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  • 151.
    Lundberg, Joacim
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment. KTH.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Janhäll, Sara
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Texture influence on road dust load2017In: Proceedings of the 22nd International Transportation and Air Pollution Conferens, 2017, p. 14-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to investigate the connection between pavement texture and the maximum dust load retention at a low speed. One of the main sources of PM (Particulate Matter) in the urban environment is the traffic. Traffic contributes not only to exhaust emissions, but also to direct emission from abrasion wear of pavements, tyres and brakes as well as emission from suspension of available road dust on the road surface. This dust is partially stored in the road surface macro texture. Dust accumulate on the surface due to several different mechanisms and transport phenomena’s. Examples of transport mechanisms affecting the road dust load and thus the storage in the texture include precipitation, evaporation, turbulence from traffic, wetting of the road surface binding particles to it, sanding and crushing of the sand etc.

  • 152.
    Lundberg, Joacim
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Janhäll, Sara
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Järlskog, Ida
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Wet Dust Sampler: a Sampling Method for Road Dust Quantification and Analyses2019In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 230, no 8, article id 180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In northern countries, the climate, and consequently the use of studded tyres and winter traction sanding, causes accumulation of road dust over winter and spring, resulting in high PM10 concentrations during springtime dusting events. To quantify the dust at the road surface, a method—the wet dust sampler (WDS)—was developed allowing repeatable sampling also under wet and snowy conditions. The principle of operation is flushing high-pressurised water over a defined surface area and transferring the dust laden water into a container for further analyses. The WDS has been used for some time and is presented in detail to the international scientific community as reported by Jonsson et al. (2008) and Gustafsson et al. (2019), and in this paper, the latest version is presented together with an evaluation of its performance. To evaluate the WDS, the ejected water amount was measured, as well as water losses in different parts of the sampling system, together with indicative dust measurement using turbidity as a proxy for dust concentration. The results show that the WDS, when accounting for all losses, have a predictable and repeatable water performance, with no impact on performance based on the variety of asphalt surface types included in this study, given undamaged surfaces. The largest loss was found to be water retained on the surface, and the dust measurements imply that this might not have as large impact on the sampled dust as could be expected. A theoretical particle mass balance shows small particle losses, while field measurements show higher losses. Several tests are suggested to validate and improve on the mass balances. Finally, the WDS is found to perform well and is able to contribute to further knowledge regarding road dust implications for air pollution.

  • 153.
    Lundberg, Joacim
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment. KTH.
    Janhäll, Sara
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Erlingsson, Sigurdur
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology. KTH.
    Calibration of the Swedish Studdded Tyre Abrasion Wear Prediction Model and the Implication for the NORTRIP Road Dust Emission Model2018In: Transportation Research Board 97th annual meeting, Washington, D.C., 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An experimentally based prediction model of rut development due to studded tyres is available in Sweden and which had been found to work well. However, since it has not been validated since 2007, during which traffic as well as road and tyre design have developed, the question has arisen regarding the model’s current validity. Also, since the prediction model is used in the NORTRIP (NOn-exhaust Road Traffic Induced Particle emission) emission model, a natural question is how a change in the wear model will affect the emission model. In this paper, two versions of the abrasion model are compared to measurements at several recently constructed roads in Sweden to investigate the validity, while also proposing changes to allow for continued use. In addition, the impact on NORTRIP is briefly investigated. The paper first describes the abrasion models and their calibration, as well as the test sections for calibration. Both versions of the model, as expected, overestimated the wear and an update was suggested. It was also found that NORTRIP is indicatively affected by overestimating the contribution of pavement wear to the emissions.

  • 154.
    Lundberg, Joacim
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Janhäll, Sara
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Erlingsson, Sigurdur
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Calibration of the Swedish studded tyre abrasion wear prediction model with implication for the NORTRIP road dust emission model2019In: The international journal of pavement engineering, ISSN 1029-8436, E-ISSN 1477-268XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An experimentally based prediction model of road abrasion wear due to studded tyres is available in Sweden and has been found to work well. However, it has not been validated since 2007, and since then road surfaces and tyre design have developed, and the question has arisen regarding the model’s current validity. The abrasion wear model is used in the NORTRIP emission model (NOn-exhaust Road Traffic Induced Particle emission modelling), and the effect of a recalibrated abrasion wear model on the emission model is shown. In this paper, the abrasion wear model is compared to full-scale field measurements at several recently constructed roads in Sweden to investigate its validity, while also proposing changes to allow for continued use. It is concluded that the model overestimates the wear and an update is suggested. In addition, the impact on NORTRIP emission predictions is briefly investigated. There were also indications that NORTRIP is affected by the abrasion model overestimating the contribution of pavement wear to the particle emissions.

  • 155.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Emissioner från flyg inom svenskt luftrum och externa kostnader för dessa: en delrapport i Samkost 32018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents the basis and calculations for the subproject air pollution carried out within the framework of VTI’s third government commission on traffic economic costs (Samkost 3). We have in this study estimated marginal external costs of air pollution with the method developed and used in the EU for this purpose, the so-called “Impact Pathway Approach”, focusing on the importance and the impact of air traffic in Sweden. These calculations require dispersion- and exposure modelling and SMHI was therefore commissioned to provide data from this type of calculations based on the MATCH model.

    Due to time constraints, since this VTI’s commission had a deadline and this work involves complex calculation that requires time, the calculations got adapted to the restrictions of the commission. Separate calculations were done for flight at different heights (LTO, low and high cruise) and only for traffic in the Swedish air space. Separate modelling was done with total reduction of all emissions from this traffic, but also when only NOx from air traffic was reduced. Finally, we tested the influence of the geographical area used in the modelling.

  • 156.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Björketun, Urban
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Genell, Anders
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Swärdh, Jan-Erik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Yahya, Mohammad-Reza
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Externa kostnader för luftföroreningar och buller från trafiken på det statliga vägnätet: kunskapsläget och tillgången på beräkningsunderlag i Sverige samt några beräkningsexempel2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In December 2012, the Swedish government commissioned VTI to update the social marginal cost for using infrastructure for all modes of transport based on state-of-the-art knowledge in the research community. The task only involved state roads. In this report we present the data used and the results for the external costs of air pollution (exhaust emissions) and noise. We have used the Impact Pathway Approach to perform the calculations using Swedish data focusing on health. In these calculations we have placed particular emphasis on how the influence of population density in the vicinity of roads influence the results from these calculations. For noise we developed an exposure function based on the new EU-CNOSSOS model which accounted for the location of buildings close to a road while for air pollution we used results based on detailed calculations in the Stockholm area. The results, using updated input data from 2012 on kilometers driven, emissions factors from HBEFA etc., are in line with those presented in the EU handbook from 2014 “Update of the Handbook on External Costs of Transport” but lower than those currently used in analysis of transport investments in Sweden (the so called ASEK-values). An important reason for this is that we have used more detailed information on population exposure. We have also concluded that there are geographical differences in the external cost for air pollution between the north and the south of Sweden. For both air and noise emissions there is also a difference between urban and rural areas. Based on the results we conclude that there are a number of issues where further research is needed, for example the possible interaction of air pollution and noise on human health. There are also still questions regarding the dispersion of emissions and population exposure and how this varies between cities and within cities in Sweden, depending on for example meteorological conditions. For air pollution there is also the question of the formation of secondary pollutants and their dispersion pattern and if they contribute to an external environmental cost in addition to health. One particular source of emissions in Sweden is the used of studded tyres which contribute to very high concentration levels of particulate matter close to roads in springtime. Since the focus in this study was on state roads we have not addressed this pollutant in this report.

  • 157.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Janhäll, Sara
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Exhaust emissions and environmental classifications of cars: what indicators are relevant according to external cost calculations?2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is based on the questions raised by Folksam on how well the criteria currently used reflect the total environmental impact of exhaust emissions. One of the questions is whether diesel cars, being more fuel efficient, are preferable to gasoline cars given the differences in for example particle and NO2 emissions. In this paper we give an overview of the method used to calculate the external costs related to the exhaust emissions of cars, the Impact Pathway Approach (IPA). This type of assessment has previously been used to compare the environmental performance of gasoline versus diesel cars in a report by the former Swedish national road administration and in a recent paper on the taxation of cars in Belgium. We also provide an overview of recent research on the inputs used in these calculations. Based on information on emission tests of VW cars and information from the Swedish Transport Administration, we illustrate how different aspects influence the outcome of these calculations regarding exhaust emissions from cars. Regarding the specific question raised in this study about indicators for sustainable cars, we find that the indicators currently used, CO2 emissions, do not reflect the full environmental impact. Different types of vehicle technologies result in different combinations of emissions. With the large variety of car models, and with important differences between type approval and ”real driving” emissions, we conclude that apart from CO2 emissions, vehicle technology should be accounted for in the classification of cars. Concerning the difference between gasoline and diesel vehicles, important aspects to consider are: • differences in emissions of particulates where particle size or number and composition may be important to consider in addition to, or maybe even rather than, mass, • the difference in the ratio between NOx and NO2, as it affects local NO2 and ozone concentrations.

