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  • 151.
    Backman, Mikaela
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Spatial capital mobility: An empirical study2008In: Uddevalla Symposium 2008: spatial dispersed production and network governance : papers presented at the 11th Uddevalla Symposium, 15-17 May, 2008, Kyoto, Japan / [ed] Iréne Bernhard, Trollhättan: Department of Economics and IT, University West , 2008, p. 129-152Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 152.
    Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Bjerke, Lina
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Location of Talent2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 153.
    Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Bjerke, Lina
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Return to higher Education: A regional perspective2008In: Uddevalla Symposium 2008: spatial dispersed production and network governance : papers presented at the 11th Uddevalla Symposium, 15-17 May, 2008, Kyoto, Japan / [ed] Iréne Bernhard, Trollhättan: Department of Economics and IT, University West , 2008, p. 153-176Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 154.
    Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    Bjerke, Lina
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Returns to Education: A Regional Perspective2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 155.
    Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Bjerke, Lina
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Returns to higher education: A regional perspective2008In: ERSA Congress 2008: culture, cohesion and competitiveness : regional perspectives, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 156.
    Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Bjerke, Lina
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Returns to Higher Education: a Regional Perspective2009Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The returns to education have been thoroughly investigated and Sweden has shown to have a relatively low return compared to other countries in Europe. Nevertheless, few studies have combined the regional perspective with returns to education. Hence, the purpose of the paper is to analyze regional differences in their returns to higher education within natural science, engineering and medicine. We assume that individuals maximize expected utility; they will try to attain the highest expected return to education as possible. The regional sum of employment possibilities as well as unemployment shares may differ between regions. Therefore, it is plausible to believe that the regional return to education varies between locations which accounted for in the empirical part of the paper. The result shows that there are clear differences between regional classifications concerning returns to higher education. Central urban regions, except the three largest cities and ten largest universities have the highest return to education. These regions may need to compensate the individuals with a higher return. The three largest cities in Sweden have a relatively low return but have other amenities that attract individuals.

  • 157.
    Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Bjerke, Lina
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Johansson, Sara
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Klaesson, Johan
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE). Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Norman, Therese
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Wallin, Tina
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Wixe, Sofia
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Tillgänglighet, innovationsprocesser och tillväxt2015Report (Other academic)
  • 158.
    Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Bjerke, Lina
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Johansson, Sara
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Wallin, Tina
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Wixe, Sofia
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Mångfald och utveckling av långsiktigt hållbara innovationsmiljöer2014Report (Other academic)
  • 159.
    Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Bjerke, Lina
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Johansson, Sara
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Wallin, Tina
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Wixe, Sofia
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Platsbunden innovationsförmåga och arbetskraftens sammansättning2014Report (Other academic)
  • 160.
    Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    Hjalager, A.-M.
    Wikhamn, W.
    Hur ser morgondagens hotell ut? Forskningsprojekt om innovationer inom hotellbranschen2017Report (Other academic)
  • 161.
    Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Johansson, Börje
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Utvärdering av ADA2007Report (Other academic)
  • 162.
    Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Johansson, Börje
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Västra Sverige -  en konkurrenskraftig automotivregion: Utvärdering av projektet "Automotive Sweden 2004-2006"2006Report (Other academic)
  • 163.
    Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Johansson, Börje
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Lööf, Hans
    Nabavi, Pardis
    Palmberg, Johanna
    Mångfald och innovationer i urbana regioner2015In: Det innovativa Sverige 2: Innovation och attraktion i stad på landsbygd / [ed] Jonas Gustafsson och Åse Karlén, Stockholm: ESBRI , 2015, p. 21-39Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Internationella jämförelser visar att stora, kunskapsintensiva regioner växer snabbare än mindre regioner. Vad är det som utmärker storstadsregionerna gentemot övriga urbana regioner? Vad är det som gör dem attraktiva? En första tes i detta kapitel är att Sveriges tre storstadsregioner får sin särställning genom mångfald. En andra tes är att förnyad och ökad mångfald i de största stadsregionerna över tiden sprider sig till övriga delar av Sverige. Storstäderna är i sig själva attraktiva platser för innovation och förnyelse, men också ekonomiska motorer för resten av landet.

