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  • 151.
    Bedjaoui, Idriss
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Algeriska befrielsekampen: Den svenska pressens skildring av religionens betydelse och roll 1954-19582017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 152.
    Bek, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Rimligt tvivel?: En studie om historievetenskaplig stringens i en juridisk kontext2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    What happens when historical theories are used as evidence in a trial? Is it possible for historians to use their own scientific tools when acting as participants in a juridical process? And how do judges deal with historical evidence? The aim of this study is to answer these questions by analyzing a specific trial, known as “Härjedalsmålet”. Härjedalsmålet was a court case about the Sami people’s right to let their reindeer graze on private property grounds in Härjedalen during the winter season. Their claim to this right was based on prescription of time immemorial. In order to prove their long history in Härjedalen, the Sami people summoned the archaeologist Inger Zachrisson to testify.According to Zachrisson, the Sami people have a history in Härjedalen that stretches as far back as 98 AD. However, another archaeologist, Evert Baudou, claims that there is no evidence of a continuity of the Sami culture in Härjedalen during the early Middle Ages. In order to prove their respective theories, the archaeologists base their arguments on both archeological and historical (written) source material. The archeologists wrote a number of statements and articles which they sent to court. In this master’s thesis, these statements and articles are analyzed using the scientific criteria that a study must meet to be considered scientific by the historian community.The analysis shows that the scientific criteria are not fully met in by the archeologists and that the used written source material from the Middle Ages doesn’t meet the criteria for classic historical source criticism. The judges do not evaluate the historical evidence; they simple note that the archeologist have different opinions and that there is no certain evidence of a continuing Sami culture in Härjedalen during the early Middle Ages. The conclusion of this master’s thesis raises new questions: can history, known to be an interpretive science, ever produce evidence that is “certain enough” in a court? And how can the Sami people, whose nomadic life left little archeological and historical source material behind, ever prove their existence in a certain area in historical times?

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  • 153.
    Beland Lindahl, Karin
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Sténs, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Johansson, Johanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Lidskog, Rolf
    Örebro universitet.
    Ranius, Thomas
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Roberge, Jean-Michel
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU, Umeå, Sweden.
    The Swedish forestry model: more of everything?2017In: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 77, p. 44-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    "The Swedish forestry model" refers to the forest regime that evolved following the 1993 revision of the Swedish Forestry Act. It is key to Swedish forest politics and used to capture the essence of a sustainable way of managing forests. However, the ideas, institutions and practices comprising the model have not been comprehensively analyzed previously. Addressing this knowledge gap, we use frame analysis and a Pathways approach to investigate the underlying governance model, focusing on the way policy problems are addressed, goals, implementation procedures, outcomes and the resulting pathways to sustainability. We suggest that the institutionally embedded response to pressing sustainability challenges and increasing demands is expansion, inclusion and integration: more of everything. The more-of-everything pathway is influenced by ideas of ecological modernization and the optimistic view that existing resources can be increased. Our findings suggest that in effect it prioritizes the economic dimension of sustainability. While broadening out policy formulation it closes down the range of alternative outputs, a shortcoming that hampers its capacity to respond to current sustainability challenges. Consequently, there is a need for a broad public debate regarding not only the role of forests in future society, but also the operationalization of sustainable development.

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  • 154.
    Belander, John
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    "Det är ett sätt för oss att stärka kvalitén på vår undervisning": Historielärares attityder till undervisningen i högstadiet2024Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis was to investigate the perceived control of secondary school teachers teaching history. The study was of a qualitative nature where the data was collected through interviews. A total of five teachers were interviewed, where the teachers thoughts were gathered based on the purpose and questions of the study.

    The research was focused on two areas, self-efficacy, and context dependency. The teachers described the education as positive as the academic studies helped them to give perspective on history and discussed that the high standards had a positive impact on their knowledge of the subject. The second part in self-efficacy, the teachers said that they considered the subject relevant. The teachers considered history to be an important part of the students development into democratic citizens. They also wanted to give students tools to navigate in an information society. The last part was about experience and preparation, which turned out to be a negative based on self-efficacy since the teachers felt a time constraint.

    Based on context dependency, the teachers felt that the students demanded more from them because more extra adaptations are required now. To address the wide range of student interest and knowledge levels in the subject, teachers faced the challenge of adapting the material to each student's individual needs. The continuing education was also perceived as difficult because the municipality only provided continuing education around the student but not subject-specific, which was requested. The curriculum and joint assessment had both a positive and a negative effect towards history. The negative was that the teachers found it difficult to interpret the grading criteria and that the central content of the subject was increasing, without giving the teachers more time to educate. The collegial collaboration had a positive impact as they helped each other with planning, tests and had the opportunity to discuss this with each other.

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  • 155.
    Bellander, Christina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Gud är fruktansvärd: Betyder ordet fruktan att Gud ska vördas och respekteras eller att han är skrämmande?  2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 156.
    Bendz, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Politiska minnen och traderade berättelser: Historieförmedling bland kvinnor inom svenska adeln under den tidigmoderna epoken (1567-1742)2024Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines historical writing and use of history among women within the Swedish nobility during the early modern period. The study has shown that political history in several cases was transmitted for the purpose of protecting or asserting collective, family-related aswell as individual status and positions, within the framework of women's informal exercise of power. Consequently, it can also be understood as expressions of emotion and political agendas in one – in other words as emotives.

    Sources conveying political history often express political diplomacy, which for example shows in how they separate content in different categories, support power or omit politically sensitive information. It can be explained by that the authors and their relatives were actors during the strengthening of the early modern state apparatus, and also victims of an ongoing power struggle within and between the nobility and the crown. The thesis also shows examples of internalized conflicts or possible cognitive dissonances relating to simultaneously fearing and depending on power, most clearly for the later investigation period.

    The study also exemplifies how material produced in this field could be viewed after the establishment of modern genre conventions, when it was often categorized into privately coded genres. Furthermore it shows that the private characteristics of rhetoric enabling this may have been a strategic choice in order to enable a political narrative.

