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  • 151.
    Andersson, Jessica
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Salem, Nellie
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    "Det är ju bara att börja äta": Upplevelser i mötet med vårdpersonal utifrån patienter med ätstörningar2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Skeva kroppsideal i samhället och media ligger centralt i vår tid. Ohälsosam vikt kan upplevas som framgång i livet vilket kan skapa negativ fokusering kring mat som i värsta fall leder till ätstörningar. Det finns en bred komplexitet av faktorer till varför sjukdomen utvecklas och därför är bemötandet från vårdpersonal viktigt att studera för att få utvecklad kunskap om förhållningssätt. Syfte: Syftet med denna litteraturstudie var att beskriva hur patienter med ätstörningar upplever mötet med vårdpersonal. Metod: En allmän litteraturstudie med deskriptiv design baserad på tio vetenskapliga artiklar med kvalitativ ansats. Analysen genomförd utifrån en manifest innehållsanalys. Resultat: De tre kategorierna Omsorgsfull vårdpersonal har betydelse, vikten av kontinuitet och tillgänglighet, värdet av personcentrerad vård följt av två underkategorier vardera utgjorde resultatet. Slutsats: Det framkom att bemötande och kompetens hos vårdpersonal var avgörande för patienternas återhämtning och hade en betydande del i mötet.

  • 152.
    Andersson, Johan
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Lasson, Lotten
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Ett teoretiskt perspektiv på offentlig upphandling och dess nyttjande av uppföljningsmekanismer2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Kommunernas roll i förhållandet till omvärlden har förändrats och det blir allt vanligare att verksamhet som tidigare varit inom kommunens åligganden numera bedrivs i privat regi. Lagen om offentlig upphandling har bidragit till att inköp via konkurrensutsatt upphandling har ökat lavinartat. Offentlig upphandling är en process där stegen från utformandet av förfrågningsunderlaget till kontraktskrivning är reglerat i lagen. Denna studie avser att undersöka det steg som inte är lagreglerat, nämligen myndighetens uppföljning av kontraktet med leverantören. Det är kontraktet som avgör vad och på vilket sätt myndigheten kan göra uppföljningar. Kontraktet är därmed av central betydelse för denna studie. Syftet med följande studie är att utifrån olika perspektiv på kontrakt, förstå hur tidigare erfarenheter av upphandlingsprocessen och samverkan mellan myndigheter leverantör påverkar nyttjandet av uppföljningsmekanismer.

    Till följd av att studiens problemområde är relativt outforskat har en explorativ forskningsstrategi valts. Studiens ansats är abduktiv och metoden av kvalitativ karaktär. Empirisk data har samlats in via semistrukturerade intervjuer med respondenter på sex upphandlande myndigheter.

    Studiens slutsatser är att erfarenhet och samverkan är av grundläggande betydelse för att upphandlande myndighet skall kunna bedriva upphandlingsverksamhet. En viktig komponent i erfarenhetsbegreppet, som studien pekar på, är beställarkompetensen. De upphandlande myndigheter som intervjuats utgår, vid upprättandet av kontraktet, från ett neoklassiskt perspektiv, men detta påverkar sedan inte myndighetens nyttjande av uppföljningsmekanismer. Studiens slutsats är istället att det är den upphandlande myndighetens förväntan och syn på relationen med leverantören som avgör hur den upphandlande myndigheten använder uppföljningsmekanismer.

  • 153.
    Andersson, Johanna
    Kristianstad University College, School of Health and Society.
    Social student's thoughts about ethical codes2009Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

     

    The aim of this essay is to gain knowledge of how individual social students believe that ethical codes should be used in social work, and what the individual social students believe that an ethical code should contain. In this essay I have chosen to work on a qualitative approach because I am looking for subjective experiences. I have chosen to use my focused interviews as data collection method. Interviews are a good choice to find out people's experiences of a phenomenon. The result shows that some of the students felt that ethical codes should be used as support for ethical decisions in their daily work. The other students felt that ethical codes should be used in various forms of mentoring groups, which reflected on ethical dilemmas. Finally, I had a question about what the social students felt that the ethics code should contain. The answer to this question was a rather belated response: the rights of clients, responsibilities for social workers, emphasis on what is important in social work, and what characteristics you should have as a social worker.

  • 154.
    Andersson, Johanna
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Cukur, Amira
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Söfgren, Chatarina
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Sjuksköterskors bemötande av personer med psykisk ohälsa inom somatisk vård2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Trots att psykisk ohälsa är vanlig bland befolkningen, förekommer det fördomar och myter om personer med psykisk problematik. Personer med psykisk ohälsa har ökad förekomst av riskfaktorer i sin livsstil, men får trots detta inte samma uppmärksamhet och behandling vid somatisk sjukdom som övriga. Därför är det av stor vikt att sjuksköterskor har förmåga att bemöta personer med både psykiska och fysiska problem och göra dem delaktiga i vården. Ökad förståelse för bemötandet av personer med psykisk ohälsa inom somatisk vård kan bidra till att förbättra omvårdnaden. Syfte: Syftet med studien var att beskriva faktorer som kan ha betydelse för hur sjuksköterskor inom somatisk vård bemöter personer med psykisk ohälsa. Metod: Metoden var en litteraturstudie baserad på både kvalitativa och kvantitativa empiriska studier. Resultat: I resultatet framkom att kommunikation, rädsla, attityder och kunskap var viktiga faktorer som kunde påverka sjuksköterskors bemötande av personer med psykisk ohälsa. Slutsats: Sjuksköterskor behöver ytterligare teoretisk och praktisk utbildning samt handledning i psykiatrisk omvårdnad, både under utbildning och senare i arbetslivet. Ökad kunskap, god kommunikation, positiva attityder och minskad rädsla är en förutsättning för gott bemötande av personer med psykisk ohälsa. Gott bemötande resulterar i god omvårdnad.

  • 155.
    Andersson, Kajsa
    et al.
    Kristianstad University College, School of Health and Society.
    Nilsson, Lisa
    Kristianstad University College, School of Health and Society.
    Ickefarmakologiska åtgärder för att förbättra sömnkvaliteten hos äldre: Litteraturstudie2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: En god sömn är viktig för kroppens välbefinnande. Sömnlöshet (insomni) och sömnsvårigheter har en stor inverkan på livskvalitet och är ett allmänt bekymmer. Sömnstörningar yttrar sig främst som, när det gäller äldre, lång insomningstid, upprepade uppvaknande under natten och svårigheter att då somna om eller att man vaknar tidigare än vanligt på morgonen. Syfte: Syftet med studien var att beskriva ickefarmakologiska åtgärder för att främja sömn hos äldre. Metod: Studien har gjorts som en litteraturstudie. Analys skedde i tre faser från bekantgörande till helhet. Materialet grupperades utifrån likheter i kategorier. Resultat: Resultatet visade att musik, dagsljus, aktivitet, tupplur på dagen kunde främja sömnen hos äldre. Slutsats: Det finns många ickefarmakologiska alternativ att använda mot sömnstörningar som både är kostnadseffektiva och lätta att implementera.

