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  • 151.
    Berrette, Gilberson
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Farah, Sharmake
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Ständiga förbättringar för små tillverkande företag - Fallstudie på Tobo Component AB2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 152.
    Björelind, Karl
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics.
    Malmberg, Simon
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics.
    Arbetsmetodik för effektivisering av intern materialförsörjning2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Handling of materials sets different requirements depending on its characteristics. In order to meet internal demands of high delivery service at a low cost, it is important to design an effective supply of materials. New technology and the application of IT-systems can provide opportunities to streamline materials supply by increasing service levels and reducing costs.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to design and evaluate a working methodology in order to achieve effective internal supply of materials from goods receipt to production.

    Methods: A theoretical framework formed the basis to identify significant areas to achieve effective internal materials supply. In parallel, a case study was conducted at a company operating in the elevator industry. Data collection was primarily based on different types of interviews and observations to create an understanding of the company´s materials supply. The data obtained were mainly compared with the theoretical framework in the analysis phase of the developed working methodology. Conclusions was drawn, based on the analysis phase. Ethical aspects were taken into account throughout the work of this study.

    The developed working methodology: Based on significant identified areas, from the theoretical framework, a working methodology was developed to achieve effective internal materials supply, consisting of six phases: Prerequisites, Description of the current situation, Analysis of the current situation, Design of improvement proposals, Implementation and Follow-up. Four of these phases were applied on a company with the aim of designing improvements proposals with the potential to achieve effective internal materials supply. Finally, the applied phases of the working methodology were evaluated to highlight its strengths, challenges and possibilities of development as well as the further application.

    Conclusion: The significant areas and other supportive digital solutions were not considered sufficient enough to generate effective internal materials supply and thereby there was a necessity for an organized approach to utilize these areas. In order to support this, complements were required in form of a working methodology with a number of structured phases, including important considerations, which must be followed methodically in order to design improvement proposals which can achieve a more effective internal materials supply. The improvement proposals that were designed included, for instance, a new procedure for materials call-off, new principles for buffers, reduction of internal transports and automatic suggestion of place of storage.

  • 153.
    Björinder, Elin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Ekegårdh, Adeline
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Förebyggande åtgärder för att försäkra en god luftkvalitet i samband med exploatering2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Luftföroreningar är ett växande problem i urbana miljöer på grund av förändrad markanvändning och förtätning av städer. Den huvudsakliga utsläppskällan till luftföroreningar i stadsmiljö är biltrafiken, som bland annat bidrar till höjda halter av luftburna partiklar och kvävedioxid (NO2) i luften. Dessa två luftföroreningar har stor påverkan på människors hälsa. För att reducera överskridande miljökvalitetsnormer, kan kommuner tvingas ta fram åtgärdsprogram. Syftet med denna studie var att påvisa effektiviteten av att införa så kallade förebyggande åtgärder i samband med exploateringsprojekt, oavsett om ett område riskerar att överskrida miljökvalitetsnormerna eller inte, för att på så sätt skapa en bättre luftkvalitet. För att visa på hur förebyggande åtgärder kan se ut i en tätort har exempelområdet Bomhus i Gävle använts där Gävle kommun har för avsikt att utveckla ett område med bostäder och vägar (se figur 1 för det avgränsade området).

    Metoden för denna studie har varit en litteraturstudie och två framtida scenarioanalyser, vilka inkluderar gestaltningsförslag. Litteraturstudien grundar sig i vetenskapliga artiklar, åtgärdsprogram, examensarbeten och myndighetsrapporter, där åtgärder för att reducera halter av partiklar och kvävedioxid undersöktes. Vi har sedan baserat antaganden av framtida scenarioanalyser på litteraturstudien. Åtgärderna har analyserats och kvantifierats för att sedan redovisa konkreta, realistiska och kostnadseffektiva förebyggande åtgärder i exempelområdet Bomhus. Framtagandet av kvantifieringar på luftkvalitetsvärden och åtgärder har legat till grund för att beräkna de samhällsekonomiska kostnaderna i samband med exploatering. För att visualisera förslag på förebyggande åtgärder skapades ett gestaltningsförslag.

    Resultatet visade på att införande av förebyggande åtgärder i exempelområdet Bomhus i Gävle kan bidra till en förbättrad luftkvalitet. Alla åtgärder kunde inte kvantifieras, men litteraturstudiens resultat visade på att tidigare framtagna åtgärder har gett en minskning av luftföroreningar, vilket antas göra detsamma även i Bomhus. Utifrån resultatet anser vi att analysen av införandet av förebyggande åtgärder utgör stor vikt i planeringsprocessen och bör tas fram av kommuner och byggherrar i ett tidigt skede i stadsplaneringen, eftersom att kostnader kan bli stora om luftföroreningarna ökar, oavsett halt. Kommuner ska med hjälp av kostnadsanalyser kunna bedöma om förebyggande åtgärder är samhällsekonomiskt effektiva att tillämpa i en tätort.

  • 154.
    Björklund, Elina
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics.
    Gimström, Nina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics.
    Effektivitetsförbättringar i interna serviceprocesser: En fallstudie inom massa- och pappersindustrin2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Effective and reliable delivery of services provides long-term performance to an organization. Inorder to create effective and reliable deliveries, activities that do not create value for the customer,namely the wastes, need to be reduced or eliminated. Value Stream mapping is a Leanmanagement tool that aims to clean processes from the wastes. With this as a starting point, studieshave previously been conducted to customize the tool for use on service processes. The studyresulted in Service value stream management, a model implemented in six steps. When the modelis applied in service processes, there is a wide variety of problems that may occur, it is therefore considered not possible to collect all problems in order to provide suggestions for improvements.

    This study aims to investigate whether the tool can be modified to better suit an internal serviceprocess in the pulp and paper industry. The literature review that has been conducted, revealedthat the existing model does not contain certain, according to the theory, important elementsadapted for Lean service. Beside the waste and tools that the model already consists of, fourrelevant wastes and twelve tools were found during the literature review. Other interestingcomponents that emerged through the literature review, were the views of what an organizationshould learn about and how successes should be measured. In order to fulfill the purpose of ourstudy, the Lean tool Service value stream management, was tested with the additions found duringthe literature review. The test was conducted at an internal service process at a case company tosee if there is evidence to add or remove some of the new wastes, tools or components to themodel. At the case company, data was collected through interviews and observations as well asthrough a survey. The study resulted in the 5K-model which consists five steps to eliminate andreduce wastes. With this model, organizations in the pulp and paper industry should be able tocreate higher efficiency in their internal service processes. To visualize and measure efficiency, amathematical formula was developed that could be considered useful even outside the 5K model.

  • 155.
    Björklund, Emil
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Uppdatering av den svenska nationella höjdmodellen: Förutsättningar för att använda mobil laserskanning2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this study the prerequisites for using data collected using mobile laser scanning are investigated for updating the Swedish national elevation model. In 2016, the Swedish Transport Administration started a project where information from the road network is collected with mobile laser scanning. The National Land Survey of Sweden has gained access to data from this project and wants to investigate the possibilities of using data from mobile laser scanning to update the national elevation model.

    The prerequisites for using data from mobile laser scanning to update the national elevation model is investigated by examining the deviation against measured control points, comparing height deviation between data from the national elevation model and mobile scanned laser data, as well as studying the distribution and completeness of data from the mobile laser scan is compared to the changed areas it is supposed to replace.

    The result shows a low deviation in height to the control points of 1.2 centimeter in mean deviation. The grid comparison also shows a low deviation in height, mean deviation -2.4 cm. The classification of the point cloud from mobile laser scanning shows problems in dense vegetation where there are no returns from the ground, which, along with restrictions on the spread of mobile laser scanning, impose restrictions on areas that can be updated. It is primarily the lack of ground points in the point cloud and that the point cloud does not fully cover the changed areas that limit the ability to use data from mobile laser scanning to update the National Elevation Model.

  • 156.
    Björklund, Jesper
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Svensson, Mischa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Webbapplikation för utsättning och registrering av fågelholkar med hjälp av multikriterieanalys2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    På grund av kalhuggning har förutsättningen förändrats förhålboende fåglar. Bohålsbristen går att åtgärda med placering av nya fågelholkar. Genom att använda GIS går det att strategiskt välja de bästa områdena att sätta ut nya fågelholkar. Med hjälp av crowdsourcing och mobiltelefoner går det kartlägga holkarna som kan användas som underlag för nyplacering eller som hjälp för analys som t.ex. arters spridning. Studien visar hur man kan erhålla ett system för multikriterieanalys i realtid online för mobiltelefoner som utnyttjar crowdsourcing och öppna standarder. PostGIS, Leaflet, Geoserver, PyWPS, GRASS GIS har använts för att uppfylla kraven på prototypen. Tidsåtgången av detta system utvärderades genom att mäta tiden för utförande av algoritmen och tiden för förfrågan till utritningen av resultatet. Resultatet visar att det är möjligt att utföra multikriterieanalyser på kort tid som är acceptabel för användare av smarta mobiltelefoner på fält och att det går att urskilja närliggande fågelholkar. Denna metod skulle kunna anpassas för liknande scenarion.