  • 158.
    Nilsson, Kristina L
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Antonson, Hans
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Folkeson, Lennart
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Larsson, Anders
    SLU Alnarp.
    Hantering av natur- och kulturvärden genom hela vägplaneringsprocessen2012Report (Other academic)
  • 159.
    Niska, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Sopsaltning av cykelvägar: för bättre framkomlighet och säkerhet för vintercyklister2016Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Sopsaltning av cykelvägar är en metod som skulle kunna bidra till en högre standard på cykelvägarna vintertid. Med metoden kan man undvika problematiken med rullgrus. Några svenska kommuner arbetar i dag med att sopsalta cykelvägar. VTI har gjort utvärderande mätningar av sopsaltning i Stockholms stad som sedan vintern 2013/2014 tillämpar metoden ganska omfattande. De utvärderande mätningarna som VTI har gjort på uppdrag av Stockholms stad finns kortfattat beskrivna i detta häfte.

  • 160.
    Niska, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Sopsaltning av cykelvägar i teori och praktik: erfarenheter från utvärderingar i svenska kommuner2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To encourage people to cycle during winter and at the same time reduce the number of single bicycle crashes, a high winter maintenance service level is needed. Traditionally in Sweden, ploughing and gritting is used for winter maintenance of cycleways and footways. In recent years, a method using a front-mounted power broom for snow clearance and salt for de-icing (commonly called “sweepsalting”) has become popular for winter maintenance of cycleways in Swedish municipalities. Linköping was the first municipality to test the method, already in 1999. Today, municipalities from Umeå in the north to Malmö in the south are applying the method with a variation in methods, equipment and strategies. In this project earlier research has been complemented with detailed field studies in Linköping and Stockholm, theoretical knowledge as well as practical experiences from several Swedish municipalities. The objective has been to provide a better understanding regarding pros and cons of “sweep-salting” as well as the equipment, methods and strategies appropriate under various conditions. The studies presented in this report show that when working successfully, the sweep-salting method creates a bare surface with higher friction than traditional ploughing and gritting. Measures must be done in time and the operating speed adjusted according to the prevailing conditions. In mild weather brine is sufficient, but with lower temperatures and heavy snowfall larger amounts of salt is needed and pre-wetted or dry salt must be used. For the method to work properly, the bicycle path construction should be of good condition without cracks or other damages in the surface. The equipment for sweep-salting needs to be further developed for a higher efficiency.

  • 161.
    Niska, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Sopsaltning av cykelvägar: utvärdering av försök i Stockholm vintern 2013/20142016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under vintern 2012/13 testade Stockholms stad några olika utrustningar för sopsaltning på utvalda cykelvägar i Stockholm och sedan vintern 2013/14 pågår en mer omfattande tillämpning av metoden på några utvalda cykelstråk viktiga för arbetspendling. Väglagsobservationer visar tydligt att sopsaltningen resulterat i ett bättre väglag än traditionell plogning och sandning. Resultaten redovisas i detta notat. Målsättningen inför vintern 2013/14 var att hålla en mycket hög standard på de utvalda cykelstråken. Under hela vintersäsongen skulle förarna köra sina sträckor i princip varje vardag, oavsett om det behövdes någon vinterväghållningsåtgärd eller inte. I början av vintern skulle sopningen bidra till att göra cykelstråken fria från smuts, kvistar, nedfallna löv etc. Vid risk för halka skulle det också saltas, så länge temperaturen var över -12°C. Vintern blev som helhet mycket mild, det snöade endast vid ett fåtal tillfällen och i de flesta fall bara måttliga snömängder. Det innebar att det aldrig fanns något behov av att gå över till plogning och sandning utan metoden med sopsaltning var tillämpbar hela den aktuella vintern. Väglagsobservationer visar tydligt att sopsaltningen resulterat i ett bättre väglag än traditionell plogning och sandning. Det har i princip alltid varit barmarksförhållanden på de sopsaltade stråken, även då det varit snö och is på cykelstråk som inte saltats. VTI:s mätningar visar också att friktionen i genomsnitt varit betydligt högre på de sopsaltade stråken jämfört med de stråk som inte saltats. VTI:s friktionsmätningar visar emellertid att friktionen kan variera ganska mycket längs de sopsaltade cykelstråken. Medan ”orörda” delar av stråken har mycket god friktion, kan skador i beläggningen, indrag av snö från osaltade stråk, korsningar, vägmarkeringar och brunnslock uppvisa en låg friktion.

  • 162.
    Niska, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Sopsaltning av cykelvägar: utvärdering av försök i Stockholm vintern 2014/152016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Inför vintern 2013/14 fick VTI i uppdrag av Stockholms stad att utvärdera tillämpningen av sopsaltmetoden för vinterväghållning av ett antal prioriterade cykelstråk i Söderort och Västerort. I detta notat sammanställs de mätningar som gjordes under vintern 2014/15. Sopsaltmetoden innebär att en sopvals används för att röja bort snön från vägytan och att halka bekämpas med saltlösning eller befuktat salt. Eftersom försöken 2013/14 ansågs lyckade så utökades det sopsaltade cykelvägnätet till det dubbla och totalt 12 mil cykelväg sopsaltades under vintern 2014/15. I januari 2015 var det relativt stora nederbördsmängder vilket satte metoden på prov. Uppföljningen har under båda vintrarna bestått av stickprovsvisa mätningar i ett antal utvalda punkter som representerar olika typmiljöer och olika sopsaltmetoder/-utrustningar. Där har friktionen, väglaget, saltfördelningen och saltmängderna studerats. Dessutom har åtgärderna följts upp med förarprotokoll och väderdata. I samband med de stora nederbördsmängderna i januari, blev det problem med isbildning på de sopsaltade cykelstråken i Stockholm. Vid kraftig fukttillförsel eller nederbörd sker en utspädning av saltet vilket kan leda till en uppbyggnad av isbark. Vid dessa tillfällen skulle man alltså ha behövt lägga en större saltmängd för att undvika isbildning. Vinterns utvärderingar antyder att problemen med isbildning tycks vara värst på gångbanor med höga fotgängarflöden. En lärdom är att om isbark väl uppstått, är det bättre att snarast gå över till att sanda istället för att försöka få bort isbarken med salt – naturligtvis beroende på rådande väderförhållanden och vad prognosen säger. Vid omslag till varmare temperaturer kan man riva/ploga bort isbarken och återigen övergå till sopsaltning.

  • 163.
    Niska, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Sopsaltning i Karlstad: utmaningar och möjligheter2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta notat innehåller en analys över tänkbara för- och nackdelar med sopsaltning på cykelvägar i Karlstad. Stadens läge och klimat talar för att sopsaltning av cykelbanor skulle kunna vara en användbar metod vid vinterväghållning. Många städer gör nu satsningar för att andelen resor som sker med cykel ska öka även vintertid. En vinterväghållningsmetod som vuxit kraftigt är sopsaltmetoden där en sopvals röjer bort snön och halkan bekämpas med saltlösning eller befuktat salt. På så vis undviker man att sand ansamlas på cykelbanorna, men i gengäld sprider man mer salt. VTI fick i uppdrag av Karlstad kommun att analysera tänkbara för- och nackdelar med sopsaltning på cykelvägar i Karlstad och ge rekommendationer för en eventuell fortsatt tillämpning av metoden. Analyserna bygger på teoretiska samband och en kartläggning av genomförda åtgärder under vintern 2014/2015. Åtgärderna har kopplats till rådande väderförhållanden genom analyser av data från Trafikverkets vägväderinformationssystem, VViS. Forskarna har också beaktat allmänhetens synpunkter genom att ta del av genomförda enkäter, Facebook-inlägg och ärenden inkomna till kommunens kundcenter rörande vinterväghållning av gång- och cykelvägar.

  • 164.
    Niska, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Hjort, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Cykelvägars friktion: mätningar i fält i jämförelse med cykeldäcks friktion på olika underlag i VTI:s däckprovningsanläggning2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Skidding is a common cause for cyclists getting seriously injured in traffic. Neither requirements nor prescribed friction measurement methods for cycleways have been based on the performance of bicycles. There is therefore a need for increased knowledge regarding the friction characteristics of bicycle tyres and the traction between a bicycle tyre and the road surface under different conditions. In this project we have compiled measurements with VTI's portable friction tester, PFT, on cycleways with a variety of road conditions. To relate the PFT friction values to the friction of bicycle tyres, we have also made comparative measurements with bicycle tyres in VTI's stationary tyre testing facility. These show a very good match between the PFT friction values and the maximum lateral friction available for a bicycle tyre. This means that the PFT friction values recorded on cycleways can also be said to represent the friction that a bicycle tyre would perform on the same surface. Our friction measurements on cycleways show that the skid resistance is affected by the road condition, the road surface material, as well as road markings and manhole-covers. Ice and snow cause a significantly lower friction level than at bare conditions. Differences in road conditions mean that different types of cycling infrastructure and different winter maintenance methods result in different friction levels. This means that there may be large variations in friction along one and the same cycle route. The surprise effect and thus the accident risk can then be great. Not only snow, ice and grit, but also leaves, clay and other dirt on the surface might lead to a reduced skid resistance. For the safety of cyclists, it is important to inform about where a slippery condition can occur and to adjust anti-icing actions, road design and construction according to that knowledge.

