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  • 151.
    Lundborg, Tom
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    The Virtualization of Security: Philosophies of Capture and Resistance in Baudrillard, Agamben and Deleuze2016In: Security Dialogue, ISSN 0967-0106, E-ISSN 1460-3640, Vol. 47, no 3, 255-270 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The virtual has during the last couple of decades emerged as a forceful conceptual tool in security studies. While used primarily in order to question assumptions about an objective truth concerning the meaning and value of security and different forms of insecurity, the implications of drawing on this concept vary considerably depending on how the virtual is conceptualized, and specifically how the potentiality of the virtual is linked to the process of actualization. Turning to the philosophies of Baudrillard, Agamben and Deleuze, as well as key thinkers in contemporary security studies, this article delineates three different approaches to analysing the virtualization of security. Focusing in particular on how these approaches point to contending views of ‘capture’ and ‘resistance’, it is argued that the choice of approach has serious implications for grasping what is at stake politically in the process of virtualization. These implications relate, more precisely, to how the virtual opens up and/or closes down the spaces of resistance that the modern subject of security traditionally has relied upon. In this way, the virtualization of security is not only important for thinking about capture and resistance, but challenges the very ground on which the modern subject of security rests.

  • 152.
    Nygren, Bertil
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), Political Science Section.
    Normative and Ideological Frictions between Russia and Europe: issues of Security, Economic Integration, Democracy and Human Rights2009In: A Resurgent Russia and the West: the European Union, NATO and Beyond / [ed] Roger E. Kanet, Hague: Dordrecht , 2009, 113-134 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 153.
    Nygren, Bertil
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), Political Science Section.
    Putin's attempt to subjugate Georgia: from sabre-rattling to the power of the purse2007In: Russia: Re-emerging Great Power / [ed] Roger E. Kanet, ndmills, Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007, 107-123 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 154.
    Nygren, Bertil
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Putin’s Use of Natural Gas to Reintegrate the CIS region2008In: Problems of Post-Communism, ISSN 1075-8216, Vol. 55, no 4, 3-15 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 155.
    Nygren, Bertil
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Russia and Georgia: from confrontation to war. what is next?2010In: Russian Foreign Policy in the 21st Century / [ed] Roger E. Kanet, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010, 101-120 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 156.
    Nygren, Bertil
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Russia in the CIS Region: The Russian Regional Security Complex2010In: Key Players and Regional Dynamics in Eurasia: the return of the 'great game' / [ed] Maria Raquel Freire och Roger E. Kanet, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010, 13-28 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 157.
    Nygren, Bertil
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), Political Science Section.
    Russia on our minds: Russian security policy and Northern Europe2009Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 158.
    Nygren, Bertil
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Russian Resource Policies Towards the CIS Countries2012In: Russia and its Near Neighbours / [ed] Maria Raquel Freire and Roger E. Kanet, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012, 223-245 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 159.
    Nygren, Bertil
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), Political Science Section.
    Russia's Relations with Belarus and Ukraine2005In: The New Security Environment:  The Impact on Russia, Central and Eastern Europe / [ed] Roger E. Kanet, Aldershot: Ashgate , 2005, 149-164 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 160.
    Nygren, Bertil
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), Political Science Section.
    Russia's Relations with Georgia2005In: Russia as a great power: dimensions of security under Putin / [ed] Jakob Hedenskog, Vilhelm Konnander, Ingmar Oldberg, Christer Pursuainen, Bertil Nygren, London and New York: Routledge , 2005, 156-181 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 161.
    Nygren, Bertil
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Rysslands relationer med OSS-länderna2009In: Ryssland: politik, samhälle och ekonomi / [ed] Anna Jonsson och Carolina Vendil Pallin, Stockholm: SNS förlag, 2009, 270-296 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 162.
    Nygren, Bertil
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Sovjetunionen och dess världsbild – utrikespolitiska doktriner under kalla kriget2012In: Kalla kriget: Sverige - en stormakt utan vapen? / [ed] Kurt Almqvist, Kristian Gerner, Stockholm: Axel och Margaret Ax:son Johnson stiftelse , 2012, 145-155 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 163.
    Nygren, Bertil
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    The 2012 Presidential Problem: Reset once again in Russian-US Relations?2012In: Competing for Influence:: The EU and Russia in Post-Soviet Eurasia / [ed] Maria Raquel Freire and Roger E. Kanet, Dordrecht: True Republic of Letters , 2012, 179-204 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 164.
    Nygren, Bertil
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), Political Science Section.
    The EU Democratic norm project for Eurasia2008In: The European Union and strategy: an emerging actor / [ed] Kjell Engelbrekt and Jan Hallenberg, London and New York: Routledge , 2008, 111-130 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 165.
    Nygren, Bertil
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), Political Science Section.
    The implications for Putin's policy toward Ukraine and Belarus of NATO and EU expansion2006In: Changing Transatlantic Security relations: do the US, the EU and Russia form a new strategic triangle? / [ed] Jan Hallenberg and Håkan Karlsson, London, New York: Routledge , 2006Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 166.
    Nygren, Bertil
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), Political Science Section.
    The Rebuilding of Greater Russia: Putin's foreign policy towards the CIS countries2008Book (Refereed)
  • 167.
    Nygren, Bertil
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), Political Science Section.
    Unilateral endeavours challenging governance in the energy sector: Russia, China, and the U.S2009In: European security governance: the European Union in a Westphalian world / [ed] Charlotte Wagnsson, James A. Sperling & Jan Hallenberg, Routledge, 2009, 94-113 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 168.
    Nygren, Bertil
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Using the neo-classical realism paradigm to predict Russian foreign policy behaviour as a complement to using resources2012In: International Politics, ISSN 1384-5748, E-ISSN 1740-3898, Vol. 49, no 4, 517-529 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This essay presents the argument that analysts, crystal ball readers and general future-tellers generally should to a much higher extent rely on claimed interests of great powers than on resources alone in predictions of future behaviour of great powers. Analysts should analyse what states want to do given what they could do, as much as analyse what states could do based on their resources, or analysts should analyse state policy intentions as much as state policy resources.