  • 157.
    Björklund, Leo
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Kommunernas prissättning av kommunal mark vid markanvisningar för bostäder: En granskning av Gävle kommun och Stockholm kommun2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden is currently suffering from a major shortage of housing because the number of houses can’t satisfy the demand. To solve the problem more houses needs to be built. In the first half of 2016 approximately 21 000 new houses were built and another 28 000 got started. Before the builders can start the construction of the new houses, there need to be suitable land to build on.

    The municipalities own a large part of the land that is suitable for residential purposes, which means that the builder often are dependant on municipal land. All municipalities who answered the question, in the 2016 housing market survey, if they own suitable land for housing replied “Yes”.

    There are three main questions that will be answered in this paper:

    A. How do the municipalities price land for the construciton of apartmentbuildnings?

    B. How does quality requirements affect the land price and how are theserequirements checked by the municipality?

    C. How does the land price differ between bid and fixed priced landallocations?

    To answer these questions a few different methods have been used. The first method was to review the municipal policy for land allocation which they are requeired by law to have. There were also a review done of land allocation agreements, some that were sold by bid and some that were sold with a fixed price. Finally interviews were performed with questions based on the previously done reviews.

    Through the methods performed, the questions were answered. Both municipalities gives the land a value of SEK/sqm gross area where basements and cold areas are excluded. One difference is that Gävle uses external valuators while Stockholm has two internal units that performs the valuations of the land.

    This work showed that neither of the municipalies have a clear method of following up on the quality requirements. During the interviews it was explained that most of the requirements were tied to the building permits validity.

    The review of the land allocation agreements showed that 4 out of 5 land allocations that were made by bid were priced higher then thoose with a fixed price. It may therefore be of interest to further investigate the question.

  • 158.
    Björn, Cornelia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Sjöström, Elina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Fastighetsvärdering i Sverige och i Spanien: En jämförande studie om fastighetsvärdering2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Property valuation is executed by real estate brokers or property valuaters before selling, mortgage, inheritance, divorce, etc. Different methods can be used when determing a market value depending on what kind of object it is. When valuating houses, the most common method in Sweden is called “ortsprismetoden”, which compares similar objects to the object that’s being valuated. The most important valuation factor is the location, and has to be considered when deciding the properties value. Other important factors are the properties condition, standard, orientation and if it’s close to water. These factors that enhance the value, the metods that conclude the value and the laws attached to properties could be different in Sweden and in Spain.

    This study manage how the valuation process is executed in Sweden and in Spain. The countries were chosen based on that it historically have been very popular for Swedes to invest in properties, mainly vacation homes, in Spain. The knowledge about how a market value developes, how the selling/buying process works in Spain is rather limited, therefore this study is important for people who wants to invest in a Spanish property. Without the understandig of the property market, the dream of a perfect vacation home could result in a bad purchase. This study could contribute to a successful purchase by contributing knowledge about the property valuating process, how a market value is determend and what factors increse the value.

    nterviews were executed with real estate brokers and property valuaters in both Sweden and Spain to provide valuable answers to the questions asked in this study. This resulted in both expected and unexpected answers. In some aspects the valuation process were very similar between the countries, but in other aspects there were some major differences that could be discussed. The biggest difference were if the real estate brokers needed a licens to value property or not. In Sweden the broker needs education to get a licens, while in Spain the licens could be bought. Other differences were the selling/buying aspects and what the most important valuation factors were.

  • 159.
    Blanco-Portela, Norka
    et al.
    Department of Environmental Management, Universitaria Agustiniana, Colombia.
    Benayas, Javier
    Department of Ecology, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Spain.
    Pertierra, Luis R.
    Department of Biology, Geology, Physics and Chemistry, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Spain.
    Lozano, Rodrigo
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. Organisational Sustainability, Ltd., Cardiff, UK.
    Towards the integration of sustainability in Higher Education Institutions: a review of drivers of and barriers to organisational change and their comparison against those found of companies2017In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 166, p. 563-578Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, there have been a considerable number of efforts to integrate sustainability into Higher Education Institutions (HEIs); however, there are still challenges that need to be overcome. A process that has received an increasing attention has been the Organisational Change Management for Sustainability. This article is aimed at reviewing the main drivers of the integration of sustainable practices and the barriers to change slowing or stopping it. A systematic literature review was carried out using Web of Science de Thomson Reuters and in Scopus databases focusing on retrieving all papers on sustainability in HEIs published between 2000 and 2016. The drivers of and barriers found for the integration of sustainability in HEIs were compared to those previously described for companies. The similarities on drivers to change found in HEIs and companies were greater for external ones. A lower number of barriers to change were reported in the literature for HEIs than those reported for corporations, nonetheless, it was found that HEIs and companies have several common barriers to change. The article proposes a list of main drivers of and barriers to change, some general and others context specific. The findings on the drivers of the integration of sustainable practices in HEIs can serve to identify additional good practices at companies and vice versa. The barriers to change detected for the process of integration can help into anticipating, preventing and overcoming them. This knowledge can help institutions better plan and use their resources in working to becoming more sustainable.

  • 160.
    Blanco-Portela, Norka
    et al.
    Department of Environmental Faculty of Engineering, Universidad EAN, Bogotá, Colombia.
    R-Pertierra, Luis
    Department of Biogeography and Global Change, National Museum of Natural Sciences, Madrid, Spain.
    Benayas, Javier
    Department of Ecology, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
    Lozano, Rodrigo
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Sustainability Leaders’ Perceptions on the Drivers for and the Barriers to the Integration of Sustainability in Latin American Higher Education Institutions2018In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, no 8, article id 2954Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Higher education institutions (HEIs) have been steadily progressing towards the integrationof sustainable practices in their structures and operations. Several studies have reported the varietyof drivers of change and the barriers to change that universities have found in the integrationprocess. The present investigation is aimed at further characterizing and ranking the drivers for,and barriers of, sustainability integration in HEIs within their structures and operating functions.Open-ended expert opinion interviews of key sustainability leaders appointed at 45 HEIs from10 Latin-American countries were conducted in order to learn lessons from their diverse experiencesof the process. Additionally, a thematic workshop on HEI sustainability was organized to facilitatefurther discussions between 23 sustainability scholars and/or national coordinators of universitynetworks from 11 Latin American countries. As a result, 15 barriers were identified as hinderingthe institutionalization of sustainability in HEIs. This study also examined the relationship betweenthese reported barriers with 13 main drivers that were identified to be facilitating the integration ofsustainable practices within the organizational and academic structures at the universities. The strongcorrespondence between the several observed drivers for, and barriers to, change highlights theimportance of strategic planning that offers integrated actions. The findings of this paper can serveas a reference to assist HEIs in identifying drivers of, and barriers to, sustainability, so that the formercan be fostered and the latter addressed effectively. This can help identify and plan targeted actionsto make the transition towards sustainability in HEIs more natural and effective.

  • 161.
    Blom, Jonas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics.
    Optimizing spare-parts management2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Purpose:

    The purpose of the study is to develop a model that will facilitate the choice of maintenance strategy within the Swedish pulp and paper industry. Without compromising system availability, the model aims to reduce inventory holding costs.

    Methodology:

    At first, a literary research was conducted to create a holistic view over the chosen topic, in time it developed into a literature framework. Secondly, a case study was conducted in order to obtain empirical data. The data were obtained through interviews and archival records. The literature framework and the empirical data were then cross-analyzed with each other.

    Findings:

    In this thesis, a model has been developed based on previously applied and accepted methods. The methods have been identified and described in order to provide a strategy in which the inventory levels- and value could be lowered. The findings indicate that the organization must seek to assign ABC-classified and VED-analyzed components different maintenance actions in order to reduce the total cost.

    Theoretical contribution:

    This thesis contributes to a methodology development regarding spare parts management. It aims to add knowledge to the existing gap regarding spare parts order point and batch size. The thesis provides a procedure in which systems including critical and expensive components are evaluated in order to assign them the appropriate maintenance.

    Practical relevance:

    The model has only been exemplified by using a system position from Stora Enso Skutskär, the numerical values are examples. The model must be tested with real values and the risk analysis must be carried out with a group of employees with great insight regarding the selected component and system position.

    Limitations:

    This thesis is delimited to spare parts management and inventory management. The study only involves one Swedish organization, whereas the organization and its spare parts management illustrates the complexity concerning spares. The model will not be verified as the focus is to highlight the research gap and to develop the model.