  • 164.
    Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies (CESIS). Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Determinants of self-employment among commuters and non-commuters2016In: Papers in regional science (Print), ISSN 1056-8190, E-ISSN 1435-5957, Vol. 95, no 4, p. 755-774Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyse the determinants of self-employment and focus on the contextual environment. By distinguishing between commuters and non-commuters we are able to analyse the influence from the work and home environment, respectively. Our results indicate a significant difference between non-commuters and commuters in terms of the role of networks for becoming self-employed. Our results indicate that it is the business networks where people work, rather than where they live that exerts a positive influence on the probability of becoming self-employed. These effects are further robust over educational and occupational categories.

  • 165.
    Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Entrepreneurship and age across time and space2018In: Tijdschrift voor economische en sociale geografie, ISSN 0040-747X, E-ISSN 1467-9663, Vol. 109, no 3, p. 371-385Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies confirm an inverted U-shaped relationship between age and entrepreneurship. This paper deepens the understanding of this relationship by analysing how the relationship varies across time and across different types of regions, aspects often overlooked in the current literature. An individual perspective is taken, and the probability of starting a firm is expected to increase as individuals' age but at a decreasing rate. The results show significant differences in the relationship between the age of individuals and the rate of entrepreneurship across time and space. The age-entrepreneurship profile has shifted to the left over time such that individuals are younger when they start firms. 

  • 166.
    Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Human Capital and New Firm Formation2007In: Uddevalla Symposium 2007: institutions for knowledge generation and knowledge flows - building innovative capabilities for regions : papers presented at the 10th Uddevalla Symposium, 14-16 June, 2007, Uddevalla, Sweden, Trollhättan: Department of Economics and Informatics, University West , 2007, p. 185-204Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 167.
    Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Location of New Firms: Influence of Commuting Behaviour2017In: Growth and Change, ISSN 0017-4815, E-ISSN 1468-2257, Vol. 48, no 4, p. 682-699Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the entrepreneurship literature, it is generally assumed that an individual establishes a new firm in a location in which they have strong ties, normally in the municipality of residence or employment. We scrutinise this general assumption and show that firm location depends on individual characteristics, such as the commuting experience. Our results show that commuting influences the firm location choice. The probability of establishing a firm in the work municipality increases if the entrepreneur is a commuter, holding constant the type of region and unobservable and observable individual features. 

  • 168.
    Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Johansson, Börje
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Stadsförnyelse i Norrköping och Linköping: Konsekvenser av Ostlänken, regional infrastruktur och investeringar i stadskärnorna2007Report (Other academic)
  • 169.
    Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Petersson, Lars
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Klaesson, Johan
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Konsekvensanalys av projektet "Handelscentrum Ljungby Shop Stop"2007Report (Other academic)
  • 170.
    Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    Klaesson, Johan
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    Öner, Özge
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    Innovation in the hospitality industry: Firm or location?2017In: Tourism Economics, ISSN 1354-8166, E-ISSN 2044-0375, Vol. 23, no 8, p. 1591-1614Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The hospitality industry is a rapidly growing revenue generator in many countries and is becoming economically important for generating employment and for integrating of immigrants into the labor market. As an industry where firms face fierce competition, it is important for the firms to maintain their competitiveness by distinguishing themselves from others through continuous improvements and innovations. In this article, we investigate the determinants of innovation in the hospitality industry by analyzing survey data gathered from over 900 firms in Sweden. In the analysis, we differentiate between firm-specific and location-specific features. We conclude that the most important characteristics that explain innovation lie within the firm itself, not the location. These results provide important insights regarding firm- versus location-placed innovation policies.

  • 171.
    Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    Klaesson, Johan
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    Öner, Özge
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    Innovationer inom besöksnäringen2017Report (Other academic)
  • 172.
    Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    The geography of innovation and entrepreneurship2015In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 55, no 1, p. 1-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This introduction to the special issue “The Geography of Innovation and Entrepreneurship” in the Annals of Regional Science surveys a collection of nine papers which consider agglomeration economies and spatial heterogeneity of regions and firms through the lenses of innovation and entrepreneurship. They all make use of extensive and detailed data sources that enable models to provide a richer picture of how firms, industries and regions are affected by innovation and entrepreneurship but also how these entities shape and foster renewal. These factors include spatial concentration, industry composition, labor market characteristics, immigration, firm characteristics, R&D activities and R&D collaboration. The papers add to the understanding of the geography of innovation and entrepreneurship by suggesting alternative ways of identifying spillovers, combing and integrating internal and external knowledge sources, and by estimating the impact on innovation, new firm formation and growth.