  • 165.
    Niska, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Järlskog, Ida
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Utvärdering av sopsaltning på cykelstråk i Stockholm vintern 2016/172017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Stockholm, cycling as a mode of transport is promoted, especially for commuting. Public transport as well as the roadway network has reached capacity during peak hours and cycling is considered to be an advantageous alternative, since there are environmental and health benefits to gain. To encourage people to cycle during winter and at the same time reduce the number of single bicycle crashes, a high winter maintenance service level is needed. Using salt for skid control of bicycle paths could be one solution, although it has its drawbacks and difficulties. In recent years, a method using a frontmounted power broom for snow clearance and salt for de-icing (commonly called “sweep-salting”) has become popular for winter maintenance of bicycle paths in Sweden.

    In 2013 the city of Stockholm decided to try the “sweep-salting” method and evaluate its potential to improve the service level on bicycle routes for commuting. To optimize and develop the method, VTI has performed field studies every winter since 2013. These studies have included measurements of friction, road condition observations, measurements of residual salt on bicycle path surfaces, salt deposition at the side of bicycle paths, maintenance protocols and interviews with maintenance operators. Since all studies were done in field, in a real-life environment, the experimental work was designed according to the winter maintenance routines of the municipality and other prevailing conditions and circumstances. This report presents the results from the evaluation of the winter of 2016/2017.

    The evaluations show that when working successfully, the sweep-salting method creates a bare surface with higher friction than traditional ploughing and gritting. Measures must be done in time and the operating speed adjusted according to the prevailing conditions. In mild weather brine is sufficient, but with lower temperatures and heavy snowfall larger amounts of salt is needed and pre-wetted or dry salt must be used. For the method to work properly, the bicycle path construction should be of good condition without cracks or other damages in the surface. Otherwise, it is difficult to clear the surface with the broom as snow and water can be trapped in potholes and cracks, eventually creating ice patches. A sufficient drainage from the surface is also crucial as every contribution of water will dilute the salt amount on the path with a following risk of creating a slippery surface. Narrow passages and obstructing design features cause difficulties when clearing the snow, resulting in a need of larger amounts of salt to prevent icy conditions. Clearing the surface from snow and water is crucial to get a good result with the method.

  • 166.
    Niska, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Henriksson, Malin
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Ihlström, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Svedberg, Wanna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Wallén Warner, Henriette
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Wehtje, Philip
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Cykling bland barn och unga: en kunskapssammanställning2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Cycling among children and young adults has decreased, resulting in negative effects on their health and independent mobility. The Swedish government has commissioned VTI to review and compile knowledge on plausible reasons, based on literature reviews, contacts with relevant players and analyses of travel surveys and accident statistics. The statistics showed that the number of individuals who cycle has decreased, whereas the cycled distance remains unchanged. Above all, recreational cycling among children and young adults has decreased, which could be explained by longer distances to recreational activities, more parents working full-time and children’s everyday lives having become more institutionalised. Cycling to school has also decreased. Among other things, families being able to choose what school the children attend has resulted in greater distances between the home and the school. Other reasons include households owning more cars, changes in the way children play and communicate, and inadequate actual and perceived safety conditions along cycle lanes combined with parents’ perceptions of their children’s highway skills. Cycling has been partially replaced by car journeys, but mainly by walking and use of public transport. Cycling has decreased the most among older children. As they have primarily replaced cycling by public transport, one explanation could be that more of them are offered free bus passes. There is a great commitment and competency among various players regarding cycling among children and young adults. However, there is a great need for better coordination and for actions and measures taken to be systematically evaluated.

  • 167.
    Norman, Michael
    et al.
    Environment and Health Administration of the City of Stockholm.
    Sundvor, Ingrid
    The Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU).
    Denby, Bruce Rolstad
    The Norwegian Meteorological Institute (MET).
    Johansson, Christer
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Janhäll, Sara
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Modelling road dust emission abatement measures using the NORTRIP model: Vehicle speed and studded tyre reduction2016In: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 134, p. 96-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Road dust emissions in Nordic countries still remain a significant contributor to PM10 concentrations mainly due to the use of studded tyres. Measures to reduce road dust emissions include speed reductions, reductions in studded tyre use, dust binding and road cleaning. In this paper the NORTRIP road dust emission model is used to simulate real world abatement measures that have been carried out in Oslo and Stockholm.

    In Oslo both vehicle speed and studded tyre share reductions occurred over a period from 2004 to 2006 on a major arterial road, RV4. In Stockholm a studded tyre ban on Hornsgatan in 2010 saw a significant reduction in studded tyre share together with a reduction in traffic volume. The model is found to correctly simulate the impact of these measures on the PM10 concentrations when compared to available kerbside measurement data.

    Meteorology can have a significant impact on the concentrations through both surface and dispersion conditions. The first year after the implementation of the speed reduction on RV4 was much drier than the previous year, resulting in higher mean concentrations than expected. The following year was much wetter with significant rain and snow fall leading to wet or frozen road surfaces for 83 % of the four month study period. This significantly reduced the net PM10 concentrations.

    In the years following the studded tyre ban on Hornsgatan road wear production through studded tyres decreased by 72 %, due to a combination of reduced traffic volume and reduced studded tyre share. However, after accounting for exhaust contributions and the impact of meteorological conditions in the model calculations, the net mean reduction in PM10 concentrations was ~50 %. The NORTRIP model is shown to be able to reproduce the impacts of both traffic measures and meteorology on traffic induced PM10 concentrations, making it a unique and valuable tool for predicting the impact of measures for air quality management applications.

  • 168.
    Nygårdhs, Sara
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    Fors, Carina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    Carlson, Annelie
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Ihlström, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    Kriterier för vägbelysning på statlig väg i och i anslutning till mindre tätorter på landsbygd: Resultat från litteraturstudie, intervjuer och projektmöte2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    According to the prevailing road lighting guidelines, roads and streets in urban areas should be equipped with road lighting, while roads outside of urban areas normally do not need to be equipped with road lighting. Vägar och gators utformning (VGU) contains guidelines that are mandatory for public roads but advisory for municipality roads and streets. The need of road lighting on public roads outside of urban areas has been discussed between the road authorities, i.e. the Swedish Transport Administration and the municipalities.

    The aim of this study is to produce a proposal of new criteria for use of road lighting on public roads in and in connection to smaller populated areas in the countryside. This has mainly been done by a literature review of guidelines and research studies about road users’ needs and the effect of road lighting, as well as through interviews with persons responsible for road lighting in Swedish municipalities. A list containing possible criteria was compiled and discussed at a meeting with the project group for the project “Kriterier för belysning på statlig väg”, which is a group with common members from Swedish Association of Local Authorities and Regions (SALAR) and Swedish Transport Administration. The participants at the meeting found the following criteria interesting to apply.

    A public road on the countryside should be equipped with road lighting if:

    1. the road runs through an urban area
    2. there is a local plan where there is mixed traffic on a national arterial road
    3. there are establishments and services that generate vulnerable road users close by the road, e.g. schools, churches, community centers, gymnasiums, health care centers, museums, train stations, ferry quays or similar
    4. there are passages for pedestrians and cyclists or speed reducing measures along the road
    5. there are commuter stops, including train and boat
    6. prevailing requirements on AADT in VGU are fulfilled.
  • 169.
    Nåbo, Arne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Börjesson, Conny
    Viktoria Swedish ICT).
    Eriksson, Gabriella
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Genell, Anders
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Hjälmdahl, Magnus
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Holmén, Lotta
    Viktoria Swedish ICT).
    Mårdh, Selina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Elvägar i körsimulator: design, test, utvärdering och demonstration av elvägstekniker och elfordon med virtuella metoder2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Electric road systems, ERS, where vehicles receive electricity continuously while driving, could be a way to reach the target of a fossil-free transport sector. A demonstration environment in a driving simulator was developed in order to test and evaluate ERS concepts and electric vehicles driving on ERS. A user study was conducted, where 25 drivers drove a 40 kilometre long route, both with a hybrid truck on ERS and with a conventional truck with no ERS. Driving on ERS showed no remarkable difference on driver’s experience of safety and aestethics or the driving behaviour compared to no ERS. The exception was average speed which was 2 kilometres/hour higher when driving on ERS. The energy consumption decreased 35 per cent on ERS. In order to disseminate project results to actors and potential users of ERS, a large number of simulator demonstrations have been conducted. There has also been a press release and a number of magazine articles. In addition, a portable ERS driving simulator was constructed and used in order to reach a broader public.

  • 170.
    Obrien, Eugene J.
    et al.
    Roughan O’Donovan Innovative Solutions.
    Tschan, Georg
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Wansink, Dennis E. H.
    Bureau Waardenburg.
    Puky, Miklós
    MTA (Centre for Ecological Research).
    Design of Roads in Harmony with Wildlife2016In: Transportation Research Procedia, 2016, Vol. 14, p. 509-517Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    'Procedures for the Design of Roads in Harmony with Wildlife' or 'Harmony' is a project that aims to develop sustainable solutions to road transport challenges that are in harmony with wildlife. This paper summarises Harmony's work in the areas of Environmental Legislation and Guidelines, Project Appraisal, and Procurement Practices. The project mainly focuses on practices in the eight reference countries of Ireland, the United Kingdom, Belgium, the Netherlands, Hungary, Austria, Sweden and Denmark. A review of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Appropriate Assessment (AA) is carried out.