  • 156.
    Andersson, Karin
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Berlin, Tobias
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Att leva som anhörig till en person med Alzheimers sjukdom: en empirisk studie av självbiografier2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Alzheimer's disease is the third leading cause of death in the western world. It is a progressive disease which affects the brain and the person's cognitive abilities. These people are often cared for at home by their spouses, which may be a great strain for the spouses. For professionals to be able to support the spouses in the best manner requires an understanding of how they are experiencing their situation. Aim: The purpose of this study was to illuminate the spouses´ experiences of living with a person with Alzheimer's disease. Method: An empirical study with qualitative approach was made on four autobiographies. A content analysis was used to analyze the material. Results: The results showed that the spouses´ feelings were mostly negative. However, there were moments of joy and love which gave the relatives strength to keep on fighting. They experienced feelings of frustration, anger, rage, guilt and acceptance. This went on in a repeating cycle. It was as if they were in a treadmill and struggled to get out of. Conclusion: Nurses have an important role to play. The relatives are in a vulnerable position and by listening, understanding and supporting these, it is beneficial not only for them, but also for their partners.

     

  • 157.
    Andersson, Kim
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Hiv - En förstummande sjukdom?: socionomstudenters och socialsekreterares attityder till hiv-positiva2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to examine social workers' and social work students' attitudes towards people living with hiv in Sweden. I will also examine if there is a connection between knowledge and attitudes. The questions at issue are how social workers' and social work students' attitudes can assume to influence on their professional practice and what causes can affect their attitudes towards people living with hiv. The study is based on a qualitative method. The methods have been: conversational interviews with five social workers, who work with family issues and integration, and a focused group interview with four social work students. Both forms of interviews were combined with the vignette method. The theoretical framework of this study is symbolic interactionism.

    The result of the study indicates that both the social work students and the social workers lack adequate knowledge about hiv, however, the respondents are capable of reflecting and are able to put themselves into others' situations and therefore they will not discriminate their clients because of their disease. Results of the study also indicate that there is a great ambiguity among all of the respondents because of the lack of knowledge and adequate education.

  • 158.
    Andersson, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Mattisson, Marcus
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Nedskrivning av goodwill: organisatoriska, individuella och miljömässiga faktorers påverkan2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med denna forskningsstudie är att förklara om företag som är noterade på Stockholmsbörsen bidrar till nedskrivning av goodwill. Detta kommer att försöka förklaras utifrån individuella, organisatoriska och miljömässiga faktorer.Teoretisk referensram: Forskningsstudien utgås utifrån agentteorin, positiva redovisnings teorin och den institutionella teorin. Utifrån de valda teorierna formas hypoteser utifrån individuella, organisatoriska och miljömässiga faktorer.Metod: Forskningsstudiens är en dokumentstudie som har utgångspunkt som tillämpar en deduktiv ansats. Vidare har forskningsstudie tillämpat en kvantitativ ansats och hämtar insamlad data utifrån företag på Stockholmsbörsen.Analys: Forskningsstudiens analys använder sig av statistiska tabeller för att analysera företagens insamlade data. Här används Pearsons bivariata korrelationstest och multipla regressionsanalyser för att hitta samband mellan beroenda och oberoende variabler.Slutsats: Forskningsstudiens slutsats visar att ett fåtal hypoteser uppnår signifikantnivå. Härigenom förkastas inte hypoteserna eftersom att helheten för modellerna inte är signifikanta går det inte att dra några slutsatser gällande hur de valda faktorerna har sin påverkan kring nedskrivning av goodwill.

  • 159.
    Andersson, Lina
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Ekelund, Jessica
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Tråkmånsar vs Tidsoptimister: en studie om förväntningsgapet mellan redovisningskonsulter och egenföretagare2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The accountants and auditors market situation has changed since the audit requirement was abolished in November 2010. From being a complement to the auditor, with main focus on managing a company's financial dealings, to become the exclusive external financial officers and advisers, the expectations on the accountant’s performance has changed as well.

    Earlier conducted research on the phenomena audit expectation gap have had its main focus on the auditor and the auditing and how the public expect it to be. With this study, we want to contribute to a better understanding of the expectation gap that appears in the relation between the accountants and entrepreneurs that we have found very little research about.

    The purpose of the study is to explore the relation and the expectation gap between accountants and accountants customers. By study both sides of the relation the study will identify factors that’s effect the relation and contribute to an increased understanding of the phenomena of the expectation gap.

    The theoretical framework of this study will give the reader a pre-understanding on the definition of the expectation gap, followed by theories such as profession-, agency-, stakeholder- and legitimacy theory. Furthermore discussions of the expectation gap and a description of the accountants preconditions will follow. 

    To answer the study's purpose and research question, interviews was conducted with accountants and entrepreneurs, and through analysis and interpretation of the interviews a pattern was emerged. These patterns were categorized into different attributes which then resulted in the factors of legitimacy, knowledge, experience, disinterest and personal chemistry.

    The conclusion of this study is that factors of experience and lack of interest are the factors where the expectation gap becomes evident, while it is the personal chemistry and the legitimacy that makes the entrepreneur to stay with its accountant.

  • 160.
    Andersson, Linda
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Maazon, Philip
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Ett hållbart Sverige: en studie om företagsegenskaper som påverkar hållbarhetsredovisningar2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study are to investigate and describe if companies’ sustainability reports differ in substance and quantity between public and Large Cap companies’ and if there are any differences between industries. This study will also analyze if companies’ size, stakeholder group or profitability have some impact on the companies’ sustainability report. The study includes all Swedish public companies and the Large Cap companies.

    To investigate in line of the purpose this study will measure both the substance and quantity. The substance in sustainability reports are based on the social, economic and environmental core indicators from GRI’s guidelines and the quantity is based on the number of pages. A mean value is presented based on the core indicators. Furthermore, five hypotheses are presented and are based on the stakeholder theory, the legitimacy theory and the institutional theory with the purpose to explain the differences in substance and quantity.

    The study’s result indicates that the companies’ size correlates with both substance and quantity. The stakeholder group correlates with substance and quantity of sustainability report. The companies’ sustainability does show a weak correlation to both substance and quantity information. The purpose of the study is also to look at differences in different industries. The results indicate that differences exist in the different industries. Furthermore, this study investigates differences between public companies and Large Cap companies on Stockholm stock exchanges. The result here indicates differences of substance and quantity information between the public companies and the Large Cap companies.

    The first three hypotheses tested correlation between the different factors; companies’ size, profitability and stakeholder group and these hypotheses are accepted. The other two hypotheses tested differences between differences industries and differences between public companies and Large Cap companies and these hypotheses are accepted. Regardless of which factors that affects companies’ sustainability reports one can argue that the main motive of the companies is to gain legitimacy or because their stakeholders request it.

