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  • 151.
    Axelsson, Daniel
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Daniel Axelsson.
    Premier League player expenses during Covid-19: How spending on the transfer market of football has shifted since the initial shock of the pandemic2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines the impact of the initial shock of the Covid-19 pandemic on the transfer market within the English Premier League. To determine whether teams still overspend the same amount of money above the market values of players as they did prior to the pandemic. Using a differences-in-differences approach and comparing actual transfer values to established market values of player, both before and after the initial pandemic shock, with data and player statistics collected from the popular German website Transfermarkt.de. This resulted in an average 11.8 percent decrease in spending over the market value per player, or about 950.000 Euros less per player above their market value. However, both results show no statistical significance of being true. Concluding that teams may have spent less after the initial shock of the Covid-19 pandemic compared to player market values. To support this explorative data result, more data must be collected and analysed in the future.

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  • 152.
    Baros, Aleksandra
    et al.
    University of Bologna, Italy.
    Croci, Ettore
    Catholic University, Italy.
    Elliot, Viktor
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Willesson, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics (NS).
    Bank liquidity and capital shocks in unconventional times2023In: European Journal of Finance, ISSN 1351-847X, E-ISSN 1466-4364, Vol. 29, no 14, p. 1678-1703Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines bank liquidity management following capital shocks under capital and liquidity regulation in a period of unconventional monetary policies. Studying European banks between 2010 and 2018, we find that bank liquidity is generally not affected by a negative capital shock. Capital shocks are nevertheless transmitted into liquidity positions through balance sheet adjustments. Addressing bank-level balance sheet policies, we find that the banks de-risk assets by replacing corporate loans with financial securities, especially if the shock takes place during periods of heightened central bank interventions. Moreover, asset-side-dominant risk-reducing behavior goes against regulatory intent and indicates that regulatory arbitrage considerations affect banks’ responses to shocks. Finally, we document heterogeneous responses by banks depending on their size, type, and country. These findings imply that compliance with regulation may lead to partial shortages in corporate lending, with banks prioritizing investment in government securities in event of a capital shock.  

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  • 153.
    Bastani, Spencer
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Blomqist, Sören
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Micheletto, Luca
    University of Milan, Italy.
    Public Pensions in a Multiperiod Mirrleesian Income Tax Model2018In: The Taxation of Pensions / [ed] Robert Holzmann, John Piggott, Cambridge: MIT Press, 2018, p. 51-80Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 154.
    Bastani, Spencer
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Blomquist, Sören
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Micheletto, Luca
    University of Milan, Italy;Bocconi University, Italy;Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Child care subsidies, quality and optimal income taxation2020In: American Economic Journal: Economic Policy, ISSN 1945-7731, E-ISSN 1945-774X, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 1-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study child care subsidies in a Mirrleesian optimal tax framework where parents choose both the quantity and quality of child care. Child care services not only enable parents to work, but also contribute to children’s human capital. We examine the conditions under which child care expenditures should be encouraged or discouraged by the tax system under different assumptions regarding the available policy instruments. Using a quantitative model calibrated to the US economy, we illustrate the possibility that child care expenditures should be taxed rather than subsidized, and discuss the merits of public provision schemes for child care.

  • 155.
    Bastani, Spencer
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. CESifo Munich, Germany.
    Blomquist, Sören
    Uppsala university, Sweden.
    Micheletto, Luca
    CESifo Munich, Germany;University of Milan, Italy;Bocconi University, Italy.
    Nonlinear and piecewise linear income taxation, and the subsidization of work-related goods2019In: International Tax and Public Finance, ISSN 0927-5940, E-ISSN 1573-6970, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 806-834Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate how the social welfare gain of subsidizing work-related goods depends on whether the underlying income tax system is linear, piecewise linear or fully nonlinear, focusing on child care services as a paradigmatic example of goods/services that are complements with labor supply. Our quantitative analysis employs an empirically relevant labor supply model and shows that the welfare gain of an optimally chosen subsidy is negligible when the optimal income tax is restricted to be linear but about the same as under fully nonlinear taxation when the optimal income tax is restricted to be piecewise linear. Our findings enhance the policy relevance of the optimal tax argument in favor of providing subsidies to work-related goods and also shed light on the relative welfare gains of employing piecewise linear rather than fully nonlinear income taxes.

  • 156.
    Bastani, Spencer
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Uppsala University;CESifo, Germany.
    Blomquist, Sören
    Uppsala University;CESifo, Germany.
    Micheletto, Luca
    University of Milan, Italy;Bocconi University of Milan, Italy;Uppsala University;CESifo, Germany.
    Optimal commodity taxation with varying quality of goods2016In: Research in Economics, ISSN 1090-9443, E-ISSN 1090-9451, Vol. 70, no 1, p. 89-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A standard result in the optimal taxation literature is that when agents differ in market ability and the government aims at redistributing from high- to low-skilled agents by means of an optimal nonlinear labor income tax and a set of commodity taxes, an optimally designed commodity tax structure should encourage (discourage) the consumption of goods/services that are complement with labor (leisure). In this paper we highlight that when agents can choose both the quality and the quantity of a given good/service, this standard commodity tax result needs to be qualified. First, we show that it becomes relevant to distinguish between specific and ad valorem taxes/subsidies. Second, whether the standard result holds or not depends on how the concept of labor (leisure) complement is defined, namely, whether it is defined in terms of number of units or in terms of expenditure. We also show that levying specific and ad valorem taxes at opposite signs on a given good can be a feature of the second-best optimum.

  • 157.
    Bastani, Spencer
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Uppsala University, Sweden;CESifo, Germany.
    Blomquist, Sören
    Uppsala University, Sweden;CESifo, Germany.
    Micheletto, Luca
    Uppsala University, Sweden;University of Milan, Italy;Bocconi University, Italy.
    Pareto efficient income taxation without single-crossing2020In: Social Choice and Welfare, ISSN 0176-1714, E-ISSN 1432-217X, Vol. 55, no 3, p. 547-594Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We provide a full characterization of a two-type optimal nonlinear income tax model where the single-crossing condition is violated due to an assumption that agents differ both in terms of market abilities and in terms of their needs for a work-related good. We set up a Pareto-efficient tax problem and analyze the entire second-best Pareto-frontier, highlighting several non-standard results, such as the possibility of income re-ranking relative to the laissez-faire and gaps in the Pareto-frontier.