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  • 157.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Befästelsen av den kristna tron: En litteraturstudie om hur de jämtländska samernas kristna tro befästes under 1880-talet till 19132016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här studien undersöker vilka politiska frågor som styrt samerna under perioden 1880 till 1913 och hur undervisningen av samerna bedrevs. Studien tar upp den politik som fördes och hur den påverkade samerna, deras levnadsförhållanden och skolgång. Granskningen går också igenom vad samerna skulle undervisas i. Vad som också tas upp är vilket material som användes vid undervisningen av samerna och vilka syften som fanns bakom valet av material. Fokus finns på en skola placerad i svenska Jämtland och hur de samiska eleverna upplevde det att gå där samt hur deras levnadsförhållanden vid skolan var. Vad som framkommer genom denna undersökning är hur samerna behandlats av den svenska staten och kyrkan genom historien. Den kommer också att visa att undervisningen av samerna inte var så annorlunda mot undervisningen av svenska barn.

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  • 158.
    Bennesved, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Katastrofen i Barsebäck och radioaktivitet som informationsproblem 1953-19732019In: Efterkrigstidens samhällskontakter / [ed] Fredrik Norén & Emil Stjernholm, Lund: Mediehistoria, Lunds universitet , 2019, p. 185-215Chapter in book (Refereed)
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  • 159.
    Bennesved, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Sheltered Society: An analysis of Swedish shelter building technology and practice 1935-19502013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis sets out to study how Swedish shelter building practices progressed and developed throughout the period 1935 to 1950. By analyzing shelters through Thomas P. Hughes theory of technological systems this thesis uncovers both the material aspects of shelters and the discourse surrounding them. Mainly the concepts of technological style, momentum and transfer from Hughes theory has been stressed.

    As material for the thesis government reports concerning civil defence and shelters publicized during the period are used. The results is then put in relation to Langdon Winner’s philosophical discussion about inherently political technologies and somnambulism, and Gabrielle Hecht’s work on national identity and technology.

    The result shows that the shelter building practices established during the late 1930s remained even though the atomic bomb was introduced. After the atomic bomb, the Department of Civil Defence started to emphasize mass evacuation to a greater extent while new shelters in city centers were to be constructed as permanent living quarters but this new practice did not replace the old practice. The main difference between the two is a shift from temporary evacuation and decentralized solutions to permanent evacuation and centralized solutions. The thesis also shows how this development was connected to a national identity discourse. The shelter became a domesticated urban phenomenon connected to the modern city life.

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  • 160.
    Bennesved, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Sheltered Society: Civilian Air raid shelters in Sweden — from idea to materiality, 1918-1940 and beyond2020Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2002, Sweden finally stopped producing air raid shelters for its population after over sixty years of continuous production since 1938. Judging from the Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency, MSB, the Swedish Air raid shelter registry contain about 65,000 air raid shelters registered as being in use. This figure reflect a huge security infrastructure which, today, is said to provide shelter for around 70% of the Swedish population. By studying the interwar period and the origins of civil defence in Swedish history, this dissertation sets out to explain the origins of the Swedish air raid shelter and provide an explanation of how Sweden eventually became a “Sheltered Society”.

    In order to achieve this, this dissertation will study the interwar period up until the first year of the Second World War, 1918 to 1940, which can be said to be the formative years for aerial protection politics and air raid shelters. As a theoretical inspiration, the dissertation uses LTS theory, intertwined with a Multi-Level Perspective on technological transitions. Through the close reading of reports and articles, newspapers and archival materials, written by fortification officers, engineers, architects, politicians and journalists during these years, the study shows how the originally military bunkers and air raid shelters were conceptually transferred to civilian use during the interwar years by authors concerned about the technological and strategic developments in aerial warfare.

    This process was enabled by a careful navigation between militaristic notions of aerial protection and the politically neutral civilian use of air raid shelters. Key factors for the successful implementation was framing the shelters as a simple technical matter through the concept of “Construction-Technical Aerial Protection”, as well as removing all military involvement in building and organizing them, making them seem “civilian” rather than military. This eventually led to the ratification of the Air raid shelter statute of 1940, which could be said to be the origin of the Swedish air raid shelter system. While politicians, engineers and fortification officers launched this image of the air raid shelter, the contemporary press discourse also provided a means of interpreting the10newly introduced shelters as being culturally compatible with Swedish urban modernity, thus making the radical urban change appear less frightening and a natural part of the development of the burgeoning Swedish welfare state.

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  • 161.
    Bennesved, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Skyddsrum och kärnvapen: En diskursanalys av 1950- och 1960-talets försvars- och civilförsvarsdebatt i svensk press2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Shelters and Nuclear weaponsA discourse analysis of the Swedish defense and civil defense debate during the Cold war

    Sweden during the Cold War set into motion one of the world’slargest civil defense policies at the time, second only to neutral Switzerland. The governments expenditure was far greater per capita than both that of USA and Soviet Union and included massive evacuation plans for Stockholm and other large cities in Sweden, with the hopeful expectation to bring down the amount of people in each of them to 15000 in case of a foreign hostile nuclear attack. The policies included construction of shelters with room for 2,5 million of about 7 million citizens in total at the time along with gasmasks for the whole population. Not only this, Sweden was considered one of the biggest military powers of that time in relation to its size and population. This brings the question what kind of discourse allowed such an expansion in military as well as civil defense?    The aim of this study is to examine what conception of a coming war was discussed in Swedish press and how it was interconnected with the defense and civil defense debate during 1954, 1960 and 1966. Using the theoretical framework of discourse analysis - including the two branches Nukespeak and Conceptual history - the study wants to bring forth firstly how the threat of nuclear war was discussed in Swedish press. Secondly if the conceptions of this future war was presented and used by a dominant group for political gains. And third, if so, what strategies was used to keep this dominance and how did this situation change as we move towards the mid 1960´s?

