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  • 151.
    Wahlström, Jens
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    A study of airborne wear particles from automotive disc brakes2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During braking, both the disc and pads in disc brakes are worn. Since disc brakes are not sealed,some of the wear particles generated can become airborne. Several studies have found anassociation between adverse health effects and the concentration of particles in the atmosphere,so it is of interest to improve our knowledge of the airborne wear particles generated by discbrakes.

    This thesis deals with experimental and computational methods focusing on airborne wearparticles from disc brakes. The eight appended papers discuss the possibility to both measure andnumerically determine the concentration and size distribution of airborne wear particles thatoriginate from the pad-to-disc contact. The objective is to increase the scientific knowledge ofairborne wear particles generated from disc brakes.

    Papers A, B and C describe tests of disc brake materials conducted in a modified pin-on-discmachine. The results show that the test set-up can be used to measure and rank disc brakematerials with respect to the concentration of airborne particles generated. Ultrafine (nanosized),fine and coarse airborne wear particles that contain metals such as iron, copper and tin werefound.

    Papers D and E describe a novel disc brake assembly test stand and tests of disc brake materialsconducted in it. The results show that the test set-up can be used to measure the concentrationand size distribution of airborne wear particles generated from disc brake materials. The resultsalso indicate an ability to rank different pad/disc combinations with respect to the concentrationof airborne wear particles. Furthermore, the results suggest that this test stand can be used tostudy rust layer removal from the disc and that airborne particles are generated even at low brakepressures, such as used to remove dirt from the disc.

    Paper F compares measurements made in passenger car field tests with measurements made in adisc brake assembly test stand and in a pin-on-disc machine. A promising correlation between thethree different test methods is found.

    Paper G presents and discusses a simulation methodology that numerically determines theconcentration and size distribution of airborne wear particles generated from the pad-to-disccontact in disc brakes by using general-purpose finite element software.

    Paper H discusses a cellular automaton model that describes the microscopic contact situationbetween the pad and disc in disc brakes. This model is used to numerically determine the amountof wear that leaves the contact. The results correlate qualitatively with experimental observationsfound in the literature.

  • 152.
    Wahlström, Jens
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Gventsadze, D.
    Olander, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Services Engineering.
    Kutelia, E
    Gventsadze, L.
    Tsurtsumia, O.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Tribologi.
    A pin-on-disc investigation of nanoporous composite-based and conventional brake padmaterials focusing on airborne wear particles2011In: Tribology International, ISSN 0301-679X, E-ISSN 1879-2464Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 153.
    Wahlström, Jens
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Gventsadze, D.
    Olander, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Services Engineering.
    Kutelia, E.
    Gventsadze, L.
    Tsurtsumia, O.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Tribologi.
    A pin-on-disc investigation of novel nanoporous composite-based and conventional brake pad materials focussing on airborne wear particles2011In: Tribology International, ISSN 0301-679X, E-ISSN 1879-2464, Vol. 44, no 12, p. 1838-1843Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wear particles originating from disc brakes contribute to particulate concentration in the urban atmosphere. In this work novel nanoporous composite-based and conventional brake materials were tested against cast-iron discs in a modified pin-on-disc machine. During testing airborne wear particles were measured online and collected on filters, which were analysed using SEM and EDX. The morphology of airborne wear particles containing elements such as iron, oxygen, and copper is presented. These results show that two of the nanoporous materials generated 3-7 times less airborne wear particles than the conventional materials. Both the conventional and nanoporous materials displayed a bimodal number distribution.