  • 158.
    Bastani, Spencer
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. CESifo, Germany.
    Blomquist, Sören
    Uppsala University, Sweden;CESifo, Germany.
    Micheletto, Luca
    University of Milan, Italy;CESifo, Germany.
    Public pensions in a multi-period Mirrleesian income tax model2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Using an OLG model with skill uncertainty and private savings, we investigate whether an optimally designed set of public pension transfers can usefully supplement a nonlinear labor income tax as a welfare-enhancing policy instrument. We consider a Mirrleesian setting where agents' skills are private information and highlight that, even though pensions, by crowding out private savings, adversely affect the achievement of the golden-rule, they can be used as a mimicking-deterring device that makes it easier for the government to achieve the desired redistributive goals.

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  • 159.
    Bastani, Spencer
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. CESifo, Germany.
    Blumkin, Tomer
    Ben Gurion University, Israel;CESifo, Germany.
    Micheletto, Luca
    University of Milan, Italy;Bocconi University, Italy;CESifo, Germany.
    Anti-discrimination legislation and the efficiency-enhancing role of mandatory parental leave2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We study a setting where anti-discrimination legislation gives rise to adverse selection in the labor market. Firms rely on nonlinear compensation contracts to screen workers who differ in their family/career orientation. This results in a labormarket equilibrium where career-oriented workers are offered an inefficiently low duration of parental leave. In addition, family-oriented workers are offered lower wages as compared to their equally skilled career-oriented counterparts. We demonstrate the usefulness of mandatory parental leave rules in mitigating the distortion in the labor market and derive conditions under which a Pareto improvement is possible. We also characterize the optimal parental leave policy and highlight the possibility for parental leave legislation to eliminate the wage penalty of family-oriented workers by supporting pooling employment contracts.

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  • 160.
    Bastani, Spencer
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Blumkin, Tomer
    Ben Gurion University, Israel.
    Micheletto, Luca
    University of Milan, Italy.
    Gender wage gap and the welfare-enhancing role of parental leave rules2017In: ifo DICE Report, ISSN 2511-7815, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 3-7, article id 11112017002001Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A large body of empirical evidence documents the gender variation in labour market outcomes. A major factor that contributes to persistent gender gaps in labour market performance is women’s traditional role in the household. Child-related absences from work imply that women accumulate less job experience, are more prone to career discontinuities and, hence, suffer a motherhood penalty. We highlight how the fundamental gender-driven career/family conflict faced by workers in the labour market may create a normative justification for parental leave rules as a means to enhance efficiency and alleviate the gender pay gap. 

  • 161.
    Bastani, Spencer
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden;Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy, Sweden;Research Institute of Industrial Economics, Sweden.
    Dickmanns, Lisa
    Univ Cologne, Germany.
    Giebe, Thomas
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics (NS).
    Guertler, Oliver
    Univ Cologne, Germany.
    Household specialization and competition for promotion2024In: Review of Economics of the Household, ISSN 1569-5239, E-ISSN 1573-7152Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study how the presence of promotion competition in the labor market affects household specialization patterns. By embedding a promotion tournament model in a household setting, we show that specialization can emerge as a consequence of competitive work incentives. This specialization outcome, in which only one spouse invests heavily in his or her career, can be welfare superior to a situation in which both spouses invest equally in their careers. The reason is that household specialization reduces the intensity of competition and provides households with consumption smoothing. The specialization result is obtained in a setting where spouses are equally competitive in the labor market and there is no household production. It is also robust to several modifications of the model, such as varying the number of households, two spouses competing for promotion in the same workplace, and the inclusion of household production.

  • 162.
    Bastani, Spencer
    et al.
    Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy (IFAU), Sweden;Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Sweden; Uppsala Center for Fiscal Studies (UCFS), Sweden;Uppsala Center for Labor Studies (UCLS), Sweden; CESIfo, Germany.
    Dickmanns, Lisa
    University of Cologne, Germany.
    Giebe, Thomas
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Gürtler, Oliver
    University of Cologne, Germany.
    Competition for Promotion Can Induce Household Specialization Between Equally Competitive SpousesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyze equally competitive spouses  competing for promotion in their respective workplaces and show that an asymmetric equilibrium featuring household specialization can arise. Examples where the asymmetric equilibrium is welfare-superior to the symmetric equilibrium are highlighted. By investing heavily  in the  career of only one spouse, families reduce the intensity of the rat race of the working environment and obtain less risky consumption opportunities. Our findings suggest that specialization can reflect an efficient response to the competitiveness of the labor market and may arise even when all workers have equal opportunities to succeed in the labor market.  

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  • 163.
    Bastani, Spencer
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden;IFAU, Sweden;IFN, Sweden;UCFS, Sweden;UCLS, Sweden;CESIfo, Sweden.
    Dickmanns, Lisa
    University of Cologne, Germany.
    Giebe, Thomas
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics (NS).
    Gürtler, Oliver
    University of Cologne, Germany.
    Household specialization and competition for promotion2024Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study how the presence of promotion competition in the labor market affects household specialization patterns. By embedding a promotion tournament model in a household setting, we show that specialization can emerge as a consequence of competitive work incentives. This specialization outcome, in which only one spouse invests heavily in his or her career, can be welfare superior to a situation in which both spouses invest equally in their careers. The reason is that household specialization reduces the intensity of competitionand provides households with consumption smoothing. The specialization result is obtained in a setting where spouses are equally competitive in the labor market and there is no household production. It is also robust to several modifications of the model, such as varying the number of households, two spouses competing for promotion in the same workplace, and the inclusion of household production.