  • 173.
    Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    Mellander, Charlotta
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies (CESIS). Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, The Prosperity Institute of Scandinavia (PIS).
    Gabe, Todd
    University of Maine, USA.
    Effects of human Capital on the growth and survival of Swedish businesses2016In: Journal of Regional Analysis and Policy, ISSN 1090-4999, Vol. 46, no 1, p. 22-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the effects of human capital on the growth and survival of a large sample of Swedish businesses. Human capital is represented by conventional measures of the educational attainment and experience of an establishment’s workers and skills-based measures of the types of occupations present in the company. Controlling for an establishment’s size and age, as well as its industry and region of location, we find that the human capital embodied in a company’s workers affects its performance. The specific effects, however, depend on how human capital is measured and whether the analysis focuses on growth or survival.

  • 174.
    Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    Nilsson, Pia
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    The role of cultural heritage in attracting skilled individuals2018In: Journal of Cultural Economics, ISSN 0885-2545, E-ISSN 1573-6997, Vol. 42, no 1, p. 111-138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the role played by built heritages and cultural environments, alongside other locational factors, in explaining the growth of human capital in Sweden. We distinguish between urban, natural and cultural qualities as different sources of regional attractiveness and estimate their influence on the observed growth of individuals with at least three years of higher education during 2001–2010. Neighborhood-level data are used, and unobserved heterogeneity and spatial dependencies are modeled by employing random effects estimations and an instrumental variable approach. Our findings indicate that the local supply of built heritages and cultural environments explain a significant part of human capital growth in Sweden. Results suggest that these types of cultural heritages are important place-based resources with a potential to contribute to improved regional attractiveness and growth.

  • 175.
    Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Nilsson, Pia
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Klaesson, Johan
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    HV71:s betydelse för Jönköpingsregionen2010Report (Other academic)
  • 176.
    Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Nilsson, Pia
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Klaesson, Johan
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    Strömberg, Carl-Johan
    Jämställdhet, integration och konkurrenskraft: En empirisk studie med fokus påsvenska jordbruksföretag2015Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 177.
    Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Nilsson, Pia
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Klaesson, Johan
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    Westlund, Hans
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    Rickardsson, Jonna
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    Wassen, Lisa
    Utvärdering av Landsbygdsprogrammet 2007-2013 (Axel 1)2016Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 178.
    Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    Palmberg, Johanna
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies (CESIS).
    Contextualizing small family firms: How does the urban-rural context affect firm employment growth?2015In: The Journal of Family Business Strategy, ISSN 1877-8585, E-ISSN 1877-8593, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 247-258Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the effects of family governance and ownership on firm employment growth, extending existing knowledge by including in the analysis the regional context in which firms are located. We create a regional taxonomy to capture the urban–rural dimension and combine this with the corporate governance structure of the firm. Our results show that, being a family firm per se does not influence employment growth. However, when corporate governance structure and regional context are combined, the urban–rural context influences family firm and nonfamily firm employment growth differently, with family firms exhibiting greater employment growth, compared with nonfamily firms, in rural areas.

  • 179.
    Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    Wallin, Tina
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    Access to banks and external capital acquisition: Perceived innovation obstacles2018In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 61, no 1, p. 161-187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine whether low access to banks is perceived as problematic when obtaining financial capital for innovation activities. Data on innovation obstacles from the Swedish Community Innovation Survey are combined with geo-coded data at the firm level, which allows us to proxy access to external capital by the Euclidian distance from each firm to its nearest bank and the supply within a radius of five kilometres. The results indicate that both a longer distance to the nearest bank and fewer banks in the vicinity are related to experiencing greater difficulties in obtaining external financial capital for innovations.

