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  • 151.
    Bergström, Cecilia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Persson, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Mogren, Ingrid
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Sick leave and healthcare utilisation in women reporting pregnancy related low back pain and/or pelvic girdle pain at 14 months postpartum2016In: Chiropractic and Manual Therapies, ISSN 2045-709X, E-ISSN 2045-709X, Vol. 24, article id 7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Pregnancy related low back pain (PLBP) and pelvic girdle pain (PGP) are considered common complications of pregnancy. The long-term consequences for women with persistent PLBP/PGP postpartum are under-investigated. The main objective was to investigate the prevalence, pattern and degree of sick leave as well as healthcare utilisation and its perceived effect in women with persistent PLBP/PGP at 12 months postpartum.

    Method: This is a follow-up study of a cohort involving of a sample of women, who delivered from January 1st 2002 to April 30th in 2002 at Umea University Hospital and Sunderby Hospital, and who reported PLBP/PGP during pregnancy. A total of 639 women were followed-up by a second questionnaire (Q2) at approximately 6 months postpartum. Women with persistent PLBP/PGP at the second questionnaire (N = 200) were sent a third questionnaire (Q3) at approximately 12 months postpartum.

    Results: The final study sample consisted of 176 women reporting PLBP/PGP postpartum where N = 34 (19.3 %) reported 'no' pain, N = 115 (65.3 %) 'recurrent' pain, and N = 27 (15.3 %) 'continuous' pain. The vast majority (92.4 %) of women reported that they had neither been on sick leave nor sought any healthcare services (64.1 %) during the past 6 months at Q3. Women with 'continuous' pain at Q3 reported a higher extent of sick leave and healthcare seeking behaviour compared to women with 'recurrent' pain at Q3. Most women with persistent PLBP/PGP had been on sick leave on a full-time basis. The most commonly sought healthcare was physiotherapy, followed by consultation with a medical doctor, acupuncture and chiropractic.

    Conclusion: Most women did not report any sick leave or sought any healthcare due to PLBP/PGP the past 6 months at Q3. However, women with 'continuous' PLBP/PGP 14 months postpartum did report a higher prevalence and degree of sick leave and sought healthcare to a higher extent compared to women with 'recurrent' PLBP/PGP at Q3. Women with more pronounced symptoms might constitute a specific subgroup of patients with a less favourable long-term outcome, thus PLBP/PGP needs to be addressed early in pregnancy to reduce both individual suffering and the risk of transition into chronicity.

  • 152.
    Berlin, Johan
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Social Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Carlström, Eric D.
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Divison of Caring Sciences, postgraduate level. Göteborgs universitet, Sahlgrenska Akademin, Institute of Health and Care Sciences.
    The Three-Level Collaboration Exercise: Impact of Learning and Usefulness2015In: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 257-265Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to examine the emergency personnel’s perception of the effects of exercises, with regard to learning and usefulness. The exercises were quasi-experimental and constructed in such a way that employees from different organizations overlapped each other’s tasks. This was accomplished by: having asymmetries included in the scenarios, repeating exercise procedures and testing different strategies, which were discussed at joint seminars. The exercises were compared to a similar study, published in this journal, of nonquasi-experimental but merely traditional exercises. Surveys were distributed and collected from emergency personnel in connection with seven exercises. At the exercises, 94.3% of the personnel thought that the exercises had a focus on collaboration (traditional exercises, 75.6%).

  • 153.
    Bernard, Christophe
    et al.
    Aix Marseille Université, INS, Marseille, France; Inserm, UMR_S 1106, Marseille, France.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Malliaras, George G
    Department of Bioelectronics, Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines, CMP-EMSE, MOC, Gardanne, France.
    Organic Bioelectronics for Interfacing with the Brain2016In: The WSPC Reference on Organic Electronics: Organic Semiconductors: Volume 2: Fundamental Aspects of Materials and Applications / [ed] Seth R Marder, Jean-Luc Bredas, World Scientific, 2016, p. 345-368Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding how the brain works represents probably the most important fundamental endeavor of humankind and holds the key for the development of new technologies that can help improve the lives of people suffering from neurological conditions such as epilepsy and Parkinson's disease. Over the past decade, the use of organic electronic devices to interface with the biological world has received a great deal of attention and bloomed into a field now called “organic bioelectronics”. One of the key differences of organic from traditional electronic materials is their capacity to exchange ions with electrolytes. We discuss how this property can be leveraged to design new types of devices that interface with the brain.Read 

