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  • 151.
    Agell, Jonas
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Uppsala University.
    Persson, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Does Debt Management Matter?1989Report (Other academic)
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  • 152.
    Agell, Jonas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Persson, Mats
    On the Analytics of the Dynamic Laffer Curve2000Report (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we analyze government budget balance within a simple model of endogenous growth. For the AK model, simple analytical conditions for a tax cut to be self-financing can be derived. The critical variable is not the tax rate per se, but the "tr

  • 153.
    Agell, Jonas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Persson, Mats
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    On the analytics of the dynamic Laffer curve2000Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we analyze government budget balance within a simple model of endogenous growth. For the AK model, simple analytical conditions for a tax cut to be self-financing can be derived. The critical variable is not the tax rate per se, but the ”transfer-adjusted tax rate”. We discuss some conceptual issues in dynamic revenue analysis, and we explain why previous studies have arrived at seemingly contradictory results. Finally, we perform an empirical study of the transfer-adjusted tax rates of the OECD countries to see which country has the highest potential for fiscal improvements; it turns out that only a few countries have any potential for such ”dynamic scoring”.

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  • 154.
    Agell, Jonas
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Uppsala University.
    Persson, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    On the Analytics of the Dynamic Laffer Curve2000Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we analyze government budget balance within a simple model of endogenous growth. For the AK model, simple analytical conditions for a tax cut to be self-financing can be derived. The critical variable is not the tax rate per se, but the "transfer-adjusted tax rate". We discuss some conceptual issues in dynamic revenue analysis, and we explain why previous studies have arrived at seemingly contradictory results. Finally, we perform an empirical study of the transfer-adjusted tax rates of the OECD countries to see which country has the highest potential for fiscal improvements; it turns out that only a few countries have any potential for such "dynamic scoring".

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 155.
    Agell, Jonas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Persson, Mats
    Tax Arbitrage and Labor Supply2000In: Journal of Public Economics, ISSN 0047-2727, Vol. 78, no 1-2, p. 3-24Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 156.
    Agell, Jonas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Persson, Mats
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Tax arbitrage and labor supply1997Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine how tax avoidance in the form of trade in well-functioning asset markets affects the basic labor supply model. We show that tax arbitrage has dramatic implications for positive, normative and econometric analysis of how taxes affect work incentives.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 157.
    Agell, Jonas
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Uppsala University.
    Persson, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Tax Arbitrage and Labor Supply1998Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine how tax avoidance in the form of trade in well-functioning asset markets affects the basic labor supply model. We show that tax arbitrage has potentially dramatic implications for positive, normative and econometric analysis of how taxes affect work incentives.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 158.
    Agell, Jonas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Persson, Mats
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Sacklén, Hans
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Labor supply prediction when tax avoidance matters1999Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine how tax avoidance in the form of trade in well-functioning asset markets affects the empirical study of labor supply. We discuss the implications for tax policy analysis, and we show that a failure to account for avoidance responses may lead to huge errors when predicting how tax reform affects labor supply tax revenue, and the welfare cost of taxation. In conclusion we argue that our model may explain a number of otherwise hard to understand dimensions of tax payer response.

  • 159.
    Agell, Jonas
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Uppsala University.
    Persson, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Sacklén, Hans
    Trade Union Institute for Economic Research.
    Labor Supply Prediction when Tax Avoidance Matters1999Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine how tax avoidance in the form of trade in well-functioning asset markets affects the emipircal study of labor supply. We discuss the implications for tax policy analysis, and we show that a failure to account for avoidance responses may lead to huge errors when predicting how tax reform affects labor supply, tax revenue, and the welfare cost of taxation. in conclusion we argue that our model may explain a number of otherwise hard to understand dimensions of tax payer response.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 160.
    Ager, Philipp
    et al.
    University of Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Worm Hansen, Casper
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Sandholt Jensen, Peter
    University of Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Fertility and Early-Life Mortality: Evidence from Smallpox Vaccination in Sweden2018In: Journal of the European Economic Association, ISSN 1542-4766, E-ISSN 1542-4774, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 487-521Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The smallpox vaccination method was the paramount medical innovation of the late 18th and early 19th centuries. We exploit the introduction of the smallpox vaccine in Sweden to identify the causal effect of early-life mortality on fertility. Our analysis shows that parishes in counties with higher levels of smallpox mortality prior to the introduction of vaccination experienced greater declines in infant mortality afterward. Exploiting this finding in an instrumental-variable approach reveals that the decline in infant mortality had a negative effect on the number of children born, whereas we find a small insignificant effect on the number of surviving children and natural population growth.