    The result is then compared with the work of other Swedish historians in the field of Cold War culture as Marie Cronqvist, Jonas Anshelm, Henrik Sjövall, Jerry Määttä and Michael Godhe to give a plausible explanation of the development.    The results show that the dominant perspective of a coming nuclear attack was built upon an authoritarian ideology with the following attributes: 1) The coming nuclear war was a terrible plague that would destroy the whole world’s civilization, even humanity as a race was threatened by it. 2) The threat of war was considered realistic and plausible. The local conflict in Scandinavia and the global conflict is also considered being one and the same which grants the Swedish military a key position in preventing the east and west superpowers from unleashing a total annihilation. 3) A requirement to be able to keep peace between the superpowers and survive the war as it is presented is that technical innovation is maintained at all costs. This is presented as a necessity given by the atomic age as a deterministic historical epoch. 4) It is possible to survive this apocalyptic war with good planning, well built shelters, a strong will of resistance to foreign power and a well equipped military.    This hegemonic perspective is maintained by methods described by Edward Schiappa and other linguistic scientists as domestication and bureaucratization, and also with a plea of a 'male' rationality, thus expelling female criticism. 1966 this hegemonic perspective is challenged and the reason of this change could be that of saturation of the concept of the atomic age and what it could bring to human civilization. Also a merging of military expertise and foreign politics could have played a part in this and a general relaxation of the superpowers foreign politics which meant that the war that was expected and planned for by the military advisers was more and more unlikely to occur.

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  • 162.
    Bennesved, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    The Road in the Park: Ideology and State power during the 20th century seen through Maps of the Swedish subarctic Abisko2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The scope of this thesis is to show how the use of maps in political and scientific arguments functions as a mediator between ideological discourse and the physical landscape. This is done by studying three maps displaying the same geographical region but from different times and with different motifs. The maps were studied by operationalizing the French Sociologist Bruno Latour’s concept of immu-table mobiles into a methodological toolset.The thesis shows that the cartographic tradition of the Swedish state throughout the 20th century func-tioned as an immutable mobile that ideological actors could use to form political or scientific argu-ments. An almost trivial point to make. However, the problem is the great distance between state and the place, which in this case is about 1400 kilometers. Thus, the map allows a remote power relation-ship. As the state-owned immutable mobiles were extracted, they were interpreted by the politicians and scientists ideological perspectives. The ideological interpretations were then used in government propositions and reports and thus resulted in actual political decisions that affected the physical land-scape.The creation of Abisko National Park is one example of how this process can look. The park was instigated with a specific set of political goals to be achieved. The political and scientific actors used the immutable mobile that is the map and formed a proposition with it. The act of instigating and upholding the Abisko Valley as a national park is thus a manifestation of both state presence, its supremacy over territory as well as its contemporary ideological context. Moreover, it would be im-possible to instigate a park without the use of maps to define its borders. The planning and ratification of Transnational Road 98 can be seen as another example of the same thing, but with a different contemporary ideology as background.The thesis results in an explanation about what the maps role is in a stately place making process. Additionally the thesis shows what happens over time as different ideological embodiments in the landscape conflict with each other because of their different visions of how the landscape should be used and by whom.

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  • 163.
    Bennesved, Peter
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Norén, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Urban Catastrophe and Sheltered Salvation: The media system of Swedish civil defence, 1937–19602020In: Media History, ISSN 1368-8804, E-ISSN 1469-9729, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 167-184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish civil defence organizations have a long tradition of balancing their messages to the public through diverse media use. Over the course of the early Cold War, however, the political and technical circumstances of the civil defence organizations changed, rendering old methods from the 1930s obsolete. To keep their relevance, the narratives of the civil defence organizations had to be carefully remodelled in accordance with the current situation, obscuring some facts while stressing others more clearly. By operationalizing the concept of media system, this article examines how the Swedish civil defence organizations used the media, broadly defined, to deal with the two main narratives that their practical work was based upon: urban destruction as war unfolds, and the safety of air-raid shelters. The article shows how these narratives were constructed and connected between various media, but also their changing and dynamic character over time. Over the course of the 1940s and 1950s, the narrative of urban destruction changed from a concrete to an abstract mediation, while the narrative of sheltered salvation took an opposite direction.

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  • 164.
    Bennesved, Peter
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Sylvest, Casper
    Department of History, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Embedding preparedness, assigning responsibility: the role of film in sociotechnical imaginaries of civil defence2022In: Cold war civil defence in Western Europe: sociotechnical imaginaries of survival and preparedness / [ed] Marie Cronqvist; Rosanna Farbøl; Casper Sylvest, Springer, 2022, p. 103-128Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter examines the role of film and television in embedding sociotechnical imaginaries of civil defence during the early nuclear age (c. 1949-1965) by zooming in on Sweden and Denmark, two neighbouring countries that differed both in terms of their political position in the Cold War and in the scale of their civil defence efforts. Following a theoretical discussion of the psychosocial effects of films and their manner of circulation, we analyse Swedish and Danish films in two periods demarcated by the thermonuclear disruption of civil defence during the mid-1950s. The analysis highlights how films were used to frame technologies and script and perform social norms. We argue that films constitute an important source for understanding the difficulties of embedding sociotechnical imaginaries of civil defence.

  • 165.
    Beran, Tâm
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Can I and AI be Friends?: Robots and personal relationships2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To exist is to relate. As human, you are relating to other beings, animate and inanimate entities, physical objects and abstract ideas. A kind of relationship that affects our life and wellbeing in a most concrete sense is that between humans. Modern technology has made it possible to create artificial intelligence (AI) that has become increasingly integrated in our everyday life. AI can be distinguished between weak or strong, that is whether the AI appears to have human mental capacities or in fact has these capacities. The aim of this thesis is to determine whether AI and humans can be friends, based on the condition of them having equal moral status, as well as the concept of friendship as defined by LaFollette. According to LaFollette, a friendship is defined as a relationship that is voluntary, reciprocal and where you relate to each other as unique individuals.

