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  • 151.
    Sandra, Schusser
    et al.
    Department of Forest Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Jaraite, Jurate
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Explaining the interplay of three markets: green certificates, carbon emissions and electricity2018In: Energy Economics, ISSN 0140-9883, E-ISSN 1873-6181, Vol. 71, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Union's Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) and the Swedish-Norwegian Tradable Green Certificate System (Swedish-Norwegian TGC system) are two market-based instruments that have the overlapping goals to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by shifting economies to cleaner energy sources. Understanding the price signals and interactions of these two newly created markets is essential for all decision makers – regulators and direct market participants – who aim to reach the predefined policy goals in the most efficient manner. The interaction between these policy instruments has been widely examined from the theoretical perspective. This research contributes to the literature by empirically examining the interplay between the prices of three markets: (1) the price of tradable green certificates (TGC) in the Swedish-Norwegian TGC system, (2) the price of carbon in the EU ETS and (3) the price of electricity in the Nord Pool. We use a multivariate vector-autoregressive (VAR) approach to take into account the endogenous relationships between these prices. Our empirical results do not support the theoretical considerations that the impacts of carbon prices on TGC prices and hence on renewable electricity production are negative. Contrary, we find that, to date, increases in carbon prices positively affect TGC prices in the short run.

  • 152.
    Schusser, Sandra
    et al.
    Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE), Department of Forest Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden..
    Bostedt, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Department of Forest Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden..
    Green Behavioural (In)consistencies: Are Pro-environmental Behaviours in Different Domains Substitutes or Complements?2019In: Environmental Economics, ISSN 1998-6041, E-ISSN 1998-605X, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 23-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Households' consumption patterns and behaviors have profound influence on natural resources and environmental quality. This paper explores whether environmentalbehaviors and willingness to pay (WTP) in the household domains transport, energyconsumption and water consumption are substitutes or complements. Using a crosscountry data set from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and DevelopmentSurvey on Environmental Attitudes and Behavior from 2008, a random-effects(ordered) probit model is used to answer this question for the following countries:Australia, Canada, France, Mexico, Italy, and South Korea. It is found that in mostcountries, actual environmental behaviors are substitutes, while WTP for environmental public goods in different domains is mostly complementary. Grounding in theseresults, policies aiming to encourage overall environmentally friendly lifestyles shouldtherefore be all-encompassing of several public domains, instead of individual ones, toavoid the risk of negative spillovers.

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  • 153.
    Thangavelu, Tharshini
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Lulea University of Technology, Lulea, Sweden.
    Paulrud, Anton
    Stage, Jesper
    Understanding heterogeneous preferences for angling site attributes: application of a choice experiment2017In: Journal of Environmental Economics and Policy, ISSN 2160-6544, E-ISSN 2160-6552, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 324-340Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article studies anglers' willingness to pay for improvements in the characteristics of fishing sites in the county of Jamtland in Sweden. We use two existing angling sites, and hypothetical sites similar to these, to explore transferability of responses between different sites and to examine the welfare effects of improvements in fishing site characteristics. We find that anglers have highly heterogenous preferences, and that modelling this heterogeneity using latent class models leads to different classes being estimated for the two different sites studied. This heterogeneity implies that policy interventions need to consider the specific characteristics of the angling groups being targeted by the intervention, but the heterogeneity also affects the precision with which estimates from one angling site can be applied to another site.

  • 154.
    Vesterberg, Mattias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    The effect of price on electricity contract choice2018In: Energy Economics, ISSN 0140-9883, E-ISSN 1873-6181, Vol. 69, p. 59-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    I explore how households switch between fixed-price and variable-price electricity contracts in response to variations in price and temperature, conditional on previous contract choice. Using panel data with roughly 54,000 Swedish households, a dynamic probit model is estimated. The results suggest that the choice of contract exhibits substantial state dependence, with an estimated marginal effect of previous contract choice of 0.96, and that the short-run effects of variation in prices and temperature on the choice of electricity contract are small. Further, the state dependence and price responsiveness are similar across housing types, income levels and other dimensions. A plausible explanation of these results is that transaction costs are perceived to be larger than the relatively small cost savings from switching between contracts.

  • 155.
    Vesterberg, Mattias
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    B. Krishnamurthy, Chandra Kiran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Department of Forest Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Umeå, Sweden.
    Böök, Herman
    Lindfors, Anders
    Svento, Rauli
    Real-time pricing revisited: Demand flexibility in the presence of micro-generation2018In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 23, p. 642-658Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An understanding of household demand response (DR) is important in view of increasingly smart grids in which high shares of renewable supply are being promoted. In addition, an important development in the Nordic market relates to increasing thrust on household solar photo-voltaic (PV) panels. In view of the potential for interaction between dynamic pricing-driven and PV generation-driven load changes, an analysis of the combined effects in relation to the system profile is important, not least because this can affect the nature of benefits to households and to the grid. Using a unique and detailed dataset on household electricity consumption, in combination with simulated solar panel micro-generation data, these aspects are explored here using a demand framework drawn from the previous literature. Our findings indicate that even with low price responsiveness, household response to dynamic pricing can lead to load changes with sizeable benefits. In addition, the introduction of PV panels appear to be beneficial to the electric grid, largely due to the time pattern of winter PV generation. Overall, our findings provide tentative support to the hypothesis that dynamic pricing, by incentivizing households to provide demand response at appropriate times, can aid in integration of renewables.