  • 154.
    Wahlström, Jens
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Gventsadze, D
    Republic Dvali Institute of Machine Mechanics, Georgia.
    Olander, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Services Engineering (name changed to Building Service and Energy Systems 2012-03-01).
    Tsurtsumia, O
    Republic Center for Structure Researches of Georgian Technical University, Georgia.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    A pin-on-disc study of nanoporous composite-based and conventional brake pad materials focussing on airborne wear particles2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 155.
    Wahlström, Jens
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Applied Mechanical Engineering (KTH Södertälje).
    Olander, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Services Engineering.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    A Pin-on-Disc Study Focusing on How Different Load Levels Affect the Concentration and Size Distribution of Airborne Wear Particles from the Disc Brake Materials2012In: Tribology letters, ISSN 1023-8883, E-ISSN 1573-2711, Vol. 46, no 2, p. 195-204Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Airborne wear particles originating from disc brakes are one important contributor to the concentration of airborne particles in urban environments. It is therefore of interest to improve the knowledge of these particles. The purpose of this article is to investigate the concentration and size distribution of the airborne wear particles generated from the contact between a low-metallic pad material and a grey cast iron disc at different load levels. This is done on model level with a pin-on-disc machine that allows the cleanliness of the air surrounding the test specimens to be controlled, and thus the airborne portion of the wear particles to be studied separately. The concentration and size of airborne wear particles were measured online during testing with four particle instruments. In addition, airborne wear particles were collected on filters during the tests and afterward analysed using SEM. Trimodal size distributions with peaks around 280, 350 and 550 nm were registered during running-in for all load levels. After running-in bimodal size distributions with peaks around 350 and 550 nm were registered for all load levels with the exception of the highest load level where multimodal size distributions were registered. At the two highest load levels the concentration of ultrafine/fine particles showed an increase up to a factor hundred indicating a change in wear mechanism. SEM images show ultrafine, fine and coarse airborne wear particles.

  • 156.
    Wahlström, Jens
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Olander, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Services Engineering.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Tribologi.
    Size, Shape, and Elemental Composition of Airborne Wear Particles from Disc Brake Materials2010In: Tribology letters, ISSN 1023-8883, E-ISSN 1573-2711, Vol. 38, no 1, p. 15-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During braking, both the rotor and pads experience wear, generating particles that may become airborne. In field tests, it is difficult to distinguish these particles from others in the surrounding environment, so it is preferable to use laboratory test stands to study the amount of airborne wear particles generated. The purpose of this work is to investigate the possibility of separate, capture, and analyze airborne wear particles generated by a disc brake in a disc brake assembly test stand. This test stand used allows the cleanliness of the air surrounding the test specimens to be controlled and thus the airborne portion of the wear particles to be studied separately. One pair each of low-metallic (LM) and non-asbestos organic (NAO) brake pads was tested against grey cast iron rotors. Before testing, the elemental contents of the brake materials were analyzed using glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES). The concentration and size of airborne wear particles were measured online during testing. In addition, airborne wear particles were collected on filters during the tests and afterward analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The analyzed wear particles contained elements such as iron, titanium, zinc, barium, manganese, and copper. Both the low-metallic and non-asbestos organic type of brake pads tested display a bimodal size distribution with peaks at 280 and 350 nm. Most of the airborne particles generated have a diameter smaller than 2.5 mu m.

  • 157.
    Wahlström, Jens
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    A field study of airborne particle emissions from automotive disc brakes2015In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part D, journal of automobile engineering, ISSN 0954-4070, E-ISSN 2041-2991, Vol. 229, no 6, p. 747-757Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Airborne particle emissions from automotive disc brakes, one of the main sources of urban particulate matter, adversely affect health. Field measurement of brake particles is complicated, as various particle sources (such as tailpipe emissions, resuspended road dust and tyre wear) can interfere. Brake particles are usually measured on dyno benches or in model-scale tests in controlled environments. Such test results need confirmation in the field, where air flow around disc brakes differs completely. Few field studies focusing on disc brake particles have been reported in the literature. The objective of this work is to investigate further the possibility of measuring brake particles in the field using particle instruments mounted on a car. A car was instrumented with two GRIMM 1.109 aerosol spectrometers and two TSI DustTrak 8520 aerosol monitors. One GRIMM spectrometer and one TSI DustTrak monitor recorded data near the brake, and the other GRIMM spectrometer and the other TSI DustTrak monitor recorded data at the front of the car during five field tests in outer Stockholm. The results suggest that braking directly correlates with increased particle concentrations measured near the brake. The reported test stand results correlate with the field-measured number distributions.