    As part of this review, a database of over 80 Environmental Impact Statements (EIS) and Appropriate Assessment reports is analysed to identify the similarities and differences between countries in the implementation of the duties required by EU Environmental Legislation. It is found that the degree of implementation under the headings considered varies greatly between countries. It is concluded that increased guidance on monitoring be provided in all countries. Project Appraisal for transport infrastructure is the process of assessing whether capital expenditure is justified for a project and ensuring that it is allocated to the best transport solution to achieve the objectives of that project whilst complying with planning policy and national and EU legislation.

    The project appraisal methodologies used in the reference countries are compared with the aim of identifying a set of tools to enable rational and sensible decisions to be made. The approach used in the UK is recommended for adoption by all Member States. This paper then examines existing approaches to the procurement of road constructions in the reference countries. The different types of contracts used for procurement are described and the benefits and disadvantages of different contract types are discussed.

    Recommendations are then made as to which contracts are the most favourable for ensuring the environmental commitments of the Environmental Impact Statement are carried out. Early contractor involvement as well as construction contracts that incorporate maintenance, with monitoring, for an extended period afterwards were cited as key recommendations to ensure a good outcome for wildlife.

  • 171.
    Odolinski, Kristofer
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Genell, Anders
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Janhäll, Sara
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Samhällsekonomiska effekter med en kombitransport: beräkningar på järnvägsvagnen Flexiwaggon2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden and the EU, there is a stated need to combine more freight transports on road with railway. The aim is to reduce emissions of climate gases, as well as noise and other external effects such as congestion, accidents and wear and tear of the road. New innovations and transport solutions can be necessary to increase the number of combined road and railway freight transports. The transport solution analyzed in this study is a new railway wagon that can transport trucks at the speed of 160 km/h. The purpose of the study is to calculate the economic effects the new railway wagon can generate if it is used on a route where rail can be a viable alternative to road transport. In this, the environment and energy effects are studied, as well as the commercial cost.

    To define the contestable market between transport modes in a certain situation can be a challenging task, as there are many – and often interacting – factors that determine the mode choice. However, the literature states that route distance and the characteristics of the goods being transported are crucial factors for mode choice, where examples of the characteristics of goods are its value, damage sensitivity, time sensitivity, and weight (these can to a large extent be captured by the type of good). Freight transport on rail are often considered to be a viable approach on distances over 300 kilometres. In this study, we use three project cases with the route distances 280, 420 and 670 kilometres. We assume that distinct groups of goods are transported, as this will have an impact on the calculations.

    The base cases (with the abbreviation JA in the study) comprises road transport carried out by trucks with a trailer. A major part of the distance in the project cases (abbreviated UA) is covered by trains on which the trucks have been loaded. There are no truck drivers on the train transport.

    The environment and energy effects (exclusive noise) are calculated using a tool provided by the Network for Transport Measures (NTM). Differences in carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter are presented, where the project cases have lower emissions than the base cases. Moreover, a lower amount of energy is consumed in the project cases compared to the base cases.

  • 172.
    Olsson, Linda
    et al.
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Carlson, Annelie
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Climate impact of the electrification of road transport in a short-term perspective2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 173.
    Pracki, Piotr
    et al.
    Warsaw University of Technology.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Application of road lighting energy efficiency evaluation system in practice2013In: Proceedings of CIE Centenary Conference "Towards a New Century of Light", 2013, p. -1043Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to introduce the energy efficiency evaluation system of road lighting for roads with vehicle traffic. The most important information regarding the proposed road lighting energy efficiency system is given. The subsequent stages of the road lighting energy efficiency evaluation are indicated with some detailed considerations. The energy efficiency classifications based on normalised power (energy) density and power (energy) density are presented as well. Examples of lighting energy efficiency evaluation to show the application of the system for selected streets in Stockholm and Warsaw are presented.

  • 174.
    Pyddoke, Roger
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Olstam, Johan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Yahya, Mohammad-Reza
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Karlsson, Rune
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Trängsel och knapphet på väg, järnväg och i kollektivtrafik: delstudie inom SAMKOST2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to take stock of Swedish data and studies that could form the basis of the estimation of marginal costs for congestion on roads and scarcity of railway capacity. Furthermore, the development of methods to estimate and evaluate the congestion in public transport is discussed. The Transport Administration’s investigation from 2013 indicates that there are persistent congestion problems in Stockholm that would be affected by adjustments to the toll cordon, congestion tax levels and differentiation with respect to time and place. A second part quantifies congestion in the road network outside urban areas by the use of extensive flow and velocity measurements from the E4 south of Stockholm as an example. This choice is justified as an example of a highly trafficked road link where the speed reductions occur regularly. The results show that the flows during May to December 2013 regularly were so high that speed dropped below 60 kilometer per hour for long periods. The marginal cost of congestion can be expressed as the change in the cost of a change in density and is highest at densities close to the road’s capacity. When the density is greatest, the marginal cost of one further car is about 10 SEK per kilometer. Compared to the taxes on petrol which is about 0,34 SEK per kilometer, which is considered to cover the marginal costs of all other externalities including carbon emissions. Thus, congestion costs may therefore be considered significant. For train slots, this study has used the Transport Administration’s electronic record of the operators’ requests for train slots from the National train plan for 2013 and the corresponding documentation of the determined slots. We find that the total of allocated slots for the largest operator of passenger trains in Sweden, SJ, received 99 percent of the slots it had applied for and Green Cargo 97 percent. This is not a strong indication of scarcity. For crowding in public transport there are a number of British studies of the valuation of travel in crowded conditions in passenger trains. These valuations have mostly been calculated as a multiplicative factor on time values when the passengers travel without crowding. The report presents studies that show that the willingness to pay may be substantially higher for a shorter travel time if the trip takes place in crowded conditions.

  • 175.
    Robertson, Kerstin
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Comparison of the EU’s Sustainable urban mobility plan (SUMP) and the Swedish planning support Transport for an attractive city (TRAST)2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The planning support developed in the EU’s Sustainable urban mobility plan (SUMP) and the Swedish planning support system Transport for an attractive city (TRAST) aims at developing sustainable transport in cities. Both systems include the formulation of one or more plans and support for the planning process. This analysis and comparison of SUMP and TRAST is based on the SUMP Guidelines, the two main TRAST Handbooks and the TRAST Guide. The comparison is structured in accordance with the SUMP Steps. This comparison showed that identical or similar areas and requirements are addressed in SUMP and TRAST regarding the planning process. Both SUMP and TRAST include instructions in the form of guidelines that must be interpreted and translated into a plan, practical planning and actions by cities. TRAST, however, also includes handbooks and guides with suggestions, discussions and examples of measures, actions and policies. TRAST is furthermore developed for integrated implementation with spatial planning. Implementation of both TRAST and SUMP is supported through projects and networking, e.g. for facilitating exchange of experiences between cities.

  • 176.
    Robertson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Antonson, Hans
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Arvidsson, Björn
    Rese - och Turistnäringen i Sverige.
    Evanth, Katarina
    Trivector Traffic AB.
    Genell, Anders
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Hvitlock, Nina
    Trivector Traffic AB.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Lundin, Jan
    Rese - och Turistnäringen i Sverige.
    Niska, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Wennberg, Hanna
    Trivector Traffic AB.
    Hållbara turistresor inom Sverige: hinder och möjligheter för resor med tåg och buss2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to analyze the conditions for the transfer of passengers from private car to public transport, primarily train and bus to, from and within a number of tourist destinations in Sweden. The goal was to develop a basis for planning for sustainable tourism. The study included an analysis of opportunities to travel by public transport, travel time and travel costs, interviews with tourists and other stakeholders, an analysis of measures, and it results in some general guidelines for planning for sustainable tourism. The possibilities to travel by public transport, travel time and travel costs to, from and within three summer destinations (Astrid Lindgren's World, the Kingdom of Crystal, Öland) and two winter destinations (Åre, Funäsdalen) were analyzed for three different categories of tourists (families with children, couples, four adults) . This showed that overall is possible to travel to the destinations studied without a private car. The conditions travelling with public transport, however, differ greatly between the different destinations. Travel time by train or bus in comparison with travelling by car was not too different for most combinations of points of departure and destinations. In some cases, however, when the point of departure was a smaller place, not located along a major railroad, the journey by train and/or bus could be both long and require many transfers. In those cases public transport is hardly an alternative to traveling by private car. The total travel cost for travelling by train or bus was in almost all cases fairly level with travelling with private car, it but could also be significantly higher. The cost for travelling by public transport was also relatively higher in comparison with private car for parties with two or more people, and in those cases the cost was sometimes seen as an obstacle. The travel opportunities within the various destinations appears to be the biggest obstacle for convincing more people to choose to travel by public transport to and from tourist destinations, particularly in summer when travel requirement in general are higher. The options for travelling within the destinations vary considerably, but are generally better in the winter destinations. In Åre the ski bus, for example, is a good option for travelling between the various ski resorts. The tourist’s views of travelling by public transport is also much more positive for journeys to winter destinations than to summer destinations, which can largely be explained by the smaller travel requirements within these destinations. In the case of families the view that it is difficult to attract families with young children to travel by public transport emerged. There may be several reasons for this, the handling of luggage being one important issue. Many also suggested that there is a need to make it easier to find information about public transport options and alternatives as well as to reserve and book tickets. Package reservations were highlighted as an interesting alternative. Many saw information searching regarding the trip components such as accommodation, flights, transfer, lift passes etc. as problematic and would appreciate a service where everything was in one place. In addition it is not easy to get an overview of pricing for both travel and accommodation. Proposals were also put forward that one way to attract to travel by public transport is to highlight the added value that it entails.