  • 161.
    Agerstig Rosenqvist, Therese
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Håller PPP i Östersjöns handelsområde?2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Baltic sea has always been an important transit hub for neighboring countries and the sea have made ​​it possible for the countries to trade with each other and thus create an international trade among themselves to each other. During 1700-1800's, the production took off and because of the mercantilism international trade developed. To establish their exchange rate, many countries have followed different standards, such as the gold standard where the currency's value was determined from the value of the corresponding quantity of gold which implies that the exchange rates were fixed. Based on the gold standard different theories was developed, such as the law of one price and purchasing power parity with the principles that a single currency will have the same purchasing power in other countries, which implies that a commodity should be bought for the same amount of currency, whether it is domestic or foreign. These theories have been studied several times, both for the short and long term, with the few countries to a greater number.

    In order to test this, two econometric tests of the variables were made​​, stationarity test and cointegration test. The stationarity test showed that all variables except the time series that was used to test relative PPP suffered from non-stationarity and therefore needed to be differentiated to be used to test the PPP. The cointegration test showed that no one of the time series suffered of cointegration and therefore further correction models was not needed to be done.

    The results from the econometric estimates showed that absolute and relative PPP could not be confirmed, nor denied, since no significant coefficients were identified. In the testing of real exchange rate for relative PPP significant time series were given but not in accordance with the nullhypothesis and therefore the null hypothesis is rejected that the relative PPP holds. From the results it is concluded that the PPP cannot be confirmed without that further studies must be done.

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  • 162.
    Agerstig Rosenqvist, Therese
    et al.
    Karlstad University.
    Engfeldt, Elin
    Karlstad University.
    Från Plan- til Marknadsekonomi: En ekonomisk studie av inkomstutvecklingen i forna Sovjetunionen2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 163.
    Agerström, Jens
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Lunds universitet.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    Lunds universitet.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Warm and competent Hassan = Cold and incompetent Eric: A Harsh equation of real-life hiring discrimination2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Little is known about how individuating information about job applicants influences ethnic discrimination. In the present field experiment, we sent out 5,636 job applications varying how Swedish (in-group) and Arab (out-group) applicants presented themselves in terms of two fundamental dimensions of social judgment: warmth and competence. Results indicate substantial discrimination where Arab applicants receive fewer invitations to job interviews. Furthermore, conveying a warmer or more competent personality increases invitations. However, appearing both warm and competent seems to be especially important for Arab applicants. In conclusion, the results show that Arab applicants need to appear warmer and more competent than Swedish applicants to be invited equally often. The practical importance of signaling warmth and competence in labor market contexts is discussed.

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  • 164.
    Agerström, Jens
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Why does height matter in hiring?2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Although previous research has established that physical height matters in hiring contexts, it is less clear through which channels height exerts its effect. The current research examines several potential components of the height premium: warmth, competence, job competency for a leadership position, physical health, and attractiveness. We made target individuals taller or shorter by digitally manipulating photographs, and attached these to job applications that were evaluated by real recruiters. The results show that in the context of hiring a project leader, the height premium consists of increased perceptions of the candidate's general competence, job competency, and health, whereas warmth and attractiveness seem to matter less.