  • 180.
    Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    Wallin, Tina
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    Access to financial intermediaries and external capital acquisition2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine whether low access to financial intermediaries works as an obstacle acquiring financial capital for Swedish firms by using information from the Community Innovation Survey indicating whether firms perceive the acquisition of external capital to be difficult. This perception is explained by the distance to the firms’ nearest financial intermediaries and their total local supply. The results indicate that the distance to banks is related to a larger problem of obtaining external financial capital in rural areas.

  • 181. Baczko, Tadeusz
    et al.
    Eickelpasch, Alexander
    Lejpras, Anna
    Stephan, Andreas
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Location Conditions in East Germany and in Poland from the Point of View of the Companies2008In: DIW: Weekly Report, ISSN 1860-3343, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 14-20Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    A joint research project at the European University Viadrina, DIW Berlin and the Polish Academy of Science has investigated how companies assess their locational conditions and whether there is a relationship between location attributes and the company performance. In both countries the majority of companies assessed the same location attributes as being important or unimportant for the company's performance. Some remarkable differences were found in the evaluation of locational quality. In both countries, the supply of skilled employees is deemed to be the most important quality criterion of a location, and the current situation regarding this location factor is assessed as satisfactory. The companies in Poland more often evaluate the supply of training and qualification facilities as important compared to companies in East Germany, and the availability is assessed as good in both regions. Less important are traffic conditions. This is-not unexpectedly-assessed worse by Polish companies compared to the East German ones. The support by chambers of commerce is more often important for the Polish companies compared to East German ones. This potentially reflects the different importance of commercial authorities in both countries. Local administration is on average rated worse by the East German companies compared to Polish counterparts.

  • 182. Baczko, Tadeusz
    et al.
    Eickelpasch, Alexander
    Lejpras, Anna
    Stephan, Andreas
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Standortbedingungen in Ostdeutschland und Polen aus Sicht der Unternehmen2008In: DIW Wochenbericht, ISSN 0012-1304, Vol. 75, no 9, p. 91-98Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 183. Badunenko, Oleg
    et al.
    Barasinska, Nataliya
    Schäfer, Dorothea
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Accounting and Finance. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Frauen sind vorsichtiger als Männer - weil sie weniger Vermögen haben2009In: Wochenbericht des DIW Berlin, ISSN 0012-1304, Vol. 76, no 48, p. 832-836Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 184. Badunenko, Oleg
    et al.
    Fritsch, Michael
    Stephan, Andreas
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Allocative Efficiency Measurement Revisited: Do We Really Need Input Prices?2008In: Economic Modelling, ISSN 0264-9993, E-ISSN 1873-6122, Vol. 25, no 5, p. 1093-1109Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 185. Badunenko, Oleg
    et al.
    Fritsch, Michael
    Stephan, Andreas
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    What Drives the Productive Efficiency of a Firm?: the importance of industry, location, R&D, and size2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the factors that explain the level and dynamics of manufacturing firm productive efficiency. In our empirical analysis, we use a unique sample of about 39,000 firms in 256 industries from the German Cost Structure Census over the years 1992-2005. We estimate the efficiencies of the firms and relate them to firm-specific and environmental factors. We find that (1) about half the model's explanatory power is due to industry effects, (2) firm size accounts for another 20 percent, and (3) location of headquarters explains approximately 15 percent. Interestingly, most other firm characteristics, such as R&D intensity, outsourcing activities, or the number of owners, have extremely little explanatory power. Surprisingly, our findings suggest that higher R&D intensity is associated with being less efficient, though higher R&D spending increases a firm's efficiency over time.

  • 186. Badunenko, Oleg
    et al.
    Fritsch, Michael
    Stephan, Andreas
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    What Drives the Productive Efficiency of a Firm?: the importance of industry, location, R&D, and size2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the factors that explain the level and dynamics of manufacturing firm productive efficiency. In our empirical analysis, we use a unique sample of about 39,000 firms in 256 industries from the German Cost Structure Census over the years 1992-2005. We estimate the efficiencies of the firms and relate them to firm-specific and environmental factors. We find that (1) about half the model’s explanatory power is due to industry effects, (2) firm size accounts for another 20 percent, and (3) location of headquarters explains approximately 15 percent. Interestingly, most other firm characteristics, such as R&D intensity, outsourcing activities, or the number of owners, have extremely little explanatory power. Surprisingly, our findings suggest that higher R&D intensity is associated with being less efficient, though higher R&D spending increases a firm’s efficiency over time.