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  • 164.
    Bastani, Spencer
    et al.
    Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy (IFAU);Research Institute for Industrial Economics (IFN);Uppsala Center for Fiscal Studies;Uppsala Center for Labor Studies;CESIfo.
    Giebe, Thomas
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics (NS).
    Gürtler, Oliver
    University of Cologne, Germany.
    Overconfidence and gender equality in the labor marketManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Gender differences in overconfidence have been extensively documented in the empirical literature, but the implications for labor market outcomes are not well understood. In this paper, we theoretically analyze how men's relatively higher overconfidence, combined with competitive job incentives, affects gender equality in the labor market. The vehicle of analysis is a promotion-signaling model in which wages are determined by market forces. We find that overconfident workers exert more effort to be promoted and receive higher wages at each job level. Even though they have lower expected ability conditional on promotion, they are more likely to be promoted. Because overconfident workers compete more fiercely, they incur higher effort costs and discourage their peers, and we find that overconfidence can be either self-serving or self-defeating.

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  • 165.
    Bastani, Spencer
    et al.
    Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy, Sweden;Research Institute of Industrial Economics, Sweden;Uppsala University, Sweden;CESifo, Germany.
    Giebe, Thomas
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Gürtler, Oliver
    University of Cologne, Germany.
    Simple equilibria in general contests2022In: Games and Economic Behavior, ISSN 0899-8256, E-ISSN 1090-2473, Vol. 134, p. 264-280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We show how symmetric equilibria emerge in general two-player contests in which skill and effort are combined to produce output according to a general production technology and players have skills drawn from different distributions. The model includes the Tullock (1980) and Lazear and Rosen (1981) models as special cases. Our paper provides intuition regarding how the contest components interact to determine the incentive to exert effort and sheds new light on classic comparative statics results. In particular, we show that more heterogeneity can increase equilibrium effort.

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  • 166.
    Bastani, Spencer
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Giebe, Thomas
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Gürtler, Oliver
    University of Cologne, Germany.
    Simple Equilibria in General ContestsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We show how symmetric equilibria emerge in general two-player contests in which skill and effort are combined to produce output according to a general production technology and players have skills drawn from different distributions. The model includes the Tullock (1980) and Lazear and Rosen (1981) models as special cases. Our paper provides intuition regarding how the contest components interact to determine the incentive to exert effort and sheds new light on classic comparative statics results. In particular, we show that more heterogeneity can increase equilibrium effort.

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  • 167.
    Bastani, Spencer
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Giebe, Thomas
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Miao, Chizheng
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Ethnicity and tax filing behavior2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyze differences in tax filing behavior between natives and immigrants using population-wide Swedish administrative data, focusing on two empirical examples. First, controlling for a rich set of variables, we compare deduction behavior of  immigrants and natives with the same commuting patterns within Sweden's largest commuting zone. We find  that newly arrived immigrants file fewer deductions than natives, that immigrants with a longer duration of stay in the host country behave more like natives, and that immigrants with the longest stay file the most, even more than natives. Second, we analyze bunching behavior among the self-employed at the first central government kink point of the Swedish income tax schedule and find that self-employed immigrants exhibit significantly less bunching behavior than natives, even after a long time in the host country. We highlight residential segregation as a main driver of the observed behavioral differences. 

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  • 168.
    Bastani, Spencer
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. CESifo, Germany.
    Giebe, Thomas
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Miao, Chizheng
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Ethnicity and tax filing behavior2020In: Journal of Urban Economics, ISSN 0094-1190, E-ISSN 1095-9068, Vol. 116, no March, p. 1-16, article id 103215Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyze differences in tax filing between natives and immigrants, focusing on two empirical examples. First, we study deductions for costs associated with traveling between home and work allowed in the Swedish tax code. Using the total population of  commuters within Sweden's largest commuting zone, we find that newly arrived immigrants file substantially less than natives, immigrants with a longer stay behave more like natives, and immigrants with the longest stay file the most, even more than natives. Second, we analyze bunching behavior among the self-employed at a large salient kink point of the Swedish income tax schedule. We find much less bunching among immigrants, even after a long time in the host country, and the largest differences relative to natives in residential areas with a high immigrant concentration. Our findings have implications for the equity and efficiency of the tax system and the spatial patterns of residential and occupational choices for different ethnic groups.

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  • 169.
    Bastani, Spencer
    et al.
    Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Sweden:Uppsala University, Sweden;CESIfo, Germany.
    Karlsson, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Sweden;Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Sweden.
    Kolsrud, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics (NS).
    Waldenström, Daniel
    Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Sweden.
    The Capital Advantage: Comparing Returns to Ability in the Labor and Capital Markets2024Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Using administrative tax and military records, we show that cognitive ability is more strongly associated with capital income than with labor income. This result holds across intensive and extensive margins, across different income types, and after controlling for education, occupation, inheritance, and parental background. Higher ability individuals save more, are better at selecting high-return stocks, hold more risky assets, and are less likely to live hand-to-mouth. Capital market returns are higher for cognitive ability than for non-cognitive skills, and the difference is stable over time. Rising capital shares, fueled by technological progress, could therefore exacerbate cognitive ability-based economic inequality.

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  • 170.
    Bastani, Spencer
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. CESifo, Germany.
    Lundberg, Jacob
    Political preferences for redistribution in Sweden2016Report (Other academic)
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  • 171.
    Bastani, Spencer
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Uppsala University, Sweden;CESifo, Germany.
    Lundberg, Jacob
    Ratio Institute.
    Political preferences for redistribution in Sweden2017In: Journal of Economic Inequality, ISSN 1569-1721, E-ISSN 1573-8701, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 345-367Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine preferences for redistribution inherent in Swedish tax policy during 1971-2012 using the inverse optimal tax approach. The income distribution is carefully characterized with the help of administrative register data, and we employ behavioral elasticities reflecting the perceived distortionary effects of taxation. The revealed social welfare weights are high for non-workers, small for low-income earners, and hump-shaped around the median. At the top, they are always negative, especially so during the high-tax years of the 1970s and '80s. The weights on non-workers increased sharply in the 1970s, fell drastically in the late '80s and early '90s, and have since then increased.