  • 161.
    Andersson, Linda
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Paulsson, Lina
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Klinikchefens uppfattning om tandhygienistens kompetens2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to examine the competence of dental hygienists among Clinic Director´s within the Public Dental Service and Private dentists in the county of Skåne . The study was quantitative and consisted of an electronic questionnaire sent out to all Clinic Directors in the county of Skåne. A total of five hundred and thirty eight questionnaires were sent out. The inclusion criteria were the Clinic directors who employed dental hygienists who had obtained their professional degree during the last four years. Twenty nine Clinic directors responded to the study.

    The results showed that in general clinic directors are pleased and feel that dental hygienists are proficient in periodontology and dental caries diagnostics. There were two clinic directors who felt that dental hygienists should have more knowledge in the fields of endodontics and pedodontics.

    The Clinic directors were asked if they wanted to add a certain skill or specialty to the competence of dental hygienists. Two of the clinic directors said that they would like to see dental hygienists be able to measure blood and sugar levels if needed.

    In conclusion, this study shows that most of the clinic directors thought that the dental hygienists had good knowledge and skills within their operating range. The result of this study must be interpreted with caution because of the low response rate.

  • 162.
    Andersson, Linn
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Österberg, Elin
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Resurser i icke Big 4 byråer: En studie ur ett revisionskvalitetsperspektiv2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Audit quality is a reoccurring field in both research and media. Researchers highlight different factors that affect audit quality and this study focuses on resources. The majority of previous research of audit quality have Big 4 firms as their starting-point. In order to gain a better understanding of the entire audit profession, a smaller firm is the focus of this study. The purpose is to explore resources for auditors in non-Big 4 firms, from an audit quality perspective.

    The study has both deductive and inductive characteristics; the deductive characteristics are visible through a theoretical framework that functions as a foundation for the study. The inductive characteristics have made it possible to research the resources through both the access to, yet also the lack of, as well as the use of resources in non-Big 4 firms. It has, moreover, made it possible to add another perspective since the empirical data showed factors that had not been identified before the data collection was initiated. The empirical data of this study consists to a large extent of primary data from observations, but also of data from semi-structured interviews.

    The results show that auditors at Audit Firm A have access to, and use, all the resources that previous research had shown to affect audit quality in a positive way. Moreover, the results show two new resources that belongs to the newly found capital called material capital, and these resources does also have a positive effect on audit quality. The conclusions drawn are that auditors at Audit Firm A can, with respect to their access to resources, deliver high quality audit.

    The results of the study is based on empirical data from a smaller firm and the theoretical contribution complements previous research of audit quality in Big 4 and non-Big 4 firms. Moreover, the results is also a contribution to audit and audit quality both practical and empirical.

  • 163.
    Andersson, Linneá
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Eriksson, Maria
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Kvinnors upplevelse av olika typer av stöd under och efter bröstcancerbehandling2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In the past 20 years, breast cancer has increased by 1.3 % in Sweden. During the treatment, and the time after requires major support from the environment when the victim will be put in a life crisis. The support is individual and can be emotional, psychosocial and practical. Aim: To illustrate women´s experiences of different type of support during breast cancer treatment and the time after. Method: A literature study based on thirteen qualitative articles. Results: The women were able to get support from various people in the environment and in different ways. What was common was that all experienced that they needed much support to get through the disease. Most were satisfied with their treatment period and after, but those who did not get the right support wished they had got it. Discussion: It was important for women to get support during and after breast cancer treatment. The priority was to be heard, get relevant information, to get to ask questions and that someone cared about them. Conclusion: Nurses face a challenge in meeting with a patient with a severe life crisis and will try to make this experience as good as possible. When the patient gets enough support, this may mean that she comes through the disease easier.

  • 164.
    Andersson, Linnéa
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Fakhro, Hoda
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Hur påverkas lönsamheten i företag av hållbarhetsredovisning?: en kvantitativ studie av svenska aktiebolag2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study’s purpose is to explore the connection regarding sustainability reports and its effect on corporate financial profitability. This study also takes into account industry-specific factors, which previous research are lacking. A quantitative research method has been used. The theoretical framework is based on institutional theory, legitimacy theory and stakeholder theory, which the hypotheses are founded from. The study analyzes the extent of sustainability reports in 2013 and how it affected the financial profitability in 2014. Financial profitability is measured with the indicators ROE and ROA. The study uses a regression analysis, where the independent variables are the business industry, corporate age, balance sheet liquidity, turnover and CSR number of words. The empirical result indicated that there is no connection regarding sustainability report and its effect on financial profitability. The study didn’t either show a connection regarding the company’s industry and its effect on profitability. The study’s research question is therefore answered with that there is no connection regarding sustainability report and its effect on financial profitability. This conclusion is also supported by the study’s control variable, corporate age, balance sheet liquidity and turnover. The result regarding ROE and ROA indicates that none of the variables should be included. The result should be interpreted with caution. The study analyzes the connection in a short period of time, which leads to the lacking of a long-turn aspect.

  • 165.
    Andersson, Linus
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Lindblom, Amanda
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Det kontantlösa samhällets påverkan på SME-företag: En studie om de olika betalsättens effekter2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det skedde en stor utveckling mot ett kontantlöst samhälle i samband med tillkomsten av elektroniska och internetbaserade betalningsmedel i mitten av nittiotalet. De senaste åren har även mobila betalsätt vuxit fram. Effekten av denna utveckling bidrog till ett minskat behov av kontanter, vilket har påverkat företag. Företag har blivit tvungna att anpassa sig till de nya sätten att utföra betalningar men även anpassa sig till marknadens krav då konsumenters köpbeteende har förändrats.

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att synliggöra de effekter som det kontantlösa samhället har på svenska små och medelstora företag. Det har tillämpats en deduktiv utgångspunkt tillsammans med en kvantitativ metod. För att få en större förståelse kring betalsättens påverkan har det utvecklats en modell som mäter nio dimensioner av betalsätten.

    Resultatet visade att högre grad av utsatthet för det kontantlösa samhället leder till större grad av spårbarhet och en mindre grad av enkelhet i betalningen. Detta kan bero på att kontantlösa betalsätt medför en större grad av information och att företag fortfarande finner kontanter som ett enkelt betalmedel att använda. Resultatet visar även att många dagliga transaktioner i ett företag i viss mån leder till större utsatthet för det kontantlösa samhället och att ett företag som i hög grad är utsatt för det kontantlösa samhället har en låg grad av kontroll över timing.

    Eftersom forskningen kring betalmedels påverkan på SME-företag är begränsad kan denna studie vara av värde då den belyser just detta. Denna uppsats visar på just de effekter som förändringen mot det kontantlösa samhället kan har på SME-företag. 

  • 166.
    Andersson, Malin
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Rubin, Christin
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Patienters erfarenheter och behov av informationsgivning gällande sexualliv vid hjärt- och kärlsjukdom: en litteraturstudie ur ett patientperspektiv2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Cardiovascular disease is the most common endemic disease in Sweden and many patients may experience problems with their sex life. A person's sex life is linked to perceptions of health, and one of the nurse's roles is to promote health and relieve suffering.