     

    If considering life as essential for moral status, true friendship is not possible between a human and an AI, weak or strong. Other criteria for moral status are the capacity of feeling pleasure and pain, being conscious and having a mind. Although weak AI would behave as if it has human mental capacities, it cannot have the same moral status as humans, and consequently cannot be involved in a genuine friendship in this framework. On the other hand, a strong AI would have equal moral status as a human, and a relationship with such an AI would have all the essential properties required for a friendship as defined by LaFollette. However, from a subjective point of view, it is possible to create unidirectional emotions towards an AI regardless of it having a mind or not.

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  • 166.
    Berg, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Ökända fascister eller goda högermän?: En studie av Sveriges nationella förbunds riksdagspolitik åren 1933–19362017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 167.
    Bergamark, Sanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Visheten höjer sin röst.: En studie av Sofiagestalten i feministisk liturgi.2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 168.
    Bergenblock, Victor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Bönens funktion och praktik: En jämförande studie om den kristna ochmuslimska bönen2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsens syfte är att kvalitativt undersöka bönens funktioner och praktik inom kristendom och islam. Analysen tar utgångspunkt från Froese och Jones religionsociologiska teori samt analysera likheter och skillnader mellan de två religionernas bön. Uppsatsens tre frågeställningar är: 1. Hur praktiseras bönen inom kristendom och islam? 2. Vilka funktioner fyller bönen inom kristendom och islam? 3. Vilka likheter och skillnader finns det av bönen som fenomen inom kristendomen och islam utifrån Froese och Jones dimensioner? Materialet inkluderar tre avhandlingar som är skrivna av Thomas Lindgren, Björn Wiedel och Adam Ehrmantraut samt kurslitteratur av Susanne Olsson och Simon Sorgenfrei. Resultaten visar att bönen tar sig liknande uttryck bland kristna och muslimer, men en påtaglig skillnad är att den muslimska bönen är betydligt mer regelstyrd än den kristna. Bönens funktion är däremot väldigt lik mellan de två religionerna genom att bönen skapar gemenskap och möjliggör kommunikation med gud.

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  • 169.
    Bergenfors, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Svensk 1990-tals politik med Ny Demokrati: Ett ideologiskt parti av sin tid eller en anomali?2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim with this study is to understand how and why the political environment in Sweden changed so drastically during the first years of the 1990s. The political mayfly New Democracy took office in the Swedish parliament in 1991 to 1994. At the time they were branded as a rightwing, xenophobic populist party. While our Nordic neighbors have had political parties resembling New Democracy since the beginning of the 1970’s, the established parties in Sweden managed to cover most of these controversial questions for some time. In a world that was dominated by western capitalism and libertinism following the collapse of the Soviet union, with increasing immigration also from outside of Europe, the Swedish people wanted to see change and the 1991 election turned out to be historical in that about 30% of the voters changed party allegiance.

    Enter New Democracy, a party that had been formally created in February 1991. They had been formed by 2 strong characters who met in November 1990 for the very first time: Ian Wachtmeister and Bert Karlsson. Karlsson was the person with impeccable instincts for publicity. Wachtmeister was the man behind most of the ideas that came to make up the party program. Their leading idea was that politics should be governed by common sense. In this spirit (and the lack of time) they postponed a lot of principal and basic discussions on key matters, with the idea that they would sort them out once elected. This did not work out too well and they soon started to disintegrate from within and by the next election in 1994 they had basically stopped working as a party.

    The aim of the study is achieved through evaluating the following areas: how did New Democracy communicate with their voters as well as how they worked in parliament seen in the light of their party program; the second evaluates New Democracy from an ideology standpoint and finally; how did the voters look at the political situation in Sweden at this time?

    What relatively little has been written and researched about New Democracy has seemingly always taken the starting view of looking at them as a populist party. In this thesis I look atthis unconditionally, and start with an analysis of ideologies and populism. The characteristics identified from this are then applied on New Democracy based on what they said they wanted to achieve as well as how they applied their ideas in real life.

    In order to firmly establish the current theories on ideologies in general and populist theory in particular I have drawn upon some of the most well renown researchers in these areas. As fo rthe study of New Democracy I have been using whatever little material they published themselves, in addition I’ve been using the archives of the Swedish government and a series of books and research on New Democracy. Furthermore I’ve conducted an interview with a former New Democracy parliament member to add and confirm much of the written material.

    The analysis shows that New Democracy was a party that in some ways were ahead of their time as it took another couple of years and then many of their ideas had been implemented. Their messages and ways to go about it were seen as extraordinary at the time. This provides an interesting parallel to the political debate of today considering what is seen as politically correct. Although they were seen as rebels at the time, by today’s standards they appear as rather harmless. They were seen as a populist party of their day. By comparing to current definitions of a populist parti they would rather be seen as a discontent party. Today they would not stand out even nearly in the same way as they did then. And finally, I would argue that the development of a party like New Democracy was inevitable at the time given all political changes in Sweden and in our vicinity.

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  • 170.
    Bergenheim, A. Tommy
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences.
    Bergenheim, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Hjärnor och hjärtan: Lars Leksell : neurokirurgen, innovatören, humanisten2021Book (Other academic)
  • 171.
    Bergenheim, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Karlstads universitet.
    Den liderliga häxan: Häxhammaren och de svenska häxprocesserna2020Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I Sverige avrättades cirka 400 personer för trolldom under perioden 1492-1704. I konsten framträder allt med en fasansfull tydlighet, nakna kroppar i orgiastiska ceremonier, håriga djävlar vilt kopulerande med kvinnor och förvridna smärtfyllda ansikten i flammande bål. I rättsdokument från tiden berättas detaljerat om tortyr och förnedring i pinokamrarna, ofta med tydligt sexuella inslag. Nakenhet, orgier, sadism – sexualiteten var av stor betydelse.