  • 177.
    Robertson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Bamberg, Sebastian
    Fachhochschule Bielefeld - University of Applied Sciences .
    Parkin, John
    University of the West of England.
    Fyhri, Aslak
    Transportøkonomisk institutt.
    Cykelvänlig stad - betydelsen av stadsutformning och infrastruktur2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents the results of a study with the overall aim of analysing the extent to which urban form and the design of the transport system can explain the level of cycling in cities. Distance was the most important factor associated with levels of bicycle use. Bicycle traffic in cities can have several positive effects on quality of life. Despite these benefits bike share varies greatly between cities, both within and between countries, and in many cities there is a large potential for increased bicycle use. Better understanding of the causes of these differences is important for developing policies and measures that promote cycling. The analysis is based on published studies of the relationship between cycling and various properties of the physical urban environment. The purpose of the study is to conduct a systematic review of relevant published studies and carry out a statistical meta-analysis of the relationship between cycling and various aspects of the urban physical environment. The main contribution of this statistical meta-analysis is in providing a quantitative measure of their effects. Distance was the most important factor associated with levels of bicycle use, as would be expected. Land use, which was operationalised as measures of density and accessibility, was the second most important variable. Other variables in the analysis included the transport system, the urban environment and safety. The transport system variable was represented by measures of the street and bicycle network density, and the presence and quality of infrastructure for cycling. The urban environment covered various properties such as type of housing and neighborhood, but also aesthetic qualities and attractiveness, and safety included both safety and security. The findings agreed well with the results from the analysis of conclusions in published reviews addressing these issues. With some allowance for the difficulties to demonstrate causality, we suggest that these aggregate variables are relevant for local planning aiming at increasing cycling. There is also a good consistency between studies of different physical factors on urban cycling, but if the goal is to develop support and guidance that can be used in practical planning, more specific factors need to be carefully considered. Detailed models of the effects of various factors are obviously of relevance and importance to improve our knowledge and understanding, and it is important that this information is communicated and made available to policy-makers and planners. The relative significance of different factors in different cities must however be derived from such basic knowledge combined with professional knowledge about local conditions.

  • 178.
    Robertson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Eriksson, Jan R.
    Regional Transport Indicators Used in Sweden for Measurement, Reporting and Verification of CO2 Emissions2015In: Challenges, ISSN 2078-1547, E-ISSN 2078-1547, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 55-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Established practice is available as a reference for evaluating sustainable transport and CO2 emissions at national, European and global levels, but comparing corresponding systems at the regional and local levels are more challenging. Therefore, this paper analyses the use of indicators, evaluation methods and data availability at local and regional levels for applied policies and measures in transport planning. Sweden is used as a case study. Available data show that total surveys (e.g., vehicle registry data), sample surveys (e.g., interviews) or modelling can be used to develop transport indicators, and that either generated (volume generated in the area) or performed (volume in the area) traffic and transportation is estimated. However, there are limitations with all methods and the design of evaluations needs careful consideration in order to reflect changes in local and regional transport systems and to relate those changes to specific measures and policies. In most cases, survey methods need to be used in order to follow up the most common indicators. All evaluation methods need to be complemented with analyses of a baseline to determine additionality and also potential rebound effects need to be considered, which requires the application of a wider systems perspective.

  • 179.
    Robertson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Tschan, Georg
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Evaluation of transport interventions in developing countries2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    International climate policy and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) with the Kyoto Protocol include different mechanisms or programmes for actions in developing countries aimed at reducing emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2). To verify compliance, the effects of such actions, including transport measures, need to be measured, reported and verified (MRV). However, in relation to other sectors very few transport-related projects have been initiated. Potential problems and ambiguities related to the current evaluation methodology were therefore investigated as a possible explanation for the low interest in investments in the transport sector. Other objectives of this study were to analyse the requirements for development and improvement of methods for evaluating the effects of transport policies and measures on emissions of greenhouse gases in developing countries. The analyses includes a review of different climate mechanisms, for example applied within the UNFCCC, evaluation requirements and methodologies used, the general availability of methods for evaluation of traffic and transportation, evaluation data availability, and institutional conditions in developing countries. The main conclusions are that measuring traffic and transportation is generally a complex and demanding process, and the potential for misinterpretation of results is significant. In addition, there is a significant risk of rebound effects, especially for transport projects in developing countries aiming at modal shift. Furthermore, it seems that very short time frames are applied for evaluation of project-based mechanisms in the transport sector. Other challenges relate to institutional roles and responsibilities, the availability of personal and financial resources, and the knowledge and perspectives applied. Based on these limitations regarding transport project evaluations, further development of transport-related climate mechanisms towards a more sectoral and transformational perspective is suggested.

  • 180.
    Sand, Emilia
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Konarska, Janina
    University of Gothenburg.
    Howe, Alessandro W.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Moldan, Filip
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Pleijel, Håkan
    University of Gothenburg.
    Uddling, Johan
    University of Gothenburg.
    Effects of ground surface permeability on the growth of urban linden trees2018In: Urban Ecosystems, ISSN 1083-8155, E-ISSN 1573-1642, p. 1-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Street trees are an important part of urban vegetation due to their provisioning of different types of ecosystem services such as local climate regulation and contribution to aesthetical and recreational values. In order to provide these services, urban trees need to endure many stress factors not present in natural environments, such as the widespread use of impervious surfaces in the vicinity of street trees. However, few studies have evaluated the effect of this potential stress factor on urban tree growth. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate how ground surface permeability affects stem and current-year shoot growth of linden (Tilia europaea) street trees in Gothenburg, Sweden. We found that a small fraction of permeable ground surface in the vertically projected tree crown area caused lower stem growth and strongly suppressed current-year shoot growth. This finding can guide future city planning, demonstrating that the vitality of street trees is compromised when the permeable surface area in the vicinity of the tree is small.

  • 181.
    Sandberg, Ulf
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Calibrating the ISO 10844 test surfaces used for vehicle and tyre noise testing2017In: INTER-NOISE 2017 - 46th International Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering: Taming Noise and Moving Quiet, Institute of Noise Control Engineering , 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When measuring noise emission of road vehicles or tyres, regulations such as ECE R51, R30 and R117 and (indirectly) EU regulations (EC) 661:2009 and 1222:2009, require testing to be made on a reference surface defined in ISO 10844. The surface is claimed to:

    • produce consistent levels of tyre/road noise emission under various operating conditions, including those appropriate to vehicle noise testing

    • minimize inter-site variation

    • provide minor sound absorption

    Originally, ISO 10844 was developed with the aim to minimize tyre/road noise, to cause as little influence as possible on vehicle noise during full-throttle acceleration, and it served well for this purpose. However, it was soon applied also to testing in conditions when tyre/road noise is the only or dominating source. Then, it appeared that various sites gave site-to-site variations up to 5-8 dB(A), probably as some users tried to produce as low noise as possible within the tolerances. The 2014 version aimed at reducing the site-to-site variation to half; i.e. about 3-4 dB(A) by applying new or updated measurement methods, allowing tightening of some technical requirements. However, even 3 dB variation is too much, which will seriously limit the efficiency of noise limits and tyre labelling system. This paper proposes a calibration procedure for ISO surfaces, by which one can quantify the differences and correct values to a global reference. This is proposed to be based on the use of the SRTT tyre, defined by ASTM F2493:2014. Several tests have shown this tyre to give reproducible values within approximately 1 dB(A). If a number of such tyres are used; say 8, the variation between different sets will potentially be less than ±0.5 dB(A). Testing ISO 10844 surfaces periodically with such SRTT sets can then be used to determine a site-specific calibration level, to be compared to a global average reference. It is proposed to use the CPX method of ISO 11819-2 and a specific type of CPX trailer, and to observe the requirements in ISO/TS 11819-3 about reference tyres.

  • 182.
    Sandberg, Ulf
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Recent Development in Europe Aiming at the Reduction of Exterior Vehicle Noise by Producing Quieter Vehicles, Tires and Pavements2012In: SAE technical paper series, ISSN 0148-7191, Vol. 2012-November, no November, p. 9-, article id 2012-36-0645Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper summarizes a presentation that attempts to describe what has recently been done and is planned to be done to relieve the problem of traffic noise, with focus on tire/road noise emission. The paper shows that there is at the moment in Europe, Japan and in countries accepting ECE Regulations a quite intensive development aiming at reduction of road traffic noise, but with initial high ambition often ruined when it comes to the political process. The author thinks that it is likely that many Asian countries under fast development will adopt similar policies as Europe and Japan, although actual implementation may be slower than formal policies would suggest. This positive development applies to exterior noise from light vehicle power units, from car tires and from pavement properties. The exception is trucks and buses and their tires, which are left without significant improvement in the foreseeable future and thus may have an effect on the future perception of truck traffic. In addition, the unique opportunity to reduce traffic noise in urban settings by the gradual introduction of electric and hybrid/electric vehicles may be ruined by addition of extra sound to such vehicles in order to make them easier heard. Copyright © 2012 SAE International.