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  • 165.
    Agevall, Ola
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    Schumpeter's invitation: Sociology and the entrepreneur of economic theory2010In: From Linnaeus to the future: Letters from afar / [ed] Sven E O Hort, Växjö: Linnaeus University Press, 2010, p. 13-23Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 166.
    Agevall, Ola
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    Varför homo economicus inte är girig2001In: Vår tids ekonomism: En kritik av nationalekonomin, Boréa, Umeå , 2001, p. 57-80Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 167.
    Aggeborn, Linuz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Essays on Politics and Health Economics2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Essay I (with Mattias Öhman): Fluoridation of the drinking water is a public policy whose aim is to improve dental health. Although the evidence is clear that fluoride is good for dental health, concerns have been raised regarding potential negative effects on cognitive development. We study the effects of fluoride exposure through the drinking water in early life on cognitive and non-cognitive ability, education and labor market outcomes in a large-scale setting. We use a rich Swedish register dataset for the cohorts born 1985-1992, together with drinking water fluoride data. To estimate the effect we exploit intra-municipality variation of fluoride, stemming from an exogenous variation in the bedrock. First, we investigate and confirm the long-established positive relationship between fluoride and dental health. Second, we find precisely estimated zero effects on cognitive ability, non-cognitive ability and education. We do not find any evidence that fluoride levels below 1.5 mg/l have negative effects. Third, we find evidence that fluoride improves labor market outcome later in life, which indicates that good dental health is a positive factor on the labor market.

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  • 168.
    Aggeborn, Linuz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    The Effects of Earlier Elective Experience: Evidences From The U.S. House of RepresentativesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 169.
    Aggeborn, Linuz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Voter turnout and the size of government2016In: European Journal of Political Economy, ISSN 0176-2680, E-ISSN 1873-5703, Vol. 43, p. 29-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper uses Swedish and Finnish municipal data to investigate the effect of changes in voter turnout on the tax rate, public spending and vote-shares. A reform in Sweden in 1970, which overall lowered the cost of voting, is applied as an instrument for voter turnout in local elections. The reform increased voter turnout in Sweden. The higher voter turnout resulted in higher municipal taxes and greater per capita local public spending. There are also indications that higher turnout decreased the vote share for right-wing parties. I use an individual survey data set to conclude that it was in particular low income earners that began to vote to a greater extent after the reform.

  • 170.
    Aggeborn, Linuz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Voter Turnout and the Size of Government2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the causal link between voter turnout and policy outcomes related to the size of government. Tax rate and public expenditures are the focal policy outcomes in this study. To capture the causal mechanism, Swedish and Finnish municipal data are used and a constitutional change in Sweden in 1970 is applied as an instrument for voter turnout in local elections. In 1970, Sweden moved from having separate election days for dierent levels of government, among other things, to a system with a single election day for political elections, thus reducing the cost associated with voting. This constitutional reform increased voter turnout in local elections in Sweden. The overall conclusion of this paper is that higher voter turnout yields higher municipal taxes and larger local public expenditures. Second, there is some evidence that higher turnout decreases the vote share for right-wing parties.

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  • 171.
    Aggeborn, Linuz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics, Uppsala Center for Fiscal Studies.
    Voter Turnout and the Size of Government2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the causal link between voter turnout and policy outcomes related to the size of government. Tax rate and public expenditures are the focal policy outcomes in this study. To capture the causal mechanism, Swedish and Finnish municipal data are used and a constitutional change in Sweden in 1970 is applied as an instrument for voter turnout in local elections. In 1970, Sweden moved from having separate election days for different levels of government, among other things, to a system with a single election day for political elections, thus reducing the cost associated with voting. This constitutional reform increased voter turnout in local elections in Sweden. The overall conclusion of this paper is that higher voter turnout yields higher municipal taxes and larger local public expenditures. Second, there is some evidence that higher turnout decreases the vote share for right-wing parties

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  • 172.
    Aggeborn, Linuz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Voter Turnout and the Size of Government" and "Public Finance and Right-Wing Populism2015Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 173.
    Aggeborn, Linuz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Voting System, Voter Turnout, Policy Outcome2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the last decades a number of countries in the developed world have experienced a drop in voter turnout. The public sector is in the end run by politicians who are elected by the people and for that reason it is interesting to study how a variation in turnout will affect public policy outcome. The purpose of this master’s thesis is to investigate the potential causal link that runs between voting system, turnout and policy by empirically testing the Meltzer & Richard’s theory from 1981. I use Swedish and Finnish municipal panel data and apply IV-regression. The constitutional change in 1970 when Sweden changed from having separate election days for the central and the local governments into having one joint election day, is used as instrument for turnout. I find that an increased turnout rate also leads to higher local tax rate indicating that turnout actually has an impact on policy outcome.