    Åsa Bergenheim har gått igenom rannsakningsprotokoll från 1600-talet och skildrar hur kvinnan – svag, oren och liderlig – blev ett enkelt mål för djävulen, som sades överföra den ondskefulla kraften till henne genom sexuellt umgänge. Som hans tjänarinna sågs hon sprida ondskan vidare över världen. Bergenheim ger oss en gedigen men lättöverskådlig bild av kvinnans utsatthet i stormaktstidens Sverige, av tidens rättsväsende och inställning till kön, makt och sexualitet.

    Detta är en välskriven, fängslande skildring av häxprocesserna i Sverige. Boken riktar sig inte i första hand till forskare, utan till alla och envar som är intresserade av det fascinerande ämnet.

  • 172.
    Bergenheim, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Gränsen för det otillåtna: om synen på våldtäkt i Sverige 1950–20102010In: Antologi: sju perspektiv på våldtäkt, Uppsala: Nationellt Centrum för Kvinnofrid , 2010, 1, p. 10-30Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 173.
    Bergenheim, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Sexual assault, irresistible impulses, and forensic psychiatry in Sweden2014In: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, ISSN 0160-2527, E-ISSN 1873-6386, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 99-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    After forensic psychiatry was firmly established in Sweden in the 1930s, many rapists and individuals charged with assaulting children underwent a forensic psychiatric examination. The physicians found that most of them had not been “in control” of their senses or not “in complete control” of their senses at the time of the crime. If the court ordered a forensic psychiatric examination, the defendant had a very good chance of either being discharged or having his sentence reduced considerably. By the 1950s psychological perspectives began to dominate in forensic psychiatry. In the forensic records of the 1950s we can notice a shift from a biomedical to a socio-psychological perspective, and crime was increasingly related to conditions that were not seen as mental derangement from a legal point of view. As a result, it became less and less common, from the 1950s onwards, for sentences to be commuted or defendants discharged.

  • 174.
    Bergenheim, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Sexualdebattens århundrade2008In: Signums svenska kulturhistoria del 8, 2008Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 175.
    Bergenheim, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Sexuella övergrepp och medicinska sanningar i svensk rättspraxis 1930–502010In: In på bara huden: medicinhistoriska studier tillägnade Karin Johannisson / [ed] Torbjörn Gustafsson Chorell & Maja Bondestam, Nora: Nya Doxa , 2010, 1, p. 145-157Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 176.
    Bergenheim, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Varm choklad och psykoterapi: om Ericastiftelsen i Stockholm2013Book (Other academic)
  • 177.
    Bergenheim, Åsa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Liliequist, Jonas, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    ”Visa aktning för din far och din mor”: ett historiskt perspektiv på vuxna barns våld mot sina föräldrar2010In: Nordisk Tidsskrift for Kriminalvidenskab, ISSN 0029-1528, Vol. 97, no 2, p. 179-190Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 178.
    Bergenheim, Åsa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Skånfors, Borghild
    Gunvor Maria Elisabet: ett kvinnoliv under 1900-talet2019Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 179.
    Bergenheim, Åsa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Ågren, KarinUmeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Forum for Studies on Law and Society.
    Forskarhandledares Robusta Råd2008Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 180.
    Bergenheim, Åsa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Åstrand, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Siikavaaralaiset och det möjligas livsvärld2022In: Brevet: ögonblickets rader från pergament till e-post / [ed] Peter Olausson, Möklinta: Gidlunds förlag, 2022, p. 285-313Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 181.
    Berger, Ingela
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Den föraktade friheten: En idéhistorisk analys av några politiska värderingar i öst och väst2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Tal och texter kan innehålla så mycket; både uppenbara budskap och det som finns mellan raderna. Jag tror att vi kan lära oss mycket genom att ta del av andra människors ord och begrepp. Genom de begrepp vi använder uttrycker vi våra värderingar – det vi ser som bra och dåligt, viktigt och oviktigt. Människor i Västvärlden har genom historien generellt representerat ett idéarv som kan sägas vara specifikt för just Västvärlden. Ett sätt att tänka, se och tolka världen, som skiljer sig från människor i Öst. Annorlunda i Östs ögon. Och i Västs ögon är det Öst som är annorlunda. Där har man i generationer istället formulerat och omfamnat andra sätt att tänka, se och tolka världen. Ingen av dessa diskurser har förstås något självklart tolkningsföreträde och ingen kan ensam göra anspråk på sanningen. Men en tydlig konflikt existerar mellan de olika världsbilderna. Och den blir synlig bland annat i valen av ord och begrepp. Ord som frihet, framsteg, lydnad och rättvisa kan skapa olika associationer hos människor i Öst och Väst. Bakom orden och begreppen döljer sig de värderingar som är förhärskande i respektive diskurs. Jag har tittat närmare på några sådana värderingar för att se om de kan ge svar på frågor om orsakerna till konflikterna mellan Öst och Väst. Jag har härlett dessa värderingar bakåt i tiden för att komma åt de idéarv som två av diskurserna bygger på. Det är två diskurser med djupa rötter i historien – till synes oförenliga. Båda säger sig ha det rätta perspektivet och ofta även lösningar på världens problem. Men de tycks tala förbi varandra och se på varandra genom ett slags filter av fördomar, förutfattade meningar och oförsonlighet. När jag zoomat in några av dessa diskursers företrädare har jag sett att de båda diskurserna går att förstå och förklara genom att tillämpa teorier från idéhistorien.

    Jag har med hjälp av teorier om orientalism och occidentalism velat sätta fokus på politiska hållningar som kan uppfattas som ”extrema” och till synes liberala uppfattningar. Men vad är egentligen vad? Kan Usama Bin Laden hylla kärleken? Kan Tony Blair kräva lydnad?