    The aim of this study is to examine, from a patient’s perspective, aspects of disclosed information regarding the sex life of patients with cardiovascular disease.

    Method: A literature review of ten articles which includes both qualitative and quantitative approach is studied and the results are compiled using the manifest content analysis.

    Results: The needs and experiences of patients as well as their preferred choice of information concerning sex vary. Some patients feel that the available information about sex life is sufficient, while others feel that the information is both insufficient and inadequate. Patients prefer a combination of both written and verbal information. The study also revealed that patients may experience embarrassment and shame when asked about their sex life.

    Conclusion: Information about the sexual life of patients with cardiovascular disease should be designed according to the individual needs of the patient.

  • 167.
    Andersson, Malin
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Tufvesson, Malin
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Barnavårdsutredningar i tid eller otid?2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to investigate social workers and managers experiences of ending child welfare investigations within the statutory period of four months. We also investigated their experience of investigation time is used in practice. To get answers for our purpose, we conducted a qualitative study. We strategic selected three social workers and four managers to our interviews.

    The results showed that both social workers and managers have experience with child welfare investigations that are not completed within the statutory time. A township that departed had no experience. Reasons for child welfare investigations not being completed within four months were high case load, staff shortages and that the documentation was neglected due to new urgencies. This was due to an organizational problem. The results showed that there was a distinction between the reasons for an extension of the investigation which is legal with what is stipulated in practice. Our conclusions are that high workload leads to child welfare investigations prolonged longer than the statutory period and that investigations may have lower quality. When laws are not followed and documentation are neglected that affects the client's legal security.

  • 168.
    Andersson, Malin
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Forskningsplattformen Hälsa i samverkan. Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Tufvesson, Malin
    Kristianstad University, Forskningsplattformen Hälsa i samverkan. Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Barnavårdsutredningar i tid eller otid?2013Report (Other academic)
  • 169.
    Andersson, Maria
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Collin, Jenny
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Sjuksköterskors attityder till patienter med övervikt inom sjukvården2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Overweight is a growing problem in society leading to increased work absences and increased cost to society. In their work situation nurses sometime meet patients with overweight. To be able to help patients with overweight nurses should approach patients with overweight with an attitude that doesn´t offend them. Aim: The aim of this literature review was to examine nurses attitudes towards patients with overweight in nursing care. Method: This study was carried out as a literature study based on twelve scientific articles where of four was qualitative articles and eight was quantitative articles. Result: Four main categories and two sub categories identified as essential for nurses attitudes towards patients with overweight. The main categories were: Nurse´s attitudes and experience of patient with overweight, Nurse´s attitude towards patient with overweight in relation to own weight, Nurse´s attitude based on insecurity and fear and Nurse´s attitude to take up the subject obesity. Conclusion: The result of this study show that increased knowledge and increased reflection can help nurses to be professional and neutral when meeting people who are overweight.

  • 170.
    Andersson, Marina
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Gränsdragning mellan två yrkesroller: en studie med fokus på upplevelsen av det sociala samspelet inom arbetsgrupper bestående av förskollärare och barnskötare2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: På dagens arbetsplatser finns det ofta en mängd olika yrkestitlar representerade med yrkesutbildningar på skilda nivåer. Syftet med studien är att undersöka hur barnskötare och förskollärare ser på yrkesrollerna och dess samspel. Syftet är att synliggöra hur det ser ut i en verksamhet, där arbetsgrupper innehåller olika yrkeskategorier. Vilka är likheterna och skillnaderna mellan de olika yrkeskategorierna gällande status, ledarskap, ansvar och uppgifter?

     

    Metod: Studien är kvalitativ. Insamlingen av material gjordes genom djupintervjuer och med hjälp av ett frågeformulär som besvarades via internet. Målet med studien var att fånga hur informanterna upplever sitt yrke. Studien gjordes utifrån tanken att yrkesgruppernas arbetsuppgifter ligger nära varandra trots skillnaderna mellan yrkeskategoriernas utbildningsnivå. Studien gjordes inom barnomsorgen på ett antal förskolor med förskollärare och barnskötare.

     

    Analysen: Datamaterialet kodades in i kategorier som grundar sig på meningskategorisering och meningskodning. Analysen presenteras sedan som en sammanhängande text.

     

    Resultat: Hur kunskapen fördelar sig på, mellan barnskötare och förskollärare, verkar bero i hög grad på hur länge individerna har varit yrkesverksamma, och i betydligt lägre grad på de skillnader som skapas av utbildningsnivån. Oavsett yrkesgrupp läggs primär fokus på att skapa en trygg miljö för barnen. Status har mycket liten inverkan på samspelet mellan arbetsgruppen. De skillnader i status som framkommer är att förskollärare har fler privilegier, exempelvis förskollärarträffar, än vad barnskötare har.

  • 171.
    Andersson, Mary-Ann
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Rebecka, Nilsson
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Financial or performance auditing?: the role of elected auditors in Swedish municipalities2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to see if the elected auditors in the Swedish municipalities focus more on financial or on performance auditing in the audit report. This is a very important question today in the public sector because of the change in the elected auditor’s duties and responsibility. The public organizations management and accounting today are influenced by the private sector; therefore there must be a change in the elected auditor’s role in the public organization.

    The investigation was done by going through the audit reports of the municipalities of Sweden. The factors looked at were connected to both financial auditing and performance auditing and public management and accounting. Besides looking for factors, the number of words connected to each factor was counted. Since we only received audit reports from 232 out of 290 municipalities, our result is a little skewed representing the larger municipalities.The results from this study is that there is significantly more information concerning financial auditing rather than performance auditing in the audit report in the municipalities of Sweden. Also the political majority has no effect on the content of the audit report, nor do the political parties affect the amount of information concerning financial or performance auditing. The study also shows that the use of professional auditors in the municipalities can affect the content of the audit reports, both when it comes to financial and performance auditing.

  • 172.
    Andersson, Matilda
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Andersson, Chanette
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Omvårdnad av patienter med cancer inom palliativ vård: en litteraturstudie2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Cancersjukdom är bakomliggande orsak till över 90 procent av alla registrerade dödsfall på specialiserade palliativa vårdenheter i Sverige. Målet med omvårdnaden inom palliativ vård är att skapa förutsättningar för en så god livskvalitet som möjligt för patienten oavsett diagnos. Det symtom som cancer oftast förknippas med är smärta och flertalet patienter inom palliativ vård har behandlingskrävande smärta. Sjuksköterskan tillhör den yrkesprofession som oftast står närmst patienten och bedömer patientens problematik. Ett av sjuksköterskans ansvarsområden är att lindra lidande. Syfte: Syftet var att beskriva sjuksköterskans erfarenhet av omvårdnad inom palliativ vård av patienter med cancer. Metod: Studien var en litteraturstudie baserad på en analys av tio vetenskapliga empiriska studier inom ämnesområdet. Resultat: Resultatet presenteras utifrån fyra kategorier: sjuksköterskans erfarenhet av att använda och söka kunskap, att främja livskvalitet, att stödja anhöriga samt oförmåga att påverka. Slutsats: Resultatet visade att sjuksköterskan har kunskapsbrist vid omvårdnad av patienter med cancer inom palliativ vård. Det är främst inom behandling av cancerrelaterad smärta som kunskapsbrist förekommer. Genom litteraturstudien kan sjuksköterskor få ökad kunskap om vilka erfarenheter deras kollegor har inom ämnesområdet för att själva utvecklas och kunna erbjuda god omvårdnad av patienter inom palliativ vård.

