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  • 151.
    Alalehto, Tage
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    The wealthy white-collar criminals: corporations as offenders2010In: Journal of Financial Crime, ISSN 1359-0790, E-ISSN 1758-7239, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 308-320Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to map out the corporate criminality among the 70 top-ranked corporations in the Swedish business world. It aims to identify properties common for companies that get a decision by a regulatory agency and which kind of properties there are when the regulatory agency goes to a decision.

    Design/methodology/approach – Data on decisions taken against violation (criminal, civil, or administrative) collected from annual reports (1999-2008) presented on the internet by eight regulatory agencies in Sweden. The corporations collected by the internet site “largest companies” and the Swedish business magazine Affärsvärlden (World of Business). The analysis of data were worked out by cross tab, designed as analysis of covariation between one independent variable to one dependent variable, or two or more independent variables (were one or more of them were held invariant to each other) to one dependent variable.

    Findings – Approximately, 60 companies (85.7 per cent) had at least one decision against them during the period 1999-2008, and 28 companies had more than five decisions (court, administrative law, objection or settlement) against them, which means that 40 per cent of the whole sample performed a carrier criminality. Among the variables, low profitability, interior business, and to some degree, management control tend to covary with some or all kinds of decisions given by the regulatory agencies.

    Originality/value – The paper provides the field of white-collar crime an investigation of corporations as offenders from the Swedish horizon. It provides regulatory agencies with a model of the causality behind the decisions against a corporation.

  • 152.
    Alalehto, Tage
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    White Collar Crime: A Propositional Logical Analysis of a Concept2018In: Journal of Forensic Sciences & Criminal Investigation, ISSN 2476-1311, Vol. 9, no 4, article id 555769Article, review/survey (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In their book White-Collar Crime – An Opportunity Perspective (2009), Benson and Simpson undertake the task of more precisely denoting the concept of white-collar crime by its nature and how the causal structure of the object is meant to be understood. The aim of this article is to prove the logical consistency (validity and consequence) of Benson and Simpson’s derivation of the concept. The article focuses on the propositional explanation of causation, by applying first-order logic inference rules of sentential and predicate logic based on the rule of contraposition: a → b ↔ ¬b → ¬a. The results show that Benson and Simpsons’ argument is not logical valid, but logical consequent that is something that the agenda can build on.

  • 153.
    Alalehto, Tage
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Larsson, DanielUmeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Den ljusskygga ekonomin: Organiserad och ekonomisk brottslighet2008Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 154.
    Alam, Milea
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Accounting and Law.
    Nederländska ränteavdragsbegränsningsregler i Sverige?2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the fact that the Swedish tax authority had paid attention to the issues concerning tax avoidance with the use of interest deduction, the first Swedish rules on interest deduction limitations on intra-group loans were introduced for associated companies in 2009. These rules were inspired by the equivalent Dutch rules on interest deduction limitations. Since the tax avoidance continued, the scope of the Swedish interest deduction limitation rules were extended in 2013. However, it has been shown that due to the formulation and the scope of the current Swedish rules, the legislation causes both interpretation issues and continuing tax avoidance. This thesis aims at examining the outcome of introducing similar rules as the Dutch interest deduction limitation rules in Sweden, instead of the current Swedish legislation, in order to analyze which of these legislations that better fulfills the purpose of the Swedish rules on interest deduction limitations. The thesis shows that there are both similarities as well as differences, with regards to both the formulation and the scope, between the Swedish and the Dutch rules on interest deduction limitations. It appears in the thesis that the differences in every provision of the Dutch legislation do not provide a possible solution to the remaining issues with the Swedish rules on interest deduction limitations. The author of the thesis considers a mixed application, containing some current Swedish provisions and some selected provisions similar to the Dutch provisions, to better fulfill the purpose of the Swedish rules on interest deduction limitations.

  • 155.
    Alderin Harling, Frida
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Commercial Law.
    Traditionsprincipen i närståendetransaktioner: En skräddarsydd lösning?2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 156.
    Aldestam, Mona
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    EC State aid rules: An analysis of the selectivity criterion2005Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The application of Art. 87(1) EC to taxes above all is connected to the application of the derogation method, which appears to be part of the selectivity criterion. This dissertation examines the application of the derogation method and the assessment of the selectivity criterion applied to taxes, primarily de lege lata, but also de lege ferenda. It begins with an analysis of the relationship among the criteria of Article 87(1) EC and continues with an analysis of the relationship between the derogation method and the assessment of the selectivity criterion applied to taxes. Several scholars have criticised the application of the derogation method because of the difficulty of identifying a derogation and of establishing the benchmark against which the derogation should be assessed. In this dissertation both the benchmark and the establishment of a derogation is analysed, partly with reference to the tax expenditure debate that occurred in the subject area of international taxation during the 1970s and 1980s. The selectivity criterion applied to taxes contains an assessment of justification, whereby the selective nature of a measure can be justified on the basis of the nature or general scheme of the system: Therfore the meaning and implications of this assessment are also examined. After all these issues have been examined de lege lata, the extents to which the application of the derogation method and the assessment of the selectivity criterion follow a logical system are discussed and recommendations for eliminating the identified deficiences are put forward.

  • 157.
    Alexander, Sahlström
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Vad hände med trädgårdsstaden?: En studie över planeringsteori och stadsideal i Stockholmsnordost kommunförbund2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Inledningsvis uppkom denna studie från ett intresse över stadsidealet trädgårdsstaden och hur begrepp och teorier används i stadsplanering. Denna studie har ett fokus på stadsideal i Stockholms nordost kommunförbund, studien behandlar stadsidealet trädgårdsstaden och dess plats i planeringen. Begrepp och teorier centrala för studien bearbetas, men fokus har lagts på begreppet urban sprawl. Djupgående intervjuer utförs med planerare och arkitekter på Stockholms nordost kommunförbund samt Stockholms läns landsting för att sedan analysera källmaterialet med hjälp av innehållsanalys och kritisk diskursanalys (CDA). Detta görs för att på ett ingående sätt analysera vilka sociala praktiker och värderingar som styr stadsideal och planering i Stockholms nordost kommunförbund. Studien visar att det finns generella och specifika mål inom planeringen vilka inte är knutna tillspecifika stadsideal eller teori. Det centrala i diskursen är begrepp för bebyggelseutvecklingen. Det övergripande målet för planeringen är regionala stadskärnor som används i samband med specifika målsättningar och begrepp som förtätning, planera kollektivtrafiknära och hushållning av mark. Att integrera ny bebyggelse med befintlig är även det ett övergripande mål. Studien visar att trädgårdsstaden som stadsideal ses vara oförenligt med övergripande och specifika mål vilket medför att det inte behandlas som ett alternativ i bebyggelseutvecklingen. Urban sprawl som begrepp tolkas olika av respondenterna, men däremot ses lösningen på urban sprawl vara att planera kollektivtrafiknära och hushålla med mark.