    Det är angeläget att söka förståelse för de historiska sammanhang som ofta förblir outtalade eller ensidiga men som har betydelse för vår samtid. Jag är intresserad av hur Väst och Öst talar till och förhåller sig till varandra, med varandra och mot varandra. Med denna uppsats hoppas jag kunna bidra till lite större klarhet och insikt i den språkförbistring som orsakar konflikter i världen.

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  • 182.
    Berggren, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Blodets renhet: En historisk studie av svensk antisemitism2014Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vad är antisemitism? Hur har tanken om en judisk världskonspiration som strävar efter världsherravälde uppstått och kunnat få gehör?Vilken politisk funktion har antisemitismen haft, och hur harantisemitismen legitimerats?Lena Berggren beskriver här den svenska antisemitismen under mellankrigstiden och krigsåren med fokus på dess mer uttalade och hatiska former. I boken undersöks bland annat hur denna antisemitism var relaterad till den svenska nazismen, både idémässigt och organisatoriskt. Undersökningen består av två delstudier som behandlar skribenten Elof Eriksson respektive idémiljön inom Samfundet Manhem.Elof Eriksson började sin bana som framstående organisatör inom den politiska bonderörelsen men kom efter att han 1921 lämnat denna att bli allt skarpare i sin antisemitism. Eriksson blev aldrig nazist utan utvecklade ett slags politisk antisemitism som vilade på en antidemokratisk och antimodernistisk grund, men han rörde sig delvis i samma miljöer som de svenska nazisterna. Efterhand utvecklade Eriksson även en rasmystiskt präglad antisemitism som kopplade samman ras och religion och därmed gav antisemitismen gudomlig sanktion.Samfundet Manhem grundades 1934 och hade det uttalade syftet att fungera som en bildningsmiljö och en mötesplats för den så kallade nationella rörelsen, där såväl nazister som andra antidemokratiska ultranationalister ingick. Grov, konspiratorisk antisemitism fanns som ett genomgående och viktigt tema inom samfundet. Men där antisemitismen hos Elof Eriksson efterhand utvecklades till ett mål i sig fungerade den inom Samfundet Manhem som ett medel för att uppnå en i grunden fascistisk politisk vision om ett framtida perfekt samhälle. Den enda vägen för att uppnå detta tillstånd av samhällelig och mänsklig perfektion var att slå vakt om nationens, rasens och blodets renhet, men för att detta skulle lyckas måste hotet från den så kallade judiska världskonspirationen avslöjas och besegras.

  • 183.
    Berggren, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Completing the Lutheran Reformation: Ultra-nationalism, Christianity and the Possibility of 'Clerical Fascism' in Interwar Sweden2008In: Clerical Fascism in Interwar Europe / [ed] Matthew Feldman and Marius Turda with Tudor Georgescu, Abingdon, Oxon & New York: Routledge, 2008, p. 91-102Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 184.
    Berggren, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Fascismen är långt ifrån död: efterord2017In: Vad är egentligen fascism? / [ed] Kalle Johansson, Verbal , 2017, , p. 5p. 49-53Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 185.
    Berggren, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Fascismens återkomst2017In: Västerbottens-Kuriren, ISSN 1104-0246, , p. 3Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 186.
    Berggren, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Intellectual Fascism: Per Engdahl and the Formation of 'New-Swedish Socialism'2014In: Fascism: Journal of Comparative Fascist Studies, ISSN 2211-6249, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 69-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of this article is the ideological formation of so called ‘New-Swedish Socialism’, an indigenous form of fascist thought formulated by the Swedish ideologue Per Engdahl (1909–1994) in the early 1930s. New-Swedish Socialism should not be equated with either Italian-styled Fascism or National Socialism, but must be seen as an original form of fascist thought. This fascist variant can be described as comparatively flexible, low-key and intellectual. The present analysis of the formation of New- Swedish Socialism follows the model for ideological analysis suggested by the British political scientist Michael Freeden. Freeden’s analytical mode defines an ideology in terms of a core cluster of interrelated and ineliminable political concepts which are essentially contestable. Starting from a definition of generic fascism and using the core concepts that can be identified from this definition, the presence, de-contestation and interrelatedness of these core concepts within New-Swedish Socialism is studied and analyzed. This article addresses whether New-Swedish Socialism can correctly be labelled fascist as well as capturing its special character as a fascist variant in its own right. The study has been limited to the ideological formation process in the early and mid-1930s but Engdahl remained an important influence on Swedish as well as European fascism throughout his life.

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  • 187.
    Berggren, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Tankar om vita privilegier, tårtor och svensk rasism2017Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 188.
    Berggren, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Ultra-nationalists movements in inter-war Sweden2010In: Medicine under ideological preassure: Swedish-German contacts in medicine during 1933-1945 / [ed] Peter M Nilsson, Nils Hansson, Gunnar Broberg, Lund: Enheten för medicinens historia, Lunds universitet , 2010, p. 19-28Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 189.
    Berggren, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Völkisch thought in Sweden: the Manhem Society and the quest for national enlightenment 1934-442013In: Nordic ideology between religion and scholarship / [ed] Horst Junginger, Andreas Åkerlund, Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang Publishing Group, 2013, p. 153-168Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 190.
    Berggren, Pernilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Gudspronomen i relation till individers gudsrepresentation2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay contains own collected material wherein seven religious women are interviewed. Theprincipal focus in this work is about god pronoun in relation to a social constructionist analyticalframe circling around androcentric language. In the research overview and in the theory section ofthis work you can find the feminist and social constructionist theories that represents thegroundwork of this essay. "To name god with masculine pronoun influence individuals and theirgodrepresentation" is my main hypothesis of this work. The social constructionist analytical frameof pronoun the interviewed women use proves my feminist point of view that androcentric languagepermeate the interviewing persons speech about god and their god representation.