  • 162.
    Blomberg, Andreas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Utvärdering av mätosäkerheten vid georeferering med UAS och Post Processed Kinematic-GNSS2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    UAS has been become a very popular tool in surveying and evaluation of the systems measurement uncertainties are necessary. The most common method for georeferencing UAS data is to use ground control points (GCP) in order to use them in block adjustment. In recent years’ new techniques for direct georeferencing with UAS have been presented, which in theory means that the position of the UAS can be determined accurately enough and therefore GCP’s can be excluded. This study evaluates  uncertainties of the UAS Freya from SmartPlanes that don’t need GCP’s for georeferencing. The technique applied in the evaluation is based on Post Processed Kinematic (PPK) for coordinate determination of the UAS, which means that the collected GNSS data can be post processed using a reference station.   The test area was a 280 x 320 m block in the north end of Gävle airport, Sweden. Each flight is conducted in two orthogonal blocks and evaluated in three different ways against the 16 GCP. The altitude was about 90 m for all flights. The uncertainty of the PPK-technique is tested and evaluated with three different methods to ensure both accuracy and potential use. In total five flights were assessed and evaluated with Agisoft PhotoScan against 16 GCP spread over the area. The position of each GCP’s was determined with four independent network RTK measurements.  The results show that the georeferencing with the PPK-technique and block adjustment has potential to meet the uncertainties in level with indirect georeferencing using GCP. The results show very similar planimetric uncertainties, around 0,020 m in RMS, for all evaluations with the PPK-technique. The results of the uncertainty in height is more scattered where the two lowest results in a RMS under 0,015 m and the highest over 0,100 m for the difference against the 16 GCP.  It is possible to achieve low uncertainties with the method without the use of GCP. For areas where establishment of GCP is not possible, using UAS equipped with PPKtechnology provides a very suitable alternative to use. The results show relatively large differences between the evaluations and in order to determine the exact cause of them, further studies are required.

  • 163.
    Blomdahl, Kajsa
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Nyman, Johanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Gatukostnadsersättning som värdeåterförande medel: Kommuners tillämpning och tillkommande effekter2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Real property values rises when increased building rights and subdivision is enabled through land development. New infrastructure enables greater accessibility which also leads to increased real property values. Development of the land implies that the municipality has a duty to build public places. The municipality has the possibility of compensation for the expenses if the developer or real property owner is deemed to have benefits of the construction. Street expenses can be used to capture the increased land value when land is developed. The aim of this study was to describe how municipalities employed the street expenses as a value capturing instrument and the effects that arose. As a method semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with experts in land development from seven municipalities in the region of Stockholm. The results showed that municipalities employed streets expenses through development agreement or land use agreements to a greater extent than street expense investigations. Agreements were easier to use than street expense investigations. Street expenses were used to capture an increased value. The compensation must be related to the use of the street. Charges for street expenses were relatively similar for all instruments. Arising effects was that the process was long and costly and there was a financial risk for the municipality. Street expenses led to a good economy for the municipalities and satisfied inhabitants.

  • 164.
    Blomfeldt, Kristoffer
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Jönsson, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Allmänhetens involvering i planeringsprocessen: En studie av två olika metoder för gatuundersökningar2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It might seem obvious that public opinions should be included in the planning process. However, it is not clear to what extent. Statutory forms of public participation attract little interest since many people feel that it is hard to make a difference. The purpose of this study was to engage those that normally do not get to speak their mind in the planning process. In this study, two methods for conducting “on-street surveys” were investigated. The place for the “on-street surveys” was Centralplan in Gävle. The two methods had different approaches. The “Stationary” method was a structured interview of pedestrians who had just crossed Centralplan. The “Follower” method was a structured interview that took place as the administrator and the participant crossed Centralplan in tandem. A total of 40 “Stationary” and 22 “Follower” interviews were conducted. The majority of the participants responded positively on making themselves heard within the planning process, indicating that they have important views to share. The methods used in this study can serve as an icebreaker for communication between planners and the public.

  • 165.
    Blomkvist, Jacob
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Centrumutveckling i en småstad: Förbättrad social hållbarhet i Smedjebacken2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Many small municipalities, in contrast to larger centers, struggle to offer natural social venues in their neighborhoods. As people choose larger cities for social gatherings, smaller city centers becoming depopulated and in turn they lose their necessary demand to sustain social meeting places. The purpose of this work is to see what small towns can do to make social spaces more attractive and vibrant and thereby encourage people to participated more in the public realm. This study will focus on Smedjebacken (Sweden) municipality's urban development and present proposals for measures that the municipality can take to become more socially sustainable from a planning perspective.

    The work is much based on Kevin Lynch and Jan Gehl's theories. Where Lynch's scientific strategies see the great perspective of how the city is built and Gehl's ideologies are at a more detailed level where the residents meetings in the city are the primary.

    A case study has been conducted to gather information about past and future strategies concerning Smedjebacken's city center, as well as documents, ideas and views of municipal official and knowledgeable persons through interviews. A Lynch-based observation analysis of central parts of the city was also used. The method is based on theories in Lynch’s The image of the city, Lynch argues that people see five critical elements in cities: paths, edges, districts, nodes and landmarks. This analysis was conducted during two days in Smedjebacken’s city center.

    The results show that Smedjebacken has several improvement points in order to increase the social sustainability in the city center. The city is divided into three major districts and has an incoherent character, which means that the few shops and social venues in the city are dispersed and do not benefit from one another as a result. In order to fuse the core of the city, recommendations based on Jan Gehl's theories are advanced. The key strategy recommended is to create social meetings that encourage residents to visit and participate in their community center.

  • 166.
    Blomqvist, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    3D-visualizations for building interiors in a GIS perspective2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Presented in this work is a visualization in 3D of building interiors. Fields such asfacility management is of interest for this concept. Data that is to be visualized has,unlike most previous GIS, access to the third dimension to describe floors of abuilding in a realistic manner. Tests to determine strengths and weaknesses of 3Dconcepts compared to widely known 2D concepts is being performed. Factors toconsider in visualization theory is taken into context to combine visualization andGIS. The results is expected to have positive effects for users interested in facilitymanagement.

  • 167.
    Blomskog, Stig
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Decision, Risk and Policy Analysis. Södertörns högskola.
    En analys av Arbetsdomstolens arbetsvärdering i ett lönediskrimineringsmål2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I uppsatsen genomförs en formell analys av en arbetsvärdering utförd av Arbetsdomstolen(AD) i samband med ett lönediskrimineringsmål år 2001. I målet bedömde AD att en intensivvårdssjuksköterska och en medicintekniker utförde arbeten som i jämställdhetslagens mening bör betraktas som likvärdiga. AD bedömde dock att arbetsgivaren kunde presentera sakliga skäl för att medicinteknikerna hade en högre lön än intensivvårdssjuksköterskan och därmed förelåg inte lönediskriminering enligt jämställdhetslagens bestämmelser i dess lydelse år 2001. Arbetsvärderingen utgick från de i jämställdhetslagen angivna fyra huvudkriterierna krav på kunskap och förmåga, krav på ansvar, krav på ansträngning samt arbetsförhållanden som AD delade upp 20 olika typer av arbetskrav s k faktorer.

    Resultatet av analysens första huvudfråga är att det som sägs i domskälet ger stöd för att AD tolkar begreppet ‘likvärdigt arbete’ som ett grund-öppet mellanbegrepp, som är vanligt förekommande i juridiska kontexter. Detta innebär, som också AD betonar, att det inte finns någon regel eller metod, som kan tillämpas, utan grunden för beslutet i vilken mån arbetena är likvärdiga måste ytterst baseras på bedömningar. Däremot gäller att följden av beslutet att arbetena är likvärdig är väldefinierad i jämställdhetslagen. Tolkningen tydliggör att en arbetsvärdering ska betraktas som en normativ argumentation för hur lönesättningen bör utformas. Beslutet att arbetena är likvärdiga är m a o inget faktapåstående utan ska betraktas som ett normativt påstående om hur lönen bör sättas.

    I analysens andra huvudfråga identifieras och diskuteras ett antal oklarheter i AD:s argumentation för att arbetena är likvärdiga. Hur ska AD:s jämförelser av arbetena avseende de olika kraven – de partiella värderingarna – tolkas? Hur ska AD:s sammanvägning tolkas? Hur ska AD:s viktning av de olika kraven tolkas? Oklarheterna gör det svårt för utomstående bedömare att ta ställning till AD:s argumentation i arbetsvärderingen.