  • 158.
    Alexis, Liza
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Public Law.
    Penningtvätt: Myndigheternas rätt och skyldighet att förhindra penningtvätt men samtidigt beakta rättssubjektets rättssäkerhetsgarantier2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Since the terrorist attack occurred in the United States September 11th 2001 the money laundering has been a very attentively problem. It was after the incident that the action in money laundering got more significance, both internationally just as well as nationally. The concept got a wider extent where partly funding of terrorism practiced. Money laundering can be interpreted as a definition problem because the concept is very broad, as well can money laundering implemented through many different methods and therefore needs extending arrangements. The combating today is very large, both through EU-money laundering directive, international organizations and the Swedish legislation. The global cooperation is a substantial tool to prevent the freedom of capital and services. If we can stop the funding of criminal operation, then we are a step closer to stop money laundering which is organized criminality. 

    The development in money laundering are going forward, new regulations analyses by EU and international organizations, and applies in the member countries. But sometimes to be to question oneself how far the international regulation goes in terms of the individual rights and how it stands the legal security itself to potentiation of money laundering. In Sweden it is the law enforcement authorities and regulatory authority that conducts the basis and the supervision in the acts. The operator has the most important task to practice the regulations, but how the results of the work is, is however another question. 

    This essay will be to work money laundering partly outside the European Union’s money laundering directive and other international organizations regulation, also from the Swedish legal systems regulations and compliance. Further in this paper will be affect the legal security question where the individual, both legal and physical person, rights and protection are the focus of public power and action. 

  • 159.
    Alexius, Katarina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Hollander, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Kan rättssäkerhet upprätthållas när barn skyddas mot omsorgsbrister enligt 2 § LVU?2017In: Tvångsvård av barn och unga: rättigheter, utmaningar och gränszoner / [ed] Pernilla Leviner, Tommy Lundström, Stockholm: Wolters Kluwer, 2017, p. 199-217Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 160.
    Alfin, Emmatora
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Konstinstitutioner i den lokala samhällsutvecklingen: En kartläggning och analys av Stockholms konstinstitutioners möjligheter, begränsningar och visioner2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka ett urval av konstinstitutioner med konsthallsverksamhet i Stockholms län för att ta reda på hur deras verksamhet ser ut och förvaltas. Utgångspunkten för studien är institutionernas roll som samhällsutvecklare. Det teoretiska perspektivet utgår från hur städer planerar för samhällsutveckling genom satsningar på konst och kultur, samt hur konstnärer och konstinstitutioner involveras och har inverkan på den urbana samhällsutvecklingen. Frågeställningarna berör institutionernas verksamhet, arbetssätt och organisation. Konstinstitutionernas möjligheter, begränsningar och framtidsvisioner berörs även för att ta reda på deras förutsättningar och funktion i det lokala området. I studien används tidigare forskning främst från vetenskapliga artiklar och i den empiriska studien har semistrukturerade intervjuer genomförts med aktörer inom konstinstitutionerna. Resultaten i studien utgör en uppfattning om betydelsen av konstinstitutionernas mångfald och betydelse i lokalsamhället, där deras specifika arbetssätt och potential tydligare bör framhävas för att främja den lokala samhällsutvecklingen.

  • 161.
    Ali, Nina Pari
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School.
    Credit granting in the Swedish unsecured loans market: Empirical testing of risk-aversion among credit managers link to tertiary education and Basel knowledge2011Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates the relationship between tertiary education, Basel knowledge and risk-aversion in credit managers in the market for unsecured loans in Sweden. A survey was made to test these links and the sample of respondents consisted of 30 credit managers. Results showed no obvious effect of tertiary education on risk-aversion, managers ability to contravene the algorithm and the non-occurrence of default. It showed that there may be an effect of the inability to contravene the algorithm on the occurrence of ‘bad business’ and that there may be an effect of acquired tertiary education on Basel knowledge. This implies that not allowing credit managers to contravene algorithms may increase the occurrence of default. The results also imply that banks, credit institutes and regulators should take action towards improving the understanding of the Basel directive and regulations among credit managers.

  • 162.
    Alm, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies.
    Nya krav på miljöbedömningar av planer och program: En väg mot effektivare samhällsplanering och hållbar utveckling?2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den 21 juli 2001 trädde Europaparlamentets och rådets direktiv, om bedömning av vissa planers och programs miljöpåverkan, i kraft. Syftet med direktivet var att säkerhetsställa en hög nivå på miljöskydd, genom att utföra miljöbedömningar på vissa planer och program som kan antas medföra en betydande miljöpåverkan. När ny lagstiftning ska implementeras brukar det vanligtvis uppkomma implementeringsproblem och det var något som jag misstänkte skulle uppkomma även i detta fall. Syftet med uppsatsen är därför att ta reda på hur arbetet har fortlöpt med att implementera de nya bestämmelserna som har haft sin upprinnelse från EU:s direktiv. Informationsflödet kring de nya bestämmelserna har också studerats. För att uppfylla syftet utfördes en intervjuundersökning med tre tjänstemän på olika administrativa nivåer för att ta reda på deras uppfattning om problem respektive styrkor med de nya bestämmelserna som härrört från EU:s direktiv, samt hur de tyckte att informationsflödet kring de nya bestämmelserna hade fungerat. Två analyser utfördes sedan i uppsatsen: en jämförande analys där svar från min intervjustudie sattes i förhållande till fem ståndpunkter som jag valt ut från regeringens proposition Miljöbedömningar av planer och program 2003/04:116, samt en analys där tre nyckelbegrepp inom implementeringsteorin har satts i förhållande till intervjuresultaten. Vissa av ståndpunkterna i regeringens proposition visade sig vara väl optimistiska, i alla fall i förhållande till intervjusvaren. En del implementeringsproblem verkar också vara ofrånkomliga, framförallt var respondenterna missnöjda med hur informationsflödet kring de nya bestämmelserna hade fungerat. De nya bestämmelserna kan säkerligen bidra till en mer hållbar utveckling men jag tror att det kommer att ta tid innan bra rutiner för att arbeta med dem har hittats.