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  • 174.
    Aggeborn, Linuz
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics, Uppsala Center for Fiscal Studies. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics, Uppsala Center for Labor Studies (UCLS).
    Andersson, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research. Uppsala Center for Fiscal Studies.
    Workplace Networks And Political SelectionManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Do social networks at workplaces function as cues into the political arena? We consider this question using the case of Sweden, which has many leisure politicians who work at the regular labor market. Restricting our networks to small cells of individuals within the same occupation and workplace, we find that an individual is more likely to become a politician in the future if that person had a colleague who was a politician. We further find that these newly enrolled individuals are placed higher up on the party lists -- which to a very large extent dictates which party nominees that are elected -- in subsequent elections. Our mechanism analysis indicates that a partisan channel may explain most of the main effect and that high-ability party officials are more prominent than low-ability officials in terms of recruiting from their workplace networks.

  • 175. Aggeborn, Linuz
    et al.
    Andersson, Henrik
    Håfström Dehdari, Sirus
    Lindgren, Karl-Oskar
    Does Election Salience Affect Immigrant Voter Turnout?2020Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Faced with rising levels of cross-border migration, many democratic countries have extended local voting rights to non-naturalized immigrants in recent decades. However, the low turnout of enfranchised immigrants in these elections has come as a disappointment to the advocates of such reforms. In this study, we examine whether the low turnout can be explained by the low salience of local elections. Based on a regression discontinuity design and using high-quality Swedish registry data, we find this to be the case. According to our results, the average likelihood of voting increases by 10-20 percentage points once immigrants become eligible to vote in national elections. We demonstrate too that this effect is not driven by the acquisition of citizenship per se, and that the individual characteristics of immigrants cannot explain their overall lower rate of voter turnout.

  • 176. Aggeborn, Linuz
    et al.
    Andersson, Henrik
    Håfström Dehdari, Sirus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI). Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Lindgren, Karl-Oskar
    Does Election Salience Affect Immigrant Voter Turnout?2020Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Faced with rising levels of cross-border migration, many democratic countries have extended local voting rights to non-naturalized immigrants in recent decades. However, the low turnout of enfranchised immigrants in these elections has come as a disappointment to the advocates of such reforms. In this study, we examine whether the low turnout can be explained by the low salience of local elections. Based on a regression discontinuity design and using high-quality Swedish registry data, we find this to be the case. According to our results, the average likelihood of voting increases by 10-20 percentage points once immigrants become eligible to vote in national elections. We demonstrate too that this effect is not driven by the acquisition of citizenship per se, and that the individual characteristics of immigrants cannot explain their overall lower rate of voter turnout.

  • 177. Aggeborn, Linuz
    et al.
    Erixson, Oscar
    Jans, Jenny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Öhman, Mattias
    Toxic Metal Injustice? Socioeconomic Status at Birth and Proximity to Airborne Contamination2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     We study airborne levels of three toxic metals -- arsenic, lead, and mercury -- and ask whether geographical closeness to contamination of these metals is unequally distributed within the population of newborn children. We answer this question by applying registry data from Sweden and data on airborne pollution for the years 1992--2014. Exposure to arsenic, lead, and mercury has previously been linked to negative health effects including worse cognitive development. However, we find no evidence that closeness to contamination is associated with socioeconomic status at the place of residence at birth. This leads us to conclude that environmental injustice with regard to mercury, lead or arsenic contamination is negligible. The likely explanation is that contamination is not visible enough, and therefore not sufficiently salient, to result in residential sorting.

  • 178.
    Aggeborn, Linuz
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Larsson, Malin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Baklava och baguette: En studie av handelsutvecklingen mellan Turkiet och EU2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we examine trade patterns between Turkey and 13 member states of the European Union and how these have developed over the time period of 1983 – 2006. To represent the industrial and agricultural goods included in the study we look at the United Nations Standard International Trade Classification (SITC). Following, we investigate internal differences in the EU by selecting four countries each to represent the Northern and Southern countries of the EU. Internal differences were studied in relation to the amount of trade occurring between Turkey and the Northern and Southern countries. The main result is that Turkey is not of great significance for the EU. For Turkey however, the EU is a highly significant trade partner. The observed patterns indicate that trade deepening between Turkey and EU13 has occurred gradually, implying that the Customs Union from 1996 cannot be said to have caused severe differences in the Turkish-EU13 trade relations. For this trade agreement however, no effects on the trade development was directly related to the implementation of the CU. Following, the EU can continue to act as an important partner for future Turkish trade relations. No severe differences are to be expected in the development for trade in goods as free trade already is widely spread within this area. Instead, the major difference of a Turkish entry into the EU will most likely occur when introducing free movement of capital, services and people.