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  • 172.
    Bastani, Spencer
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Uppsala University ; CESifo, Germany.
    Moberg, Ylva
    Uppsala University.
    Selin, Håkan
    Uppsala University ; CESifo, Germany.
    Estimating participation responses using transfer program reform2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we estimate labor force participation responses for married women in Sweden using population-wide register data and detailed information about individuals’ budget sets. For identification we exploit a reform in the system for housing allowances in 1997 which affected participation tax rates for households with/without children differently. Using a simple theoretical framework we provide a structural interpretation of our estimates and highlight how the employment response depends on the employment level. Our central estimate of the participation elasticity is 0.13. When splitting the treated sample into four quartiles based on the wife’s skill level we find that the participation elasticity is more than twice as large for the lowest-skill sample than for the highest-skill sample

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  • 173.
    Bastani, Spencer
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Uppsala University, Sweden;CESifo.
    Moberg, Ylva
    Stockholm University, Sweden;Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Selin, Håkan
    Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy, Sweden;Uppsala University, Sweden;CESifo.
    The anatomy of the extensive margin labor supply response2021In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 123, no 1, p. 33-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We estimate how labor force participation among married women in Sweden responded to changing work incentives implied by a reform in the tax/transfer‐system in 1997. Using rich, population‐wide, administrative data we estimate an average participation elasticity of 0.13, thereby adding to the scarce literature estimating participation elasticities using quasi‐experimental methods. We also highlight that estimated extensive margin responses necessarily are local to the observed equilibrium. Among low‐income earners, elasticities are twice as large in the group with the lowest employment level as compared to the group with the highest employment level.

  • 174.
    Bastani, Spencer
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Selin, Håkan
    Skillnad på marginalen: en ESO-rapport om reformerad inkomstbeskattning2019Report (Other academic)
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  • 175.
    Bastani, Spencer
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Tomer, Blumkin
    Ben Gurion Univ Negev, Israel.
    Luca, Micheletto
    Univ Milan, Italy.
    The Welfare-Enhancing Role of Parental Leave Mandates2019In: Journal of Law, Economics & Organization, ISSN 8756-6222, E-ISSN 1465-7341, Vol. 35, no 1, p. 77-126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A major factor that contributes to persistent gender variation in labor market outcomes is womens traditional role in the household. Child-related absences from work imply that women accumulate less job experience, are more prone to career discontinuities and, hence, suffer a motherhood penalty. We highlight how the gender-driven career/family segmentation of the labor market may create a normative justification for parental leave rules as a means to enhance efficiency in the labor market and alleviate the gender wage gap. (JEL D82, H21, J31, J83).

  • 176.
    Bastani, Spencer
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Waldenström, Daniel
    Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Sweden.
    How Should Capital Be Taxed?2020In: Journal of Economic Surveys, ISSN 0950-0804, E-ISSN 1467-6419, Vol. 34, no 4, p. 812-846Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This survey discusses how capital should be taxed in advanced economies. We review the theoretical optimal tax literature, survey empirical studies on the distribution of capital and the distortionary costs of capital taxation, and analyze the desirability of specific taxes on capital income, wealth, property, inheritances, and corporate profits. Our overall conclusion is that capital taxation plays an important role in an optimal tax system, but only certain ways of taxing capital are able to strike a balance between optimality and administrative feasibility.

  • 177.
    Bastani, Spencer
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy (IFAU), Sweden;Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Sweden.
    Waldenström, Daniel
    Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Sweden.
    Perceptions of Inherited Wealth and the Support for Inheritance Taxation2021In: Economica, ISSN 0013-0427, E-ISSN 1468-0335, Vol. 88, no 350, p. 532-569Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study how attitudes to inheritance taxation are influenced by information about the role of inherited wealth in society. Using a randomized experiment in a register-linked Swedish survey, we find that informing individuals about the large aggregate importance of inherited wealth and its link to inequality of opportunity significantly increases the support for inheritance taxation. Changes in the perceived economic importance of inherited wealth and altered views on whether luck matters most for economic success appear to be driving factors behind the treatment effect. Our findings suggest that the low salience of inherited wealth could be one explanation behind the relatively marginalized role of inheritance taxation in developed economies.

  • 178.
    Bastani, Spencer
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Waldenström, Daniel
    Paris School of Economics, France;Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Sweden.
    Vad bestämmer svenskarnas attityder till skatter?2019In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 47, no 4, p. 70-79Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi använder en nyligen genomförd attitydundersökning för att undersöka sambandet mellan individers stöd för olika skatter och olika bakgrundsvariabler. Resultaten visar på en del intressanta mönster avseende inkomst och utbildning. Höginkomsttagare och högutbildade är relativt sett mer positiva till punktskatter och mer negativa till statlig inkomstskatt och förmögenhetsskatt, men det finns inga stora skillnader i stödet för kommunalskatten, fastighetsskatten eller en arvsskatt. I ett försök att utröna effekten av partipolitiska sympatier, framgår att stödet för olika skatter inte alltid följer den traditionella blockpolitiken, och mönstren ser olika ut för inkomst-, kapital- och punktskatter.

  • 179.
    Behrenz, Lars
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    The Economic Value of Elite Sports: The Case of Sweden2013In: Sports: Economic, Management, Marketing & Social Aspects AbstractsThirteenth Annual International Conference on Sports: Economic, Management, Marketing & Social Aspects8-11 July 2013, Athens, Greece Edited by Gregory T. Papanikos, Athens Institute for Education and Research (ATINER), 2013, p. 11-11Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is about elite sports in Sweden. There are a lot of ways of studying the economic value of elite sports. In this article we use information from population data, club accounting and a questionnaire to get a picture of the economic values of elite sports. Our knowledge from earlier research concerning the economic value of elite sports is mainly based on US data. The Scandinavian model for sport is different from sports in the USA since the clubs are not owned by businesses and the goals are more or less “sport for all”. This paper tries to present a picture of the process of elite sports in countries there elite sports traditionally has been a mixture between professional and amateur. The results from willingness to pay analysis for the presence of elite sports in the actual county indicate values of 350 SEK (about 35 EURO) per year and person in Sweden. Another way of calculating the value of the elite teams is by estimating how many working hours people are prepared to devote to helping the club. If these hours are translated into economic values, it runs into between 3000 to 5000 SEK (about 300 to 500 EURO) per year and person, depending on location in Sweden.