  • 183.
    Sandberg, Ulf
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Standardized corrections for temperature influence on tire/road noise2015In: INTER-NOISE 2015 - 44th International Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering / [ed] Maling G., Burroughs C., 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Air, tire and road temperatures substantially affect tire/road noise emission. For measuring purposes one would like to normalize measurements to a reference temperature of (say) 20 oC. This paper describes and examines the semi-generic temperature correction procedure which is presently considered for standardization in the ISO working group ISO/TC 43/SC 1/WG 27.

    Based on a lot of research and extensive data compilations, the WG now thinks that it has sufficiently consistent data for proposing corrections to noise levels from measured air temperatures to a reference air temperature of 20 oC. Much of the recent work has been conducted in the ongoing European project ROSANNE. The drafts under production distinguish between two major cases: CPX (or OBSI) measurements and SPB measurements of pavement noise properties.

    The paper describes what kind of data that have been used to make the decisions, their justifications, and presents the suggested temperature coefficients for various cases (i.e. for various reference tires, pavement types and the CPX/SPB methods).

  • 184.
    Sandberg, Ulf
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Bühlmann, Erik
    Grolimund + Partner AG.
    Conter, Marco
    AIT Austrian Institute of Technology.
    Mioduszewski, Piotr
    Gdansk University of Technology (TUG).
    Wehr, Reinhard
    AIT, Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH.
    Improving the CPX method by specifying reference tyres and including corrections for rubber hardness and temperature2016In: Proceedings of the INTER-NOISE 2016 - 45th International Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering: Towards a Quieter Future, 2016, p. 4913-4923Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently completed work in the EU project ROSANNE and in working group ISO/TC43/SC1/WG33 has allowed substantial improvements to measurements made by the Close-Proximity (CPX) method, intended for measurement of noise properties of road surfaces. The paper summarizes the experimental work and describes the conclusions and implementation in ISO/FDIS 11819-2 (the CPX method) and in the supporting ISO (draft) Technical Specifications 11819-3 about Reference Tyres and 13471-1 about Temperature Corrections.

    In the Reference Tyre specification, two reference tyres are defined, of which one is the 16'' SRTT specified in ASTM 2493-14 and the other is a commercial light truck tyre. Both tyres have been tested with respect to correlations with SPB (pass-by) measurements and found to represent car and truck tyres, respectively, in this particular application. To account for reasonable ageing and minor production differences, a correction for rubber hardness is specified, in order to normalize measurement results to tyres having reference hardness. The Temperature Correction specification includes temperature coefficients that are used for normalizing noise levels to an air reference temperature of 20 degrees C. The coefficients relate to driving speed by a simple equation which is different for three categories of road surfaces, which are specified in the document.

  • 185.
    Sandberg, Ulf
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Hjort, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Relation between tyre/road noise and ice snow friction of winter tyres2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is often assumed that low noise emission from car tyres implies a sacrifice of frictional properties. This study explores the relation between tyre/road noise with friction coefficients on ice and snow surfaces for a number of winter tyres, designed either for central European or for Nordic winter roads.

    Measurements of noise were made by the coast-by method in accordance with the EU regulation on a test track having an ISO surface. Measurements of ice friction were made on a long straight climate controlled indoor test track in Sweden which was covered by ice. Snow friction tests were made with a car braking on an outdoor test track in northern Finland. Ten different tyres were tested for all the conditions.

    The results show that the correlation between noise levels and ice friction coefficients is consistently negative, which means that tyres having lower noise have higher friction. The tested tyres ranked with respect to noise in this order (from high to low noise level): summer tyres, tyres designed for central Europe winter roads, and tyres designed for Nordic winter roads. The relation between noise level and friction on snow was less clear, but it was obvious that the summer tyres were much worse than the winter tyres.

    It is concluded that the design principles for winter tyres at large are favourable also for achieving low noise emission.

  • 186.
    Sandberg, Ulf
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Kharrazi, Sogol
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Mioduszewski, Piotr
    Gdansk University of Technology.
    Comparison Of Noise Emission Of HCT And Classic Vehicle Combinations For Timber Transportation In Sweden2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By means of a special simulation tool, the noise emission of a high-capacity heavy vehicle (11 axles) was compared to that of a classic heavy vehicle (a truck-dolly-semitrailer with 8 axles). The two cases are designated “Extended vehicle” versus “Classic vehicle” in this study, having total lengths of 34 and 25 m, respectively. The Classic vehicle represents the most common articulated heavy vehicle configuration for transport of timber and other goods in Sweden. Tyres were assumed to be typical of each axle and their noise emission values were taken from a recent study. Noise from the propulsion unit were assumed to just meet the present maximum legal levels. It was found that noise emission from the Extended vehicle is approx. 1.5 dB higher than for Classic vehicle, as max. A-weighted level per vehicle passage, but as the number of vehicles in traffic is lower for a certain transportation volume, the resulting road traffic noise exposure in terms of A-weighted equivalent level LAeq is similar. Consequently, noise emission is not a factor that gives either vehicle type a clear advantage over the other.

  • 187.
    Sandberg, Ulf
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Kragh, Jörgen
    Danish Road Institute (DRI).
    Goubert, Luc
    Belgian Road Research Centre (BRRC).
    Bendtsen, Hans
    Danish Road Institute (DRI).
    Bergiers, Anneleen
    Belgian Road Research Centre (BRRC).
    Biligiri, Krishna P
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Karlsson, Robert
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Nielsen, Erik
    Danish Road Institute (DRI).
    Olesen, Erik
    Danish Road Institute (DRI).
    Vansteenkiste, Stefan
    Belgian Road Research Centre (BRRC).
    Optimization of thin asphalt layers: state-of-the-art review2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    ERA-NET ROAD initiated a transnational research project titled "Optimization of thin asphalt layers". The DRI-BRRC-VTI Consortium was trusted with carrying out the project and began with a State-of-the-Art report covering, among other things, a literature study and an inventory of experience with using thin asphalt layers (TAL). The results of this phase of the project are given in the present report.

    This study was limited to thin asphalt mixtures with a maximum thickness of 30 mm, which means that surface dressings or slurry seals were outside the scope of the project. Neither were top layers of double-layer porous pavements considered as TAL, even though such top layers often are 20-30 mm thick. Mix design and optimization was the subject of another study in this project and is therefore not treated here.

  • 188.
    Sandberg, Ulf
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Mioduszewski, Piotr
    Technical University of Gdansk.
    Reduction of noise and rolling resistance by horizontal grinding of asphalt pavements2015In: INTER-NOISE 2015 - 44th International Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering / [ed] Maling G., Burroughs C., The Institute of Noise Control Engineering of the USA, Inc. , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Grinding of cement concrete pavements to reduce unevenness and noise is common since a long time. Grinding is then made with wheels equipped with diamond blades rotating in the vertical plane. This creates narrow vertical/longitudinal grooves in the pavement. It is not applied to asphalt pavements.

    In this paper an alternative type of grinding is studied. In this case plates with diamond heads rotate in the same plane as the pavement, thus shaving off peaks in the asphalt pavement texture. The result is a pavement with a "negative texture". This type of (horizontal) grinding has been applied in Sweden in various ways to a stone mastic asphalt pavement as well as to a porous asphalt pavement. Also an Australian study is reviewed.

    This paper describes the technique and its effect on tire/road noise, tire/road rolling resistance and skid resistance. It is found that noise is reduced by 0-3 dB by the horizontal grinding on both pavement types considered, and that rolling resistance is reduced by 7-14 %. This applies to the first year of service but the effects are reduced with time relatively fast. However, depending on the circumstances and the cost of grinding the effect may be technically and economically justified.

  • 189.
    Sandberg, Ulf
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Mioduszewski, Piotr
    Technical University of Gdansk (TUG).
    The best porous asphalt pavement in Sweden so far2014In: INTERNOISE 2014 - 43rd International Congress on Noise Control Engineering: Improving the World Through Noise Control, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2010 a double-layer porous asphalt concrete (DPAC) pavement was constructed in various versions on the E4 motorway through the Swedish city Huskvarna. As a result of a court decision the Swedish Transport Administration had to reduce noise emission by applying a low noise road surface that would reduce A-weighted noise levels by 5 dB, as an average.

    Earlier experience in Sweden indicated that it was possible to obtain a high initial reduction but due to the widespread use of studded tyres in winter, clogging and ravelling created a loss of around 2 dB per year, with an acoustical lifetime of only 3 years. However, the improved pavement in Huskvarna has exceeded lifetime and durability expectations by at least 100 %. The first three years noise reduction fell from the initial 7-8 dB by about 1 dB, compared to an SMA 16 pavement, and now in its 4th year the main pavement still performs well.

    This paper presents results of noise measurements over a 4-year period on various versions of the DPAC and single-layer porous asphalt which were tried at the site. This includes the effects of grinding, cleaning, and rejuvenation. Measurements were made by TUG using the CPX method and two reference tyres.

  • 190.
    Sandberg, Ulf
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Mioduszewski, Piotr
    Gdansk University of Technology (TUG).
    Ejsmont, Jerzy A.
    Gdansk University of Technology (TUG).
    Vieira, Tiago
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Noise and rolling resistance properties of various types of winter tyres compared to normal car tyres2016In: Proceedings of the INTER-NOISE 2016 - 45th International Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering: Towards a Quieter Future, 2016, p. 7005-7016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To cope with winter weather conditions, potentially including snow and ice, it is common to use winter tyres, or "all-seasons" tyres assumed to be safe both in summer and winter. In some northern countries, winter tyres are mandatory. It is commonly assumed that winter tyres are noisier than normal tyres (here called summer tyres) and winter tyres equipped with studs are assumed to be extra noisy.