  • 173.
    Andersson, Matilda
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Grahn, Cindy
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Har aktiv fondförvaltning något värde?: en kvantitativ studie om aktivitetsgraden i aktivt förvaltade fonder2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    For decades, the problem of portfolio management has been discussed, specifically the comparisons between the opposite poles ‘active’ and ‘passive’ management. Previous research has shown that passive management is preferred over active management, predominantly because of the expensive management fees, as well as proponents assuming an efficient market. The subject area is a well- explored area yet, highly relevant. Previous research has not highlighted the trading frequency in actively managed funds and an implication for further analysis within this area was given.

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze whether the frequency of trade in actively managed funds may explain the risk-adjusted return, taking into account the management fees. A deductive approach will be applied to the development of existing theory. Based on the thesis purpose, a quantitative method was applied. As well as analyzing the information assigned by the mutual fund companies’ fund reports for conducting tests at different time periods.

    Results of the thesis are based on 81 actively managed funds, indicating that it is not possible to reveal that, a higher frequency of trade will lead to a higher risk-adjusted return. Likewise, a higher management fee is not justified by the level of activity. The outcomes of the analysis are depicted through tables to provide a visualization of the statistical and analytical questions explored. Suggestions for future research include; consideration of what the fund companies define as requirements that will be classified as actively managed funds.

    Based on the above notions the frequency of trade is a new approach to the evaluation of active management. Investors are presumed to have a known interest in what stimulates high management fees and how the money invested will be managed. With respect to the conclusion of this study; the level of the frequency in trade does not add any value.

  • 174.
    Andersson, Mikaela
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Landhager, Elin
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    "Keep the spirit": cultural differences after an acquisition process2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Mergers and acquisitions have received much attention through the years due to the waves of modernity it has implicated. Three crucial aspects that can shape a merger or an acquisition are culture, leadership and human resource management. These aspects are studied and analyzed in a Swedish company that has been involved in an acquisition process with a French company. 

    The purpose of this dissertation is to explore the role of culture, leadership and human resource management in an acquisition process between a French/Swedish company. An abductive research approach is adopted for the research since a mixture between inductive and deductive research approach is used. The method chosen was semi-structured interviews, which was fulfilled with the management team in the chosen company as well as with a consultant. 

    The findings of the study are that the three aspects have an impact on the acquisition process where culture is the most central. The culture had a significant impact on the acquisition process and affected the leadership and the human resource management within the company as well. In the company studied, the human resource management was lacking and found that communication is crucial during an acquisition process. 

    The limitations are that only one company is studied and the aspects are limited to culture, leadership and human resource management. The original value of the study can give a clearer picture on how the three aspects affect each other and the total acquisition process. Suggestions for further research include analyzing additional processes and cultures, not only the ones chosen in this dissertation.

  • 175.
    Andersson, Monica
    Kristianstad University College, School of Health and Society.
    Bokföringsbrott: ansvarsfrågan2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There are today no existing demands of special accounting knowledge required when running a business. If the book-keeping contain accounting failures it can lead to responsibility for a crime. In absence of accounting knowledge the owner of the business could be responsible for accountancy crime without knowing it. Accounting is often prerequisite in finding accountancy crime. The role of the entrepreneur is to make profitable earnings, pay taxes, and make decisions in the interest of the business. The owner is always held responsible for the book-keeping even though an accountant is hired. The penalty for accountancy crime facing the owner are fines and conditional sentence and jail. The public and the auditor have different opinions of what an auditor should be responsible for. The auditor has a juridical responsibility of the content in the Auditor´s report according to the law.

  • 176.
    Andersson, Nilla
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Persson, Margela
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Lidande och sorg: vad upplever närstående som stödjande från sjuksköterskan?2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: As a nurse you will meet critical ill patients and their relatives. When someone is ill, the whole family will be involved and it is important that the relatives get help with the grief process where the nurse plays a central role. Purpose: The purpose was to describe how relatives experienced the support from the nurse in their suffering and grief. Method: The study was conducted as a literature review and was based on twelve scientific papers. Result: The result showed that relatives to critical ill patients considered that straight and honest information from the nurse was very important. To feel noticed, respected, safe and cared for were other important factors that contributed to that the relatives experienced nurse’s support as satisfactory. Discussion: It is important that the nurse shows her concern about relatives and have the courage to ask in what way they want help in their grief and their suffering. The nurse should also help relatives to maintain some hope even in difficult situations. Conclusion: Nurses need more education in the area and they need experience to be able to face the relative’s needs in their suffering and grief.

  • 177.
    Andersson, Nina
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Börjesson, Emma
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Hållbarhetsredovisning- För Vem?: centrala intressenters möjliga påverkan på icke-statliga företags hållbarhetsredovisning2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Companies today face more and more demands from society and stakeholders. It is no longer about just satisfying shareholders, sales and making a profit. Consumers are becoming more aware of products effects and the consequences it has on humans, our environment and the generation ahead of us. NGO:s and society request that companies take responsibility and actions toward a more sustainable business. Many investors analyze companies’ sustainability regarding social and environmental issues when it comes to choosing a company to invest in. Sustainability has been an issue that companies today need to consider in their strategies, and several companies today develop a sustainability report on the side of their annual report. The intent with this report is to show stakeholders that they handle non financial issues such as environmental issues, social rights and business ethics but also what they do and do not do regarding the surrounding environment. How and to what extent they do this is the company’s choice. Since non government owned companies in Sweden do not need to develop a report, it is a free option. Even so, sustainability reporting is a common strategy and complement for companies today.

    The aim for this study is to study the possible effect that central stakeholders hold on companies’ sustainability reports. We also study what companies and stakeholders think about sustainability development and what the expression stands for. This study was undertaken through a literature-study with relevant theories and an empirical study on five non government owned companies that have a sustainability report available on the internet. We have also interviewed four stakeholders, whom according to the companies we interviewed are the most central. By this we receive stakeholder’s perspectives and opinions.

    Our study showed that stakeholders have an impact on the overall sustainability-work but not much impact on the sustainability report. Stakeholders that claimed they had effect on the report were the shareholders and NGO: s. Among other findings was that both stakeholders and companies supported the dialogue and relationship between each other as the main strategy for enhancing sustainability. However the dialogue and relationship did not seem as relevant in the actual creation of a sustainability report. To what extent the report is used by stakeholders and its actual purpose is therefore an aspect we are analyzing.