  • 158.
    Wahlström, Jens
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Tribologi.
    Olander, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Services Engineering.
    A pin-on-disc study of automotive disc brake materials focusing on airborne wear particles2010In: Journal of tribology, ISSN 0742-4787, E-ISSN 1528-8897Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 159.
    Wahlström, Jens
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Söderberg, Anders
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Olander, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Services Engineering (name changed to Building Service and Energy Systems 2012-03-01).
    Jansson, Anders
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Tribologi.
    A pin-on-disc simulation of airborne wear particles from disc brakes2010In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 268, no 5-6, p. 763-769Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel test method was used to study the concentration and size distribution of airborne wearparticles from disc brake materials. A pin-on-disc tribometer equipped with particle countinginstruments was used as test equipment. Material from four different non-asbestos organic(NAO) pads and four different low metallic (LM) pads were tested against material from greycast iron rotors. The results indicate that the low metallic pads cause more wear to the rotormaterial than the NAO pads, resulting in higher concentrations of airborne wear particles.Although there are differences in the measured particle concentrations, similar size distributionswere obtained. Independent of pad material, the characteristic particle number distributions ofairborne brake wear particles have maxima around 100, 280, 350, and 550 nm.

  • 160.
    Wahlström, Jens
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.).
    Söderberg, Anders
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Olander, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Tribologi.
    A disc brake test stand for measurement of airborne wear particles2009In: Lubrication Science, ISSN 0954-0075, Vol. 21, no 6, p. 241-252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During braking, there is wear on both the rotor and the pads. This process generates particles that may becomeairborne. In field tests, it is difficult to distinguish these particles from others in the surrounding environment.Therefore, a laboratory test stand has been designed which allows control of the cleanliness of the surroundingair. The test stand consists of a front right brake assembly mounted in a sealed chamber. A braking load is appliedby a pneumatic system and the rotor, which has been pre-conditioned with a rust layer to simulate a car standingparked overnight in a wet environment, is driven by an electric motor. The number and size of airborne wearparticles are then measured. This experimental set-up has been verified by an initial test series performed at lowbraking loads. The results suggest that this test stand can be used to study rust layer removal from the rotor.

  • 161.
    Wahlström, Jens
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Söderberg, Anders
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Olander, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Services Engineering (name changed to Building Service and Energy Systems 2012-03-01).
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Tribologi.
    A disc brake test stand for measurement of airborne wear particles2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 162.
    Wahlström, Jens
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.).
    Söderberg, Anders
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Olander, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Tribologi.
    Jansson, Anders
    Airborne wear particles from passenger car disc brakes: a comparison of measurements from field tests, a disc brake assembly test stand, and a pin-on-disc machine2010In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part J, journal of engineering tribology, ISSN 1350-6501, E-ISSN 2041-305X, Vol. 224, no J2, p. 179-188Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most modern passenger cars have disc brakes on the front wheels.Unlike drumbrakes,disc brakes are not sealed off from the ambient air. During braking, both the rotor and the padswear, and this wear process generates particles that may become airborne. In field tests it isdifficult to distinguish these particles from others in the environment. It is thus preferable toconduct tests using laboratory test stands where the cleanness of the surrounding air can becontrolled.However, the validity of results fromthese test stands should be verifiedbycomparisonwith field tests. This article presents a comparison of the number and volume distributions ofairborne wear particles as measured online in field tests, in a disc brake assembly test stand,and in a pin-on-disc machine. In all cases, grey cast iron rotors and low metallic pads weretested. A promising correlation between the three different test methods is shown. The numberandvolume-weighted mean particle diameter for all test methods is about 0.4 and 2–3μm,respectively.

  • 163.
    Wahlström, Jens
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Söderberg, Anders
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Tribologi.
    A cellular automaton approach to numerically simulate the contact situation in disc brakes2011In: Tribology letters, ISSN 1023-8883, E-ISSN 1573-2711, Vol. 42, no 3, p. 253-262Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since brake wear is an important contributor to the concentration of airborne particles in urban atmospheres, it is important to increase our understanding of the origin of these particles. The contact situation between the pad and disc is complicated. Metal fibres in the pad (or other hard materials) form stable contact plateaus, which carry the main part of the load. A flow of wear particles in the boundary layer between the pad and disc partially stack up against these plateaus (and increase their area), and some will escape from the contact and become airborne. The purpose of this article is to investigate the possibility to numerically simulate the contact situation in the boundary layer between the pad and disc and the amount of wear that leaves the contact using a cellular automaton approach. To do so, the contact pressure, pad temperature and wear are determined in that order. Based on these results, the creation, growth and destruction of contact plateaus are simulated using a cellular automaton model. Finally, the amount of wear that leaves the contact is determined. The simulated behaviour of the contact situation correlates qualitatively with experimental observations found in the literature.