    This paper presents a study where noise and rolling resistance properties of tyres for winter conditions are compared to summer and all-season tyres. The winter tyres include types optimized for central European climate, tyres optimized for Nordic climate and tyres with studs. In total, approx. 50 car tyres have been tested. Noise properties have been measured with the CPX method and rolling resistance has been measured with a trailer method; all measurements made on two road surfaces; SMA 8 and DAC 16.

    Results indicate that winter tyres are not noisier than summer tyres; except for studded tyres. Despite high differences among individual tyres, rolling resistance is approximately similar among the main types; surprisingly including also studded tyres. An alarming result was that there was no correlation between measured values and values on the tyre labels.

  • 191.
    Sandberg, Ulf
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Mioduszewski, Piotr
    Gdansk University of Technology (TUG).
    Vieira, Tiago
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Acoustic lifecycle study of the double-layer porous asphalt on E4 in Huskvarna, Sweden2018In: INTER-NOISE 2018 - 47th International Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering: Impact of Noise Control Engineering, Institute of Noise Control Engineering , 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2010 a double-layer porous asphalt concrete (DPAC) pavement was constructed on the E4 motorway through the Swedish city Huskvarna. Earlier experience in Sweden indicated that it was feasible to obtain a high initial noise reduction but due to the widespread use of studded tires in winter, clogging and ravelling created losses of around 2 dB per year, with an expected acoustical lifetime of only 3 years. However, the improved pavement in Huskvarna finally exceeded lifetime and durability expectations by at least 100 %. The first two years, noise reduction fell from the initial 7-8 dB just marginally, compared to an average-age SMA 16 pavement. Now after its 7th year, the pavement had reached its acoustical end of life, with an average noise reduction loss of 0.5 dB per year. This is considered as a break-through for low noise pavements exposed to the winter climate in Sweden and road traffic with most light vehicles equipped with studded tires. This paper presents results of annual noise measurements using the CPX method over the entire lifetime on the DPAC compared to the reference set of SMA 16 pavements. This includes the effects of grinding, cleaning and rejuvenation trials on certain test sections.

  • 192.
    Shannigrahi, Ardhendu Sekhar
    et al.
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Pettersson, Jan B. C.
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Langer, Sarka
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Arrhenius, Karine
    IVL.
    Hagström, Magnus
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Janhäll, Sara
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment. Göteborgs Universitet.
    Hallquist, Mattias
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Pathak, Ravi Kant
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    n-Alkanoic monocarboxylic acid concentrations in urban and rural aerosols: Seasonal dependence and major sources2014In: Atmospheric research, ISSN 0169-8095, E-ISSN 1873-2895, Vol. 143, p. 228-237Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report new data on the abundance and distribution of n-monocarboxylic acids (n-MCAs) in fine- and coarse-mode aerosols in rural and urban areas of Sweden, and determine their possible sources. Overall, C6–C16n-MCAs accounted for ~ 0.5–1.2% of the total PM10 (particulate matter ≤ 10 μm) mass. In general, the C12–C16 fraction was the most abundant (> 75%), with the exception of wintertime samples from a rural site, where C6–C11 acids accounted for 65% of the total C6–C16n-MCA mass. Positive matrix factorization analysis revealed four major sources of n-MCAs: traffic emissions, wood combustion, microbial activity, and a fourth factor that was dominated by semi-volatile n-MCAs.

    Traffic emissions were important in the urban environment in both seasons and at the rural site during winters, and were a major source of C9–C11 acids. Wood combustion was a significant source at urban sites during the winter and also to some extent at the rural site in both seasons. This is consistent with the use of wood for domestic heating but may also be related to meat cooking. Thus, during the winter, traffic, wood combustion and microbial activity were all important sources in the urban environment, while traffic was the dominant source at the rural site. During the summer, there was considerable day-to-day variation in n-MCA concentrations but microbial activity was the dominant source. The semi-volatile low molecular weight C6–C8 acids accounted for a small (~ 5–10%) fraction of the total mass of n-MCAs. This factor is unlikely to be linked to a single source and its influence instead reflects the partitioning of these compounds between the gas and particle phases. This would explain their greater contribution during the winter.

  • 193.
    Skov, Rasmus Stahlfest Holck
    et al.
    DELTA a part of FORCE Technology.
    Bendtsen, Hans
    Danish Road Directorate.
    Sandberg, Ulf
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    NordTyre: Noise reduction potential in nordic countries by introduction of EU tyre label2018In: INTER-NOISE 2018 - 47th International Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering: Impact of Noise Control Engineering, Institute of Noise Control Engineering , 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The NordTyre project was initiated to investigate the effects of EU tyre label regulation Reg (EC) No1222/2009 on labelling of tyre noise in the Nordic countries. 31 passenger car tyres were tested on 30 Nordic road surfaces in Denmark, Norway and Sweden using the CPX method. A main result is a bad correlation between the measured noise levels and the noise labels of the tyres. The tyre label measurements are made with the Coast-By method (CB), which differs from the CPX method. Further, 30 truck tyres were tested by the CB method on four different pavements. The results of testing both passenger car and truck tyres shows that the noise performance on typical Nordic rougher-textured SMA road surfaces is remarkably different compared to the smoother ISO test surface used for noise type approval. Based on these results, noise scenarios of the effect of using a combination of less noisy tyres and road surfaces have been analysed against the background of national noise mappings in Denmark and Norway. The results of the calculations show that there is a general noise reducing potential and an estimated potential to reduce the Number of Highly Annoyed people from roads by 13 % in Denmark and 19 % in Norway.

  • 194.
    Sowerby, Chris
    et al.
    CH2M Hill.
    Langstraat, James
    CH2M HILL.
    Harmer, Clare
    TRL.
    Folkeson, Lennart
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Gudmundsson, Henrik
    DTU.
    SUNRA: a sustainability rating system framework for National Road Administrations2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    National Road Administrations (NRAs) across Europe strive to improve the performance of their road networks. This improvement has been underpinned by significant research in the optimisation of road planning, design, construction and maintenance, which has enhanced the understanding of the social, environmental and economic aspects of managing a road network. Whilst there is common understanding in some aspects of sustainability there is not a common understanding of sustainability as a whole and thus how to benchmark and improve overall performance. The Sustainability: National Road Administrations (SUNRA) project aims to provide a common way of defining sustainability, identify how to measure sustainable development at a strategic level and integrate sustainable decision making into key intervention points. The project has developed a series of sustainability frameworks that allow NRAs to develop a tailored approach to sustainability based on national priorities, significant issues, stakeholder concerns and individual organisational structures.

  • 195.
    Stave, Christina
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Förare och fordon, FOF.
    Carlson, Annelie
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    A case study exploring firefighters’ and municipal officials’ preparedness for electrical vehicles2017In: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 9, no 2, article id 25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This study presents a social perspective on new vehicle technology. It explores the self-reported preparedness of the fire departments (i.e., rescue services) in Sweden’s three largest cities regarding rescue operations involving electrical vehicles (EVs).

    Methods: In this multi-method study, in-depth interviews were performed with emergency service officers and municipal officers in each city.

    Results: The results indicate that firefighters have little experience of accidents with EVs and they are learning reactively. The risks were not clearly identified. More knowledge is needed of identifying and disconnecting electricity in EVs. A more efficient way to find information about new vehicles is vital concerning the safety aspect in rescue operations. The level of knowledge about new vehicle technology varied between departments. For the municipal officers, environmental aspects are of most interest, whereas safety and rescue operations involving EVs are rarely addressed. The responsibility for disseminating information about the safe handling of EVs was unclear.

    Conclusion: The fire departments need more resources for education and training to keep up with technical developments and to be proactive. Another desired development is a solution for easy access to vehicle information. Since the environmental issues are setting the agenda, not the safety issues, lesser environment risks could become greater safety risks. We stress the need for various occupational decision making at all levels of society to cooperate in order to take responsibility for the safe introduction for new more environmentally friendly transport vehicle technique and disseminating safety information in a collected and systematic way.

  • 196.
    Stave, Christina
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Carlson, Annelie
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Antonson, Hans
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Wenäll, Jan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Crash safety.
    Kunskapssammanställning över introduktionen av elbilar2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This is an overview of the field of electric driven vehicles, aiming to give an overview of the introduction of vehicles and supporting the development of the vehicle electrification. Some current technical solutions are presented, and a possible future is outlined, in the field of vehicles, batteries as well as infrastructure and power supply solutions. A brief overview of the system perspective on society, drivers and vehicles and the impact on the environment is given. Some electrification initiatives, realized or planned, are described with a major focus on the Swedish market, although a brief international view is presented. Governmental electrification targets and duly support is presented, as well as some examples of current research in this field. For this document, the electric vehicle is mainly to be understood as a passenger type vehicle with some type of electric power supply. Initially presented are various types of electric vehicles, EV, such as (pure) electric vehicles (with no alternative power), electric hybrid vehicles, plug-in (chargeable) hybrid vehicles and fuel cell vehicles. On the 30th of April 2014 there were 3714 vehicles named “plug-in” hybrid, with an option of external charging, registered in Sweden. Out of those there were 1 260 only electric powered and 2454 of the type chargeable hybrid vehicles. The most common battery type in the modern EV is the lithiumion accumulator. EV normally retain a high purchase price, mainly due to the cost of the batteries. The sustainability of the batteries will affect the overall cost. Second hand value is still very uncertain, as well as an uncertainty by the users about the EV functionality, i.e. the possibility to drive a certain distance. An often raised question is the lack of external vehicle noise, possibly making the EV a potential risk due to low hearing detectability. To be able to use an EV, batteries need to be charged. A survey by Transport Analysis (Sweden) shows that 70% of all transportation made by passenger vehicles in Sweden are shorter than 30 km, with the implication that most of these travels are well suited to be performed by an EV. In the report various solutions to the charging of batteries are presented and whether and how power could be supplied.