    En allmän slutsats av analysen är att den oklara terminologin som förekommer i arbetsvärderingen kan undvikas om begrepp och principer som utformats inom ramen för flerdimensionell beslutsteori skulle tillämpas. En korrekt tolkning av centrala begrepp och principer är en viktig förutsättning för att beslutsfattaren ska kunna på ett rationellt sätt reflektera över och argumentera för olika bedömningar och beslut i arbetsvärderingsproceduren.

  • 168.
    Blomskog, Stig
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Decision, Risk and Policy Analysis. Södertörns högskola.
    Invalid weighting in gender-neutral job evaluation tools2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we argue that invalid weighting instructions are recommended in three international gender-neutral job evaluation tools, which are used for correcting for possible gender-biased wage setting at work places. One of the tools is recommended by ILO.

    In these tools the evaluation and the ranking of the jobs at a workplace will be based on an overall assessment of various job-related requirements as skills, responsibility, effort and working condition. The overall assessment will be represented by weighted sum of scales. An essential assumption made in these tools is that the weights assigned to the scales can represent the relative importance of the job-related requirements.

    However, we claim that the weights cannot in a meaningful way say anything about the relative importance of these job-related requirements. We support our claim by a formal reconstruction of a job evaluation tool based on so called Multi-Criteria Decision Making. The implication of the reconstruction is that the weights will play a key role in the basic pay setting of the jobs.

    We further argue that, due to this mistaken interpretation of the weights in the instructions, the user of these tools will likely not realize the close link between the weighting of the job-related requirements and the basic pay setting of the jobs. We therefore conclude that an application of these invalid weighting instruction might hamper the purpose of gender-neutral job evaluation of achieving a rational and genderneutral pay setting at workplaces.

    The paper ends with a recommendation that valid weighting instructions should be developed by means of Multi-Criteria Decision Making.

  • 169.
    Bodell, Annika
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. 820530-7542.
    Challenges with adopting new technology in a firm: A case study of Gimo Tools2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this study is to analyze the implementation of an operating TDM (Tool Data Management) system regarding the implementation process and requirements concerning visibility and traceability.  A second purpose is to analyze how other comparable systems meet the requirements in order to form a recommendation for the focal production unit. For this report a literature study have been carried out, along with interviews for a better understanding about the company. The literature study resulted in a comparison table, a table that show similarities visually since the systems are so much alike. Comparison tables are also created for the automated identification and data collection technology to visually show similarities. From the literature study and the comparison table it was possible to present a result towards Gimo Tools showing how their chosen systems stands in comparison with other similar systems.  The thesis is written towards Gimo Tools to cover their wish regarding visibility and traceability of tools. They had earlier started implementation of a system that should be able to cover their wish in the sense of Industry 4.0. A system that should have the capacity to offer them exactly what they want in visibility and traceability. Unfortunately the implementation did not fall out positively and was stagnant. As the main purpose with this thesis is to analyze how the implementation of an operating TDM (Tool Data Management) system is carried out, regarding the implementation process and how requirements such as visibility and traceability are covered. And how different needs with manufacturing can be covered, Gimo Tools are also given input on the implementation for the chosen system with recommendations. The thesis answer the question which challenges that lies in implementation, with support from the literature and with information from Gimo Tools this study can note to some extent that it is questionable if Gimo Tools knew their own needs before implementation of the system. Some problems detected in the implementation should for example have been identified as potential problems and dealt with before implementation began.   For this thesis several digital systems within the Industry 4.0 field are presented along with technology for automated identification and data collection for the capability of doing a comparison between the system that Gimo Tools have started implemented and other similar systems. The study shows that TDM system, the system that Gimo Tools have chosen for implementation have full capability to meet requirements of Industry 4.0 like real time networking, wireless communication, gathering / sharing data information    and offer both visibility and tracking. With the second purpose of this report being to analyze comparable systems to see how and if they meet the requirements this is covered in this thesis. As the study show that with the ability to collaborate and gather information in real time all presented systems have the ability to cover the needs regarding visibility and traceability set out by Gimo Tools. This is further presented with a comparison table in the thesis.

  • 170.
    Bodell, Annika
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Shaker, Yasmin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Utformning och styrning av lager: Skapande av modell för tillämpning på Sandvik SMT2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Inför detta arbete hade vi en förväntad leverans att utgå ifrån, en stor del av dessa förväntningar låg i att redogöra för användningen av adresserings- och identifieringsteknik inom Sandvik SMT’s (Sandvik Materials Technology, affärsområde inom Sandvik AB) lagerytor. Under arbetets gång har dock strukturen förändrats och denna rapport kom att bygga mer på utformingen och styrningen av ett lager. För att på ett effektfullt sätt visa på, hur ett lager under optimala förhållanden utformas och styrs så tog vi litteraturen till hjälp och utformade en modell som vi sedan använt i vårt arbete. Syftet med detta examensarbete kom därför att handla om att skapa en modell för att utforma och styra lager inom industriell verksamhet.

    Modellen tar upp de faktorer som är viktiga för utformning och styrning av befintliga lagerytor eller nya lagerytor som skapas. Detta medförde att vi kunde tillämpa vår modell på Sandvik SMT utifrån det nuläge som vi identifierat. I denna tillämpning växte förslag fram till Sandvik SMT på hur deras arbete med befintliga lagerytor bör förändras och hur ett standardiserat arbete kan ge positiva effekter i form av ekonomiska vinster.

    Detta arbete visar även på positiva effekter av att flytta vissa specifika lagerytor där användningsfrekvensen är hög, till en mer central placering, de positiva effekterna ses i både kortade körsträckor och ekonomiska vinster. Rapporten behandlar även hur Sandvik SMT med hjälp av automatiserad identifierings och adresseringsteknik, skulle ges bättre förutsättningar att styra befintliga lager. Så att liggtider kortas och material inte förloras på de egna lagerytorna.

  • 171.
    Bogetti, Sam
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Three dimensional modeling for flood communication: an exploratory case study using flood extent data from the Testebo River in Gävle, Sweden2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Residents of high-risk flood areas are often unaware and unprepared for extreme flood events. In order to raise awareness and improve preventative measures, methods of communicating the potential hazards, vulnerabilities, and risks associated with flood events need to enhanced. Geovisualizations that incorporate three-dimensional (3D) models of urban environments are being applied more frequently to improve communication of potential flood events to members of the lay-public. Recent studies suggest that the interactive and explorable environments provided by 3D geovisualization tools allow users to visualize complex geospatial data in a manner that is more easily understood than traditional 2D maps. The aim of this study was to examine the use of a 3D model for the purpose of communicating predicted flood levels in residential areas. An exploratory case study was conducted to construct and evaluate a 3D model of previously calculated data from the Testebo River in Gävle, Sweden. Methods for creating the model were developed with information obtained from in-depth literature reviews, and consultations with GIS professionals. To evaluate the communicative ability of the model, usability tests were conducted on a small sample size of participants. Through these processes, an explorable 3D model that represented the 100-year and highest probable flood scenarios in the residential areas of Varva, Strömsbro, Forsby and Stigslund was created. The results of the usability tests indicated the model was an effective visualization and provided appropriate tools for exploration. Although the study identified some limitations of the model and 3D models in general that should be considered, it also provides a valuable foundation on which to develop further studies of 3D models for flood communication purposes along the Testebo River and in other flood-prone areas. 

  • 172.
    Bolin, Frida
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Hellström, Kristin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Nedlagda järnvägar: Intresse och avveckling för annan markanvändning2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Railways are of major importance in today´s society and it also affects land usebecause land needs to be claimed to form property for railways. In Swedenthere is currently several disused railways that no one manages. This since thebusiness that once was active is no longer existing. The Swedish Transportadministration has the opinion that railways that not are in use today are achallenge to society because maintenance and care is overlooked. The purposeof the study is to investigate whether there is an interest in using the landwhere disused railways are located for other purpose. The study will alsoshow how land use can be changed in the most efficient way. The aim of thestudy is that it will result in new knowledge in the subject and thus contributeto sustainable social development.A literature study has been made to see what was previously written about thesubject. Some of the scientific papers studied indicate that these disusedrailways are not just a challenge in Sweden, there are also a challenge inseveral other countries in the world. As previous literature on the subject islimited, this study is important for contributing new knowledge on thesubject.To find out if there is an interest in using the land and how to change land useeffectively, a research method has been carefully chosen. Qualitativeinterviews have been conducted with experts in the subject, municipalities, anon-profit organization as well as landowners that are affected or have beenaffected by disused railways.The result of the study shows that there is an interest in using disusedrailways, both from a general and an individual point of view. The result hasalso shown that land use change among other things, most effective throughpurchase, property regulation or the formation of a community facilitydepending on land use. The laws applicable are, Land code, Real property lawand construction law.