  • 163.
    Alm, Henrik
    et al.
    KTH.
    Lindgren, Eidar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Real Estate Planning and Land Law.
    Paulsson, Jenny
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Real Estate Planning and Land Law.
    Hållbar dagvattenhantering i stadsmiljö: Ansvar och finansiering2017In: Bostad 2.0: En bostadsmarknad för alla / [ed] Maria Hullgren och Mats Wilhelmsson, Stockholm: Kungliga Tekniska högskolan, 2017, p. 71-77Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 164.
    Alm, Josefine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Spekulationsköp av nyproducerade bostadsrätter: Ett rättsligt problem?2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Arbetet behandlar huruvida spekulationsköp av nyproducerade bostadsrätter är förenligt med bostadsrättslagens syfte. I arbetet kommer avtalsformer som ingås i samband med upplåtelse och överlåtelse av bostadsrätt att utredas. Detta dels för att se om avtalsformerna möjliggör eller förhindrar spekulationsköp samt, dels om dessa kan anses förenliga med nyttjanderättsformen bostadsrätt. Slutligen tas möjliga lösningsförslag upp hur ett minskande alternativt förhindrande av företeelsen spekulationsköp kan uppnås.

  • 165.
    Alm, Susanne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Jag ska bli professor jag, tralala: Ett genusperspektiv på vad 1960-talets unga ville bli och vad de senare blev2019In: Att odla kriminologi: Perspektiv på brott och utsatthet. En festskrift till Eva Tiby / [ed] Anita Heber, Lena Roxell, Stockholm: Kriminologiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet , 2019, p. 293-307Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 166.
    Almbjär, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History.
    The problem with early-modern petitions: Safety valve or powder keg?2019In: European Review of History, ISSN 1350-7486, E-ISSN 1469-8293, Vol. 26, no 6, p. 1013-1039Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article the author critically discusses the notion of petitionsas a peaceful way of interaction between rulers and subjects inearly-modern Europe. Specifically, he targets the idea of petitionsas a safety valve. According to this idea, petitions enabled subjectsto vent displeasure to the authorities; by doing so they grew less restive and more content with the strictly hierarchical and unequalstructures of early-modern Europe. The author questions how often petitions really performed this function,firstly by consideringthe limited social background of the petitioners and then the many rules and hindrances petitioners faced. These rules were,thirdly, put in place because petitions could galvanize and mobilize people into political action. Fourthly, previous research has underestimated the complicated link between petitioning andlegitimacy. It is not at all certain that petitions increased the legitimacy of the political system. Clearly, the complexity of the issue warrants new approaches. The empirical evidence for this article mainly comes from early-modern Sweden, Denmark-Norway, England and the Holy Roman Empire. Consequently, this article weds petition research usually separated by language bar-riers, providing a fuller European perspective where NorthernEurope is fully integrated into the discussion.

  • 167.
    Almlöf, Hanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Commercial and Business Law. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Internationella Handelshögskolan i Jönköping.
    Per-Olof, Bjuggren
    Ratio - Näringslivets forskningsinstitut, Stockholm.
    What Matters in Design of Corporate Law2017Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    For the corporate business model to be successful, it is important to align the interests of thosewho control and finance the firm. Corporate law has here an important task to fulfill. It offers alegal framework that can facilitate for parties to conclude mutually preferable agreements atlow transaction costs. The purpose of the paper is to show how to design corporate law to fulfillthis task. A two-dimension model that simultaneously considers both regulation intensity andthe level of default of the corporate law is presented. Earlier literature treats these dimensionsseparately. By adding a transaction cost perspective to our model, we assess different regulatorytechniques and examine how legislation can help corporations by offering a standard contractthat lowers transaction costs of contracting. This can be achieved through a legislation thatcovers most contingencies and take the heterogeneity of firms into consideration. Furthermore,default rules or standards of opt-out character should be combined with other regulatorytechniques with lower transaction costs such as opt-in alternatives and menus.

  • 168.
    Almqvist, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Skattetillägget, Europakonventionen ochprincipen om Ne bis in idem.: En studie av det svenska systemet med dubbla förfaranden i relation till dubbelbestraffningsförbudeti Europakonventionen2013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 169.
    Almström, Magdalena
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Svanberg, Henrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Sjörättsmål: En jämförelse mellan målen i Sveriges sjörättsdomstolar2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden seven courts has been appointed to specialize in admiralty law cases. These cases are either civil or criminal cases with connection to shipping on Swedish territory.

    The objective was to examine and describe the admiralty law verdicts over time with focus on what types of cases, differences between courts and variation over time. The study focused on merchant shipping.

    Study of literature was chosen as method and with follow-up questions interviews were made with agencies and experts. The literature in this study was the 153 verdicts that were announced between 2009 and 2013.

    Of all verdicts collected were five civil cases and 148 criminal cases with 13 classifications. The largest difference between the courts was the sum of verdicts. A change over time could not be observed.

    Other conclusions that were made were that ships’ masters, that have the utmost responsibility, avoided prosecution when they were not present for the event of the prosecution. 

  • 170.
    Almén, Mimmi
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Management Accounting and Logistics.
    Det är dags att vi bryter isen: Damhockey eller "hockey", den riktiga ishockeyn.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To create a successful development in sports, gender equality is required. The lack of gender equality within the sport as an organization is therefore a problem and historically, sports is characterized by a gender structure where women is subordinate to men. The purpose of this essay is therefore to increase the knowledge of  the position of women within the field of ice hockey, and to open up for an analyzis of the gender equality within the rules of ice hockey using the theory of social constructionism. The theory makes it possible to highlight the meaning of commonly used concepts within the gender equality debate such as masculinity and femininity as social constructions depending on culture and history and how they change over time. This leads to the question of how the level of gender equality in the rules of ice hockey can be understood by using a social constructive theory. In order to achieve the purpose, the essay has the legal analyzis method as a basis to make the analyzis more nuanced. Interwiew as a method has also been used to create additional support for the conclusions. The study shows that there are significant differences in the rules of ice hockey that causes a problem with gender equality, but if you look under the surface, you could find that what seems to be natural, really is not. The rules of ice hockey, and the problem of gender equality are social constructions that changes under influence by the social environment.

  • 171.
    Alsnäs, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Commercial Law.
    Wilhelmsson, Petra
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Commercial Law.
    About the aims of China's Anti-Monopoly Law: -With special reference to the concept of socialist market economy2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Chinas first comprehensive competition law, the Anti-monopoly law of the People’s Republic of China (AML), was enacted on August 1, 2008. Despite a long history of planned economy, the Chinese economy has developed into one of the fastest growing economies in the world during the last decades. The adoption of the law was a crucial step towards a more market-based economy. Article 1 of the AML states that one of the aims to achieve with this law is to develop a socialist market economy. The notion was founded in the 1990s and can be found in several other Chinese legislations.