  • 156.
    Vesterberg, Mattias
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Krishnamurthy, Chandra Kiran B.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Residential End-use Electricity Demand: Implications for Real Time Pricing in Sweden2016In: Energy Journal, ISSN 0195-6574, E-ISSN 1944-9089, Vol. 37, no 4, p. 141-164Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a unique and highly detailed data set on energy consumption at the appliance-level for 200 Swedish households, seemingly unrelated regression (SUR)based end-use specific load curves are estimated. The estimated load curves are then used to explore possible restrictions on load shifting (e.g. the office hours schedule) as well as the cost implications of different load shift patterns. The cost implications of shifting load from "expensive" to "cheap" hours, using the Nord pool spot prices as a proxy for a dynamic price, are computed to be very small; roughly 2-4% reduction in total daily cost from shifting load up to five hours ahead, indicating small incentives for households (and retailers) to adopt dynamic pricing of electricity.

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  • 157. Walden, John B.
    et al.
    Färe, Rolf
    Grosskopf, Shawna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Department of Economics, Oregon State University.
    Measuring change in productivity of a fishery with the Bennet-Bowley indicator2017In: Fishery Bulletin, ISSN 0090-0656, E-ISSN 1937-4518, Vol. 115, no 3, p. 273-283Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The U.S. National Marine Fisheries Service has undertaken to measure the economic performance of fisheries that have implemented catch shares as a management strategy. Among the metrics used, change in productivity was identified as important, and considerable research has been conducted to construct metrics and to measure this change. We introduce the Bennet-Bowley (BB) indicator as another tool to measure change in productivity, show how to construct the indicator, and apply it to the northeast multispecies fishery, which adopted a catch share system in 2010. The BB indicator is then used to show the contribution of vessels entering, continuing within, and exiting the fishery to overall fleet productivity. Results showed that after catch share management, fleet productivity declined and that vessels continuing in the fishery as a group contributed the most to a decline in aggregate productivity. On a per-vessel basis, a core group of vessels continuing in the fishery and that were present throughout the study period showed a decline in productivity after catch share management was implemented. These declines were caused by reduced outputs (i.e. catch) in relation to use of inputs (e.g. labor, fuel, materials) after catch shares were implemented.

  • 158.
    Warde, Paul
    et al.
    Faculty of History, University of Cambridge.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Economic History.
    Heat in a Cold Climate: Household Energy Choices in the Scandinavian North, 1890–19702019In: Journal of Northern Studies, ISSN 1654-5915, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 61-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines the timing, scale and cause of transitions between different kinds of household energy use and especially heating in northern Sweden, with a focus on Norrbotten, between the late nineteenth century and 1970. It examines the related but separate histories of the adoption of new heating technologies, such as stoves and boilers, and the choice of fuels, such as firewood, coke, oil, and electricity, providing new data on the scale of consumption and timing of transition. The article demonstrates the important linkage between domestic fuel choice and labour markets, whether labour in farm and forest affecting stove use in the nineteenth century, or increased female labour participation outside the home and rising wages in the twentieth. The article goes beyond discussions of price and technology to consider the wider contexts of domestic use not only in terms of home life, but also industrial development and labour markets in northern Sweden.

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  • 159.
    Zabel, Astrid
    et al.
    Institute of Environmental Decisions (IED), Environmental Policy and Economics Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH, Zürich, Switzerland.
    Bostedt, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Engel, Stephanie
    Institute of Environmental Decisions (IED), Environmental Policy and Economics Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH, Zürich, Switzerland.
    Outcomes and determinants of success of performance payment schemes for carnivore conservation2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a first empirical assessment of the outcomes and determinants of carnivore conservation success in Sweden’s pioneer performance payment scheme. Carnivores in northern Sweden depend on reindeer as prey which causes conflicts with reindeer herders. As compensation and conservation incentive, the government issues performance payments to reindeer herder villages based on the number of carnivore offspring certified on their land. The villages decide on the internal use and distribution of the payments. In the literature, it is generally assumed that benefit distribution rules are exogenously given. We extend the literature by developing a model to investigate such rules as endogenous decision. We hypothesize that conservation success is determined by natural geographical factors and each village’s capability to engage in collective action to manage the internal payments so that conserving rather than hunting carnivores becomes villagers’ optimal strategy. The hypotheses developed are tested with empirical village and household-level data from Sweden. The paper concludes that if limited hunting is legal, conservation success strongly depends on villages’ potential for collective action and their payment distribution rule. In cases without legal hunting, performance payments together with penalties on poaching provide sufficient incentives for herders to refrain from illicit hunting. Furthermore, the data reveals that villages’ group size has a direct negative effect on conservation outcomes as predicted by collective action theory. However, there is also an indirect effect which positively impacts conservation outcomes through the payment distribution rule. This result, at least in part, revises the general collective action hypothesis on purely negative effects of group size and highlights the importance of investigating factors driving groups’ internal benefit distribution rules.