  • 173.
    Bolin, Pernilla
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Liljebrand, Emma
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Kvalitativa intervjuer för framtagning av metadata och data/geodata: för blåljusaktörer2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Idag har blåljusaktörerna (räddningstjänsten, polismyndigheten och ambulanssjukvården) inte samma kartmaterial att arbeta efter. Detta innebär att de har olika kartbilder att jobba med. Detta skulle kunna lösas med hjälp av ett gemensamt kartstöd och en touch av metadata. Metadata är data om data och blir allt vanligare i datasammanhang. Då data blir mer och mer innehållsrikt och mer komplicerat blir vikten av metadata större. Metadata kan liknas vid en innehållsförteckning till ett examensarbete. Utan innehållsförteckning och rubriker skulle arbetet vara svårt att läsa igenom.  Metadata hjälper bl.a. till så vi kan dela datamängder men ser också till att data hålls uppdaterat. Data och geodata kan användas utan metadata men med den fås en beskrivning av hur aktuell data är, vilka rättigheter vi har att använda den o.s.v. Syftet med studien var att få fram det geodata och metadata som blåljusaktörerna har gemensamt i sin verksamhet. Detta för att underlätta framställandet av en gemensam blåljuskarta, så att aktörerna kan utföra sina uppdrag på ett så tidseffektivt sätt som möjligt. Genom intervjuer med de tre blåljusaktörerna fick vi reda på vilka data/geodata varje aktör har av intresse. Genom att jämföra aktörernas svar med varandra lyckades gemensamma geodata som cykelbanor och husnummer lokaliseras. Ur geodata kunde sedan metadata som, uppdatering, entrésida m.fl. extraheras.

  • 174.
    Bolsöy, Alfred
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics.
    Thelin, Marcus
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics.
    Håkansson, Nils
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics.
    Lageromsättning i EMS-branschen: En fallstudie om kund- och leverantörsförhållanden2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Most producing companies aim to reduce tied up capital, which is meant to increase inventory turnover. In this study, an EMS (Electronic manufacturing service) -company, a contract manufacturer, will be studied. The company does not own the products themselves, but is a service company that manufactures to customers. The business has a problem that existed for a long period of time, they have a low inventory turnover among their component inventory. The company therefore wants to increase its inventory turnover in order to reduce its tied-up capital. The aim is to develop knowledge about supplier and customer relationships that affect the stock turnover rate in component stocks. In order to make calculations, it is profitable for the company to order materials multiple times for increased inventory turnover or fewer times to keep down the order cost. Case study is based on qualitative data in the form of interviews and observations. A large part of this study is also based on quantitative data from the company's MRP (material requirements planning) system. The literature is based on articles that deals with key concepts such as EOQ (economic order quantity), customer and supplier relationships. The conclusion of this study suggests that the company should use EOQ to reduce overall order cost while reducing the tied-up capital.

  • 175.
    Bomark, Mikael
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Berg, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    En marknadsjämförelse mellan logistik och andra industrifastigheter2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this dissertation is to do a market comparison between logistic and other industrial property from the perspective of investment risk, mortgage rate, yield, leases and the importance of location. Interviews were carried out with representatives from six segments which are logistic property owning logistic companies/investors, companies owning property of industrial- warehouse or production, assessment institutes/banks, property brokers, logistic companies and logistic development organization/property developers. The interviews were conducted between the 17 of April and the 8 of May 2015. Logistic property is in general seen as a better and safer investment than other industrial property in the banks point of view. Other industrial property can be many other kinds of property such as tire storage, sawmill, industrial production which can be high risk investment and have worse alternative usage than logistic property, although logistic property and industrial warehouses does not differ very much compared to industrial production property. The mortgage rate is lower for industrial property than it is for logistic property and the yield is higher which suggests that the general risk is higher for industrial property compared to logistic property. The general opinion of companies who own property for industrial warehouses and production and property brokers is that the banks have high requirements on equity. The banks do not want to mortgage more than 60 % of the property value and often not more than 50 %. The banks do not mortgage to same mortgage rate that they used to do for 7-8 years ago. The market for logistic property is otherwise hot and there are many players who want to enter the market and get logistic property in good locations. Logistic property are now being built on speculation, which combined with low interest rates making it advantageous to invest in property that may lead to increased competition. Due to logistic property is being built on speculation there is a risk of too high rate of establishment in some places in Sweden. The most value-influencing factors of logistics property is location, the lease, and cash flow.

  • 176.
    Borg, Tommy
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Utvärdering av Wordpress: Design och Säkerhet2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Wordpress har använts länge för att bygga webbsidor, från början mest webbsidor där bloggen stod i centrum, men på senare tid även för att bygga mer avancerade webbsidor. Detta är skrivet i första hand för att få ett grepp om vilka fördelar och nackdelar det finns med Wordpress som webbplattform. Dokumentet ska kunna fungera som visst informationsunderlag vid utvecklandet av en Wordpresswebbsida. Dokumentet pekar på problematiken med att ge en kund viss begränsad möjlighet att lägga upp eget material, och ändå försöka säkerställa webbsidans grundkonstruktion och design. Det som gjordes är en Wordpresswebbsida och mall i Wordpress som ska kunna ligga till grund vid utvecklande av nya webbsidor i Wordpress, bägge med en mängd relevanta inlagda plugin, allt för att webbsidan ska ha vissa funktioner som video, bildgallerier, medlemshantering med mera, och en utvärdering om säkerheten i Wordpress.

  • 177.
    Borghero, Cecilia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Feasibility study of dam deformation monitoring in northern Sweden using Sentinel1 SAR interferometry2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Dams are man-made structures that in order to keep functioning and to be considered structurally healthy need constant monitoring. Assessing the deformation of dams can be time consuming and economically costly.

    Recently, the technique of Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) has proved its potential to measure ground and structural deformation. This geodetic method represents a cost-effective way to monitor millimetre-level displacements and can be used as supplemental analysis to detect movements in the structure and its surroundings.

    The objective of this work is to assess the practicality of the method through the analysis of the surface deformation of the Ajaure dam located in northern Sweden, in the period 2014-2017, using the freely available Sentinel-1A images. The scenes, 51 in ascending and 47 in descending mode, were processed exploiting the Persistent Scatterer (PS) technique and deformation trends, and time series were produced.

    Built in the 60’s, the Ajaure embankment dam is considered as high consequence, meaning that a failure would cause socio-economic damages to the communities involved and, for this reason, the dam needs constant attention. So far, a program of automatic measurements in situ has been collecting data, which have been used partly to compare with InSAR results.

    Results of the multi temporal analysis of the limited PS points on/around the dam show that the dam has been subsiding more intensely toward the centre, where maximum values are of approximately 5 ± 1.25 mm/year (descending) and 2 ± 1.27 mm/year (ascending) at different locations (separated of approximately 70 m). Outermost points instead show values within -0.7 and 0.9 mm/year, describing a stable behaviour. The decomposition of the rate has furthermore revealed that the crest in the observation period has laterally moved toward the reservoir.

    It has been observed that the operation of loading and unloading the reservoir influence the dam behaviour. The movements recorded by the PS points on the dam also correlate with the air temperature (i.e. seasonal cycle).

    The research revealed that the snow cover and the vegetation could have interfered with the signal, that resulted in a relative low correlation. Therefore, the number of PS points on and around the dam is limited, and comparison with the geodetic data is only based on a few points. The comparison shows general agreement, showing the capacities of the InSAR method.

    The study constitutes a starting point for further improvements, for example observation in longer period when more Sentinel1 images of the study area are collected. Installation of corner reflectors at the dam site and/or by use of high resolution SAR data is also suggested.

  • 178.
    Borgström, Stina
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Norman, Elin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Värdeinverkan vid avsaknad av väg: Hur påverkas marknadsvärdet om väg fram till fastigheten saknas?2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study is to serve as a material for further investigation concerning higher quality of tax procedures related to the adjustment of assessed values when there is no road to single- family houses. This is because there are currently no guidelines for this type of adjustment. The aim of the study is to investigate the value of the impact an absence of a road to single-family houses may have on its market value, and what makes this value of the impact difficult or easy to assess.

    The methods applied in the study concerns a quantitative- and qualitative research. The quantitative survey was conducted in the form of telephone interviews with brokers and property appraisers. This was done to obtain a general picture of how the market considers the condition of an absence of road. This survey was supplemented with qualitative interviews to obtain a deeper understanding of how the market value is influenced by this condition, and how this value assessment is done.

    The results of the survey indicate that an impact of the market value can be demonstrated for those single- family houses which have an absence of road. The impact of the market value is difficult to assess because it varies by different property conditions, market values and facility costs. The result also shows that, even at a distance of over 100 meters from the property to the nearest drivable road, the impact on the market value is considered to be above 20 percent. The conclusions from the results are that an absence of road, in the most cases, is a value lowering factor. Furthermore would clearer guidelines, for value assessment, facilitate the process of the valuation.