    Implications of this study show that stakeholders have little impact on sustainability reports and it is stakeholders with most power that have an impact; however, companies agree that stakeholders have impact on the overall sustainability development. Demands from stakeholders are then discussed through dialogues and cooperation. Limitations of this study could be that we focused on stakeholders that companies found most central, maybe we missed some perspectives from other stakeholders. We used telephone and email interviews and that could be a limitation. We could have missed some face to face expressions and opinions that are hard to catch over telephone and e-mail. The main value of this paper is that we interview both companies and central stakeholders and the possible impact they have on sustainability reports. By this we get a wide range of perspectives from both parts, which we have not found in article and theories before.

  • 178.
    Andersson, Ola
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Gage R&R studie på mätutrustning för förpackningsavstånd2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the thesis is to analyse and understand resolution, repeatability and reproducibility of the measurement system for package distance. The measurement system for package distance is already in use, no Gage R&R has been performed on the system and before spreading use of the system the quality of the system has to be understood and approved

  • 179.
    Andersson, Oscar
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap II.
    Följeforskningsprocessen2015In: Social mobilisering: lärdomar från fyra svenska städer / [ed] Oscar Andersson, Pelle Amberntsson, Malmö: Universus Press, 2015, 1, p. 221-259Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 180.
    Andersson, Oscar
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Forskningsmiljön Människa - Hälsa - Samhälle (MHS). Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap II.
    Slutsatser: empowerment och social mobilisering2016In: Social mobilisering: lärdomar från fyra svenska städer / [ed] Oscar Andersson, Pelle Amberntsson, Malmö: Universus Press, 2016, 1, p. 199-220Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 181.
    Andersson, Oscar
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Forskningsmiljön Människa - Hälsa - Samhälle (MHS). Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap II.
    Social mobilisering: en forskningsöversikt2016In: Social mobilisering: lärdomar från fyra svenska städer / [ed] Oscar Andersson, Pelle Amberntsson, Malmö: Universus Press, 2016, 1, p. 15-56Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 182.
    Andersson, Pernilla
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Hur idrottsläraren motiverar eleverna till fysisk aktivitet i skolan och på fritiden2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Motivation is a word that is well known within the world of school, and a word that is important in sport and health. Pupils' attitude towards physical education is crucial, not only for their schooling, but also in the continued life. To support and help to stimulate students to a good attitude towards physical activity is the physical education teacher. Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate how physical education teacher at the high school motivates students to physical activity at school and at play. Method: Qualitative approach has been chosen for the study, this through individual interviews with six physical education teachers. Results: The results showed that the physical education teacher could play a big role in different work when it comes to motivate students. Through communication, learner adapted teaching and support helps the teacher their students to develop an interest in physical activity and a joy of movement, which can be the basis for a life in which physical activity and health in focus. The teacher can help improve self-esteem by giving positive feedback to students while getting these students to succeed in the task. An important part is that teaching has different options and levels so that all students have the opportunity to experience success. The theme days, students get the opportunity to find an activity that they find interesting and funny. A method to motivate their students is through praise, encouragement, feedback and enthusiasm. A motivated and interested student in physical education is the foundation for lifelong learning. The conclusion: Physical education teachers try to strive to arouse greater interest in physical activity among students by trying to vary teaching as much as possible. They also gave the students the influence of education in the hope of increasing interest. It also concluded that the physical education teacher must be very careful with their interpretation of the curriculum and the design of its programming. Sports teacher shaped students' interest through theme days where students could participate and see several different activities to arouse student interest.

  • 183.
    Andersson, Pernilla
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Håkansson, Caroline
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Spädbarnsskrik: pappors upplevelse av skrikperioden2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Infant cry is associated with intensive crying. The father can experience the crying period as stressful. The specialist nurse at the child health care center has a guiding and supporting role in the fatherhood. How infant cry affects the father's role is not well documented Aim: To describe father's experiences of infant cry during the first six months after delivery Method: A qualitative interview study with content analysis was used to be able to grasp eight father's experiences of living with a crying infant Finding: In the present study the father experienced inadequacy during the crying period. The inadequacy the father felt were in areas such as knowledge about infant cry, as a father and in the relationship with the infant's mother. The support during the crying period was significant. Support from the infant's mother was important but also social network Conclusion: The father wanted to be involved in the infant care and the contact with the child health care center. The specialist nurse can notice the inadequacy the father felt and the support he needs in the fatherhood. Father groups can lead to an exchange of experiences between fathers.

  • 184.
    Andersson, Petra
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    "Man behöver inte spela med de bästa för att vinna": En intervjustudie om hur flickors självförtroende konstrueras inom flickfotbollen2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Football organization characterizes many girls living and is the largest youth sport activity in Sweden. There is no doubt about that sport offers several benefits to human mental and physical wellbeing. Football is an arena where girls’ self-confidence can be promoted and strengthened. In the same time many athletes become victims to the rugged individualism of the pursuit of sporting success. The competition of sports impact of child and adolescent mental health is important to highlight and discuss in football to operate as a health promotion arena. The purpose of this study was to investigate, based on girls 'own experiences, how selfconfident are constructed in the girls' football. The method for collecting the empirical material was an interview in the form of six focus group interviews and two individual interviews, which were based on a semi-structured interview guide. The result, based on qualitative content analysis, showed that girls have different intentions with their football and live in different sporting worlds. Girl's football could not meet the needs of girls who would not venture on its football. Girls self-confidence is constructed in interaction with the environment and it responses to the girls' accomplishments on the football field. Girls' football become more competitive and highlighted the importance of being good. This contributed that the activity inhibited the girls who not venture for their football from a mental health in the form of a lowered self-confidence. From a health promotion and education view, the conclusion was that girls' football in the long term need to find new approaches in order not to deprive the girls the right to mental health and physical activity within the business.