  • 154.
    Berner, Jessica
    et al.
    Blekinge University of Technology.
    Rennemark, Mikael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology. Blekinge University of Technology.
    Jogreus, Claes
    Blekinge University of Technology.
    Anderberg, Peter
    Blekinge University of Technology.
    Sköldunger, Anders
    Karolinska Institutet ; Stockholm University.
    Wahlberg, Maria
    Karolinska Institutet ; Stockholm University.
    Elmståhl, Sölve
    Lund University.
    Berglund, Johan
    Blekinge University of Technology.
    Factors influenceing internet usage in older adults (65 years and above) living in rural and urban Sweden2015In: Health Informatics Journal, ISSN 1460-4582, E-ISSN 1741-2811, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 237-249Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Older adults living in rural and urban areas have shown to distinguish themselves in technology adoption;a clearer profile of their Internet use is important in order to provide better technological and health-caresolutions. Older adults’ Internet use was investigated across large to midsize cities and rural Sweden. Thesample consisted of 7181 older adults ranging from 59 to 100 years old. Internet use was investigated withage, education, gender, household economy, cognition, living alone/or with someone and rural/urban living.Logistic regression was used. Those living in rural areas used the Internet less than their urban counterparts.Being younger and higher educated influenced Internet use; for older urban adults, these factors as well asliving with someone and having good cognitive functioning were influential. Solutions are needed to avoid theexclusion of some older adults by a society that is today being shaped by the Internet.

  • 155.
    Bernson, Jenny
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Institute of Odontology, Department of Behavioral and Community Dentistry.
    Elfström, Magnus
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Hakeberg, Magnus
    University of Gothenburg, Institute of Odontology, Department of Behavioral and Community Dentistry.
    Adaptive coping strategies among adult patients with dental fear: Further development of a new version of the Dental Coping Strategy Questionnaire2012In: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6357, E-ISSN 1502-3850, Vol. 70, no 5, p. 414-420Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. The aim of this study was to further develop and investigate a newly constructed 15-item questionnaire on strategies for coping with dental treatment, used by fearful adult patients undergoing regular dental care and those with phobic avoidance. Materials and Methods. The dental coping strategy questionnaire (DCSQ-15) was distributed to 77 individuals with dental phobic avoidance and 94 fearful patients undergoing regular dental care. Previous analyses of a 20-item coping questionnaire (DCSQ-20) revealed that 2 of 4 identified factors predicted regularity or phobic avoidance of dental care. However, one of these factors was considered related to catastrophizing thoughts and not to coping strategies and it was therefore removed in the present study. Results. The reduced 15-item questionnaire was analyzed to identify its factor structure and a 5-factor solution was found. The five factors were labeled (i) 'self-efficacy', (ii) 'self-distraction', (iii) 'distancing', (iv) 'praying' and (v) 'optimism'. The factors of 'praying' and 'optimism' correlated significantly with dental anxiety and were assessed significantly higher and lower respectively, among individuals with phobic avoidance. A logistic regression analysis revealed that 'optimism', together with gender and dental anxiety, was predictive of the regularity or phobic avoidance of dental care.

