding of the suicide survivor’s experiences may lead to improved care and support. To prevent the suffering and to support the kindred’s health process this study shows that a caring science way of caring is required. Thus it applies to each nurse to be open and responsive to each individual’s life-world and its ambiguity

  • 198.
    Mlakar, Josefine
    et al.
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    Johansson, Agmes
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    Hon kallar mig sötnos: Barns upplevelse av sjuksköterskan när de vårdas på sjukhus2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Most nurses will, regardless of their workplace, meet and care for sick children in some way. How children communicate, think and act depends on their age. If the child de-velops a first good impression of the nurse it will affect the child’s total experience of the hos-pitalization. Also parents have a key role in the child’s hospitalization since they can transfer a feeling of security to their child. This essay aims to describe the child’s experience of the nurse.

    Aim: The aim of this study was to describe the child’s experience of nurses while they are hospitalized.

    Method: The used method was a literature review based on both qualitative and quantitative articles. Nine articles from the database Cinahl was chosen, read, reviewed and analyzed ac-cording to Fribergs analyzing model, the result consists of three themes and eight sub-themes.

    Results: The three themes where: "The experience of the nurse" with the sub-themes "To be sure of what you are doing"," To be neat and clean" and "To be nice and funny", "Communication and interaction with me" with the sub-themes "Talking with me" and "Showing with your body language", "Participation- I want to be involved" with the sub-themes "To be in-volved in the decision-making", "To be in control" and "See the whole me" .

    Conclusion: The children had both positive and negative experiences of nurses. It was shown in most of the articles that the children wanted the nurse to be their friend. The personality of the nurse was also important and it was described that the nurse should be nice, cheerful and kind while caring for the children. The children also wanted the nurse to involve them in their care and put the child in the first room

  • 199.
    Mneini, Fatima
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    Anorexia nervosa: Flickors och kvinnors upplevelser av vården2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Anorexia nervosa is a severe form of eating disorder, which implies an extremely unhealthy weight control behaviours that often begins with some form of dieting that gets out of control. It mainly affects adolescent girls and young women. It is estimated that 1% of women and 0.1% of men in Sweden suffer from anorexia before the age of 18 years. This causes the person suffering, for some people is suffering short term, but 10-20% of sufferers experience a lifetime of suffering. This body and weight fixation will in turn be exacerbated in the context of weight loss and can even lead to death.

    Aim:

    The aim of the study was to illustrate girls and women with anorexia nervosa, experiences of health care.

    Method:

    This literature study was based on qualitative research. Ten scientific articles were analyzed according to Forsberg and Wengström Qualitative content analysis based on the inductive approach to match the aim of the study.

    Results:

    The analysis process revealed four main categories: 1) Being seen as a person, 2) Being deprived control and responsibility, 3) Being influenced by fellow patients 4) Being affected by the care relationship.

    Conclusion:

    In order to provide good nursing care and relieve the suffer during the patient's illness it requires that the nurses increase their knowledge about the disease. It's important for the nurses to have a good understanding and awareness of patients' experience of their illness and their experience of healthcare.

  • 200.
    Mohamed, Hosam
    et al.
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    Karlsson, Joel
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, undergraduate level.
    Krigsveteraners kamp: En litteraturstudie som belyser hur lidandet uttrycker sig bland krigsveteraner som har strids-relaterad post traumatiskt stressyndrom2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: War veterans belongs to a specific group that is highly exposed of the risks of being traumatized which in turn can lead to development of Post-traumatic stress disorder. This psychiat-ric condition has a dynamic structure that generates several symptoms and is one of the few psychi-atric diagnoses that has a clear causation.

    Aim: The aim of this study was to illuminate how the suffering expresses itself for war veterans who have developed combat-related PTSD

    Method: Six autobiographies written by former war veterans were analyzed through the use of a qualitative analysis method.

    Results: These veterans describe several expressions of suffering and these expressions represented it through four categories. They were: ‘Relived memories’, ‘anger’, ‘negative self-image’ and ‘in-difference to life’. Each one of these named categories had subcategories. (10 in total) attached to them. All of the described categories resulted into one main theme; "the absence of inner peace"

    Conclusion: War related PTSD evokes an extensive suffering that is very destructive to the degree that suffering becomes an integral part of these veterans’ lives. We believe that a deeper understand-ing and knowledge about PTSD and its relation to suffering is vital among healthcare professionals. It can help healthcare professionals to treat PTSD patients with respect and understanding. Further research about why certain individuals develops PTSD whilst others do not after experiencing trauma would be beneficial in order to deepen the knowledge about PTSD

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