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  • 179.
    Aggeborn, Linuz
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Persson, Lovisa
    Institutet För Näringslivsforskning.
    Public Finance and Right-Wing PopulismManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 180.
    Aggeborn, Linuz
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Öhman, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research.
    Effekterna av fluorid i dricksvattnet2017Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Många länder fluoriderar dricksvattnet som en folkhälsoåtgärd. Det finns starkt stöd i tidigare forskning att fluorid förbättrar tandhälsan, men det har även uppkommit en diskussion huruvida det finns negativa bieffekter på kognitiv utveckling. I denna studie undersöker vi om exponering för högre fluoridhalter påverkar kognitiv förmåga, matematikresultat och arbetsmarknadsutfall senare i livet. Vi använder svensk registerdata för individer födda mellan 1985 och 1992 tillsammans med statistik över fluoridhalten i dricksvattnet. För att studera effekterna av fluorid utnyttjar vi det faktum att fluoridhalten i dricksvattnet varierar naturligt. Vi undersöker först effekten på tandhälsa och vi finner positiva effekter. Vi finner inga effekter på kognitiv förmåga eller på matematikresultat. Däremot indikerar våra resultat att inkomsten påverkas positivt, vilket tyder på att bättre tandhälsa kan förbättra individens position på arbetsmarknaden.

  • 181.
    Aggeborn, Linuz
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics, Uppsala Center for Fiscal Studies. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research.
    Öhman, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics, Uppsala Center for Fiscal Studies. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Healthcare Sciences and e-Health.
    The Effects of Fluoride in Drinking Water2021In: Journal of Political Economy, ISSN 0022-3808, E-ISSN 1537-534X, Vol. 129, no 2, p. 465-491Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Water fluoridation is a common, but debated, public policy. In this paper, we use Swedish registry data to study the causal effects of fluoride in the drinking water. We exploit exogenous variation in natural fluoride, stemming from variation in geological characteristics at water sources, to identify its effects. First, we reconfirm the long-established positive effect offluoride on dental health. Second, we estimate a zero-effect on cognitive ability – in contrast to several recent epidemiological studies. Third, fluoride is found to increase labor income.This effect is foremost driven by individuals from a lower socioeconomic background.

  • 182.
    Aggeborn, Linuz
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics, Uppsala Center for Fiscal Studies.
    Öhman, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    The Effects of Fluoride In The Drinking Water2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Fluoridation of the drinking water is a public policy whose aim is to improve dental health. Although the evidence is clear that fluoride is good for dental health, concerns have been raised regarding potential negative effects on cognitive development. We study the effects of fluoride exposure through the drinking water in early life on cognitive and non-cognitive ability, education and labor market outcomes in a large-scale setting. We use a rich Swedish register dataset for the cohorts born 1985-1992, together with drinking water fluoride data. To estimate the effect we exploit intra-municipality variation of fluoride, stemming from an exogenous variation in the bedrock. First, we investigate and confirm the long-established positive relationship between fluoride and dental health. Second, we find precisely estimated zero effects on cognitive ability, non-cognitive ability and education. We do not find any evidence that fluoride levels below 1.5 mg/l have negative effects. Third, we find evidence that fluoride improves labor market outcome later in life, which confirms that good dental health is a positive factor on the labor market.

  • 183.
    Aghanifor, Ishmael
    http://www.eurafrika.com.
    Charging the use of studded tires in Stockholm city-A cost Benefit analysis2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The stockholm county proposed legislation in 2010 on the use of studded tires in the city. The aim of the policy was to reduce the use of studded tires by 50 percent. The research question investigates the authenticity of the policy where it was hypothesized that the net social benefits for the imposition of this charge was less than or equal to zero. Emperical literatures were chosen systematically and with the help of theories on welfare economics, a meta analysis was employed quantifying cost and benefits of all outcomes. The findings shows that the NSB is less than zero meaning that it was a wise decision to reject the proposal.