  • 156.
    Berzell, Martin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Lerner, Henrik
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Medicinska mätvärdens ontologiska status i ljuset av universaliestriden2014In: Filosofisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0348-7482, Vol. 35, no 3, p. 26-34Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 157.
    Beukes, Eldre W.
    et al.
    Anglia Ruskin Univ, England.
    Baguley, David M.
    Anglia Ruskin Univ, England; Nottingham Biomed Res Ctr, England; Univ Nottingham, England.
    Allen, Peter M.
    Anglia Ruskin Univ, England.
    Manchaiah, Vinaya
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Lamar Univ, TX 77710 USA; Audiol India, India; Manipal Univ, India.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Audiologist-Guided Internet-Based Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Adults With Tinnitus in the United Kingdom: A Randomized Controlled Trial2018In: Ear and Hearing, ISSN 0196-0202, E-ISSN 1538-4667, Vol. 39, no 3, p. 423-433Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Specialist tinnitus services are in high demand as a result of the negative effect tinnitus may have on quality of life. Additional clinically and cost-effective tinnitus management routes are needed. One potential route is providing Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for tinnitus via the Internet (iCBT). This study aimed to determine the efficacy of guided iCBT, using audiological support, on tinnitus distress and tinnitus-related comorbidities, in the United Kingdom. A further aim was to establish the stability of intervention effects 2-months postintervention. The hypothesis was that iCBT for tinnitus would be more effective at reducing tinnitus distress than weekly monitoring. Design: A randomized, delayed intervention efficacy trial, with a 2-month follow-up was implemented to evaluate the efficacy of iCBT in the United Kingdom. Participants were randomly assigned to the experimental (n = 73) or weekly monitoring control group (n = 73) after being stratified for tinnitus severity and age. After the experimental group completed the 8-week long iCBT intervention, the control group undertook the same intervention. Intervention effects were, therefore, evaluated in two independent groups at two time points. The primary outcome was a change in tinnitus distress between the groups as assessed by the Tinnitus Functional Index. Secondary assessment measures were included for insomnia, anxiety, depression, hearing disability, hyperacusis, cognitive failures, and satisfaction with life. These were completed at baseline, postintervention, and at a 2-month postintervention follow-up. Results: After undertaking the iCBT intervention, the experimental group had a greater reduction in tinnitus distress when compared with the control group. This reduction was statistically significant (Cohens d = 0.7) and was clinically significant for 51% of the experimental group and 5% of the control group. This reduction was evident 4 weeks after commencing the iCBT intervention. Furthermore, the experimental group had a greater reduction in insomnia, depression, hyperacusis, cognitive failures, and a greater improvement in quality of life, as evidenced by the significant differences in these assessment measures postintervention. Results were maintained 2 months postintervention. Conclusions: Guided (using audiological support) iCBT for tinnitus resulted in statistically significant reductions in tinnitus distress and comorbidities (insomnia, depression, hyperacusis, cognitive failures) and a significant increase in quality of life. These effects remained stable at 2-months postintervention. Further trials to determine the longer term efficacy of ICBT to investigate predictors of outcome and to compare iCBT with standard clinical care in the United Kingdom are required.

  • 158.
    Beukes, Eldre W.
    et al.
    Anglia Ruskin Univ, England.
    Manchaiah, Vinaya
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Lamar Univ, TX 77710 USA; Audiol India, India; Manipal Univ, India.
    Baguley, David M.
    Anglia Ruskin Univ, England; NIHR, England; Univ Nottingham, England.
    Allen, Peter M.
    Anglia Ruskin Univ, England; Anglia Ruskin Univ, England.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Process evaluation of Internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy for adults with tinnitus in the context of a randomised control trial2018In: International Journal of Audiology, ISSN 1499-2027, E-ISSN 1708-8186, Vol. 57, no 2, p. 98-109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The research objective was to identify processes that could either facilitate or hinder clinical implementation of an Internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy intervention for tinnitus in the UK. This was done by exploring the research context, the intervention components and the factors that contributed to the outcomes obtained. Design: This study investigated eight processes including the recruitment strategies, reach, research context, treatment dose delivered and received, implementation fidelity, barriers to implementation and effectiveness of the intervention. Study sample: Of the 169 registered participants, 146 were randomly assigned to the experimental or control groups (23 were excluded). The mean age was 55.57 years with an average tinnitus duration of 11.63 years. Results: The intended sample of people with distressing tinnitus who were underserved with evidence-based tinnitus interventions was reached. The full guided intervention was delivered. The recommended modules were read more than the optional modules. Intervention components such as the easily readable format and the benefits of the applied relaxation programme facilitated significant positive post-intervention outcomes. Barriers hampering the intervention application included time pressures and low self-motivation. Conclusions: Results of this process evaluation together with the outcome data can be used to facilitate translating this research into clinical practice.