  • 180.
    Behrenz, Lars
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Delander, Lennart
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Frödin, Olle
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Mathieu, Christopher
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Månsson, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Ottosson, Mikael
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Arbetsgivares perspektiv på subventionerade anställningar: en kartläggning2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Trots en kraftig ökning av antalet subventionerade anställningar från mitten av 2000-talet är det ett stort antal arbetsgivare som inte använder sig av lönesubventioner. Denna rapport har försökt att kartlägga och analysera arbetsgivares perspektiv på lönekostnadssubventioner. När det gäller analyser som berör de arbetsgivare som använt sig av lönesubventioner är den viktigaste förklaringsfaktorn att man använt sig av subventioner tidigare. Våra intervjuer visar också att de arbetsgivare som använder sig av lönesubventioner ofta har ett socialt ansvarstagande. Ett av huvudresultaten med följande studie är att 95 procent av de som använder sig av subventioner är nöjda. Omfattningen i pengar och personens kvalifikationer var mest avgörande för anställningsbeslutet. Av de som inte använt sig av lönesubventioner är det 20 procent som inte känt till att möjligheten finns. Intervjuer med arbetsgivare utan erfarenhet av att anställa med lönesubventioner visar att de är skeptiska att hitta lämplig personal genom att anställa med lönesubventioner. När vi ställer en hypotetisk fråga till samtliga arbetsgivare om vad som skulle kunna få dem att anställa med en subvention framkommer möjligheten att få pröva aktuell person som den klart viktigaste faktorn. Utifrån våra resultat föreslår vi bl.a. att Arbetsförmedlingen, i ett försöksupplägg, ska ges möjlighet att agera bemanningsföretag och vi föreslår också att man ska genomföra en omfattande informationskampanj till arbetsgivare.

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  • 181.
    Behrenz, Lars
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Delander, Lennart
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Månsson, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Is starting a business a sustainable way out of unemployment?: treatment effects of the Swedish start-up subsidy2016In: Journal of Labor Research, ISSN 0195-3613, E-ISSN 1936-4768, Vol. 37, no 4, p. 389-411Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we evaluate the Swedish self-employment start-up program based on a matching approach using data from administrative records. In addition to information of labor market history, traditional human capital and socio-economic variables, the data at hand also include information on the self-employment history of participants and nonparticipants as well as that of their parents. Our results indicate that the start-up subsidy program for unemployed persons is a successful program regarding the integration of the unemployed into the mainstream of the labor market. We find that, relative to members of control groups, participants, on average, have an increased probability of unsubsidized employment. Our analysis of different educational backgrounds presents the strongest employment effects for the low educated unemployed.

  • 182.
    Behrenz, Lars
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Delander, Lennart
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Månsson, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Making the business case for Public Employment Services: Cost-benefit analysis and productive efficiency analysis2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The PES EU2020 working group points in a briefing note (PES EU2020 no date A) to change processes in EU PESs called for by social evolutions. The note emphasises that public employment services’ operations will be massively and profoundly influenced by changes on both the supply and the demand side of the labour market and by such structural impediments as, for example, mismatch between labour demand and supply and low participation rates among vulnerable disadvantaged groups. Rapid and targeted mediation is considered to remain essential for PESs but it has to be combined with attention to provide transitions for individuals facing redundancy and career building. PESs should help job seekers adopt long-term career perspectives, stimulate them to enhance their competencies, give career guidance, give workers support to make smooth career transitions, as well as working with employers to ensure they meet their requirements and encourage and support them to provide career opportunities to more disadvantaged individuals.

    PESs have to develop their organisation and methods to efficiently and effectively respond to the changing needs in society and the labour market. Far-reaching changes in the tasks, organisational structures, and methods in PESs present corporate governance with great challenges—exacerbated by reduced budgetary resources. The pathway of change that has to be managed will be dotted with demands on decision-makers to choose between alternative courses of action. One of the main thrusts of this paper is to describe cost-benefit analysis, CBA, as a tool to assist decision-makers in choosing. CBA is a tool that judges alternatives in terms of their efficiency as regards the realisation of social objectives, which means that CBA allows policy makers to judge alternatives by their allocative efficiency. This requires taking into account the costs and benefits of the alternatives under consideration. The other main subject of the paper is about measuring productive efficiency which occurs when at a given cost the highest possible output of one service is produced, given the production level of other services. Such measurements make it possible to compare the productive efficiency of individual employment offices or to make comparisons in that respect between PESs in different countries. Therefore, measurements of productive efficiency can be the basis of actions to improve production and managerial processes. Examples of cost-benefit analyses of PES projects and productive efficiency analyses of PESs are given in the paper.