    The concept has no prominent definition and can be interpreted in many different ways, which opens up for the ruling Party to interpret the notion in accordance with their political believes. The central government will probably put most emphasize on the word “socialist” instead of “market economy” when interpreting the concept. The concept is of central meaning and will affect the interpretation of the other aims stated in article 1. The other aims are not ranked in any hierarchical order and are in conflict with each other. The central government will give priority to the aims which are beneficial for a socialist society. The aim to promote public interest, which includes state owned enterprises, will be strongly favored. Also the aim economic efficiency will be prioritized since China strives to become a rich country. Consumer welfare will not be highlighted but might be more important in the future.

    One reason that the aims are vague and not put in any hierarchical order could be that the objectives for adopting AML were not solely of competition reasons. The objectives show that AML is part of a wider economic policy. Neither does the central government strive towards a free market. Instead the goal is to establish a fair market. A fair market will most probably be a market beneficial for state owned enterprises and can therefore be contradictory to the keystones of competition. Competition principals arise from sophisticated market economies and China aims to apply those principals in the light of socialist ideology. AML covers the general competition provisions but with a specific chapter to regulate administrative monopolies. It can still be seen as contradictory to prohibit administrative monopolies but without any sanctions stipulated for violation of the provisions.

    Also the fundamental elements for establish effective competition are missing. The statute cannot be seen as objective or provide legal certainty and the competition authorities do not have divided responsibilities. Neither is any specific competition court established. Other factors that can contribute to an inefficient competition law are China’s history and culture, affected by socialist ideology. Time is required in China in order to develop an efficient competition culture.

    Altogether, it is no coincident that the notion of socialist market economy is undefined. The notion includes a quest to enhance the socialist society with strong economic development. More specific guidance is determined by the central government when the right time has come. From a Chinese perspective, the aims in article 1 will be achieved since the undefined concepts open up for different interpretations. From a sophisticated point of view, the aims will not be seen as achieved since no effective competition is established.

  • 172.
    Aminoff, Elin
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Management Accounting and Logistics.
    En studie om konflikter i arbetslivet och det  systematiska arbetsmiljöarbetets roll som verktyg till förebyggande arbete.2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The main subject of this essay is conflicts at work and the effect it has on the employee´s health.  I can through various reports read that bad health at workplaces is too high and that conflicts are a reason. What can be done to the work environment so it will be better from a psychosocial perspective? Sweden has a regulation that makes the employer responsible to work for an improvement in the work environment; can these regulations be used in purpose to reduce conflicts?

    My first question concerns the possibility to establish preventive procedures in the workplace systematic work regarding to improve the work environment. My second question is about the obligations of the employer to attempt to reduce conflicts at the workplace and the third question regards the documenting and monitoring of conflicts and the preventing work to reduce them. The purpose of this essay is to clarify how conflict preventive work can be included in the Systematic work environment management. To find answers to my questions I will interpret and analyze the current Swedish law but also international law. Current law and regulations will be supplemented with interviews to obtain information about the employer´s approach to preventive work regarding conflicts.

    After analyzing the material I come to my conclusion that it´s possible to use current regulations as a tool to reduce conflicts at workplaces and through that also reduce sick leave due to psychological disorders. But there is a need to set up more concrete routines that makes the employer´s obliged to take all measures deemed necessary. 

  • 173.
    Aminova, Nodira
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Sexual And Gender-Based Violence in Refugee Settings: Feminist Legal Analysis of International Law2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 174.
    Ammar, Sarah
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Commercial Law.
    Skatteflyktsklausulens tillämpbarhet när gällande skatteavtal saknar bestämmelser mot skatteflykt: Problematiken mellan folkrättsliga skatteavtal och svensk intern rätt2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En metod för att angripa skatteflykt är genom tillämpning av skatteflyktsklausulen som stadgas i 2 § lagen mot skatteflykt. Skatteflyktsklausulen har kritiserats för bristen på förutsägbarhet ur ett rättssäkerhetsperspektiv med särskild hänsyn till legalitetsprincipen. Den 26 mars 2012 meddelade Högsta Förvaltningsdomstolen sin dom där svensk intern rätt tillämpades framför skatteavtalet mellan Sverige och Peru på ett skatteupplägg med ett utländskt holdingbolag. Om ett skatteavtal missbrukas i syfte att uppnå skattemässiga fördelar finns det i kommentarerna till OECD:s modellavtal vägledning som öppnar för internrättsliga angreppssätt mot skatteflykt. Däremot finns det en gräns för hur generellt utformade sådana motverkansregler får vara för motivera ett sådant åsidosättande om skatteavtalets fördelningsregler. Risken med att åsidosätta en skatteavtalsbestämmelse är att det kan resultera i att staten ifråga gör sig skyldig till avtalsbrott, s.k. tax treaty override. Rättspraxis har gett upphov till kritik ur ett rättssäkerhetsperspektiv avseende tillämpligheten av skatteavtal i relation till svensk intern lagstiftning. Högsta förvaltningsdomstolen har öppnat upp för att reglerna om obegränsad skattskyldighet i 3 kapitlet inkomstskattelagen tillämpas och inte skattflyktsklausulen vid skatteupplägg med utländska holdingbolag som ägs av svenska ägare, förutsatt att den skattskyldige ifråga är bosatt i Sverige utifrån kriterierna om obegränsad skattskyldighet i 3 kap. 8 § IL. Det är dock viktigt att värna om Sveriges relationer med andra stater och därför inte bryta mot ingångna skatteavtal genom att tillämpa svensk intern rätt i strid mot gällande skatteavtals bestämmelser. När det däremot gäller EU-rätten har det i rättspraxis uttryckts att tillämpning av en intern regel kan motiveras om syftet är att motverka skatteflykt.

  • 175.
    Amneus, Diana
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    The coining and evolution of responsibility to protect: the protection responsibilities of the state2013In: An Institutional Approach to the Responsibility to Protect / [ed] Gentian Zyberi, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013, p. 3-32Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 176.
    Amnå, Erik
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Czarniawska, Barbara
    Göteborgs universitet, Göteborg, Sverige.
    Marcusson, Lena
    Uppsala universitet, Uppsala, Sverige.
    Tillitens gränser: granskningskommissionens slutbetänkande2013Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Under tiden februari 2012 – juni 2013 har granskningskommissionen intervjuat ett fyrtiotal ledare inom politik, förvaltningar och bolag, gjort en enkätundersökning bland 40 000 medarbetare och förtroendevalda, analyserat dokument och medier, tagit del av rätts- och samhällsvetenskaplig forskning samt besökt andra kommuner.