  • 187.
    Bagley, Mark
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    The birth, life and death of firms in industrial clusters: The role of knowledge networks2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Three single-authored papers in this thesis will explore the role of knowledge and information in industrial clusters; and specifically, how knowledge plays a role inthe emergence and persistence of clusters. This thesis places a major emphasis on spinoff firms.

    The first paper uses a computational model to describe how patterns of industrial clustering arise with respect to the size of an initial firm when measured in terms of innovation. Technology is qualitatively described using a code set mapped on a cognitive space. Assuming inheritability of networking skills, I seek to model how the size of an initial firm influences future patterns of cluster formation through a model of technical cognition and a mimicking of creativity. Replicating the stylized facts of entrepreneurial cluster formation, we find initial firm size has a lasting impact on clustering patterns through its influence on the level of cognitive distance of the underlying agents.

    The second paper turns to networks as a tool of analysis to explore the relationship between a spinoff’s network and its geographical location within an industrial cluster. Although recent literature infers that the transmission of organizational attributes in industrial clusters is accomplished via passive network ties, this has not been directly measured. After controlling for firm size, parent size and age, we find that there a statistically significant and negative relationship between network efficiency and geographic distance to a cluster’s core.

    The third and final paper extends the use of networks to examine how knowledge flows, as conduits for routines and skills, affect the survival prospects for firms in industrial clusters. We consider knowledge transmission via two channels: those from inherited linkages and those from geographic proximity. It is found that a firm’s historical links formed through parent-spinoff networks have a significant impact on survival, which differ depending on the motivations of the entrepreneur. Moreover, the gains with respect to location are found to be nonlinear.

  • 188.
    Bagley, Mark J. O.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    A simulation of entrepreneurial spawning2017In: JASSS: Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, ISSN 1460-7425, E-ISSN 1460-7425, Vol. 20, no 3, article id 9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes how patterns of industrial clustering arise with respect to the size of an initial firm when measured in terms of innovation. Through principles of evolutionary economics, the aim of this paper is to examine the ’birth’ of industrial clusters. We take an endogenous and supply-side approach, where firms in a region spawn from incumbents. Technology is qualitatively described using a code set mapped on a cognitive space. Assuming inheritability of networking skills, we seek to model how the size of an initial firm influences future patterns of cluster formation through a model of technical cognition and a mimicking of creativity. It is found that initial firm size has a lasting impact on clustering patterns through its influence on the level of cognitive distance of the underlying agents. The model replicates the stylised facts of entrepreneurial cluster formation.

  • 189.
    Bagley, Mark J. O.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE). Institute of Innovation and Entrepreneurship, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Networks, geography, and the survival of the firm2019In: Journal of evolutionary economics, ISSN 0936-9937, E-ISSN 1432-1386Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Prior studies show that the success of firms in industrial clusters is the result of two main reasons; the transfer of knowledge and routines from parent firms to spinoffs that locate in the same locality, and the returns from co-location. While previous research has largely inferred the presence of parent-spinoff networks, few studies have measured them. Furthermore, the lack of geographic precision has led to conflicting results for evidence of returns from location, as the gains from geographic proximity may not always be linear. This paper introduces network measurement and a refined geographic measure to separate these two respective channels of knowledge transfer, and analyzes their impact on firm survival (as a proxy for firm success). It is found that the gains with respect to location are nonlinear. Furthermore, a firm’s historical links formed through parent-spinoff linkages have a significant impact on survival, which differ depending on the motivations of the entrepreneur. Moreover, these channels of knowledge are complementary in nature.