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  • 191.
    Bergh, Jesper
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Den svenska nordkusten i söder: Styret av de nya besittningarna åren efter den westfaliska freden2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 192.
    Bergkvist, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Resande genom historien: Framställningen av romer i grundskolans läroböcker för historia mellan åren 1964–20142020Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this essay is to analyze the portrayal of the Romani people in 23 history textbooks marketed towards the Swedish lower secondary school between the years 1964–2014, but also which uses of history emerge from within these descriptions. During this period, the curriculum has passed through five different stages with varying approaches towards ethnic minorities. The method used to compare different textbooks, passages and time-periods was a qualitative and comparative content analysis based on a model by Professor Lennart Hellspong. This was supported by a theoretical framework focused around the typologies of uses of history by Professor Klas-Göran Karlsson.

    The findings show that Romani people are portrayed in similar themes or contexts over different curriculum-stages and many of the written passages focuses on the victimization and mistreatment of Romani by either Swedish or international actors. A comprehensive account of an objective and cultural history is only found in a few of the most current textbooks. The Romani and their history are often overlooked in favor of the majority society’s historical narrative if not a specific duty is charged towards their inclusion in the schools control documents. In the year 2000 the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities was ratified by the Swedish government and the subsequent revision of the curriculum made this inclusion a permanent fixture. However, some textbooks keep minority history brief and unsatisfying. The uses of history regarding Romani people vary over time and appear to be subject to the overarching sociopolitical landscape. An excluding and existential nationalistic narrative is identified to be common during the 1960’s but transforms towards a more including variety over time. Non-use and political-pedagogical use are both partial in varying degrees during all the curriculum-periods coupled with a perceived scientific presentation of historical facts, but not scientific use of history. The current curriculum introduces a widely moral and conciliatory use of history.

    This study confirms earlier research to an extent, but at the same time it extends to focus on the Romani people, a wider variety of books and a longer time-period compared with earlier studies on the subject. The findings open the possibility for future research on other Swedish or international minorities – or the Romani from other methodological or theoretical standpoints.

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  • 193.
    Berglund, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Kunde Descartes gud ha skapat allt på ett sådant sätt att han inte hade existerat?2012In: Filosofisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0348-7482, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 3-7Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 194.
    Berglund, Aron
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    “Det är ju inte som att man byter religion av det!”: En intervjustudie om elevers uppfattning av konfessionell undervisning2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to analyze how students notice and understand confessional and non-confessional teaching, and how they perceive Lived Religion in the classroom. This study uses a Qualitative research method by gathering data through interviews with informants and later analyzing the material by using Englund’s theory Offer of Meaning and McGuire’s concept Lived Religion. The result discloses a non-confessionalism Offer of Meaning, where the teacher has a secular view of religion and conveys that in the classroom. Whereas the students are generally open to the use of more confessional teaching, although the students will not be pressured or forced to do anything with religion.The study also reveals that the students require more Lived Religion in the classroom to observe different views of religion.

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  • 195.
    Berglund, Aron
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Håll ut, håll ut, håll samman: En innehållsanalys av två väckelseföreningar i Piteå2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Målet med denna uppsats är att undersöka två EFS-föreningar som befinner sig i väckelse under 1950-talet. Det som studeras är hur styrelserna i Hortlax och Blåsmarks föreningar uttrycker sin självbild och gudsrelation i de verksamhetsberättelser som skrivs inför och presenteras vid föreningarnas årsmöten. Materialet undersöks med en kvalitativ innehållsanalys. Därefter anläggs Hjalmar Sundéns rollteori för att besvara syftet. Studien kommer fram till att styrelserna ger uttryck för en negativ självbild, som kan ha att göra med synen på människan som fallen. De behöver därför en nära relation med Gud. Resultatet visar även på att bibelorden får en tydlig funktion för styrelsemedlemmarna. Det genom att de sätter sig in i olika roller för att kunna tolka sin situation religiöst. 

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  • 196.
    Berglund, Janica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Efesierbrevet kapitel 1 & 3: En studie av två böner med fullhet πλήρωμα i blickfånget2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 197.
    Berglund, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    "Ett odygdigt leverne": Om Södermalmsupploppet 1719 och glasbrugsgatorna i Katarina församling2010In: Bebyggelsehistorisk tidskrift, ISSN 0349-2834, Vol. 59, p. 28-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

     

    "Ett odygdigt leverne". Om Södermalmsupploppet 1719 och glasbrugsgatorna i Katarina församling

    Under tre på varandra följande kvällar i juli 1719 rasade ett upplopp i ett av Stockholms allra fattigaste områden. Flera hundra personer – huvudsakligen soldater, båtsmän och arbetsfolk från de lägre klasserna – hade samlats för att attackera och förstöra sammantaget elva hus i kvarteren runt Stora och Lilla glasbruksgatan på östra Södermalm. Myndigheternas reaktion under tiden upploppet pågick var avvaktande; endast ett fåtal personer kunde arresteras på plats, men i princip gjordes inga försök att hejda massans framfart. Däremot företogs en grundlig utredning i efterhand där närmare 40 personer dömdes till påfallande hårda straff. Med stor sannolikhet fungerade samtliga av de attackerade husen även som förtäckta krogar och bordeller. Händelserna har gått under benämningen Södermalmsupploppet [övers. the Södermalm Riots].

    Jag har i tidigare studier ställt frågor kring varför upploppet uppstod och varför myndigheterna reagerade som de gjorde. Den här uppsatsen fokuserar istället på de lokala aspekterna och förutsättningarna. Med undantag för upploppets sista dag, då folkmassan drog sig ner till centrala staden, höll sig händelserna inom ett förvånansvärt litet lokalt område; bara ett par kvarter uppe på östra Södermalms otillgängliga bergsknallar drabbades. Området hade exploaterats relativt sent; först från stormaktstidens slut finns gator inritade på kartorna. Och det var under lång tid hårt drabbat av fattigdom, trångboddhet och svåra livsvillkor. Många av kvinnorna tvingades till prostitution, vilket förklarar det stora antalet bordeller i området. Frågan som uppsatsen söker svara på är vilken roll den mycket speciella sociala geografin spelade – både för det vardagliga livet på Glasbruksgatorna och för den extraordinära händelsen som upploppet utgjorde?