    Våra analyser tyder på att Göteborgs Stads förvaltningar och bolag uppvisade drag som alls inte direkt men väl indirekt bidrog till att man kom att underskatta riskerna för oegentligheter. Det handlade närmare bestämt om en kombination av ett antal samverkande organisatoriska, rättsliga och politiska svagheter där medierna regisserade avslöjandena inför en oförberedd, häpen och lamslagen politisk och administrativ ledning. Det fanns, och finns, en institutionaliserad, historiskt omhuldad göteborgsanda – och en bild av denna anda – där gränsöverskridande samarbete, pragmatisk handlingskraft och synbara resultat står i centrum. Den kom att dominera. Värden som professionell självständighet, formalia, insyn och opartiskhet hamnade delvis i skymundan. Även ett kraftfullt politiskt ledarskap vred uppmärksamheten åt annat håll. Koncentrationen av makt skapade en ängslig anpasslighet som höll tillbaka professionell mångfald, civilkurage och öppenhet, ibland även politisk opposition.

    Decentraliseringen ut till fackförvaltningar och 130 bolag skedde inom ramen för en relativt svag intern styrning, uppföljning och kontroll, viss slutenhet i rekryteringen av tjänstemän, politiker på dubbla stolar med oklara mandat, brister i synen på bisysslor samt en otydlig juristfunktion. Man försökte leva efter de anti-byråkratiska idéerna i New Public Management men tog den inbäddning av förtroende och tillit som endast kan skapas av institutioner som bygger på rättssäkerhet, regelstyrning och oberoende sakkunskap för given. Kritik, förslag och rekommendationer från stadsrevisionen fick ringa politiskt genomslag.

    Vad vi mött är en stad som i vissa delar anammade marknadens föreställningssätt, spelade ned rättsstatens betydelse, undergrävde professionella yrkesgruppers betydelse och försvårade medborgerligt inflytande och dito kontroll.

    I den enkät vi genomförde i februari och mars 2013 svarade nästan varannan medarbetare och förtroendevald att det som framkommit bara är toppen på ett isberg – enligt dem var ”muthärvan” inget journalistiskt påhitt. Man tror att de som anmäler och larmar verkligen vill att saker och ring ska gå rätt till, även om det också finns okunskap och en rädsla för mobbing och utfrysning som verkar i motsatt riktning. Alla förvaltningar och bolag har medarbetare som säger att de åtminstone en gång själva erbjudits muta. Totalt rör det sig om åtta procent i stadens bolag och sju procent i förvaltningarna, men variationerna mellan förvaltningar och bolag är stora. Korruptionsförebyggande arbete kan alltså inte isoleras till någon bestämd organisatorisk form eller typ av verksamhet utan måste ske brett.

    Mot denna bakgrund och med stöd i flera av medarbetarnas egna förslag lämnar vi tio rekommendationer för att minska risken för korruption, tillvarata andras erfarenheter och återskapa förtroendet för det demokratiska systemet:

    • (1) Skapa tydliga men få gemensamma styrdokument
    • (2) Ledningen ska visa vad en god och opartisk förvaltning innebär
    • (3) Förtydliga politikernas och tjänstemännens roller
    • (4) Rekrytera chefer och andra tjänstemän utifrån meriter
    • (5) Skapa utbildningar och arbetsförutsättningar för professionalitet
    • (6) Skapa rutiner för anmälan av bisysslor
    • (7) Utpeka en tydlig mottagare av interna anmälningar
    • (8) Professionalisera den kommunala revisionen
    • (9) Utveckla former för en dialog med medborgarna
    • (10) Inrätta Göteborgs Stads gästprofessur för forskning om den demokratiska rättsstaten.
  • 177.
    Amnéus, Diana
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law. Folkrätt.
    Armed Intervention: Pursuing Legitimacy and the Pragmatic Use of Legal Arguments2008In: Nordic Journal of International Law, ISSN 0902-7351, Vol. 77, no 1-2, p. 181-186Article, book review (Refereed)
  • 178.
    Amnéus, Diana
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law. Folkrätt.
    Responsibility to protect and the prevention of genocide: A right to humanitarian intervention?2008Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 179.
    Amnéus, Diana
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    The Responsibility to Protect by Military Means: Emerging Norms on Humanitarian Intervention?2008Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation is an interdisciplinary study on the external ‘Responsibility to Protect’ (R2P) and international law. It focuses on the legal customary process on jus ad bellum by which states try to address the gap between the legitimacy and legality of humanitarian intervention to protect human security within a state against genocide, war crimes and crimes against humanity. The development of specific legal rights for the Security Council, regional organisations and ‘coalitions of the willing’ to protect by military means is examined through case studies of humanitarian interventions after the Cold War.

    Constructivist perspectives on security and norms are contrasted with legal positivist analyses of customary law, the applicable law on the use of force, and evolutionary interpretation and informal modification of treaties. Feminist theories and gender perspectives on human security, the R2P and humanitarian intervention are also integrated into the thesis.

    The decisions to authorise humanitarian interventions in Bosnia, Somalia, Rwanda, East Timor and Darfur confirm an external R2P for the Security Council in the form of a lex lata right to protect by military means where states have manifestly failed to do so and where peaceful means are considered inadequate. Furthermore, a similar customary right for regional organisations may also be emerging, when the state concerned manifestly fails to protect, the Security Council is unable or unwilling to act and peaceful means found inadequate. Finally, support is found for a lex ferenda right of regional organisations, coalitions of the willing and individual states to intervene by military means in ‘exceptional circumstances’ in accordance with the theories on ex post facto or implied authority, or the principle of necessity, to protect people in humanitarian crises where the criteria of the R2P doctrine are met.

  • 180.
    Amrén, Johanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    And the Oscar goes to: En studie av populärkulturen i läroböcker i engelska2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Barn lär sig mer och mer engelska utanför skolan genom populärkultur. Syftet med

    denna studie är att undersöka hur populärkulturen förekommer i läromedel i engelska

    och på vilket sätt den förekommer. Även bakomliggande faktorer som Lpo94 och

    Lgr11 jämförs i analysen. Populärkulturens roll i skolan har förändrats genom åren och

    det är en central utgångspunkt i studien. Även hur populärkulturen kan användas inom

    andraspråksinlärningen samt som motivation är andra utgångspunkter. Genom en

    abduktiv metod skapas kategorier för olika typer av populärkultur som sedan studeras i

    fyra valda läromedel. Resultatet sammanställs kvantitativt och visade att kategorierna

    film, musik och sport var de som fick störst plats i läromedlen. Därefter följer en mer

    ingående analys av kategorin film och hur den uttrycker sig i läromedlen.

    Avslutningsvis visar det sig att populärkulturen definitivt fått en större roll i skolan än

    tidigare och att den accepteras på ett annat sätt. Denna studie är visar dock bara

    engelskämnet från läromedlens sida, inte hur populärkultur kan användas i andra delar

    inom engelskämnet.