  • 183.
    Behrenz, Lars
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Delander, Lennart
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Månsson, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    The Public Employment Service: A Survey of Cost-Benefit Analysis and Productive Efficiency Analysis Studies2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Public employment services’ operations will be massively and profoundly influenced by changes on both the supply and the demand side of the labour market and by such structural impediments as, for example, mismatch between labour demand and supply and low participation rates among vulnerable disadvantaged groups. Rapid and targeted mediation is considered to remain essential for PESs but it has to be combined with attention to provide transitions for individuals facing redundancy and career building. PESs should help job seekers adopt long-term career perspectives, stimulate them to enhance their competencies, give career guidance, give workers support to make smooth career transitions, as well as working with employers to ensure they meet their requirements and encourage and support them to provide career opportunities to more disadvantaged individuals. PESs have to develop their organisation and methods to efficiently and effectively respond to the changing needs in society and the labour market. Far-reaching changes in the tasks, organisational structures, and methods in PESs present corporate governance with great challenges—exacerbated by reduced budgetary resources. The pathway of change that has to be managed will be dotted with demands on decision-makers to choose between alternative courses of action. One of the main thrusts of this paper is to describe cost-benefit analysis, CBA, as a tool to assist decision-makers in choosing. CBA is a tool that judges alternatives in terms of their efficiency as regards the realisation of social objectives, which means that CBA allows policy makers to judge alternatives by their allocative efficiency. This requires taking into account the costs and benefits of the alternatives under consideration. The other main subject of the paper is about measuring productive efficiency which occurs when at a given cost the highest possible output of one service is produced, given the production level of other services. Such measurements make it possible to compare the productive efficiency of individual employment offices or to make comparisons in that respect between PESs in different countries. Therefore, measurements of productive efficiency can be the basis of actions to improve production and managerial processes. Examples of cost-benefit analyses of PES projects and productive efficiency analyses of PESs are given in the paper. The remainder of this paper is organised as follows: Section 1 opens with a brief sketch of changes in the governance in EU PESs during the last decades. This is followed by an accounting framework addressing both efficiency and distributional aspects of employment services. Section 2 begins with a condensed description of basic principles of cost-benefit analysis which is followed by a review of a number of economic analyses concerning employment services that have been carried out in EU countries. Section 3 is devoted to methods to measure the productive efficiency of individual employment offices and of the PES in one country in relation to productive efficiency of PESs in other countries. It starts with brief overviews of the theory of production and of methods to measure efficiency. Then it presents a review of previous studies and a description of the production of employment offices. This section concludes with the development of a benchmarking model for European employment offices. Section 4 provides concluding remarks.

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  • 184.
    Behrenz, Lars
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Delander, Lennart
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Månsson, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Utvärdering av Almis företagsrådgivning: Utvärdering av rådgivningsverksamhet till etablerade företag2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta PM är en effektutvärdering av de rådgivningsinsatser som utfördes av Almis regionala bolag till etablerade företag under perioden 2005–2010. I detta PM används flera metoder för att skatta effekter och två olika mått på vad som anses vara rådgivning.

    Uppdraget

    Detta uppdrag är en effektutvärdering av rådgivningsinsatser i Almis regionala bolag under perioden 2005–2010. Syftet med studierna är att avgöra om etablerade företag som fått rådgivning via Almi har utvecklats bättre än företag som inte fått sådan rådgivning i termer av tillväxt i produktionsvärde, sysselsättning och överlevnad. Studien är en av flera underlagsrapporter i Tillväxtanalys pågående uppdrag att utvärdera den statligt finansierade företagsrådgivningen.

    Resultat och slutsatser

    Rådgivning definieras i rapporten på två olika sätt. I den första antas ett företag fått rådgivning av Almi om företaget gjort minst ett rådgivningsbesök. Det går att finna effekter på produktionsvärde respektive sysselsättning för enstaka år och för enstaka utfallsvariabler. För övriga år är effekterna lägre och inte statistiskt säkerställda. Storleken på de signifikanta effekterna ligger väl i linje med resultaten från tidigare utvärderingar. Företag som fått rådgivning via Almi har knappt två procents högre sannolikhet att överleva två år efter rådgivningen jämfört med företag som inte erhållit rådgivning.

    Den andra definitionen av rådgivning utgår ifrån att ett företag antas ha fått rådgivning om företaget gjort minst två rådgivningsbesök hos Almi. Den förändrade definitionen påverkar inte resultatet i någon större utsträckning. Inga effekter på någon av målvariablerna kan statistiskt säkerställas. När rådgivning definieras som minst två rådgivningsbesök finns inte heller någon statistiskt säkerhetsställd effekt på företags överlevnad.

    Sammantaget drar vi slutsatsen att det inte går att statistiskt säkerställda några effekter av Almis företagsrådgivning på tillväxt, lönsamhet eller överlevnad.

    Framtida undersökningar/Fortsatt lärande

    Det finns således betydande svagheter i det datamaterial Tillväxtanalys har getts tillgång till och som ligger till grund för effektutvärderingen. Inte minst finns ett stort bortfall avseende vilka företag som deltagit i företagsrådgivning. Innan man gör ett nytt försök att effektutvärdera verksamheten är det viktigt att förbättra uppföljningen, så att det i större utsträckning är möjligt att identifiera vilka företag som tagit del av rådgivning.

  • 185.
    Behrenz, Lars
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Utvärdering av nystartsjobb i Växjö kommun: slutrapport2014Report (Other academic)
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  • 186.
    Behrenz, Lars
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics (NS). Linnaeus University, The University Administration.
    Månsson, Jonas
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Bakåtblick på vägen fram: - en ESO-rapport om etableringsprocessen på svensk arbetsmarknad2022Report (Refereed)
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  • 187.
    Behrenz, Lars
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics (NS).
    Månsson, Jonas
    Blekinge Instutute of Technology, Sweden.
    Why don't employers hire long-term unemployed entitled to a wage subsidy?: The employer's perspective on subsidised employment2023In: Economic and Industrial Democracy, ISSN 0143-831X, E-ISSN 1461-7099, ISSN 0143-831X, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 161-183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite a generous system with high wage subsidies for the long-term unemployed and newly arrived immigrants, many Swedish employers do not make use of this opportunity. This study seeks to increase knowledge of why some employers use the opportunity and others do not. Both register and survey data and combined register and survey data are used. One finding is that employers lack information about the subsidy programmes, although employers that had previously employed subsidised workers were much more likely to employ them in the future. Thus, a key policy question is how to present these subsidies to employers to reduce this barrier. The study also found that some employers hired people from these groups from altruistic motives. However, some employers responded that they would not employ a person entitled to a subsidy, regardless of the content of the subsidy scheme.