  • 185.
    Andersson, Pia
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Att åldras - ökad risk för sämre tandhälsa?2012In: Ä. En tidning för Riksföreningen sjuksköterskan inom äldrevård, ISSN 2001-1164, Vol. 2, p. 70-72Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 186.
    Andersson, Pia
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Oral Hälsa - Allmänhälsa - Livskvalitet.
    Kvalitatsindikatorer för munhälsa2013In: Kvalitatsindikatorer inom omvårdnad: Svensk sjuksköterskeförening / [ed] Ewa Idvall, Stockholm: Gothia Förlag AB, 2013, 6, p. 30-37Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 187.
    Andersson, Pia
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap III. Kristianstad University, Research environment Oral Health - Public Health - Quality of Life.
    Munhälsa2014In: Omvårdnadens grunder: hälsa och ohälsa / [ed] Anna-Karin Edberg, Helle Wijk, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2014, 2, p. 301-331Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 188.
    Andersson, Pia
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Oral Hälsa - Allmänhälsa - Livskvalitet.
    Munhälsa2013In: Ortopedisk vård och rehabilitering / [ed] Ami Hommel, Carina Bååth, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2013, p. 113-125Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 189.
    Andersson, Pia
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Oral Health - Public Health - Quality of Life.
    Munhälsa2009In: Omvårdnadens grunder: hälsa och ohälsa / [ed] Edberg, Anna-Karin, Wijk, Helle, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2009, p. 349-380Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 190.
    Andersson, Pia
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Oral health status in geriatric rehabilitation patients2004In: International Journal of Dental Hygiene, ISSN 1601-5029, E-ISSN 1601-5037, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 45-45Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 191.
    Andersson, Pia
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Varför behövs en treårig tandhygienistutbildning?2011In: Tandhygienisttidningen, ISSN 1102-6146, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 30-32Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 192.
    Andersson, Pia
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Friman, Göran
    Nordling, Monica
    Folktandvården Jönköpings län.
    Externt munhälsoarbete för personer med funktionsnedsättning i alla åldrar2011In: Att förbättra munhälsan hos personer med funktionsnedsättning - barn, vuxna och äldre: konsensusarbete för effektivare munhälsofrämjande arbete för personer med funktionsnedsättning / [ed] Pia Grabe och Inger Wårdh, Göteborg: Mun-H-Center förlag , 2011, , p. 106-125p. 106-125Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 193.
    Andersson, Pia
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Oral Hälsa - Allmänhälsa - Livskvalitet.
    Hakeberg, Magnus
    Research Center, Public Dental Service, Region Västra Götaland.
    Abrahamsson, Kajsa H.
    Department of Periodontology, Institute of Odontology, The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg.
    Psychometric properties of the Dental Hygienist Anxiety Scale in a group of general dental patients2013In: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6357, E-ISSN 1502-3850, Vol. 71, no 3-4, p. 877-882Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective.  The aim of the present study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Dental Hygienist Anxiety Scale (DHAS) in a sample of adult general dental patients.  Materials and methods.  The DHAS is a questionnaire adapted to assess fear and anxiety of dental hygienist (DH) treatment. The DHAS contains four items and the sum of scores range from 4 (no anxiety) to 20 (extreme fear). A convenient sample of 80 patients in treatment at two DH programs in Sweden were consecutively included in the study. The DHAS was distributed together with questions regarding self-perceived oral health and experience of dental care at the first visit after a clinical examination performed by a DH. Re-test assessments of DHAS were conducted ∼ 2 weeks later in conjunction with the next visit to the DH before treatment (scaling session).  Results.  The results verified a significant positive correlation between the average DHAS sum of scores and global fear of DH and dentist treatment, perceived pain during the last DH treatment and female gender. The DHAS sum of scores had a high internal consistency, Cronbach's  coefficient of 0.89 and 0.87 at the first and at the second assessment, respectively. The test-re-test reliability of the DHAS sum of scores was acceptable, with an intra-class coefficient of 0.82 and Kappa coefficients between 0.49-0.78 for the four single items in the DHAS. Conclusions.  These results suggest that the DHAS has acceptable psychometric proprieties and is a valid and reliable scale to assess anxiety in DH treatment.

  • 194.
    Andersson, Pia
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Hakeberg, Magnus
    University of Gothenburg.
    Karlberg, Gunn
    Karlstad University.
    Östberg, Anna-Lena
    Karlstad University.
    Clinical correlates of oral impacts on daily performances2010In: International Journal of Dental Hygiene, ISSN 1601-5029, E-ISSN 1601-5037, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 219-226Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between oral health measures and oral health-related quality of life as captured by OIDP (oral impacts on daily performances).

    METHODS: The study was performed in three dental clinics in Sweden and included 204 patients, 43.8% men and 56.2% women (aged 20-86 years), consecutively recruited in connection with their routine dental examination. The patients were interviewed using the OIDP followed by a clinical examination. Four bite-wing radiographs were taken in two of the clinics (n = 154). A self-administered questionnaire provided information about socio-economic data.

    RESULTS: Subjects >or=60 years had significantly more missing teeth, lesser maximal jaw opening, higher number of sites with alveolar bone loss and proportionally more filled teeth than younger individuals. Impacts related to the oral health that affected their daily life were reported in 39.7%. Multivariate logistic regressions analysis showed that missing teeth (>or=10) and a limited jaw opening (<40 mm) were significantly associated with having one or more impact as measured with the OIDP [odds ratio (OR) 6.50, 95% CI 1.48-28.43 and OR 2.87, 95% CI 1.03-7.96, respectively].

    CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with diminished functional oral health status (missing teeth and limited jaw opening) had significantly more often one or more oral impacts on daily life than those with fewer than 10 missing teeth and a jaw opening >or=40 mm. The OIDP instrument may be valuable for use in routine dental check-ups in patients with related problems to determine possible oral impacts on daily life.

  • 195.
    Andersson, Pia
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Johannsen, Annsofi
    Arbete mot tobaksbruk kartläggs2009In: Tandläkartidningen, ISSN 0039-6982, Vol. 101, no 7, p. 62-63Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Forskning visar att tandvårdspersonal har bristande kunskaper i hur man hjälper patienter att sluta röka och snusa. En studie pågår därför för att öka kunskapen om metoder för tobaksavvänjning.

  • 196.
    Andersson, Pia
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Oral hälsa och Folkhälsovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Oral Health - Public Health - Quality of Life.
    Johannsen, Annsofi
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Dental patients' perceptions and motivation in smoking cessation activities2016In: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6357, E-ISSN 1502-3850, Vol. 74, no 4, p. 285-290Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    The aim of the present study was to investigate smokers' perceptions of and motivation for smoking cessation activities in dentistry.

    Materials and methods

    Patients who smoked were consecutively recruited from general as well as specialist dental care clinics in Sweden. After a dental visit the patients completed a questionnaire about self-perceived oral health, smoking habits, motivation, reasons to quit and not to quit smoking, support to quit, smoking cessation activities and questions about smoking asked by dentists and dental hygienists.

    Results

    The sample consisted of 167 adult patients (≥ 20 years) who smoked daily. During the last 6 months, 81% of the patients had experienced oral health problems. The most common complaints were discolourations of the teeth, periodontal problems and dry mouth (38%, 36% and 33%, respectively). Improved general health was a major reason to quit smoking (89%). It was also stated that it was important to avoid oral health problems. 71% of the patients preferred to quit by themselves and 16% wanted support from dentistry. High motivation to quit smoking was reported by 20%. Occurrence of periodontitis during the last 6 months was significantly associated with being highly motivated to stop smoking (OR = 3.0, 95% CI = 1.03-8.55).

    Conclusions

    This study revealed that, although it was important to quit smoking to avoid oral health problems, the patients were not aware that tobacco cessation activities can be performed in dentistry. Periodontal problems seem to be the most motivating factor among the patients who were highly motivated to stop smoking.