  • 181.
    Anastasios Tekeoglou, Joakim Prevander
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    Nödsituationer i en hyresgästs lägenhet: vilka är en hyresvärds rättigheter och skyldigheter?2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the thesis is to clarify the landlord’s rights and obligations towards the tenant

    when a case of emergency occurs in the tenant’s apartment. What can a landlord do to get

    access to the tenant’s apartment when a case of emergency occurs? Will the landlord be liable if he damages any property of the tenant during the time in the apartment? These are some of the questions that we will answer.

    The problem is guided by two main principles: the landlord’s right of possession of the

    apartment and also the tenant’s right of use of the same property. The conflict between

    these two principles and between the interests of the landlord and the tenant is the foundation

    of this problem.

    Case of emergencies in an apartment are not regulated in Swedish law. Therefore, we have

    chosen to do comparisons to other forms of similar situations, which already are regulated

    in the law. These comparisons are made to see if similar rules can be applicated to cases of

    emergencies in the tenant’s apartment. In addition to this, we have also used case law,

    which treats similar situations, to see if the principles from these cases also can be applicated

    in case of emergencies in the tenant’s apartment.

  • 182.
    Anderberg, Andreas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute of Police Education.
    Befogat innehav av kniv2016In: Juridisk Tidskrift, ISSN 1100-7761, no 1, p. 119-123Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 183.
    Anderberg, Andreas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute of Police Education.
    Författningssamling i polisrätt: 20162016Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Författningar i polisrätt samlar de mest centrala lagarna med relevansför den polisiära verksamheten. Här presenteras rättsnormer från olikarättsområden såsom t.ex. offentlig rätt, straffrätt, processrätt ochsocialrätt.Boken riktar sig i första hand till studerande vid polisutbildningen menkan förstås lika väl användas av polisanställda som av jurister och andramed intresse för den polisiära juridiken.Författningarna återges som de lyder den 1 juli 2016.

  • 184.
    Anderberg, Andreas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Författningssamling i polisrätt: 2017/182017Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Författningar i polisrätt samlar de mest centrala lagarna med relevans för den polisiära verksamheten. Här presenteras rättsnormer från olikarättsområden såsom t.ex. offentlig rätt, straffrätt, processrätt ochsocialrätt.Boken riktar sig i första hand till studerande vid polisutbildningen menkan förstås lika väl användas av polisanställda som av jurister och andramed intresse för den polisiära juridiken.Författningarna återges som de lyder den 1 juli 2017.

  • 185.
    Anderberg, Andreas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Ingrid Gärde Widemar: 1912-03-24 — 2009-01-02. Jurist, justitieråd, politiker2018In: Svenskt kvinnobiografiskt lexikon, Göteborg: University of Gothenburg, 2018Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 186.
    Anderberg, Andreas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute of Police Education.
    Oaktsamhetsbrotten i svensk (och finsk) rätt – ett halvsekel senare2016In: Tidskrift utgiven av juridiska föreningen Finland, ISSN 0040-6953, no 5, p. 497-516Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    När Carl Elwing 1963 i JFT skrev en artikel om oaktsamhetsbrotten i svensk rätt var brottsbalken visserligen beslutad men hade ännu inte trätt i kraft. Mer än ett halvt sekel har passerat och det kan väl därför vara på sin plats med en uppdatering. Även den finska strafflagstiftningen har genomgått en stor revision och utan anspråk på egentlig fördjupning skall ändå en viss utblick även till Finland göras här.

  • 187.
    Anderman, Steven
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law. University of Essex .
    Industrial standards and technology pools: A regulatory challenge for EU competition law2011In: More Common Ground for International Competition Law / [ed] Drexl, J; Grimes, WS; Jones, CA; Peritz, RJR; Swaine, ET, Cheltenhamn: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2011, p. 230-236Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 188.
    Anderman, Steven
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Innovation, IPRs and EU competition law: cross currents in the EU/US debate2012In: Research handbook on international competition law / [ed] Ezrachi, A, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2012, p. 451-479Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 189.
    Anderman, Steven
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law. University of Essex .
    Patents and competition law: some features of the new interface2011In: Biotechnology and Software Patent Law: A Comparative Review of New Developments / [ed] Arezzo, E; Ghidini, G, Cheltenhamn: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2011, p. 105-128Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 190.
    Andersas, Lisa
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Engholm, Malin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Hedersbrottslighetens ideala offer: En kvantitativ genomgång av polisens utredningar av brott med hederskaraktär2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    "The ideal victims of honour-related crime"

    The purpose of this study is to examine if characteristics of victim and perpetrator and circumstances involving the crime, which are described in the theory of "the ideal victim", have an influence on the outcome of police employee’s independent assessment on crimes of honour character. In order to examine this a quantitative method has been applied and a logistic regression has been made of data based on identified crimes whit honour as a motive. The results of the study have shown that eleven variables which has a connection to characteristics and circumstances involving the crime and the investigation, as gender, age and circumstances surrounding reporting the crime, have a significant influence on the outcome. The study’s main conclusion is that no clear connection can be drawn between the outcome of assessments on crimes with an honour motive and the perception of the ideal victim.

  • 191.
    Andersen, Anna-karin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Melin, Therése
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Orosmoln över tjänsteavtal: En avtalsanalys inom molntjänster2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Molntjänster är aktuellt inom IT-området och spås skall komma att förändra sättet på vilket vi använder oss av datorer och internet. Fler och fler företag beslutar att köpa in sådana tjänster bland annat på grund av en kostnadseffektivisering av IT-hanteringen. I ett molntjänstavtal läggs grunden för vad som förväntas av köpare och säljare vid köp av molntjänster. På grund av den växande användningen av dessa tjänster och dess relativt nya intåg på marknaden har vi granskat två av de största aktörernas molntjänstavtal med syftet att identifiera och diskutera riskerna förknippade med avtalen. Utifrån de risker vi upptäckt ges därefter förslag till en blivande molnkund på överväganden som denna kan ha användning av vid avtalsskrivandet med en molntjänstleverantör.

    För att undvika olägenheter ger vi som förslag till en blivande molnkund att exempelvis svarstiden med fördel kan föras in i parternas avtal. Vidare bör kunden vara uppmärksam på leverantörens eventuella rätt till ensidiga ändringar i avtal och tjänst och kunden bör överväga vilka konsekvenser detta kan ha för dess företag samt i vilken utsträckning ändringar kan accepteras. Uppmärksam bör även den blivande kunden vara på de långtgående ansvarsfriskrivningar som leverantörerna gör då detta till viss del kan minska dess incitament att upprätthålla en hög servicenivå.