  • 179.
    Borgvall, Albin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Rodestrand, Robin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Utvecklad value stream mapping för en varierande produktion mot kundorder: En fallstudie vid Karl Hedin Emballage AB2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Today’s high demand on customer specific products has led to an upstream of organizations that are adapting an make-to-order production strategy. Seeing that these organizations compete by obtaining low lead-times and the ability to present unique and affordable products, a need has been created to use lean-based methods in attempt to reduce waste, create an efficient production, thus to gain competitive advantage. The issue is that lean-methods are not developed for these types of organizations. 

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to compile a model that describes how an organization that is characterized by make-to-order strategy and with a high variety in products manufactured in low volumes can implement value stream mapping to create an efficient production and thus gain competitive advantage.

    Methodology: The study is carried out through a case-study on a company that manufacture based on the specification of customer-orders. To perform a value stream mapping, relevant literature was collected and studied. Consequently, interviews and observations were conducted and constitute the empirical data. Subsequently the literature review along with the empirical data constitutes the conclusions and findings.   

    Results: The case company is characterized by a complex manufacturing of unique products with crossing information- and material flows which complicates value stream mapping. The processes consist of manual cutting, semi-manual cutting, plywood cutting, component manufacturing, and assembling. Processes with similar operations were spread throughout the manufacturing plant and the assembly points were identified as bottle-necks.  

    Conclusion: A model that describes how an organization that is characterized by make-to-order strategy and with a high variety in products manufactured in low volumes can implement value stream mapping has been compiled. Furthermore, additional aspects have been identified that are significant in the implementation of value stream mapping within this form of production.

  • 180.
    Borén, Cecilia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Lämplighetsbedömning vid 3D-fastighetsbildning: Hur bedömningen av lämpliga förvaltningsobjekt görs med hänsyn till storlek och andra påverkande faktorer2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays it can be seen that smaller and smaller 3D-property units are formed. To form 3D-property units the property formation procedure must have undergone an assessment of suitability where the general suitability conditions in the third chapter of the Property Formation Act should be taken into account. The legislative history and the commentary of the Property Formation Act speak of that the 3D-property units formed should be suitable management objects and be of palpable size. The size perspective on the 3D-property units has, in some cases, been proven challenging to assess for the cadastral authority.

    This study examines how the assessment of suitable management objects is performed and how the assessment can be affected by other factors. To achieve this, a survey, interviews and a study of property information procedure dossiers have been done. The study of dossiers shows that it is difficult to see reasons to why the 3D-property unit has been considered suitable. The survey and interviews show that the assessment is done with the 3D-property unit’s purpose and independence in mind. The independence is dependent on that the 3D-property unit can operate without too many rights, be economically stable and function alone from a management perspective. The size is only of small significance when it comes to the assessment.

    Conclusion is that the suitability for each management object, the 3D-property units, is done according to the general suitability conditions of the third chapter of the Property Formation Act, where the size doesn’t have an impending significance. However, other factors can affect the assessment; factors that are taken into account individually in each 3D-case.

  • 181.
    Bosell, Josefine
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Lindblad, Martin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Fastighetstaxering av lokalhyreshus: Utrymmen under mark2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    At a property tax assesment of a non-residential rental housing unit the valuation model of land does not take in to consideration the space beneath it that generate revenue from rent. This means that the tax assessment value of the land does not necessarily reflect the market value.   The purpose of this paper is to make a survey, of two Swedish cities, that can provide the National Land Survey with information that can help them improve the quality of the tax assessment value. The aim is to identify possible connections between the market value in comparison to the tax assessment value of properties with and without space beneath ground.  The methods used are a qualitative analysis of the purchase price in relation to tax assessment values and qualitative interviews. The analysis of the purchase price was done to answer if space beneath ground affects the market value compared to the tax assessment value. The interviews aim to create a deeper knowledge of the value of space beneath ground.  The results from the analysis of the purchase price showed that the market value was not affected by space beneath ground. However, it emerged in the interviews that the land value for space beneath ground should be handled differently during assassment, because it has a noteworthy value. The conclusion was that space beneath ground that generates revenue, should be included in the property tax assessment under special conditions.  

  • 182.
    Boström, Joel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Building a GIS Web Service for Mobile Phone and Evaluating its Usability: Case study – A cleanliness index GIS2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to identify key usability factors in a GIS (Geographical Information System) web service for mobile phone. The study also includes a usability evaluation of such a prototype. The prototype was created with the objective of evaluating the cleanliness in the city of Gävle and involving the users in keeping the city clean. Research on the subject of usability was performed in preparation for the development of the prototype. The subsequent usability test that was performed showed that the prototype was highly usable in consideration to efficiency, learnability and satisfaction. However in regards to effectiveness, the prototype was in its current state not highly usable.

  • 183.
    Boustedt, Jonas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Computer science.
    A Student Perspective on Software Development and Maintenance2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    How do Computer Science students view Software Development and Software Maintenance? To answer this question, a Phenomenographic perspective was chosen, and 20 Swedish students at four universities were interviewed.

    The interviews were analyzed to find in which different ways the informants, on collective level, see the phenomena of interest. The resulting outcome spaces show that software development is described in a number of qualitatively different ways reaching from problem solving, design and deliver, design for the future and then a more comprehensive view that includes users, customers, budget and other aspects. Software maintenance is described as correcting bugs, making additions, adapting to new requirements from the surroundings, and something that is a natural part of the job.

    Finally, conclusions from the results and additional observations are discussed in terms of their implications for teaching, and some suggestions for practical use are given.

  • 184.
    Boustedt, Jonas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Computer science.
    On the Road to a Software Profession: Students' Experiences of Concepts and Thresholds2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has shown that there are gaps in knowledge between newly hired and experienced professionals and that some of these gaps are related to concepts, such as the concepts of object orientation. This problem, and the fact that most computer science majors want to work in the software industry, leads to questions regarding why these gaps exist and how students can be better prepared for their future careers. Against this background, this thesis addresses two theme-based perspectives that focus on students' views of concepts in Computer Science.

    The first theme-based perspective investigated the existence of potential Threshold Concepts in Computer Science. Such concepts should be troublesome, transformative, irreversible, and integrative. Qualitative methods have been mainly used and empirical data have been collected through semi-structured interviews, concept maps, and written stories. The results identified two Threshold Concepts, suggested several more, and then described the ways in which these concepts have transformed students.

    The second theme-based perspective took a phenomenographic approach to find the variation in how students understand concepts related to the software profession. Data were collected via semi-structured interviews. In one study the interviews were held in connection with role-playing where students took on the role of a newly hired programmer. The results show a variety of ways to experience the addressed phenomena in the student collective, ranging from superficial views that often have a practical nature to more sophisticated understandings that reflect a holistic approach, including a professional point of view.

    Educators can use the results to emphasize concepts that are important from students' perspectives. The phenomenographic outcome spaces can help teachers to reflect upon their own ways of seeing contrasted with student conceptions. I have indicated how variation theory can be applied to open more sophisticated ways of seeing, which in this context stresses the professional aspects to help students prepare for becoming professional software developers.

  • 185.
    Boustedt, Jonas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Computer science.
    Students' different understandings of class diagrams2012In: Computer Science Education, ISSN 0899-3408, E-ISSN 1744-5175, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 29-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The software industry needs well-trained software designers and one important aspect of software design is the ability to model softwaredesigns visually and understand what visual models represent. However, previous research indicates that software design is a difficulttask to many students. This article reports empirical findings from aphenomenographic investigation on how students understand classdiagrams, Unified Modeling Language (UML) symbols, and relationsto object-oriented (OO) concepts. The informants were 20 Computer Science students from four different universities in Sweden. The results show qualitatively different ways to understand and describe UML class diagrams and the ‘‘diamond symbols’’ representing aggregation and composition. The purpose of class diagrams was understood in a varied way, from describing it as a documentation to a more advanced view related to communication. The descriptions of class diagrams varied from seeing them as a specification of classes to a more advanced view, where they were described to show hierarchic structures of classes and relations. The diamond symbols were seen as ‘‘relations’’ and a more advanced way was seeing the white and theblack diamonds as different symbols for aggregation and composition. As a consequence of the results, it is recommended that UML should be adopted in courses. It is briefly indicated how the phenomenographic results in combination with variation theory can be used by teachers to enhance students’ possibilities to reach advanced understanding of phenomena related to UML classdiagrams. Moreover, it is recommended that teachers should put more effort in assessing skills in proper usage of the basic symbols and models and students should be provided with opportunities to practise collaborative design, e.g. using whiteboards.