  • 159.
    Bexner, Ingela
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Kommunala chefers upplevelse av arbetsmiljöarbete: En intervjustudie med utgångspunkt i föreskrift Organisatorisk och Social Arbetsmiljö2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 160.
    Biasca, Nicola
    et al.
    Spital Oberengadin, Orthopaedic Clinic.
    Agosti, Reto
    Headache Center Hirslanden, Zurich.
    Tegner, Yelverton
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Medical Science.
    Battaglia, Hugo
    SUVA, Luzern.
    Gerber, Christian
    University of Zürich, Department of Orthopedics.
    Procedure after minor traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in ice hockey to prevent neurological sequele2004In: Safety in ice hockey, fourth volume: [papers presented at the Fourth Symposium on Ice Hockey held 5 - 6 May 2002 in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania] / [ed] David J. Pearsall; Alan B. Ashare, West Conshohocken, Pa: ASTM International, 2004Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 161.
    Biasca, Nicola
    et al.
    Spital Oberengadin, Orthopaedic Clinic.
    Agosti, Reto
    Headache Center Hirslanden, Zurich.
    Tegner, Yelverton
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Medical Science.
    Battaglia, Hugo
    SUVA, Luzern.
    Gerber, Christian
    University of Zürich, Department of Orthopedics.
    Procedures after minor traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in ice hockey to prevent neurological sequelae2001In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 35, no 5, p. 367-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 162.
    Biasca, Nicola
    et al.
    Spital Oberengadin, Orthopaedic Surgery and Trauma Surgery.
    Lorentzon, Ronny
    Umeå University, Department of Musculoskeletal Research.
    Tegner, Yelverton
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Medical Science.
    Montag, Wolf-Dieter
    Injury report system2000In: Safety in ice hockey: third volume / [ed] Alan B. Ashare, West Conshohocken, Pa: ASTM International, 2000, p. 44-62Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 163.
    Biasca, Nicola
    et al.
    Spital Oberengadin, Orthopaedic Surgery and Trauma Surgery.
    Tegner, Yelverton
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Medical Science.
    International sports injury system: ISIS2001In: Sports medicine & hockey: a summit for the NHL and beyond, AOSSM , 2001, p. 15-36Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 164.
    Biasca, Nicola
    et al.
    Spital Oberengadin, Clinic of Orthopedic Surgery, Trauma Surgery, and Sports Medicine, Department of Surgery.
    Wirth, Stephan
    Spital Oberengadin, Orthopaedic Clinic.
    Tegner, Yelverton
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Medical Science.
    Head injuries and facial injuries in ice hockey: role of the protective equipment2005In: European Journal of Trauma, ISSN 1439-0590, E-ISSN 1615-3146, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 369-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Purpose: Despite a decreasing tendency of head and facial injuries in ice hockey the number of these injuries still seems to be too high. The purpose of this prospective investigation was to study the mechanism of facial and eye injuries as well as the role of protective equipment and revised rules. Methods: A prospective epidemiologic analysis of ice hockey-related injuries in the two highest-ranking Swiss Ice Hockey Leagues-League A (NLA) and B (NLB)-was performed by the Swiss Medical Committee during the two seasons 1996 and 1997. Results: A total of 392 injuries occurred during games or practice. Head injuries and facial injuries made up 26% of these injuries. Most of these injuries were classified as minor injuries. All eye injuries occurred in players either not wearing visors at all or wearing the visor incorrectly. Most injuries were caused by the illegal use of sticks. Conclusion: Most head injuries and facial injuries could be prevented by wearing helmet and visor correctly and by playing the game according to the rules

  • 165.
    Biasca, Nicola
    et al.
    Spital Oberengadin, Orthopaedic Surgery and Trauma Surgery.
    Wirth, Stephan
    Spital Oberengadin, Orthopaedic Clinic.
    Tegner, Yelverton
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Medical Science.
    The avoidability of head and neck injuries in ice hockey: an historical review2002In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 36, no 6, p. 410-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of minor traumatic brain injury (mTBI), cerebral concussions, is increasing and cannot be eliminated by any kind of equipment. Prevention strategies, such as the introduction of "checking from behind" rules have become effective in decreasing the number of severe spinal injuries. A new "head checking" rule should reduce mTBI in the same way in the following years. Mouthguards should be mandatory as an effective device for the prevention of dental and orofacial injuries, as well as reducing the incidence and severity of mTBI. A new internet database system, the International Sports Injury System (ISIS) should improve epidemiological analysis of head, face, and spinal injuries worldwide.ISIS should provide an internationally compatible system for continuous monitoring of risk factors, protective effects of equipment, and protective effects of equipment and effects of changes in rules through the years.

  • 166.
    Birgersson, Rikard
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Eliasson, Eric
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Unilateralt och bilateralt genomförande av bänkpress och dess påverkan på varandra sett till muskelaktivering, effekt, och kraftutveckling2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: It has been studied whether strength-exercises performed with two arms (bilateral) leads to better performance when compared to exercises performed with only one arm (unilateral), and it has been shown that both implementations result in similar results after a short training period. At the same time, research shows that mixed results between different implementations in terms of muscle activation and force development exists.