    De granskade avtalen var i stora drag relativt lika varför vi har anledning att tro att fler molnavtal ser ut på ett liknande sätt. Det innebär att de överväganden som diskuterats i samband med uppsatsens aktuella avtal, även torde kunna appliceras på andra molntjänsteavtal.

  • 192.
    Andershed, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Stattin, Håkan
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Predicting Antisocial Behavior Trajectories: A Gender Sensitive Approach2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The developmental taxonomy proposed by Moffitt (1993, 2006) holds that there are two main trajectories of offending: a life-course-persistent (LCP) and an adolescent-limited (AL) pattern. A bulk of research, primarily for males, supports the LCP and AL conceptualization. Childhood risk factors behind the development of LCP and AL offending seem to be quite similar for males and females. If the model proposed by Moffitt is correct, however, possibilities to predict future antisocial behavior should differ between the sexes. Early childhood problems which predict future LCP are more common among males. Hence it should be possible early to forecast LCP trajectories for males, but not for females. Rather, what happens from childhood to early adolescence should be predictive of females' future antisocial behavior. We tested the possibility to predict middle adolescent normbreaking and adult criminality from late childhood and late childhood to early adolescence problem indicators, respectively, for the 1,000 males and females in the longitudinal research program Individual Development and Adjustment (Magnusson et al., 1973). Analyses showed that male offending could be better and earlier predicted than female offending, but what happens in early adolescence mattered for later normbreaking and criminality for both females and males.

  • 193.
    Andershed, Henrik
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Andershed, Anna-Karin
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Risk and protective factors among preschool children for long-lasting psychosocial problems: what we know from research and how it can be used in practice2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 194.
    Anderson, Leo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Hotell: platsen för det nya urbana mötet2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Hotellbranschen har utvecklats till att fokuserar mer på att locka externa besökare utifrån, vilket förändrar dynamiken kring hur hotell ser på sig själva och dess omgivning. Denna uppsats syftar till att studerar hur hotellen använder sina publika utrymmen såsom lobby, bar och restaurang till att locka mer människor utifrån och vilka typer av rum som skapas. Uppsatsens empiriska material bygger på intervjuer med anställda på olika hotellkedjor i Stockholms län. Det teoretiska ramverket bygger främst på Ray Oldenburgs teori om den tredje platsen men även kring teorier om hotellens påverkan på städer, tjänstesamhällets utbredning och teorin om buzz. Resultatet av studien visar att hotellen har förutsättningar och möjligheter att fungera som mötesplatser som liknar den tredje platsen genom att de fått nya möjligheter genom att kombinera deras tillgång till ytor och ny teknik. Hotellens inställning till att vara en mötesplats varierar utifrån dess geografiska läge, då hotell i prime location lägen och i områden som ska eller har genomgått stadsomvandlingar var mer positiva än hotell med andra geografiska förutsättningar.

  • 195.
    Andersson, Annie
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Management Accounting and Logistics.
    Religionsfrihet eller jämställdhet - vad väger tyngst?: En studie om hur den rättsliga avvägningen görs när två rättigheter kolliderar med varandra.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden has become an increasingly multicultural society where different religions and values ​​meet. Recently, the Swedish Labour Court decided, whether a company´s policy that demands an employee to shake hand, prevent the employee´s freedom of religion or if the policy had a legitimate purpose since it was a way of achieving equality between men and women at workplace.  The aim of this essay was to investigate how the court judges when the employer´s obligation not to discriminate on the ground of gender collides with an employee´s freedom of religion. In order to answer the question and achieve the purpose of this essay, the author has used a doctrinal method.  By studying the current law, the author of this essay has concluded that freedom of religion is protected by European Convention on Human Rights, article 9. The right to believe is complete, and is called forum internum. The right to practice a religion through a religious manifestation, is called forum externum. This right is not complete and can be restricted.  Freedom of religion has a strong legal protection, but there are situations where the right of others also must be considered. A employee has, in working life, not only rights, but also obligations towards the employer. This may imply restrictions on a employee's freedom of religion since the employer has the right to lead and distribute the work. An employer is obligated to work for an equal workplace. If the means used to achieve gender equality are appropriate and necessary, the freedom of religion in working life can be restricted.

  • 196.
    Andersson, Christoph
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Tyskarnas intresse för Lasermannen är mycket välkommet2014In: Sydsvenska Dagbladet, ISSN 1104-0068, no 2014-09-22, p. 5-6Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 197.
    Andersson, Daniel
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Commercial Law.
    The Legality of Transfer Windows in European Football: A study in the light of Article 39 and 81 EC2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The transfer system was created in order to control player movement between football clubs and has existed since the late nineteenth century. During the negotiation of today’s transfer rules FIFA, UEFA and the Commission found that a breach of contract during the season could upset the balance of competition and therefore should be restricted. It was considered necessary to strengthen the contractual stability and to apply a special rule to preserve the regularity and proper functioning of competition. This was done by the means of a provision stipulating that a football player only can be registered to play with a national association during one of the two registration periods per year, generally known as the transfer windows.

    Sport has never been included in the formal structures of the European Union and the regulation of sport has instead materialized through verdicts from the European Court of Justice. One of the most influential statements emerging from the Court is that sport is subject to Community law in so far it constitutes an economic activity. Consequently, if the activity is economic there is a risk that it infringes EU law. The purpose of this master thesis is to examine the FIFA transfer window system and to determine whether it violates Article 39 and/or Article 81 EC.

    The transfer windows, a regulation strengthened by the ECJ in the case of Lehtonen, restrict the ability of players to seek alternative employment and could therefore be regarded as a violation of the free movement of workers. In order to trigger the Treaty provisions guarding the right of freedom of movement the person in question must be a national of a Member State of the European Union and the activity must have a territorial dimension beyond the borders of a single Member State of the European Union. The person in question must also be engaged in some kind of economic activity. It is, however, clear that football players who are members of the European Union and are applying for a job in another Member State, and are performing at a certain level, fulfil these requirements. Footballers should therefore be considered as workers within the meaning of Article 39 EC and the prohibition of discrimination contained in that article which catches non-discriminatory private collective measures, such as the transfer system, invented by regulatory bodies like FIFA and UEFA.

    When considering the FIFA “windows system” it is clear that it is liable of restricting the ability of players to seek alternative employment in another Member State and should therefore be regarded as a violation of Article 39 EC. Nevertheless, restricted transfer periods have been found by the ECJ to be objectively justified as having sporting benefits in the Belgian Basketball league. It is, however, likely that the “window system”, as it operates in European football, goes beyond what is necessary to achieve team and player contract stability since it is too restrictive and somewhat redundant. Consequently, the FIFA transfer windows do not comply with the requirements of the principle of proportionality and should therefore, if challenged, be regarded as a violation of Article 39 EC.