  • 186.
    Boustedt, Jonas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Computer science.
    Ways to Understand Class Diagrams2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The software industry needs well trained software designers and one important aspect of software design is the ability to model software designs visually and understand what visual models represent. However, previous research indicates that software design is a difficult task to many students. This paper reports empirical findings from a phenomenographic investigation on how students understand class diagrams, UML symbols and relations to object oriented concepts. The informants were 20 Computer Science students from four different universities in Sweden.

    The results show qualitively different ways to understand and describe UML class diagrams and the "diamond symbols" representing aggregation and composition. The purpose of class diagrams was understood in a varied way, from describing it as a documentation to a more advanced view related to communication. The descriptions of class diagrams varied from seeing them as a specification of classes to a more advanced view where they were described to show hierarchic structures of classes and relations. The diamond symbols were seen as "relations" and a more advanced way was seeing the white and the black diamonds as different symbols for aggregation and composition.

    As a consequence of the results, it is recommended that UML should be adopted in courses. It is briefly indicated how the phenomenographic results in combination with variation theory can be used by teachers to enhance students' possibilities to reach advanced understanding of phenomena related to UML class diagrams. Moreover, it is recommended that teachers should put more effort in assessing skills in proper using of the basic symbols and models, and students should get many opportunities to practise collaborative design, e.g., using whiteboards.

  • 187.
    Boustedt, Jonas
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Computer science.
    Eckerdal, Anna
    Uppsala Universitet.
    McCartney, Robert
    University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, USA.
    Sanders, Kate
    Rhode Island College, Providence, RI, USA.
    Thomas, Lynda
    Aberystwyth University, Aberystwyth, Wales, UK.
    Zander, Carol
    University of Washington Bothell, Bothell, WA, USA .
    Students' perceptions of the differences between formal and informal learning2011In: ICER '11 Proceedings of the seventh international workshop on Computing education research / [ed] Kate Sanders, Michael Caspersen, Alison Clear, New York, USA: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2011, p. 61-68Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has shown that most learning in the workplace takes place outside of formal training and, given the swiftly changing nature of the field, computer science graduates more than most workers, need to be able to learn computing topics outside of organized classes.

    In this paper we discuss students' perceptions of the difference between formal and informal learning of computing topics, based on three datasets: essays collected from a technical writing course at a single university; the results of a brainstorming exercise conducted in the same course; and semi-structured interviews conducted at six institutions in three countries.

    The students report strengths and weaknesses in informal learning. On the one hand, they are motivated, can choose their level of learning, can be more flexible about how they learn, and often retain the material better. On the other hand, they perceive that they may miss important aspects of a topic, learn in an ad hoc way, and have difficulty assessing their learning.

  • 188.
    Boustedt, Jonas
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Computer science.
    McCartney, Robert
    University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, USA.
    Tenenberg, Josh
    University of Washington Tacoma, Tacoma, WA, USA.
    Cooper, Stephen
    Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, USA.
    Garcia, Daniel, D.
    University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA.
    Friend Hutton, Michelle
    Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, USA.
    Parlante, Nick
    Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, USA.
    Richards, Brad
    University of Puget Sound, Tacoma, WA, USA.
    It seemed like a good idea at the time2011In: SIGCSE'11: Proceedings of the 42nd ACM technical symposium on Computer science education, New York, NY, USA: ACM , 2011, p. 163-164Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We often learn of successful pedagogical experiments, but we seldom hear of the the ones that failed. For this special session we solicited submissions from the SIGCSE membership, selected the best from among these, and will have presentations at the session by the selected authors. Our contributions describe pedagogical approaches that seemed to be good ideas but turned out as failures. Contributors will describe their pedagogical experiment, the rationale for the experiment, evidence of failure, and lessons learned.

  • 189.
    Boustedt, Jonas
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Computer science.
    McCartney, Robert
    Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Connecticut, United States.
    Tenenberg, Josh
    Computing and Software Systems, University of Washington, Tacoma, WA, United States.
    Gehringer, F
    Department of Computer Science, North Carolina State University, United States.
    Lister, Raymond
    Faculty of Information Technology, University of Technology, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Musicant, Dave
    Department of Computer Science, Carleton College, United States.
    It seemed like a good idea at the time2010In: SIGCSE '10 : Proceedings of the 41th ACM technical symposium on Computer science education, New York: ACM , 2010, p. 558-559Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We often learn of successful pedagogical experiments, but we seldom hear of the the ones that failed. For this special session we solicited submissions from the SIGCSE membership, selected the best from among these, and will have presentations at the session by the selected authors. Our contributions describe pedagogical approaches that seemed to be good ideas but turned out as failures. Contributors will describe their pedagogical experiment, the rationale for the experiment, evidence of failure, and lessons learned.

  • 190.
    Boustedt, Simon
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management. Lantmäteriet.
    Visualisering av fotogrammetrisk blockutjämning: En applikation för analys vid orientering av flygfoton2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Inom geografisk informationsteknik är behovet av ortofoton stort. Ett ortofoto är en flygbild som korrigerats geometriskt och satts samman till en skalriktig avbildning av marken. Detta görs i en fotogrammetrisk process som kallas blocktriangulering. I block-trianguleringsprocessen används en mängd indata vars kvalitet får direkt inverkan på resultatet. Genom att vikta indata kan olika lösningsförslag tas fram. I detta arbete undersöks huruvida en visualisering av dessa lösningsförslag kan vara användbar för analys vid orientering av flygfoton. En prototyp för detta har utvecklats i samarbete med Lantmäteriet, vars användbarhet sedan testats.

  • 191.
    Brandt, S. Anders
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Lim, Nancy J.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Visualising DEM-related flood-map uncertainties using a disparity-distance equation algorithm2016In: IAHS-AISH Proceedings and Reports / [ed] A. H. Schumann, G. Blöschl, A. Castellarin, J. Dietrich, S. Grimaldi, U. Haberlandt, A. Montanari, D. Rosbjerg, A. Viglione, and S. Vorogushyn, Göttingen: Copernicus Publications on behalf of International Association of Hydrological Sciences (IAHS) , 2016, Vol. 373, p. 153-159Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The apparent absoluteness of information presented by crisp-delineated flood boundaries can lead tomisconceptions among planners about the inherent uncertainties associated in generated flood maps. Even mapsbased on hydraulic modelling using the highest-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs), and calibrated withthe most optimal Manning’s roughness (n) coefficients, are susceptible to errors when compared to actual floodboundaries, specifically in flat areas. Therefore, the inaccuracies in inundation extents, brought about by thecharacteristics of the slope perpendicular to the flow direction of the river, have to be accounted for. Instead ofusing the typical Monte Carlo simulation and probabilistic methods for uncertainty quantification, an empiricalbaseddisparity-distance equation that considers the effects of both the DEM resolution and slope was used tocreate prediction-uncertainty zones around the resulting inundation extents of a one-dimensional (1-D) hydraulicmodel. The equation was originally derived for the Eskilstuna River where flood maps, based on DEM dataof different resolutions, were evaluated for the slope-disparity relationship. To assess whether the equation isapplicable to another river with different characteristics, modelled inundation extents from the Testebo Riverwere utilised and tested with the equation. By using the cross-sectional locations, water surface elevations, andDEM, uncertainty zones around the original inundation boundary line can be produced for different confidences.The results show that (1) the proposed method is useful both for estimating and directly visualising modelinaccuracies caused by the combined effects of slope and DEM resolution, and (2) the DEM-related uncertaintiesalone do not account for the total inaccuracy of the derived flood map. Decision-makers can apply it to alreadyexisting flood maps, thereby recapitulating and re-analysing the inundation boundaries and the areas that areuncertain. Hence, more comprehensive flood information can be provided when determining locations whereextra precautions are needed. Yet, when applied, users must also be aware that there are other factors that caninfluence the extent of the delineated flood boundary.

  • 192.
    Brandt, S. Anders
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    Lim, Nancy Joy
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    Importance of river bank and floodplain slopes on the accuracy of flood inundation mapping2012In: River Flow 2012: Volume 2 / [ed] Rafael Murillo Muñoz, Leiden, The Netherlands: CRC Press / Balkema (Taylor & Francis) , 2012, p. 1015-1020Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Effective flood assessment and management depend on accurate models of flood events, which in turn are strongly affected by the quality of digital elevation models (DEMs). In this study, HEC-RAS was used to route one specificwater discharge through the main channel of the Eskilstuna River, Sweden. DEMs with various resolutions and accuracies were used to model the inundation. The results showed a strong positive relationship between the quality of theDEMand the extent of the inundation. However, evenDEMswith the highest resolution produced inaccuracies. In another case study, the Testebo River, the model settings could be calibrated, thanks to a surveyed old inundation event. However, even with the calibration efforts, the resulting inundation extents showed varying degrees of deviation from the surveyed flood boundaries. Therefore, it becomes clear that not only does the resolution of the DEM impact the quality of the results; also, the floodplain slope perpendicular to the river flow will impact the modelling accuracy. Flatter areas exhibited the greatest predictive uncertainties regardless of the DEM’s resolution. For perfectly flat areas, uncertainty becomes infinite.