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    CBA on Studded tires used
  • 184.
    Aghion, Philippe
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Algan, Yann
    Sciences Po.
    Cahuc, Pierre
    Ecole Polytechnique.
    Civil Society and the State: The Interplay between Cooperation and Minimum Wage Regulation2011In: Journal of the European Economic Association, ISSN 1542-4766, E-ISSN 1542-4774, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 3-42Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 185.
    Aghion, Philippe
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Algan, Yann
    Department of Economics, Sciences Po.
    Cahuc, Pierre
    Ecole Polytechnique.
    Schleifer, Andrei
    Harvard Economics Department.
    Regulation and Distrust2010In: Quarterly Journal of Economics, ISSN 0033-5533, E-ISSN 1531-4650, Vol. 125, no 3, p. 1015-1049Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 186. Aghion, Philippe
    et al.
    Bergeaud, Antonin
    Boppart, Timo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies. University of St. Gallen, Switzerland.
    Klenow, Peter J.
    Li, Huiyu
    A Theory of Falling Growth and Rising Rents2023In: The Review of Economic Studies, ISSN 0034-6527, E-ISSN 1467-937X, Vol. 90, no 6, p. 2675-2702Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Growth has fallen in the U.S. amid a rise in firm concentration. Market share has shifted to low labour share firms, while within-firm labour shares have actually risen. We propose a theory linking these trends in which the driving force is falling overhead costs of spanning multiple products or a rising efficiency advantage of large firms. In response, the most efficient firms (with higher markups) spread into new product lines, thereby increasing concentration and generating a temporary burst of growth. Eventually, due to greater competition from efficient firms, within-firm markups and incentives to innovate fall. Thus our simple model can generate qualitative patterns in line with the observed trends. 

  • 187.
    Aghion, Philippe
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Dewatripont, Mathias
    ECARES, Free U Brussels.
    Kolev, Julian
    Harvard University.
    Murray, Fiona
    MIT.
    Stern, Scott
    Northwestern University.
    The Public and Private Sectors in the Process of Innovation: Theory and Evidence from the Mouse Genetics Revolution2010In: The American Economic Review, ISSN 0002-8282, E-ISSN 1944-7981, Vol. 100, no 2, p. 153-58Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 188.
    Aghion, Philippe
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Holden, Richard
    University of Chicago Booth School of Business.
    Incomplete Contracts and the Theory of the Firm: What Have We Learned over the Past 25 Years?2011In: Journal of Economic Perspectives, ISSN 0895-3309, E-ISSN 1944-7965, Vol. 25, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 189.
    Agliari, Anna
    et al.
    Catholic University of Milano, Italy.
    Gardini, Laura
    University of Urbino, Italy.
    Puu, Tönu
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Global Bifurcations in Duopoly when the Cournot Point is Destabilized through a Subcritical Neimark Bifurcation2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An adaptive oligopoly model, where the demand function is isoelastic and the competitors operate under constant marginal costs, is considered. The Cournot equilibrium point then loses stability through a subcritical Neimark bifurcation. The present paper focuses some global bifurcations, which precede the Neimark bifurcation, and produce other attractors which coexist with the still attractive Cournot fixed point.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 190.
    Agliari, Anna
    et al.
    Dip. Scienze Economiche e Sociali, Catholic University.
    Gardini, Laura
    Dip. Scienze Economiche, University of Urbino .
    Puu, Tönu
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Global bifurcations in duopoly when the Cournot Point is destabilized through a subcritical Neimark bifurcation2006In: International Game Theory Review, ISSN 0219-1989, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 1-20Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 191.
    Agliari, Anna
    et al.
    Catholic University, Dipartimento di Scienze Economiche e Sociali, Piacenza, Italy.
    Gardini, Laura
    Dept. Scienze Economiche, University of Urbino, Italy.
    Puu, Tönu
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Some global bifurcations related to the appearance of closed invariant curves2005In: Mathematics and Computers in Simulation, ISSN 0378-4754, E-ISSN 1872-7166, Vol. 68, no 3, p. 201-219Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we consider a two-dimensional map (a duopoly game) in which the fixed point is destabilized via a subcritical Neimark–Hopf (N–H) bifurcation. Our aim is to investigate, via numerical examples, some global bifurcations associated with the appearance of repelling closed invariant curves involved in the Neimark–Hopf bifurcations. We shall see that the mechanism is not unique, and that it may be related to homoclinic connections of a saddle cycle, that is to a closed invariant curve formed by the merging of a branch of the stable set of the saddle with a branch of the unstable set of the same saddle. This will be shown by analyzing the bifurcations arising inside a periodicity tongue, i.e., a region of the parameter space in which an attracting cycle exists.