  • 190.
    Bagley, Mark J. O.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Networks in clustersManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a multitude of studies that examine the performance of firms within industrial clusters. The organizational attributes inherited by spinoffs from parent firms is one explanation behind performance premiums. This paper examines the relationship between a spinoff’s network and its geographical location in an industrial cluster. We hypothesize that there is a negative relationship between a spinoff’s network efficiency and its distance from the cluster’s centroid. Although recent literature infers that the transmission of knowledge in industrial clusters is accomplished via passive network ties, this has not been directly measured. This paper aims to fill that research gap. We find that, after controlling for firm size, parent size and age, there is indeed a statistically significant and negative relationship between network efficiency and geographic distance to a cluster’ score.

  • 191.
    Baibekova, Kamilya
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Nguyen Tan Hoang, Anh
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Determinants of Foreign Direct Investment in Ireland2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Exceptionally high FDI inflows into Ireland have been one of the main resources of Irish rapid economic growth, and earned the country a title of “Celtic Tiger”.  The goal of this thesis is to find out the driving sources behind this high inward investment and to examine whether Ireland has truly enjoyed higher amounts of FDI inflows than predicted by the model.

    This thesis analyzes the determinants of foreign direct investment in Ireland. The determinants being examined are GDP, GDP per capita, infrastructure, labor productivity, education and trade openness. The analyzed period is from 1997 to 2007 and data is collected for 30 OECD member states. With the help of the pooled regression we were able to obtain the following results: GDP, GDP per capita, infrastructure and education have a significant effect on FDI and FDI per capita inflows. However, labor productivity and trade openness turned out to be less significant in attracting FDI to Ireland. Moreover, based on the results, infrastructure had an unexpected negative sign, while the rest of the variables indicated expected positive relation to FDI.

  • 192. Barasinska, Nataliya
    et al.
    Schäfer, Dorothea
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Accounting and Finance. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Do Internet Credit Markets Improve Access to Credit for Female Business Owners2010In: Weekly Report, Vol. 6, no 29, p. 215-220Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Business owners and founders are a minority of any bank’s business clients. Scientific studies of traditional credit markets often show a lower probability of loan approval or higher loan costs for female business owners compared to male business owners. With this background the question arises whether female business owners have to struggle with this problem less on Internet credit markets.

    In this current study, DIW Berlin investigated business loans on the largest German Internet platform, smava. smava connects private individuals who wish to take on installment loan at a fixed interest rate or wish to lend money. The findings show that female borrowers are positioned at least as well as their male counterparts on smava. If all other loan and borrower-specific characteristics remain the same, then the loan requests of female business owners have even better prospects for success than loan requests from men. There are indications that this result is not platform-specific, but also applies to other innovative credit markets.

  • 193.
    Barasinska, Nataliya
    et al.
    Deutsche Bundesbank, Frankfurt, Germany.
    Schäfer, Dorothea
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. German Institute for Economic Research DIW Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Gender role asymmetry and stock market participation – evidence from four European household surveys2018In: European Journal of Finance, ISSN 1351-847X, E-ISSN 1466-4364, Vol. 24, no 12, p. 1026-1046Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the importance of social norms for shaping women's and men's decision to participate in the stock market, aiming to disentangle the different channels playing a role in this decision. Gender role asymmetry is indicated by the country's rank in the gender equality index of the World Economic Forum. Using data from four national household surveys, we find that in Italy – the country with highly asymmetric gender role prescriptions – women's risk-taking behavior responds to this non-supportive environment. Consistent with the theory of social identity, Italian women refrain from stock market participation more than their self-reported risk tolerance levels would suggest. In contrast, in the three countries with a lower asymmetry in gender role prescriptions, no exaggerated female backing off from investing in stocks is observable. The result is robust to separately analyzing sub-samples of singles and couples. However, women who self-select into stock market participation invest the same portfolio share in stocks as do their male peers – independent of the society's degree of gender role divergence. 