  • 160.
    Zhang, Shanshan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Lundgren, Tommy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Zhou, Wenchao
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Energy efficiency in Swedish Industry: A firm-level data envelopment analysis2016In: Energy Economics, ISSN 0140-9883, E-ISSN 1873-6181, Vol. 55, p. 42-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper assesses energy efficiency in Swedish industry. Using unique firm-level panel data covering the years 2001–2008, the efficiency estimates are obtained for firms in 14 industrial sectors by using data envelopment analysis (DEA). The analysis accounts for multi-output technologies where undesirable outputs are produced alongside with the desirable output. The results show that there was potential to improve energy efficiency in all the sectors and relatively large energy inefficiencies existed in small energy-use industries in the sample period. Also, we assess how the EU ETS, the carbon dioxide (CO2) tax and the energy tax affect energy efficiency by conducting a second-stage regression analysis. To obtain consistent estimates for the regression model, we apply a modified, input-oriented version of the double bootstrap procedure of Simar and Wilson (2007). The results of the regression analysis reveal that the EU ETS and the CO2 tax did not have significant influences on energy efficiency in the sample period. However, the energy tax had a positive relation with the energy efficiency.

  • 161.
    Östberg, Katarina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Department of Forest Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Håkansson, Cecilia
    Environmental Strategies Research, School of Architecture and the Built Environment, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hasselström, Linus
    Enveco Environmental Economics Consultancy Ltd, Skärholmen, Sweden.
    Bostedt, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Benefit transfer for environmental improvements in coastal areas: General versus Best-Fitting models2013In: Canadian Journal of Agricultural Economics-Revue Canadienne D'Agroeconomie, ISSN 0008-3976, E-ISSN 1744-7976, Vol. 61, no 2, p. 239-258Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recognizing the important policy task of securing the benefits from marine coastal waters subject to time and funding constraints has increased interest in benefit transfer (BT). However, many of the advances in BT recommended by researchers would be too costly to implement. This paper presents two choice experiment (CE) studies on marine areas in Sweden where respondents from local and distant populations were surveyed. BT for attributes relevant to the European Union's Water Framework Directive and the implementation of special consideration zones in marine areas were evaluated by equivalence tests. A comparison of the performance between a “general” BT model including only easily available socio-economic information and a statistically “best-fitting” model that requires the collection of more detailed information shows very similar results. Using a general model saves money and time since the information needed can be easily obtained from public databases and it does not lead to any significant reductions in accuracy or reliability. The issue of including socio-economic information in CE modeling for BT is important, since the model specification will determine the type of information that must be collected at the policy site; however, the results are inconclusive as to whether it improves BT or not.

    La reconnaissance de l'importante tâche politique visant à protéger les avantages tirés des eaux marines côtières, exposée à des contraintes de temps et de financement, suscite un intérêt accru pour le transfert d'avantages (TA). Toutefois, la mise en œuvre d'un bon nombre des percées en matière de TA recommandées par les chercheurs serait trop coûteuse. Dans le présent article, nous présentons deux études sur des zones marines de la Suède réalisées selon la méthode des choix multi-attributs et auxquelles ont participé des répondants provenant de populations locales et éloignées. Le TA dans le cas d'attributs figurant dans la Directive-cadre sur l'eau de l’Union européenne et la détermination de zones nécessitant une prise en compte particulière au sein des zones marines ont été évalués à l'aide de tests d'équivalence. Une comparaison de la performance du modèle de TA « général », qui comprend uniquement des données socio-économiques facilement obtenables, et de celle du modèle de TA « optimal », qui comprend une collecte de données détaillées, montre des résultats très similaires. L'utilisation du modèle général permet d'économiser du temps et de l'argent puisque l'information requise est facilement accessible dans les bases de données publiques, sans diminution significative de la précision ou de la fiabilité. La question d'inclure des données socio-économiques dans le modèle de choix multi-attributs pour le TA est importante puisque que la spécification du modèle déterminera le type de données qu'il faut collecter sur l'endroit visé par la politique. Toutefois, les résultats ne permettent pas d'indiquer si le TA est amélioré ou non.

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