  • 192.
    Agliari, Anna
    et al.
    Catholic University in Milan, Italy/University of Parma, Italy.
    Gardini, Laura
    University of Parma, Italy/Istituto di Scienze Economiche, University of Urbino, Italy.
    Puu, Tönu
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    The dynamics of a triopoly Cournot game2000In: Chaos, Solitons & Fractals, ISSN 0960-0779, E-ISSN 1873-2887, Vol. 11, no 15, p. 2531-2560Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reconsiders the Cournot oligopoly (noncooperative) game with iso-elastic demand and constant marginal costs, one of the rare cases where the reaction functions can be derived in closed form. It focuses the case of three competitors, and so also extends the critical line method for non-invertible maps to the study of critical surfaces in 3D. By this method the various bifurcations of the attractors and their basins are studied. As a special case the restriction of the map to an invariant plane when two of the three firms are identical is focused.

  • 193.
    Agliari, Anna
    et al.
    Catholic University, Faculty of Economics, Milan, Italy.
    Puu, Tönu
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    A Cournot duopoly model with bounded demand2002Book (Other academic)
  • 194.
    Agliari, Anna
    et al.
    Univ Sacred Heart, Ist Econometria & Matemat, Milan.
    Puu, Tönu
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    A Cournot duopoly with bounded inverse demand function2002In: OLIGOPOLY DYNAMICS: MODELS AND TOOLS, BERLIN: SPRINGER-VERLAG BERLIN , 2002, p. 171-194Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 195.
    Agnarsson, Josef
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Nordensten, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Oväntade effekter av arbetsmarknadsprogram: En studie på effekten av arbetsmarknadsprogram för unga på brottslighet mellan åren 1998-20142016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Hur påverkas brottsligheten av ungas deltagande i arbetsmarknadsprogram? Frågan om arbetsmarknadsprogrammens effekter är sedan deras införande aktuell. Teorier om brottslighet, sociala gemenskaper och aktivering av individer samt åtgärder för att minska arbetslöshet förutspår ett samband som är relevant för hur deltagande i arbetsmarknadsprogram bör påverka brottsligheten. Vi använder oss av paneldata på kommunal nivå i Sverige mellan åren 1998 och 2014. Våra resultat indikerar att deltagande i arbetsmarknadsprogram ökar vissa typer av brottslighet. Vi finner även att denna ökning av brott är större i storstäderna. Resultatet än konsistent med teorin att arbetsmarknadsprogram kan öka risken för brott genom sociala interaktioner.

  • 196. Agné, Jonas
    The Influence of Default Options on the Timing of Retirement: A study of the automatic payout in the Swedish occupational pension system2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examined a change of the automatic payout age of a Swedish occupational pension agreement. The purpose of the study was to see if the default option can nudge the retirement decision. The study was based on previous behavioral economic research, showing that default options can be strongly influential in the accumulation phase of pension wealth. Using a difference-in-difference framework, the estimation shows no significant result of the default option influencing the labor supply of older workers. The result implies that people could be more rational regarding their retirement than their savings. This result should discourage policymakers from intervening too much in people’s retirement decisions, as it could lead to undesired consequences. To my knowledge, this is the first study to investigate if a default option can influence the retirement decision. 