  • 188.
    Behzad Abdulaziz, Besaran
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Did the UEFA European Championship increase the arrival of foreign tourists to the host regions of Poland?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay analyses the impact of the UEFA European Championship in 2012 on the regional inflow of tourists in Poland. In this essay we use a difference-in-differences method to compare the regions who hosted the event with the regions who did not host the event. Our results show that there is a statistically significant differences between the two groups regarding the arrival of foreign tourists. The results show that the regions who hosted the event experienced a significant increase in the inflow of tourists and that was related to the tournament. The arrival of foreign tourists increased during the month of June 2012, when the event took place and in the months after. The conclusion we draw from this essay is that the UEFA European Championship had a positive impact both in the short and long run in the inflow of tourists in the regions who hosted the 2012 tournament in Poland.

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  • 189.
    Bengtsson, Terese
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Felaktiga utbetalningar inom socialförsäkringen - en analys av regionala variationer inom Försäkringskassan2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie undersöker om det finns regionala variationer avseende felaktiga utbetalningar inom den svenska socialförsäkringen. Stora belopp betalas årligen ut felaktigt från den svenska socialförsäkringen. Det finns dock ett betydande mörkertal i måttet av felaktiga utbetalningar, varför denna studie baseras på upptäckta felaktiga utbetalningar, det vill säga återkravsbeslut. Att den svenska socialförsäkringen är långsiktigt hållbar och att rätt pengar kommer till rätt individer är av betydelse för socialförsäkringens legitimitet.

    Socialförsäkringen är en del av Sveriges system för ekonomisk trygghet. Socialförsäkringen administreras delvis av myndigheten Försäkringskassan, vilken är den myndighet som denna studie avgränsas till. Studien avgränsas vidare till förmånerna sjukersättning och assistansersättning. Sedan 1990 har synen på felaktiga utbetalningar, och framförallt fusk i välfärdssystemen, förändrats, det kan handla om en ökad insikt om felaktiga utbetalningar och dess omfattning men även att acceptansen för felaktiga utbetalningar har minskat.

    Den svenska socialförsäkringen karakteriseras av en marknad med asymmetrisk information. Ett exempel på problematik med asymmetrisk information är det så kallade fenomenet moral hazard, vilket kan leda till överutnyttjande eller felutnyttjande av socialförsäkringen. De felaktiga utbetalningarna kan orsakas av myndigheten, den försäkrade eller av tredje part och kan vara såväl avsiktliga som oavsiktliga.

    Genom flernivå (hierarkisk) logistisk regressionsanalys undersöks om regionala variationer finns för återkrav inom respektive studerad förmån under tidsperioden 2012-2013. Med regionala variationer ämnas även skillnader mellan Försäkringskassans lokala kontor prövas. Även sannolikheten för återkravsbeslut skattas inom respektive förmån.

    Studiens resultat visar att det finns låg regional variation avseende sannolikheten att erhålla ett återkravsbeslut från Försäkringskassan inom respektive förmån, det vill säga ingen tydlig indikation på att det finns regionala variationer runt om i landet. Det finns däremot individuella faktorer såsom kön, ålder och ersättningsstorlek som har en signifikant påverkan på den skattade sannolikheten för att erhålla ett återkrav från Försäkringskassan. Att vissa faktorer är signifikanta kan bero på riktade kontroller som utförts av myndigheten under den studerade tidsperioden

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  • 190.
    Bengtsson, Terese
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Peco, Amina
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Privatization of upper-secondary schools in Sweden: the impact on teachers' wage2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of this bachelor essay is to analyse the impact of increased competition on upper-secondary teachers’ wage. In 1994, the introduction of a school voucher system in Sweden facilitated the expansion of private upper-secondary schools. Based on monopsony and quasi-market, we assess the extent to which the tendency towards increased competition has had any significant effect on upper-secondary teachers’ wage. Using a semi-logarithmic wage equation and cross-sectional individual data we found that upper-secondary school teachers employed in 2010 in the region characterised by the highest degree of competition had significantly higher wage compared to teachers employed in regions with a lower degree of competition. In addition, our findings suggest that upper-secondary teachers employed in the public sector had on average higher wages than private employees. To investigate the wage gap between the two sectors further, we perform a quantile regression.  We found that up to the 80th percentile teachers employed in private school experience, ceteris paribus, a wage penalty. On the other hand, in the upper tail of the wage distribution we found a significant wage premium for teachers in the private sector.

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  • 191.
    Berg, Natalia
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics (NS).
    Due-diligence and private environmental disclosure2022In: Presented at Nationella Redovisningskonferensen, Lund, Sweden, December 1-2, 2022, 2022Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 192.
    Berger, Thor
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden;Lund University, Sweden;CEPR, UK;Research Institute of Industrial Economics, Sweden;Lund University, Sweden.
    Prawitz, Erik
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics (NS). Research Institute of Industrial Economics, Sweden.
    Collaboration and connectivity: Historical evidence from patent records2024In: Journal of Urban Economics, ISSN 0094-1190, E-ISSN 1095-9068, Vol. 139, article id 103629Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Why has collaboration become increasingly central to technological progress? We document the role of lowered travel costs by combining patent data with the rollout of the Swedish railroad network in the 19th and early -20th century. Inventors that gain access to the network are more likely to produce collaborative patents, which is partly driven by long-distance collaborations with other inventors residing along the emerging railroad network. These results suggest that the declining costs of interacting with others is fundamental to account for the long-term increase in inventive collaboration.

  • 193.
    Berger, Thor
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden;Lund University, Sweden;Research Institute of Industrial Economics, Sweden.
    Prawitz, Erik
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics (NS). Research Institute of Industrial Economics, Sweden.
    Collaboration and Connectivity: Historical Evidence from Patent Records2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Why has collaboration become increasingly central to technological progress? We document the role of lowered travel costs by combining patent data with the rollout of the Swedish railroad network in the 19th and early-20th century. Inventors that gain access to the network are more likely to produce collaborative patents, which is partly driven by long-distance collaborations with other inventors residing along the emerging railroad network. These results suggest that the declining costs of interacting with others is fundamental to account for the long-term increase in inventive collaboration.