  • 169.
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Deverell, Edward
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Wagnsson, Charlotte
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Hellman, Maria
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    EU, armed forces and social media: convergence or divergence?2016In: Defence Studies, ISSN 1470-2436, E-ISSN 1743-9698, Vol. 16, no 2, 97-117 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores how armed forces in EU member states work with and view social media in national and international settings, and what the patterns of convergence/divergence are on these issues. To that end, a questionnaire targeted at EU armed forces was constructed. An index of qualitative variation was calculated to explore the relative convergence among respondents (n = 25) on issues of risks and opportunities with using social media nationally and internationally. Consistent with previous research on European armed forces, we found higher levels of divergence than convergence. Contrary to our expectations that similar challenges, joint international standards, and membership in international organizations would foster convergence with regard to social media use in areas of deployment, we found that convergence appeared foremost pertaining to the domestic level. Policy divergence was strongest in areas of deployment.

  • 170.
    Riegert, Kristina
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Good Europeans?: Euro-themes in Swedish, Danish and British TV Newsduring a November Week2008In: Nordicom Review, ISSN 1403-1108, Vol. 29, no 1, 29-44 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Television news narratives are sites where national and transnational identities are cultivated and mobilised. The question is not whether Swedish, Danish or British news stories about Europe are domesticated to fit national news bulletins, but how events are domesticated and how of all European stories between 15-21 November 1999 in three national public service news bulletins indicate that viewers are offered different images of Europe during this week, and that journalists play active roles in constructing ‘themes’ which link together different types of news stories into narratives about ‘us’ and ‘them’. From these there emerged a Swedish ‘moralising global villager’, slightly superior but willing to adapt to changing international realities, an anxious and conscientious Danish ‘we’, trying to do its share despite its self-imposed limitations on EU cooperation, and an engaged humanitarian British ‘we’, who is global in scope but prefers to keep a distance from time consuming Euro-squabbles.

    ‘we’ are made European by the programmes’ producers. The analysis

  • 171.
    Riegert, Kristina
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    "Same Same but Different": New Twists on Old Problems2009In: Television and New Media, ISSN 1552-8316, Vol. 10, no 1, 133-135 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 172.
    Simonsson, Thomas
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    States’ defense policy formation: A study of Sweden in front of the election 2014 from a rational choice perspective2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study uses variables derived from Rational Choice Theory to examine the theory’s predicted covariancebetween public opinion and the parties’ policies. The collection of material has been guided by three arenas: the parliamentarian, the media and the voter’s. It has categorized the analysis based on the strategy concept, using ends, means and ways. It asks how the Moderate Party and the Social Democratic Party changed their strategy within the period of 31 May 2013 and 14 September 2014, and how this can be understood from a rational choice perspective. The purpose of the study is to examine the assumptions of Rational Choice Theory in the Swedish context in front of the election in 2014, and to understand this from the perspective of the theory. This can help in our understanding of defense policy formation and to our understanding of states’ relations on the international arena. The results show that there has been a more ambitious change in defense policy which covariates with the indicated positive change in public opinion on defense issues, but this did not make defense issues one of the 2014 election’s most important questions for the voters in choice of party to vote for. This can be understood as rational, seen from a RCT-perspective, since the other issues renders more support, a circumstance that is in line with the history of Swedish elections. 