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    fulltext
  • 197. Agrawala, Shardul
    et al.
    Bosello, Francesco
    Carraro, Carlo
    de Bruin, Kelly
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    De Cian, Enrica
    Dellink, Rob
    Lanzi, Elisa
    Plan or react? Analysis of adaptation costs and benefits using integrated assessment models2011In: Climate Change Economics, ISSN 2010-0078, E-ISSN 2010-0086, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 175-208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This report examines adaptation and mitigation within an integrated framework. Global and regional costs of adaptation are assessed dynamically and the resulting benefits are quantified. This is accomplished by developing a framework to incorporate adaptation as a policy variable within three Integrated Assessment Models (IAMs); the global Dynamic Integrated model of Climate and the Economy (DICE), the Regional Integrated model of Climate and the Economy (RICE), and the World Induced Technical Change Hybrid (WITCH) model. The framework developed here takes into account investments in reactive adaptation and in adaptation "stocks", as well as investments in building adaptive capacity. This report presents the first inter-model comparison of results on adaptation costs using the emerging category of adaptation-IAMs. Results show that least-cost policy response to climate change will need to involve subsantial amounts of mitigation efforts, investments in adaptation stock, reactive adaptation measures and adaptive capacity to limit the remaining damages.

  • 198.
    Agrell, Per J.
    et al.
    Catholic University of Leuven, Belgium.
    Mattsson, Pontus
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Månsson, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Impacts on efficiency of merging the Swedish district courts2020In: Annals of Operations Research, ISSN 0254-5330, E-ISSN 1572-9338, Vol. 288, no 2, p. 653-679Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Judicial courts form a stringent example of public services using partially sticky inputs and outputs with heterogeneous quality. Notwithstanding, governments internationally are striving to improve the efficiency of and diminish the budget spent on court systems. Frontier methods such as data envelopment analysis are sometimes used in investigations of structural changes in the form of mergers. This essay reviews the methods used to evaluate the ex post efficiency of horizontal mergers. Identification of impacts is difficult. Therefore, three analytical frameworks are applied: (1) a technical efficiency comparison over time, (2) a metafrontier approach among mergers and non-mergers, and (3) a conditional difference-in-differences approach where non-merged twins of the actual mergers are identified by matching. In addition, both time heterogeneity and sources of efficiency change are examined ex post. The method is applied to evaluate the impact on efficiency of merging the Swedish district courts from 95 to 48 between 2000 and 2009. Whereas the stated ambition for the mergers was to improve efficiency, no structured ex post analysis has been done. Swedish courts are shown to improve efficiency from merging. In addition to the particular application, this work may inform a more general discussion on public service efficiency measurement under structural changes, and their limits and potential.

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    fulltext
  • 199.
    Agu, Onyekachi
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    Hertzberg, Alexander
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    A Theoretical Investigation into the Pricing of Credit Default Swaps: The Role of Reflexivity and the Impact of Asymmetry2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Mathematical and quantitative sophistication provide financial institutions with scientific methods to price (over the counter) derivative products by the use of historical data and inputs. These inputs attempt to reflect the underlying reality within a company or economy quantitatively. This paper attempts to show how human perceptions based on input metrics that are used to help determine reality do not always offer reliable reflections of the underlying true picture. As a result of these misconceptions within derivative modelling we argue that risk managers must be able to overcome aspects of hidden risk in order to reduce large asymmetric losses within financial institutions.

  • 200.
    Aguilera, Roberto F.
    et al.
    Curtin University, Perth.
    Radetzki, Marian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Rewolucja £upkowa: Oewiatowe rynki gazu i ropy naftowej w warunkach transformacji2015In: Gospodarka Surowcami Mineralnymi, ISSN 0860-0953, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 5-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The shale gas and oil revolution has unexpectedly and forcefully begun to change the energy landscape in the United States. It is expected to spread beyond the US, with far reaching implications for the global energy map, but also for themacro-economy and politics ofmany countries. The purpose of this paper is to bring a better understanding to what prompted the revolution, to assess the production methods and associated environmental concerns, to speculate what can reasonably be expected in coming decades, and to sketch the full impact of a ripening shale revolution on the emerging economic and political policy choices for energy exporting and importing countries.We find that a large scale expansion can be expected in US shale gas and oil activities in the coming two decades. Globally, the shale leaders are likely to be countries that are already significant gas and oil producers. Setting up a policy framework to allow and promote shale development in a safe manner is a necessity for the launch of shale exploitation. The most important implication of a successful shale revolution would arguably be a downward pressure on gas and coal prices in regional markets and on the global oil price.

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