    De kala branta klipporna gjorde livet svårt för de boende. Vatten och förnödenheter fick dagligen släpas upp och det var ont om tjänligt byggmaterial. Husen stod tätt med halm- och torvtak och var i allmänhet byggda av trä. Tillgänglighetsproblemen och den förhöjda brandfaran var sannolikt bidragande orsaker till myndigheternas passiva förhållningssätt. Men också det faktum att området befolkades av samhällets allra lägsta sociala skikt kan ha spelat in eftersom upploppet då aldrig hotade den sociala ordningen, åtminstone så länge massan höll sig i kvarteren uppe på bergen. En genomgång av mantalslängderna på Stockholms stadsarkiv visar att det år 1721 ­­– två år efter Södermalmsupploppet – bodde sammantaget 717 personer i de två kvarteren Glasbruket större respektive Glasbruket övre. Könsmässigt dominerade kvinnorna, men området var också mycket barnrikt. Bland de manliga yrkestitlarna var de sjöfartsrelaterade och de militära mest förekommande. Många arbetade vid hamnen. Andra vanliga yrkeskategorier var: biträden, arbetare och gesäller inom handel och hantverk. Men där fanns också ett antal borgare, ofta inflyttade från den finska rikshalvan. Även tjänstefolk var en frekvent kategori.

    Antalet fastigheter i området var 77 stycken (varav några tomter ännu var obebyggda eller låg öde) och antalet hushåll 271. Varje gård fick således inhysa flera familjer. Statistiken störs dock av en fattiggård där hela 46 fattiga, lytta eller åldriga män och kvinnor, indelade på 27 hushåll, bodde gemensamt inom samma gårdsenhet. Med fattighuset borträknat tvingade ändå trångboddheten fram ett genomsnitt på två och en halv familj per fastighet. Fördelningen mellan de två undersökta kvarteren är dock ojämn. I Glasbruket större var familjeenheterna fler och trångboddheten betydligt större än i det övre kvarteret.

    Den utbredda prostitutionen i området, i förening med just trångboddheten, bör i praktiken ha inneburit mycket stora problem – inte minst med tanke på barnrikedomen – då den offentliga sexhandeln tvingades göra intrång på den privata familjesfären område. När myndigheterna inte ingrep fick de boende själva gå ut på gatorna och, i ett våldsamt upplopp riktat mot kvartersbordellerna, göra upp med problematiken. Synsättet möjliggör en tolkning där den lokala förankringen var avgörande för händelseutvecklingen. Men också där trångboddheten både var en bidragande bakomliggande orsak till upploppet och till det hastigt expansiva förloppet på grund av möjligheten till snabb ryktesspridning och till folkmassans rekrytering.

  • 198.
    Berglund, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Stockholms universitet.
    Food riots in nineteenth-century Sweden2014In: Gender in urban Europe: sites of political activity and citizenship, 1750-1900 / [ed] Krista Cowman, Nina Javette Koefoed, Åsa Karlsson Sjögren, Routledge, 2014, Vol. 19, p. 93-107Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 199.
    Berglund, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Gender perspectives on preindustrial urban crowds, 1700–1850:  2010In: City & Society in European History: 10th International Conference on Urban History, 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper I discuss the violent crowd in a historical gender perspective. The starting point is a study of eight riots and about thirty small-scale street fights in Stockholm 1700–1850. Historical studies of crowds and riots are well rooted in the breakthrough of social historical research in the 1960s with George Rudé and E. P. Thompson as innovative pioneers. Although the genre has grown wide, there is still a lack of gender perspective in the field; in particular, female participation in violent masses has tended to be neglected in research.

    Studies of open violent conflict from a gender perspective have a three-fold purpose: Firstly, to highlight women as active participants; secondly to study the social and political power structures; and thirdly to study the historical changes of these structures.

    The judicial sources from the trials on the popular riots rarely present women as individuals. Women are seldom mentioned by name, and professions or titles or other socioeconomic markers are often difficult to determine. Among those who went to trial – as witnesses or defendants – men were by far the most dominant gender category. So is also the case of my study of preindustrial unrest in Stockholm. Women appear infrequently in the material, and the tendency for the lack of women seems also be strengthen in the later part of the studied period. Towards the middle of the nineteenth century, we hardly see any women at all in the material. However, by generalizing from those women who still are found in the sources, and additionally by using complementary sources, we can detect not only that women regularly were in the masses, but also that they often had different roles than men.

    In everyday city life political structures and power structures are usually hidden, both for the historical actors and for the contemporary historian. But when social conflicts arise – for example in riots or insurrections – these structures will come up to the surface, and through exposure to external influences they can be changed. At the same time, they will also become available for historical research.

    In my studies, based on urban riots, I have been able to follow an early democratization-process well before the democratic breakthrough and the implementation of universal suffrage. It is a story that begins in a patriarchal society of privilege, and ends in a society based on a democratic view of the world, in which freedom of opinion, freedom of the press and the rule of law were among the bywords. Historiographicly, this is a development that has been described based on ideas coming from the upper layers of society, and which was largely implemented by politicians, statesmen, or other influential groups of male actors. My study, however, shows that democratization was also a process from below – made by the people ­– where the female involvement was both a necessary and central factor. It was not the violence per se that contributed to democratization, but the open violent conflict displays the process. Women's participation in the violent crowds in the streets of Stockholm shows that women in fact had an active part in the democratic process.

  • 200.
    Berglund, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Råkurr: Konfliken mellan den liberala oppositionen och kungamakten under första halvan av 1800-talet2010In: Familjen Bernadotte: Kungligheter och människor / [ed] Ingvar von Malmborg, Stockholm: Riksarkivet , 2010, p. 92-109Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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