  • 173.
    Svantesson, Monica
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section. Stockholms universitet.
    Threat Construction inside Bureaucracy: A Bourdieusian Study of the European Commission and the Framing of Irregular Immigration 1974-20092014Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation examines how we construct security threats. Theoretically, it contributes to the literature on securitization and threat construction, which has hitherto overlooked how influential bureaucracies that – in contrast to the police and the military – have little to gain from widened threat perceptions, may still contribute to threat construction.

    The dissertation studies the European Commission and the issue of irregular immigration. By using frame analysis, it firstly explores what constructions of irregular immigration that the Commission generates and to what extent these contribute to threat construction. Using the Bourdieusian concepts of field, capital and habitus, it secondly analyzes how certain constructions of irregular immigration are authorized at the expense of others, due to the inner bureaucratic logic of the Commission.

    The empirical result reveals that the Commission mostly defines irregular immigrants as victims, yet simultaneously favors policy solutions that mainly seek to avert immigration. The Commission thus contributes to threat construction primarily through its policy solutions. Studying the inner logic of the Commission field highlights how informal routines and tacit power relations between Commission departments authorize certain frames over others. Importantly, the analysis shows how the naming of irregular immigrants as victims tends not to cost the officials anything in terms of symbolic capital, whereas the suggesting of less restrictive solutions tends to do so. Definitions and policy solutions thus follow different bureaucratic logics, which enables a mismatch between them. Moreover, the threat construction appears not because Commission officials believe that restrictive measures are the only way to solve problems linked to irregular immigration. On the contrary, officials believe that a multitude of solutions are needed. Instead, the threat construction is an unintended consequence of the logic of the field.

  • 174.
    Wagnsson, Charlotte
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Beyond the RtoP: Responsibility as Doing, Being and Sharing2015In: International Politics Reviews, ISSN 2050-2982, E-ISSN 2046-9292, Vol. 3, no 2, 50-60 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This review article exposes that the scholarly interest in the notion of ‘responsibility’ in the field of security studies goes far beyond the ‘Responsibility to Protect’ and the debate on emerging ‘responsible stakeholders’ in Asia. It is argued that the significant scholarly attention to ‘responsibility’ reflects political concerns with transnational threats and humanitarian issues, but it also mirrors a quest for status and power in a post-hegemonic security milieu as well as a need to distribute responsibilities among powers in an effective way. The article reviews approximately 160 peer-reviewed articles to expose strengths and weaknesses in the scholarly production of knowledge on responsibility in the field of security studies. The article suggests a new way to categorize works on responsibility in terms of ‘doing’, ‘being’ or ‘sharing’; focusing on one or several of these three aspects is an effective way to capture key contemporary problems in international security.

  • 175.
    Wagnsson, Charlotte
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Divided power Europe: normative divergences among the EU 'big three'2010In: Journal of European Public Policy, ISSN 1350-1763, E-ISSN 1466-4429, Vol. 17, no 8, 1089-1105 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article challenges Ian Manners's 'Normative Power Europe' thesis by arguing that although the European Union (EU) promotes norms in the international arena, it is not different from other powers. Drawing on a large set of empirical data and making use of a new institutionalist framework, it discerns how major European powers - Russia, France, Germany, Britain and the EU - have worked to gain acceptance for their individual favoured normative yardstick in the realm of security. The article concludes that as a consequence of diverging logics of appropriateness in Europe, the EU should rather be regarded as a divided than as a strong normative power. As long as both the EU and its major member states hold strong individual normative ambitions, the Union risks becoming hampered from acting rapidly and concertedly in international crises.