    Objective: The main purpose of this study was to see the effect of unilateral or bilateral warm-up in the bench press and its influence on subsequent unilateral and bilateral performance in the bench press, investigating the factors: muscle activation, power, and force development. A secondary purpose was to relate the results of the study to bilateral index, to see if bilateral deficit or bilateral facilitation dominates.

    Method: Strength-trained men (n = 13, age 25 ± 3 years) warmed up with two different implementations (unilateral or bilateral), and after each individual warm-up they performed three submaximal lifts (40 and 80% of 1RM) in unilateral and bilateral bench press. Muscle activity, power, and force development were measured in muscles pectoralis major, anterior deltoid, and triceps brachii, after each individual warm-up during three submaximal lifts (40 and 80% of 1RM) in unilateral and bilateral bench press.

    Results: Significant results were found in unilateral performance in power and force development after unilateral warm-up (184 ± 36 W and 164 ± 31 W; 416 ± 76 N and 412 ± 74 N) compared with bilateral warm-up (p = 0.05). There were no significant differences between the different implementations in bilateral performance. Significant differences were neither found in the muscle activation of any of the implementations. The study also found evidence of a difference between the test participants regarding bilateral deficit and bilateral facilitation in terms of power and force development, where the majority of the test participants had bilateral facilitation.

    Conclusion: Regardless of warm-up, no difference was seen in the strength-trained men regarding muscle activation in the bilateral or unilateral bench press, however, the warm-up  was of importance to performance. Therefore, unilateral warm-up should be applied before unilateral performance, as this showed significant improvement. Although no significant improvement was observed, a bilateral warm-up should also preceed a bilateral performance.

  • 167.
    Bjarnason, Sif
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Arbetsanpassning med arbetshjälpmedel2016In: Arbetsliv för alla: funktionsnedsättning och arbete / [ed] Berth Danermark & Susanna Larsson Tholén, Gleerups Utbildning AB, 2016, p. 179-192Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 168.
    Bjarnason, Sif
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Danermark, Berth
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Möjligheter och hinder att nå arbetsmarknaden för personer med funktionsnedsättning: handikapprörelsen i civilsamhället2016In: Vägar till arbetsliv för personer med funktionsnedsättning / [ed] Susanna Larsson Tholén & Berth Danermark, Gleerups Utbildning AB, 2016, p. 85-100Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 169.
    Bjarnason, Sif
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Larsson Tholén, Susanna
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Danermark, Berth
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Attityder till personer med funktionsnedsättning och interventioner för att påverka attityder: En systematisk kunskapsöversikt2015Report (Other academic)
  • 170.
    Bjärntoft, Sofie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Uppfattningar kring hälsofrämjande ledarskap: En mixad studie om jämförelsen mellan första linjens chefers och medarbetares uppfattning av hälsofrämjande ledarskapsaspekter och dess relation till medarbetarnas välbefinnande2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Based on the concept of health promotion leadership, the purpose is to examine how the first-line managers perceive their own leadership in comparison to employees' perceptions of the leadership, and whether this relates to employee well-being at work.

    Methods: This study is a recess of the project GodA and it’s based on a cross-sectional design with both quantitative and qualitative methods. To make a comparison between managers and employees perception of leadership, a selection of survey questions from GodA was used. The manager’s valuation of the health promotive leadership aspects were examined through semi-structured interviews.

    Main results: The results shows that there was a wide perception of health promotive leadership among managers. Although it can be interpreted that the managers work from the health promoting leadership aspects, there was a gap between the manager and employee perception of leadership. In half of the groups there was a significant difference. There was also a positive significant correlation between gap and employee well-being, then a larger gap resulted in a lower estimated well-being.

    Summary: Previous research shows that managers often overrate their leadership and a gap can affect employee well-being. It is therefore important to further investigate what the differences between the manager and the employees can depend on and how the gap can be reduced. It is also important to create a clear definition of a health promotive leadership in order to develop health promotion strategies at work.