  • 164.
    Wahlström, Jens
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.).
    Söderberg, Anders
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Tribologi.
    Simulation of airborne wear particles from disc brakes2009In: SAE Technical Paper 2009-01-3040, USA: SAE , 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During braking, both the rotor and the pads are worn in disc brakes. This wear process generates particles which may become airborne. In passenger car field tests it is difficult to distinguish these particles from others in the surrounding environment. It may therefore be preferable to use laboratory test stands and/or simulation models to study the amount of airborne wear particles generated. This paper discusses the possibility of predicting the number distribution of airborne wear particles generated from the pad to rotor contact in disc brakes by using general purpose finite element software. A simulation methodology is proposed where the particle coefficient is established by testing at material level. This coefficient is then used in numerical wear simulation at component level. The simulated number distribution is compared to experimental measurements at component level. The result indicates that the proposed methodology may be used to predict the number and distribution of airborne particles generated from the pad to rotor contact.

  • 165.
    Wahlström, Jens
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Söderberg, Anders
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Ulf, Olofsson
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    A cellular automaton approach to simulate the contact situation between the pad and disc in disc brakes2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 166. Xiao, L.
    et al.
    Björklund, Stefan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Rosen, B. G.
    The influence of surface roughness and the contact pressure distribution on friction in rolling/sliding contacts2007In: Tribology International, ISSN 0301-679X, E-ISSN 1879-2464, Vol. 40, no 4, p. 694-698Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A numerical contact model is used to study the influence of surface roughness and the pressure distribution on the frictional behaviour in rolling/sliding contacts. Double-crowned roller surfaces are measured and used as input for the contact analysis. The contact pressure distribution is calculated for dry static contacts and the results are compared with friction measurements in a lubricated rolling/sliding contact made with a rough friction test rig. The mean pressure is suggested as a parameter that can be used to predict the influence of surface roughness on the friction coefficient in such contacts. The results show two important properties of the friction coefficient for the friction regime studied in this paper: (1) there is a linear decrease in friction coefficient as a function of the slide-to-roll ratio, and (2) the friction coefficient increases linearly with increasing mean contact pressure up to a maximum limit above which the friction coefficient is constant. The absolute deviation of experimental results front the derived theory is for most cases within 0.005.

  • 167.
    Zhu, Yi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    An adhesion model for wheel-rail contact at the micro level using measured 3d surfaces2012In: 9th International Conference on Contact Mechanics and Wear of Rail/Wheel Systems, CM 2012, Southwest Jiaotong University , 2012, p. 550-562Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Railway vehicles require a certain level of wheel-rail adhesion for efficient, reliable, and economical operation. A comprehensive wheel-rail contact model is useful for optimizing the adhesion, to simulatevehicle running conditions and to predict wear and rolling contact fatigue. A new contact model using measured 3D surfaces has been developed, comprising normal contact, rolling-sliding contact, flash temperature, and local friction coefficient models. This model can predict the local contact pressure, including the plasticity, local flash temperature, local tangential stress, local friction coefficient, and global adhesion coefficient. The influence of surface topography, creep, and speed on the adhesion coefficient, real contact area, and contact temperature is discussed. Results indicate that, due to increased contact area, the adhesion coefficient decreases with increased surface roughness, although the change is small. Furthermore, increasing speed reduces the adhesion coefficient due to the increasing contact temperature.

  • 168.
    Zhu, Yi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    An adhesion model for wheel-rail contact at the micro level using measured 3d surfaces2014In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 314, no 1-2, p. 162-170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Railway vehicles require a certain level of wheel-rail adhesion for efficient, reliable, and economical operation. A comprehensive wheel-rail contact model is useful for optimizing the adhesion, to simulate vehicle running conditions and to predict wear and rolling contact fatigue. A new contact model using measured 3D surfaces has been developed, comprising normal contact, rolling-sliding contact, flash temperature, and local friction coefficient models. This model can predict the local contact pressure, including the plasticity, local flash temperature, local tangential stress, local friction coefficient, and global adhesion coefficient. The influence of surface topography, creep, and speed on the adhesion coefficient, real contact area, and contact temperature is discussed. Results indicate that, due to increased contact area, the adhesion coefficient decreases with increased surface roughness, although the change is small. Furthermore, increasing speed reduces the adhesion coefficient due to the increasing contact temperature.

1234 151 - 168 of 168
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