  • 176.
    Wagnsson, Charlotte
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Europa - ta ditt ansvar!2016In: EU och de nya säkerhetshoten / [ed] Antonina Bakardjieva Engelbrekt, Anna Michalski & Lars Oxelheim, Stockholm: Santérus Förlag, 2016, 251-279 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 177.
    Wagnsson, Charlotte
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    NATO’s role in the Strategic Concept Debate: Watchdog, fire-fighter, neighbour or seminar leader?2011In: Cooperation and Conflict, ISSN 0010-8367, E-ISSN 1460-3691, Vol. 46, no 4, 482-501 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article argues that traditional Westphalian powers are increasingly pressured to move beyond Westphalia, towards institutionalization of security co-operation and a broader definition of referent-objects of security. Focusing on the case of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), it notes that the Alliance is severely torn between traditional constructions of ‘the self’ and a need for change. Exploring how NATO handles this dilemma, the article examines how the Alliance articulated its constitutive story during the Strategic concept process of 2009-2010. Four roles crystallised from the reading of the narrative: the fire-fighter, the watchdog, the good neighbour and the seminar leader. It is argued that NATO will be able to meet the exigencies of the post-Westphalian world more or less effectively depending on how it develops in each of these roles. The article concludes that NATO largely remains Westphalian in its four roles, but the launching of the seminar leader role indicates that it may be preparing a farewell toWestphalia. NATO is a composite actor and tensions between academic, global reformist and traditionalist regional story-lines will prevail. Nevertheless, the globalised threat environment is likely to eventually force NATO to fully recognise the need for a more post-Westphalian approach to security.

  • 178.
    Wagnsson, Charlotte
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Security in a Greater Europe : The Possibility of a Pan-European Approach2008Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Can Russia, the European Union and the three major EU member states adopt a unified policy line in the global arena? Charlotte Wagnsson investigates the cohesiveness of ‘greater Europe’ through the detailed scrutiny of policy statements by the leadership elites in the UK, France, Germany, Russia and the EU in connection with three defining events in international security: the crisis in Kosovo of 1999; the terrorist attacks of 9/11 and the Iraq crisis of 2003. This extensive empirical enquiry results in a critical constructivist response to neorealist understandings of European security. 

    The book contrasts the EU’s new way of ‘doing security’ with the established, competitive bilateral interplay in the European security sphere and provides a clue to the kind of security politics that will prevail in Europe. A joint Moscow Brussels approach would improve the chances of both increasing their relative strength vis-à-vis the USA, but serious cleavages threaten to undermine such a ‘greater European’ common view on security. Wagnsson considers the extent to which the major European players pursue similar objectives, and assesses the possible implications for and the chances of greater Europe emerging as a cohesive global actor. This meticulously researched book will interest scholars and students with an interest in international security, the EU’s international role, European international relations and Russian security.  

  • 179.
    Wagnsson, Charlotte
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Hallenberg, Jan
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Conclusion: farewell Westphalia?: the prospects of EU security governance2009In: European Security Governance: the European Union in a Westphalian World / [ed] Charlotte Wagnsson, James A. Sperling, Jan Hallenberg, Routledge, 2009, 127-140 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 180.
    Wagnsson, Charlotte
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Holmberg, Arita
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Conflict Management2014In: Handbook of Governance and Security / [ed] James Sperling, Northampton: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2014, 324-342 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 181.
    Wagnsson, Charlotte
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), Political Science Section.
    Holmberg, Arita
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), Political Science Section.
    Hellman, Maria
    Stockholms Universitet, Institutionen för Journalistik, Medier och Kommunikation.
    The Centrality of Non-traditional Groups for Security in the Globalized Era: The Case of Children2010In: International Political Sociology, ISSN 1749-5679, Vol. 4, no 1, 1-14 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The globalized security situation characterized by transnational threats and international interventionism in ‘‘new wars,’’ connect non traditional local actors and traditional global actors to one another in unprecedented ways. We argue that children in particular need to be highlighted because they are highly pertinent to the globalized security situation, yet they make up one of the few agents that have remained non-politicized in the eyes of the scholarly community. The article suggests a framework of analysis that can generate analyses on security of traditional as well as non-traditional agents. Placing non-traditional groups in the center of attention serves to mirror the complexities of the current security situation better.

  • 182.
    Wagnsson, Charlotte
    et al.
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), Political Science Section.
    Sperling, JamesUniversity of Akron, Ohio, USA.Hallenberg, JanSwedish National Defence College, Department of Security and Strategic Studies (ISS), Political Science Section.
    European Security Governance: The European Union in a Westphalian World2009Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book focuses on problems of, and prospects for, strengthening the global system of security governance in a manner consistent with the aspirations and practices of the EU. The Eu approach to security governance has been successful in its immediate neighbourhood: it has successfully exported its preferred norms and principles to applicant countries, thereby 'pacifying' its immediate neighbourhood and making all of Europe more secure. This edited volume addresses both the practical and political aspects of security governance and the barriers to the globalization of the EU system of security governance, particularly in teh multipolar post-Cold War era. This book will be of great interest to students of security governance, EU politics, European Security and IR in general.