  • 197.
    Svedberg, Wanna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Born to Drive: Rättslig belysning för automatiserad logistik ”från lager till uppställningsplats för vidare sjö-, väg- eller järnvägstransport” (AP6)2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie belyser översiktligt rättsliga hinder och möjligheter att realisera rangering av självkörande fordon ”från lager till uppställningsplats för vidare sjö-, väg- eller järnvägstransport” på kort och lång sikt. Undersökningen utgår metodologiskt från en abstrakt tankeram: de lege lata och de lege ferenda, där den juridiska innebörden förenklat kan beskrivas som ”vad lagen är” i förhållande till ”vad lagen borde vara” (eller den lag som man vill se i framtiden). Den rättsliga analysen visar att en oklar rättsfråga är fråga om vilket regelverk som ska tillämpas på företeelsen i allmänhet och på ifrågavarande ”fordon” i synnerhet. Ett annat sätt att uttrycka saken är om aktuella ”fordon” ska betraktas som ett fordon eller som en maskin. 

    Genom att synliggöra ett urval bestämmelser som visar på lagstiftningens tillkortakommanden i förhållande till aktuell teknologi kan det konstateras att det för närvarande saknas ett rättsligt regelverk som stöder en automatiserad logistik. Mot bakgrund av lagstiftningens tillkortakommanden presenteras i studien alternativa och tillfälliga rättsliga ”lösningar” för automatiserad logistik, t.ex. tankeexperimentet om aktuella fordon som ”virtuella AGVer”, tillämpning av förordning (2017:309) om försöksverksamhet med självkörande och enligt förslag på rättslig konstruktion som lämnats i forskarrapporten, En rättslig konstruktion för straffrättsligt ansvar gällande självkörande fordon – Forskarrapport till Utredningen om självkörande fordon på väg (Svedberg 2017). 

    I studien påtalas även vikten av regelförändringar i den internationella rätten som reglerar frågor av karaktären vem som bär risken vid olika delar under transporten, kostnader för frakt, tull m.m. Beroende på transportslag d.v.s. om aktuella fordon är tänkta att transporteras vidare via sjö-, väg- eller järnvägstransport är olika konventioner tillämpliga och ovanstående frågor behöver således beaktas i t.ex. fraktavtal. Det innebär att automatiserad logistik understöds av den internationella rätten som tar hänsyn till utvecklingen av automation inom andra trafikslag, däribland sjöfarten. Autonoma farkoster eller fartyg regleras för närvarande inte i den internationella rätten vilket innebär att en automatiserad logistik av självkörande fordon fordrar en nationell och ett internationellt regelverk som understödjer och inkluderar en bredare rättslig förståelse av ”automatiserad logistik”, där denna inte endast avser att det gods/material liksom övervakning och förflyttning av densamma till en given uppställningsplats är automatiserad, utan att ”automatiserad logistik” förstås i dess full räckvidd.

  • 198.
    Svedberg, Wanna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    En rättslig konstruktion för straffrättsligt ansvar gällande självkörande fordon: forskarrapport till Utredningen om självkörande fordon på väg2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie utgör ett resultat av det utredningsuppdrag som lämnats av Utredningen om självkörande fordon på väg till Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut. Utredningsuppdraget har bl.a. bestått i (1) att inventera aktuellt regelverk utifrån dagens regelverk om förarens ansvar sett ur ett straffrättsligt perspektiv ställt i relation till ett framtida regelverk om självkörande fordon, (2) analysera behovet av sanktionsväxling från en straffrättslig påföljd till en administrativ påföljd när det gäller ansvar för överträdelser av självkörande fordon samt (3) att analysera hur en framtida brottslighet kan ta sig uttryck i förhållande till självkörande fordon.

    Rapportens syfte är att utveckla en rättslig konstruktion för straffrättsligt ansvar gällande nivå 4 och 5 fordon på allmän väg i kollektivtrafik, i privattrafik och i yrkestrafik för en trafiksäker introduktion av dessa inom en inte alltför avlägsen framtid. Den rättsliga konstruktionen för straffrättsligt ansvar gällande dessa fordon kommer föga innovativt att benämnas som WS-ansvarsmodell. Det huvudsakliga skälet till en särskild benämning är att undvika förväxlingar med andra förkortningar, tekniker, system, plattformar etc. Sådana förekommer framförallt i kapitel två.

    I syftet ingår att i ett vidare perspektiv undersöka om, och i så fall hur en rättslig infrastruktur för ett långsiktigt hållbart och trafiksäkert transportsystem skulle kunna se ut i ett såväl kort som långsiktigt perspektiv. Rättslig infrastruktur definieras här som det eller de regelverk som omgärdar en viss typ av verksamhet och för dess verksamhet grundläggande rättsliga relationer. Förhoppningen är att rapporten kan ligga till grund för skapandet av en ny näring, infrastrukturnäringen. Termen används som en sammanfattande term och omfattar inte endast fysiska objekt, utan även offentligrättsliga och privaträttsliga aktörer på transportområdet samt det digitala nätverket. Min tolkning av utredningsuppdraget utgår från i huvudsak två skäl, vilka sammantaget har format det ovan beskrivna syftet.

  • 199.
    Swärdh, Jan-Erik
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Genell, Anders
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Estimation of the marginal cost for road noise and rail noise2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to estimate the marginal cost of road noise and rail noise in Sweden. We use the impact pathway approach (IPA) where traffic noise exposure implies an impact on individuals, which in turn is related to monetary valuation of these outcomes.

    Our data consists of noise calculations and number of exposed individuals at different noise levels. We further use monetary valuations of noise disturbances based on property market differentials. Finally, impact functions of negative health outcomes due to noise exposure, and monetary valuations of these negative health outcomes, are used.

    The empirical results show that the marginal costs of traffic noise are highly dependent on the number of exposed individuals and the vehicle type. The overall conclusion is thus that differentiation of the marginal costs is essential, as the noise exposure varies strongly with the population density, and that different vehicle types contribute very differently to the noise emissions. Furthermore, road noise marginal costs are positively influenced by the speed limit and the traffic volume. Nevertheless, the sensitivity with respect to traffic volume is not very substantial. For rail noise marginal costs, there is no effect of traffic volume on the estimated marginal cost.

    In addition, the marginal costs for road noise are estimated separately for different times of the day. These results show that day times have the lowest marginal costs despite the largest traffic volume. Highest marginal costs are mostly estimated for evening but also in some calculations for night time. Sleep disturbances may not be captured in our analysis however, but a sensitivity analysis, including a separate function for sleep disturbance, shows that night time marginal costs are consistently the highest.

  • 200.
    Takman, Johanna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Johansson, Jessica
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Johansson, Magnus
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Johansson, Hannele
    Energikontor Sydost.
    Uhlin, Lovisa
    Regional utveckling Örebro län.
    Kantelius, Åslög
    Region Jönköpings län.
    Biogas för tunga lastbilstransporter: barriärer och möjligheter2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents an in-depth study of barriers and opportunities regarding the commercialization of biogas, and particularly liquified biogas (LBG), for heavy trucks on a larger scale and how these challenges can be overcome. In the study we also identify key actors and other stakeholders in Sweden as well as under what circumstances they dare to invest in the biogas technology. To study the research questions a literature review as well as interviews and workshops with important actors were conducted. The results indicate that biogas is a fuel option that can contribute to reduced carbon dioxide emissions. Energy security and a circular economy are mentioned as important driving forces. The fact that new LBG trucks are now available on the market and that new policy instruments have come into force are also seen as opportunities. The absence of long-term, stable policy instruments and regulations, as well as high prices and costs for production, vehicles and gas are considered to be the main obstacles. Other barriers are lack of knowledge in the area, and that today’s renewable fuels are competing instead of complementing each other.

    There is a need for increased long-term regulatory frameworks that will benefit the most sustainable renewable fuels available today. It is also necessary to make sure that Swedish policies are harmonized with other policies in EU in a better way than the policies that have existed until today. There is also a need for more support systems, for example systems that favor the production of biogas, investment support for the vehicles that best fulfil climate and other environmental objectives, as well as support that includes the secondary market for the LBG vehicles to develop the market towards a more environmentally sustainable transport sector. Information efforts are also needed to inform about biogas in relation to other fuel options for heavy trucks, as well as information about that, and where, LBG fuel stations exist. Furthermore, demonstration projects that show vehicles on the roads as well as contribute to infrastructure development could help spread knowledge and demonstrate that the technology works and by doing so contributing to the development of the LBG market.

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