  • 197.
    Andersson, Pia
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap.
    Johannsen, Annsofi
    Karolinska institutet.
    Tandhygienisters arbete med tobaksavvänjning2010Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Projektets syfte var att kartlägga tandhygienisters utövande av tobaksavvänjning i behandling av patienter som röker och/eller snusar, samt att undersöka deras inställning till tobaksavvänjning i förhållande till olika tillstånd i munhålan. Syftet var också att genom intervjuer beskriva yrkesgruppens uppfattningar om och erfarenheter av arbetet med tobaksavvänjning i patientbehandling. Målet med projektet har varit att implementera kunskaper om tobaksavvänjning i utbildningen till tandhygienist utifrån exempel från tandhygienistens verksamhet.

    Projektet har genomförts vid tandhygienistutbildningarna Högskolan Kristianstad och Karolinska institutet i Stockholm från hösten 2008 till och med 2010. En enkät som innehöll 25 frågor skickades till 400 tandhygienister som slumpmässigt valdes ut från medlemsregistret i Sveriges tandhygienistförening. Enkäten besvarades av 232 tandhygienister (58%). Tolv tandhygienister intervjuades och kvalitativ innehållsanalys användes som analysmetod. Dessutom har kursplaner granskats och innehållet av undervisningen om tobak utvärderats vid de båda lärosätena.

    Resultatet av enkäten visade att 45% av tandhygienisterna hade utbildning i tobaksavvänjning. I stort sett samtliga av dem tillfrågade patienter som rökte eller snusade om deras tobaksbruk, de informerade om tobakens skadliga effekter och frågade om motivationen till att sluta använda tobak. Sextiofyra procent av tandhygienisterna uppgav att de arbetade aktivt för att få patienterna att sluta röka eller snusa. Avsaknad av tid, otillräcklig kompetens och erfarenhet uppgavs vara hinder till att bedriva tobaksavvänjning. Skrivna riktlinjer för tobaksavvänjning och utbildning i detta område efterfrågades av 53% respektive 37%. Samtliga tandhygienister tyckte att det var viktigt att bedriva rökavvänjning på patienter som har tandlossning och tandimplantat, 58% uppgav att de utförde rökavvänjning på patienter som har tandlossning och 31% att de utförde det på patienter med tandimplantat.

    Resultatet av intervjuerna visade att tobaksavvänjning kan beskrivas som osynligt i munhälsoarbetet. Det integrerades i andra behandlingsåtgärder, eftersom det saknas debiteringskod i tandvårdens ekonomiska system för åtgärder mot tobaksbruk. Tandhygienisterna frågade sina patienter om deras tobaksbruk vid varje behandlingstillfälle och försökte få dem motiverade till att sluta. Deras förhållningssätt för att få sina patienter att upphöra med att röka eller snusa präglades av en helhetssyn. De hade fokus på etiska aspekter, som patientens självbestämmande och att deras egna handlingar skulle ha ett gott syfte för såväl patienten som för samhället. Flera av dem som intervjuades betonade att de var aktsamma för att inte förstöra sin goda relation till patienten. De tolkade patienterna utifrån hur motiverade de var till att sluta röka eller snusa och utgick från detta i sitt arbete. Kunskap om olika metoder för att få patienter att upphöra med sitt tobaksbruk upplevdes vara betydelsefullt för att bedriva ett bra arbete med tobaksavvänjning.

    Granskning av kursplaner och utvärderingar vid de båda lärosätena visade att utbildningens innehåll om tobaksavvänjning hade brister. Det framkom att det framförallt fanns brister i den praktiska tillämpningen och att denna del behövde få utökat utrymme i utbildningen.

    Projektet har lett till förändringar av tobaksinnehållet i kursplaner vid tandhygienistutbildningarna på respektive lärosätet för att förbättra undervisningen. Projektet har också resulterat i att de studerande kommer att få utbildning som kan erbjuda dem diplomering i tobaksavvänjning enligt standard hos Yrkesföreningar mot tobak. Därigenom stärks de för att i sin framtida yrkesroll kunna arbeta med att avvänja patienter från tobaksbruk. Ett hinder för att tandhygienister ska kunna utföra tobaksavvänjning är debiteringen, eftersom patienter får betala en högre avgift om avvänjningen sker inom tandvården, jämfört med inom hälso- och sjukvården för samma åtgärd. Detta kan innebära att patienter avböjer erbjudande som ges av tandhygienister. Det är därför angeläget att ekonomiska och organisatoriska förutsättningar ges, så att tobaksavvänjning kan bedrivas inom tandvården. Denna arena är betydelsefull för främjande av folkhälsan och åtgärden når en stor grupp människor eftersom en hög andel av befolkningen besöker tandvården regelbundet.

  • 198.
    Andersson, Pia
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap III. Kristianstad University, Research environment Oral Health - Public Health - Quality of Life (OHAL).
    Kavakure, Jules
    Region Skåne.
    Lingström, Peter
    Sahlgrenska akademin, Göteborg.
    The impact of oral health on daily performances and its association with clinical variables in a population in Zambia2017In: International Journal of Dental Hygiene, ISSN 1601-5029, E-ISSN 1601-5037, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 128-134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate oral impacts on daily performance and to relate these data to oral clinical variables.

    Material and methods: The study was performed at a dental clinic in Livingstone, Zambia, and included 78 subjects (mean age 28, range 15–48 years) consecutively recruited in connection witha dental care visit. Data were collected through a structured interview using the Oral Impacts on Daily Performances (OIDP) index measuring oral health-related quality of life followed by a clinical examination.

    Results: Oral health affected one or more daily performances during the last 6 months for 61.5% of the subjects. ‘Difficulty of eating and enjoying food’ was the performance reported most frequently (42.3%), and ‘speaking and pronouncing clearly’ was least often reported (10.3%). DMFT was 3.8, 3.6 (mean  SD; range0–15). A majority of the individuals had periodontal pockets ≥4mm (mean 4.3, 2.6) (94.9%) and gingival bleeding on probing >20%(88.5%). Two or more decayed teeth were shown to be significantly associated (OR 4.6, CI 1.2–17.1) with one or more oral impacts on daily performances in a multivariate logistic regression analysis.

    Conclusions: This study shown that there is a significant association between decayed teeth and oral impacts on daily performances. More research is needed, however, for deeper understanding of oral health problems and their impacts on daily life in Zambia.

  • 199.
    Andersson, Pia
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Lingström, Peter
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Att åldras - ökad risk för karies?2008In: Dentalmagazinet, ISSN 2000-0073, no 1, p. 33-36Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 200.
    Andersson, Pia
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Mårtensson, Carina
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Rolandsson, Margot
    Karlstads universitet.
    Sundberg, Nina
    Karlstads universitet.
    Olsson, Margaretha
    Karlstads universitet.
    Larsson, Anna-Britta
    Högskolan Dalarna.
    Müller, Görel
    Högskolan Dalarna.
    Jakobsson, Brittmarie
    Högskolan Jönköping.
    Lindmark, Ulrika
    Högskolan Jönköping.
    Klinisk slutexamination i tandhygienistutbildningen2010In: Tandhygienisttidningen, ISSN 1102-6146, Vol. 30, no 5, p. 42-Article in journal (Other academic)
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