    The use of transfer windows in European football can also be considered to be an issue for competition law and in particular Article 81 EC. The article prohibits all agreements between undertakings that restrict competition and affect trade between Member States and has the objective to protect consumers, enhance their welfare and to facilitate the creation of a single European market. The ECJ has, however, acknowledged a certain type of sporting rule that, even though it restricts competition, will be granted immunity from Article 81 EC. The FIFA “windows system” should not be regarded as such a rule since it does not fulfil the required conditions.

    The transfer windows do little for the competitive balance within the European football. It may be argued that it preserves the appeal and the unpredictability of the finishing stages of a championship. However, they also prevent clubs from developing their economic activity and restrict the free play of the market forces of supply and demand. Furthermore, the “windows system” hinders certain clubs from raising the quality of their sporting performance since clubs in minor leagues with a closed window are losing their best players to clubs in a better league with an open window, without being able to replace them. All of this affects the small and economically weak clubs and strengthens the position of the financially strong clubs. As a result a few strong clubs will, contrary to the best interest of consumers, continue to dominate European football. The FIFA regulation of transfer windows is therefore likely to fall under Article 81(1) EC.

    It is unlikely that the pro-competitive benefits of the FIFA transfer windows outweigh its restrictive effects since it is improbable that they would be considered the least restrictive means of creating these benefits. Subsequently, the FIFA “windows system” would not qualify for an exemption under Article 81(3) EC and should, if challenged, be void under Article 81(2) EC.

  • 198.
    Andersson, David
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Uppsala universitet.
    Tell, Fredrik
    Department of Business Studies, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    The market for patents in Sweden: Past and present2018In: Stockholm Intellectual Property Law Review, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 6-17Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The worldwide revenues from the sale and licensing of patents have soared into the hundreds of billions of dollars in recent years. Consequently, the market for patents has become an important strategic option for firms to stay competitive, both by allowing them to leverage their own intellectual property rights (IPR), but also as a way of accessing important external technology.

    This article analyzes markets for patents in Sweden past and present by presenting and examining data on the market for patents in the 19th century as well more recently available data. We show that the origins of technology trade can be traced back to the 18th century and that an active national market for patents emerged by the end of the 19th century where intermediaries such as patent agencies and specialized marketplaces helped to broker deals between buyers and sellers of inventions.

    By contrast, today the domestic Swedish markets for patents is relatively insignificant, but Swedish firms instead act on international markets for patents. More firms are active on the demand side than on the supply side of the market, which indicates that the impact of a few large firms on the aggregate number is potentially large.

  • 199.
    Andersson, Elin
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Commercial Law.
    Developing a transfer pricing system: A case study of a company in the marine foodservice industry2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Marine Food group is active within the marine foodservice industry and is established in Finland, Sweden, USA and Singapore. The group both sells galley equipment and spare parts as well as carrying out installation of the marine foodservice areas in both new build vessels and in vessels where an old galley is changed into a new one. The group also provides its customers with turnkey deliveries, which are when the supplier has the overall responsibility for the delivery of a marine foodservice area. Marine Food group transfers goods and services between the enterprises situated in Finland, Sweden and the US and has not established a transfer pricing system for these transactions. The company located in Singapore was recently established and any intra-group transactions have not been conducted yet. This master’s thesis aims at developing a transfer pricing system that could be applicable on these transactions and acceptable to the tax authorities in Finland, Sweden and the US.

    The elements that should be included when developing a transfer pricing system is functional analysis, economic analysis, an analysis of transactions, selection of transfer pricing method and comparables. The Marine Food group is therefore analyzed based on these elements in order to be successful in developing a transfer pricing system. Furthermore, the transfer pricing rules in Finland, Sweden and USA is examined in order to develop a transfer pricing system that is acceptable to the tax authority in respective country. The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development has issued Transfer Pricing Guidelines, which are another significant source that are examined when establishing a transfer pricing system for Marine Food group.

    Spare parts are transferred between the Swedish company, Marine Food AB and the US based company, Marine Food LLC. The transfer pricing method that should be applied in Sweden is the resale price method since Marine Food LLC operates like a reseller for the spare parts. Internal comparables exist and comparability for the purposes of resale price method can be established with reference to both internal and external data. In the US, the comparable profit method should be applied given that it meets the best method rule.

    The transactions from the Finnish Company, Marine Food Oy and the Swedish company, Marine Food AB consist of installation works and stainless steel furniture. Hence, the transactions both involve goods and services and should be looked at separately. The transfer price for the installation works should be set by using the transactional net margin method. In order to determine the transfer price under the transactional net margin method both internal and external comparables can be used in this case. The transfer price for the stainless steel furniture should on the other hand be established using the resale price method. In order to determine comparability external comparables are used due to lack of internal data.

    Marine Food AB sells galley equipment and spare parts to Marine Food Oy. The transfer pricing method that should be applied on these transactions is the resale price method since the least complex party in the transaction, Marine Food Oy, act like a reseller of the galley equipment and spare parts. Comparability is to be established with reference to external comparables since internal comparables do not exist.

  • 200.
    Andersson, Elin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Markanvisningstävlingar - ett sätt att skapa konkurrens mellan byggherrar och ökad kvalité i bostadsbyggandet2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den sociala hållbarhetsdimensionen i hållbar utveckling har blivit minst uppmärksammad och den har därför inte fått en lika självklar plats i stadsplaneringens hållbarhetsarbete. Det saknas även en definition av vad social hållbar utveckling är, vilket har försvårat begreppets legitimitet. I Sveriges storstäder råder det ett underskott på bostäder och bostadsbyggandet behöver ökas för att möta bostadsbehovet. En fallstudie har gjorts i Uppsala kommun, med en analys över deras nya markanvisningsmodell, Uppsalamodellen. Undersökningens empiri baseras huvudsakligen på kvalitativa intervjuer med tjänstepersoner på Uppsala kommun samt aktiva byggherrar i Uppsala kommun. Resultatet visar på att Uppsala kommun har lyckats öka bostadsbyggandet i kommunen samt lyckats väva in alla hållbarhetsdimensionerna i deras markanvisningstävlingar. De aktiva byggherrarna är positiva till den nya markanvisningsmodellen, då markanvisningstävlingarna avgörs på kvalité istället för enbart på anbud. Undersökningens resultatet går emot diskursen om hållbar utveckling, som menar att den sociala dimensionen har förbisetts i stadsplaneringen. 

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