  • 194.
    Barasinska, Nataliya
    et al.
    Deutsche Bundesbank.
    Schäfer, Dorothea
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO). DIW Berlin.
    Is the Willingness to Take Financial Risk a Sex-Linked Trait?: Evidence from National Surveys of Household Finance2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate whether the willingness to take investment risk is a sex-linked trait and link the results to the country’s gender equality regime. Our empirical analysis involves household data on financial asset holdings as well as on self-reported risk tolerance for Austria, Italy, the Netherlands and Spain. Of those countries, Italy is by far the country with the greatest degree of gender inequality according to the 2009 Global Gender Gap Report. Two stages of building a portfolio of financial assets are analyzed. For the first-stage decision of whether to invest in risky assets in the first place, gender is found to have no effect in Austria, the Netherlands and Spain but does have an impact in Italy. However, even for Italy, it seems to be irrelevant in the second-stage decision about the share of wealth invested in the risky assets. We infer from these findings that, for countries with a high degree of gender equality, it is inappropriate to base financial advice primarily on gender.

  • 195. Barasinska, Nataliya
    et al.
    Schäfer, Dorothea
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Accounting and Finance. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Verbessern Internet-Kreditmärkte den Kreditzugang für Unternehmerinnen?2010In: DIW Wochenbericht, ISSN 0012-1304, Vol. 79, no 31, p. 2-7Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 196. Barasinska, Nataliya
    et al.
    Schäfer, Dorothea
    Stephan, Andreas
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Accounting and Finance.
    Financial Risk Aversion and Household Asset Diversification2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the relationship between risk attitude and asset diversification in household portfolios. We first examine the impact of manifested risk aversion on the total number of distinct assets held in a portfolio (naive diversification). The second part of the paper focuses on a more sophisticated strategy of diversification and asks whether financial theory is compatible with observed diversification patterns. Based on the German Socioeconomic Panel which provides unique measures of individual propensity for taking risk, the results of the regression analysis show that, along with some socioeconomic characteristics, the propensity for taking investment risk is an important predictor of a household's diversification strategy. However, some of our findings are strongly at odds with what the concept of mean-variance utility suggests.

  • 197. Barasinska, Nataliya
    et al.
    Schäfer, Dorothea
    Stephan, Andreas
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Accounting and Finance.
    Private Households Display Strong Aversion to Investment Risk2009In: DIW Berlin Weekly Report, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 13-18Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The broadest possible diversification of investments is considered an important strategy for minimizing investment risk. Most households in Germany do distribute their financial assets over several types of investment. However, investment behavior is only partially consistent with the overall readiness for risk-taking reported by heads of households. This is demonstrated by a current empirical study based on data from the Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP). The probability of diversification does tend to rise according to the degree of risk aversion, yet not when it comes to a "fully diversified investment basket." With a higher fear of risk, the tendency to fill a portfolio with every kind of investment falls. Clearly, households make decisions in keeping with a principle propagated by Keynes: security and liquidity come first. The readiness to invest in riskier assets rises with the number of secure investments already in place in the portfolio.

  • 198.
    Bargman, Daniil
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    How Irrational Behavour Creates Order and How This Order Can Be Determined: The Theory and Practice of Fractal Market Analysis2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes two main frameworks that challenge the “mainstream” finance theory and the random walk hypothesis. The first framework is based on investor irrationality and is called Behavioural Finance. The second framework views the financial market as a chaotic system and is called Fractal Theory of a financial market.

    Behavioural Finance attacks the assumption of investor rationality, thus challenging the conventional finance theories on the micro level. Fractal Theory challenges the EMH and the “macroeconomics” of finance. This paper presents a step towards unifying the frameworks of Behavioural Finance and Fractal Theory.

    After a review of the relevant literature, a model of the financial market is suggested that rests on the predictions of both Behavioural Finance and Fractal Theory. As a next step, a mathematical algorithm is described that allows to test the financial market for consistency with the presented model.

    The mathematical algorithm is applied to 10 years of daily S&P500 price quotes, and consistent statistical evidence shows that the predicted fractal pattern reveals itself in the S&P500 prices. The new model outperforms the random walk in out-of-sample forecasting.

  • 199. Bartkowiak, Igor
    et al.
    Stephan, Andreas
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Innovationspolitik in Grossbritannien2007In: Innovationspolitik: Wie kann Deutschland von anderen lernen?, Marburg: Schüren Verlag , 2007, p. 103-119Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 200. Batten, D.F
    et al.
    Karlsson, CharlieJönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Infrastructure and the Complexity of Economic Development1996Collection (editor) (Other academic)
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