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  • 194.
    Berger, Thor
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden;Lund University, Sweden;Centre for Economic Policy Research (CEPR), UK;Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Sweden.
    Prawitz, Erik
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics (NS). Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Sweden.
    DP18147 Inventors among the “Impoverished Sophisticate”2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the identity and origins of Swedish inventors prior to World War I drawing on the universe of patent records linked to census data. We document that the rise of innovation during Sweden’s industrialization can largely be attributed to a small industrial elite belonging to the upper-tail of the economic, educational, and social status distribution. Analyzing children’s opportunities to become an inventor, we show that inventors were disproportionately drawn from privileged family backgrounds. However, among the middle- and working-class children that managed to overcome the barriers to entry, innovation was a path to upward mobility.

  • 195.
    Bergman, Melker
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Gasoline prices effect on public transportation: A study of Chicago: A study of the cross-price elasticity between gasoline prices and public transportation in a metropolitan setting.2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis explores the cross-price elasticity of rail and bus usage with gasoline prices. This is done to see how the short-run cross price elasticity has changed and to see if the same long-run relationship can be seen in the long run as previous pooled models. It is done in order to investigate whether policies such as higher gasoline taxes may make consumers move from car usage towards public transportation. Historically the cross-price elasticity has been around 0.2 with a higher elasticity for rail than for buses. The relationship also seemed to be greater in the long run than short run. Investigating this long run cross price elasticity for modes of public transportation separately would give greater insight into how consumers behave when gasoline prices shift. An ARDL model was therefore used to investigate the long run coefficients of gasoline prices with rail usage and bus usage separately as well as the short run coefficients. No cointegration could be found in this model for the two different modes. The results of the short-run cross-price elasticity seemed to be greater for buses as a direct effect, while it was greater at first lag for rail usage. The cross-price elasticity was lower for the period than previous studies, indicating that the cross-price elasticity may have decreased. The reasons for this cannot be concluded, but theory may explain these differences by the availability in substitutes for the periods, or lower levels of gasoline prices in recent years. This thesis therefore suggests further studies that investigate how usage of rail affects the usage of buses in metropolitan areas, and how the attributes of a modes of public transportation may change the usage of another form of public transportation.

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  • 196.
    Birgersson, Adam
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    The Economic Impact of COVID-19 Border Restrictions on the Labor Market: A Comparative case study on the Border Municipalities in Sweden2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines if the labor markets in border municipalities in Sweden were affected by the COVID-19 border restrictions implemented by the Swedish and Norwegian governments. To do so, this paper uses unemployment and population data gathered from different sources to estimate results derived from using the synthetic control method. The results imply that imposing border restriction had a larger negative effect on the unemployment levels in the border municipalities, compared to non-border municipalities. Results also shows that males were more affected by this compared to females in terms of unemployment and that there is a positive trend in unemployment associated with increasing these restrictions. 

  • 197.
    Birgersson, Adam
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    The impact of fuel taxation in Sweden: A study on the distributional impact of fuel tax in Sweden: A regional analysis 2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The general opinion is that an increase in fuel taxation would affect the countryside of Sweden to a greater extent, than the inner-city areas of the country. The topic of fuel taxation has become widely discussed on a political level throughout Europe. This paper examines the distributional effects on taxation of fuel in Sweden, by comparing different municipalities from different regions. By using aggregated data from different sources and estimate an increase in fuel prices by 10 percent, this paper estimates the direct effects of an increase in fuel taxation. The results show that by increasing the price on fuel with 10 percent, the municipalities located in the countryside of Sweden have a higher distributional impact and a greater tax burden compared to municipalities located near larger cities. But the differences are modest, and this paper concludes that the fuel tax should be considered proportional throughout all regions of the country. 

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  • 198.
    Bjuggren, Carl Magnus
    et al.
    Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Sweden.
    Olsson, Martin
    Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Sweden.
    Skedinger, Per
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Sweden.
    Turordningsregler - lagstiftning med konsekvenser eller spel för gallerierna?2018In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 46, no 3, p. 5-16Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna artikel diskuterar nationalekonomisk forskning om de svenska turordningsreglerna. Vi visar att dessa inte är ett spel för gallerierna, vilket ofta hävdas, utan har betydande effekter på arbetsmarknadens funktionssätt. Den uppluckring av turordningsreglerna som genomfördes 2001 ökade företagens personalomsättning och produktivitet samt minskade de anställdas frånvaro. För grupper med en svagare position på arbetsmarknaden och som har lång anställningstid i förhållande till andra på företaget tycks även turordningsreglerna skydda mot uppsägningar och leda till högre löner.

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  • 199.
    Bjuggren, Carl Magnus
    et al.
    Research Institute of Industrial Economics, Sweden.
    Skedinger, Per
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Research Institute of Industrial Economics, Sweden.
    Does job security hamper employment prospects?2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We use a reform in the Swedish employment protection legislation (EPL) that decreased dismissal costs for small firms only, to investigate the effect of EPL on the propensity to hire workers who were unemployed or in active labor market programs (ALMPs). The results indicate that less stringent EPL increased the share of workers hired from unemployment. In addition, our results suggest that transitions from some ALMPs to employment increased. Taken together, our results suggest that there was less screening of new hires after the reform, and that liberalization of EPL mitigates the stigma associated with unemployment and participation in ALMPs.

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  • 200.
    Björkman, Sofia
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics (NS).
    Labor market reforms and optimal unemployment insurance: Policy experiment on the Swedish labor market2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines how a reduction in EPL affects the utility of older workers, by changing the probability of re-employment as well as the risk of becoming unemployed. I generalize the Bailey-Chetty framework and make a one-period model that shows maximizing search behavior of the agent. With data from previous studies, and Swedish authorities, the model is calibrated. The results show predominant negative welfare effects. When the re-employment probability increases more than the risk of becoming unemployed decreases, one will need to increase the compensation less compared to when the risk of becoming unemployed increases more than the re-employment probability. The result also exclusively shows that the current social security fund is too generous and had to be reduced to reach an optimal level. On the other hand, the social security fund is more optimal when the probability of re-employment increases more than the risk of becoming unemployed. Furthermore, the results show that younger workers have a worse welfare from the unemployment insurance fund compared to older workers.

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