  • 193.
    Brandt, Sven Anders
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Modeling and visualizing uncertainties of flood boundary delineation: algorithm for slope and DEM resolution dependencies of 1D hydraulic models2016In: Stochastic environmental research and risk assessment (Print), ISSN 1436-3240, E-ISSN 1436-3259, Vol. 30, no 6, p. 1677-1690Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As flood inundation risk maps have become a central piece of information for both urban and risk management planning, also a need to assess the accuracies and uncertainties of these maps has emerged. Most maps show the inundation boundaries as crisp lines on visually appealing maps, whereby many planners and decision makers, among others, automatically believe the boundaries are both accurate and reliable. However, as this study shows, probably all such maps, even those that are based on high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs), have immanent uncertainties which can be directly related to both DEM resolution and the steepness of terrain slopes perpendicular to the river flow direction. Based on a number of degenerated DEMs, covering areas along the Eskilstuna River, Sweden, these uncertainties have been quantified into an empirically-derived disparity distance equation, yielding values of distance between true and modeled inundation boundary location. Using the inundation polygon, the DEM, a value representing the DEM resolution, and the desired level of confidence as inputs in a new-developed algorithm that utilizes the disparity distance equation, the slope and DEM dependent uncertainties can be directly visualized on a map. The implications of this strategy should benefit planning and help reduce high costs of floods where infrastructure, etc., have been placed in flood-prone areas without enough consideration of map uncertainties.

  • 194.
    Brandtieng, Christofer
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Creating Believable Acting in Animation2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Creating a believable acting experience with character animation is essential for animators that want to work in the animation industry. This research focus on developing guidelines for planning the animation, with the goal to ensure that every animation feel as believable and emotionally true as possible. The two animation software that are being used in this research are Autodesk Maya 2012 and Digicel Flipbook. Two animation shots are created and compared in order to analyze if a common set of guidelines can be used for every animation the animator may encounter.

  • 195.
    Bransell, Kristian
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Fredriksson, Linus
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Införande av frivillig överlåtelsedeklaration för småhus: En studie om möjligheten att komplettera dagens fastighetstaxeringsmodell2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to investigate desired conditions in order to implement a voluntary transfer-declaration within purchase of property. The study investigates property taxation for single-family houses and whether a transfer-declaration could be used as a complement to the current taxation model. Furthermore, it describes the property-taxation model in use and relevant legislation. The taxation-value is calculated through mass appraisal and should consist of 75 % of the market-value evaluated two years back. The method used in the study was; literature review, interviews and surveys. The aim of the literature review was to clarify previous research, legislation and state investigations. The six interviews were held individually with professionals to gain a more profound understanding of the topic. The survey was used to describe views from experts within the field, addressing current real property-taxation data in regard to quality and usefulness. The result suggests that an increase in quality within taxation-data can produce benefits in valuations. If a transference-declaration is used to gather information based on property-declaration one can monitor and spot erroneous data, which thereby could be corrected. However, the voluntary part of the transference-declaration can be questioned. Finally, the implementation could also result in an increased workload for the registration office.

  • 196.
    Bredin, Johan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Majholm, Kim
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Utvärdering av multistation Leica MS50 för detektering av deformationer2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Deformationsövervakning har en betydande roll i samhället idag. Genom att studera och förutse deformationer har problemen kring konstruktion av dammar, broar och tunnlar kunnat hållas nere. Utan en fungerande deformationsövervakning kan såväl industrier som människor påverkas negativt. Deformationer i gruvor kan leda till stopp i produktionen medan deformationer i byggnader utgör en risk för människans säkerhet. För att förhindra dessa följder är det viktigt att analysera och övervaka deformationer med lämpligast mätningsmetod. Punktmolnsinsamling för deformationsövervakning utförs i huvudsak med markburna laserskannrar. Ett nytt instrument har dock nyligen kommit ut på marknaden, multistationen Leica MS50, som har möjlighet att skanna in hela punktmoln på liknande sätt som markburna laserskannrar.

     

    I denna studie har deformationsmätningar utförts för att visa den minsta detekterbara rörelse som kan upptäckas med multistationen Leica MS50. Studien behandlar även hur olika upplösningar påverkar skanningstiden och skanningsfrekvensen samt om materialet som skannats har någon inverkan vid detektering av deformationer. I studien användes Leica MS50 i tre olika moment för att skanna punktmoln i flera olika upplösningar för deformationsmätningar. I de olika momenten skannades plastmaterial av olika tjocklekar och optiska egenskaper för att simulera deformation. För att analysera punktmolnen användes mjukvaruprogrammet Geomagic Control. Analysen utfördes genom att skapa en mesh av referensytan och mäta avstånden från deformerade objekt till den nämnda meshen.

     

    Resultaten som erhölls visar tydligt hur deformationer på 2,1 mm kan upptäckas i djupled. Vidare kunde det konstanteras att skanningsmaterialets egenskaper har en stor påverkan vid avståndsmätningar. Det gick att se ett tydligt samband mellan tjocklek på material och avståndsfel i de fall där reflekterande transparenta plastmaterial användes. I denna studie kunde samtliga icke-transparenta deformationsobjekt detekteras vid mätning med alla upplösningar. Därmed kan slutsatsen dras att den lägsta upplösningen (15 × 15 mm) är den mest fördelaktiga i denna studie p.g.a. den korta skanningstiden. Det kunde även fastställas att punktupplösningen hade en direkt inverkan på skanningsfrekvensen, ju lägre upplösning desto lägre frekvens.

  • 197.
    Bredin, Karin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Enberg, Cecilia
    Linköpings universitet.
    Niss, Camilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Söderlund, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet.
    Knowledge Integration at Work: Individual Project Competence in Agile Projects2017In: Managing Knowledge Integration Across Boundaries / [ed] Fredrik Tell, Christian Berggren, Stefano Brusoni, Andrew Van de Ven, New York: Oxford University Press, 2017, p. 206-226Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 198.
    Bredin, Karin
    et al.
    Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling (IEI) / Företagsekonomi (FEK), Linköpings universitet.
    Niss, Camilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Söderlund, Jonas
    Institutt for ledelse og organisasjon, BI Handelshøyskolen, Olso, Norge.
    Specialist med bredd eller flerbent generalist: Vad utmärker en kunskapsintegrerande projektmedlem?2015In: Kunskapsintegration och innovation i en internationaliserande ekonomi: Slutrapport från ett forskningsprogram / [ed] Hans Andersson och Christian Berggren, Stockholm: Makadam Förlag, 2015, 1, p. 72-83Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 199.
    Brinnen, Axel
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Norrlander, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Terminallokalisering från varuägarens perspektiv2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses the usage of the AHP-model to localize a freight consolidation center from a sustainable perspective. The AHP-model is a model that makes decisions easier by weighting various factors against each other according to given priorities. Once analyzed, the AHP-model has been applied to a case company in order to evaluate its effect and eventually see if the case companys localization decision was correct. 

    The case company in this paper is a large swedish company active both on the swedish market and internationally. They have a freight consolidation center located in Gävle, Sweden with the purpose of replenishing stock at company warehouses located in area A and area B. The company requires a transport lead time of less than one day. When the company chose to locate their freight consolidation center to Gävle, there were a few other options, namely area C and area D as well as a thir option located too far south in Sweden. 

    The conclusion of this paper shows that Gävle is the best area for the freight consolidation center out of the available options based on the companies priorities. Area C can not keep the leadtime below one day and area D does not have a port available. 

    It is still hard to define what is sustainable on a long term perspective when it comes to localization. Further research is therefore recommended in order to improve the model in a sustainable manner.

  • 200.
    Bronegård, Martina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Policy för markåtkomst: Granskning av Svensk Energis ”Policy - Markåtkomst”2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The management of land access for construction and maintenance of electric grids are handled differently by the electrical grid companies in Sweden. The branch organization Svensk Energi has created a policy for land access in order to create a unitary and equitable management that they recommend their members to use. The purpose of this study was to examine how the policy is used, to identify the areas of development and compile suggestions for improvement.

    Data for the study were collected through semi-structured interviews with experts in nine of the electrical grid companies that are members of Svensk Energi. The result shows that the application of the policy varies between the companies. According to the study the policy's positive features outnumbers its negative characteristics. The companies consider that the policy can be improved by more distinct guidelines in certain areas and more flexibility in other areas. The study presents and states the grounds for improvement proposals that Svensk Energi is recommended to implement to improve the policy.

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