  • 183. Watts, John
    et al.
    Ledberg, Sofia
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Division of Strategy.
    Engelbrekt, Kjell
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Brothers in Arms, Yet Again?: Twenty-first Century Sino-Russian Strategic Collaboration in the Realm of Defence and Security2016In: Defence Studies, ISSN 1470-2436, E-ISSN 1743-9698, Vol. 16, no 4, 427-449 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    2014-2015 were years of turmoil for strategic relations, with Sino-Russian relations emerging as a particularly interesting set of ties to observe. This article asks whether recurrent Sino-Russian exhortations of friendship are mirrored by their strategic alignment in the defence and security realm, half a century after the end of the Sino-Soviet pact during the communist era. We examine the arms trade between the two countries and with regional partners, but also the recent pattern of bilateral and multilateral military exercises, as a combined test of the security and defence relationship.  We are able to show that the image of friendship that both Moscow and Beijing like to promote, while apparent at the UN Security Council and within the BRICS group, remains constrained by rivalry in high-tech segments of the arms industry and by lingering concerns about the prospects of peer interference in their shared regional vicinity.

  • 184.
    Weibull, Louise
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Avdelningen för arbetsvetenskap.
    Emotion matters: Emotion management in Swedish Peace Support Operations2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 185.
    Weibull, Louise
    Swedish National Defence College, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Post-Deployment Disorientation: The emotional remains of uneventful peace support operations2012In: Res militaris, ISSN 2265-6294, Vol. 2, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is widely recognized that participation in high-intensity military missions abroad can result in discomforts, serious health conditions, and psychological consequences for the individual. This article, however, focuses on soldiers' experiences after service in two relatively calm mission areas. It aims to contribute to a discussion of the emotional price soldiers pay even when participating under these circumstances. It argues that although the general view among soldiers is that service abroad is a unique, rewarding and cherished experience, we should further recognize it as an accomplishment that also has other transformative properties. This is often manifested in what is here named 'Post-Deployment Disorientation' (PDD), invoking a different outlook on life and navigation in the social world. This article explores the soldiers' sense-making of this change by adopting an emotion-focused sociological perspective. Confirmation of assumptions made is presented through reference to interviews with 24 Swedish soldiers before, during and after their deployments to Kosovo and Liberia.

  • 186.
    Weibull, Louise
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section. Karlstad universitet.
    Karlsson, Jan Christer
    Karlstads universitet.
    "Don't fight the blue elephant": Humorous Signs as Protests and Conductors of Negotiations in Swedish Peace Support Operations2013In: Res Militaris, E-ISSN 2265-6294, ISSN 2265-6294, Vol. 3, no 3, 1-19 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses upon the role of humour among Swedish soldiers deployed on peace supportoperations, and more specifically on ‘applied' workplace humour (Mulkay, 1988). Applied humour makes certain points about situations, social groups or phenomena beyond pure entertainment. Data refers first and foremost to workplace signs encountered at military compounds in Liberia, Kosovo, Afghanistan, and interviews with 26 Swedish soldiers before, during and after their deployments. The findings suggest that humorous exchanges in missions abroad are omnipresent and serve many purposes: humour is a space for release from various stresses involved in a strictly hierarchical organization as well as in subordination to rules, policies and designed roles - but also where barbed ideas inappropriate for serious communication are vented (Fine, 1988). It is further argued that differences in the nature of operations (i.e. threat level and work tasks) is reflected in the messages' content. Even if the overall purpose of the humorous discourse seems to be more of a safety valve and ‘cathartic-ritual' than making a claim for change, this might in turn depend on the conviction that there is no alternative. Overall, the paper adds to the literature a description of humorous exchanges in a highly structured organizational setting where the need for sense-making is ever present. 

  • 187.
    Weissmann, Mikael
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Hagström, Linus
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Sanctions Reconsidered: the Path Forward with North Korea2016In: The Washington quarterly, ISSN 0163-660X, E-ISSN 1530-9177, Vol. 39, no 3, 61-76 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There have been regular predictions of North Korea’s imminent collapse. Yet, by adapting to changing circumstances, and finding new supply lines and revenue streams, the state has managed to bypass an increasingly strict sanctions regime aimed at rolling back its nuclear program. This article details the economic flows that continue to keep North Korea alive, against all odds, but argued that these areas are difficult to target as even “smart sanctions” are highly likely to have a range of adverse effects on the wider population. That said, this article recommends continued monitoring of the arms trade, and measures to squeeze the court economy and to target remittances from exported laborers. Yet such efforts have to be combined with a smarter diplomacy built on engagement.

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