  • 171.
    Björklund, Anita
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. HHJ. Quality improvements, innovations and leadership in health care and social work. AFR.
    Arbetsterapeuternas 'hälsa'2006In: Vetenskapens dag 8 oktober, 2006Conference paper (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
  • 172.
    Björklund, Anita
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Quality improvements, innovations and leadership in health care and social work.
    Arbetsterapeutparadigm1988Report (Other academic)
  • 173.
    Björklund, Anita
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Quality improvements, innovations and leadership in health care and social work.
    Arbetsterapeutparadigm: Uttryck, mening och referens1994In: Arbetsterapeuten, ISSN 0345-0988, no 10, p. 21-25Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Professor Håkan Törnebohms paradigmteori.

  • 174.
    Björklund, Anita
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. HHJ. Quality improvements, innovations and leadership in health care and social work. AFR.
    Att studera Arbetsterapeutparadigm: Rapport från ett avhandlingsarbete1999In: Program för At-forum 25-26 mars, 1999Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 175.
    Björklund, Anita
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    Berättelsen om "den obente" soldaten.1998In: Arbetsterapeuten, ISSN 0345-0988, no 13, p. 14-18Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett försök att reda ut begreppen med anknytning till ett arbetsterapeutiskt perspektiv.

  • 176.
    Björklund, Anita
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. AFR. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Quality improvements, innovations and leadership in health care and social work.
    Focus on Occupational Therapists' Paradigms1999In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 165-170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study has an explorative design with its starting point in Törnebohm´s theory of paradigms. The primary aim of the study was to identify and characterize seven experienced occupational therapists´ perceptions of their profession, especially regarding world view and field of action view. The secondary aim was to find out if there were similarities among the respondents´ personal paradigms that could constitute a potential, local ideology for the group. Qualitative data were collected using audio- and video-taped, thematic discussions which involved focus groups on three occasions during the autumn of 1996. Within the two paradigm components world view and field of action view the data were analysed qualitatively. The results show several unifying factors and dissimilarities were limited to specifications within the unifying factors, with regard to the respondents´ notions. The unifying factors could be described as a potential, local ideology for the group.

  • 177.
    Björklund, Anita
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Quality improvements, innovations and leadership in health care and social work. AFR.
    Function, action and/or well-being as health constituents in occupational therapy2006In: 5th Occupation UK and Ireland symposium in Occupational science 11-12 september: Health through occupation - the evidence, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 178.
    Björklund, Anita
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. HHJ. Quality improvements, innovations and leadership in health care and social work. AFR.
    Hälsa, kropp och arbetsterapi i ett professionsperspektiv2004In: At-forum 21-22 april, 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 179.
    Björklund, Anita
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. HHJ. Quality improvements, innovations and leadership in health care and social work. AFR.
    Kunskapsmöte inom arbetsterapi.2001In: Vetenskapens dag 3 oktober, 2001Conference paper (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
  • 180.
    Björklund, Anita
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Quality improvements, innovations and leadership in health care and social work.
    'Occupation': Fokus för yrkesutövningen arbetsterapi.1999In: Arbetsterapeuten, ISSN 0345-0988, no 1, p. 4-9Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 181.
    Björklund, Anita
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. AFR. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Quality improvements, innovations and leadership in health care and social work.
    Occupational therapy students' paradigms: A passage from beholder to practitioner.2000In: Australian Occupational Therapy Journal, ISSN 0045-0766, E-ISSN 1440-1630, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 97-109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study has an explorative, comparative design with its starting point in Törnebohm´s theory of paradigms. The aim of the study was to identify and describe how qualified OT students perceived their future profession, especially regarding world view and field of action view, and to compare their conceptions with those of newly enrolled OT students in order to find out the differences and similarities between the two aggregations of paradigms. Data were collected in writing, using essay questions. Data analysis/synthesis was accomplished qualitatively. The comparision between the two groups was carried out through the structure of three themes with appurtenant categories. The qualified occupational therapist students´ notions gave expression to a constant application of a holistic health perspective which in contrast to those of the newly enrolled occupational therapist students resulted in numerous examples of interrelations between themes belonging to different paradigm components. In line with Törnebohm (1987) this is characteristic for paradigms.

  • 182.
    Björklund, Anita
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. HHJ. Quality improvements, innovations and leadership in health care and social work. AFR.
    Om arbetsterapeutstudenters och arbetsterapeuters syn på arbetsterapi2000In: Vetenskapens dag 3 oktober, 2000Conference paper (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES:

    To study quality of life and subjective post-concussion symptoms in adults (16-60 years) with a mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) 3 months and 1 year after injury.

    METHODS:

    Of a total of 489 patients 173 responded to questionnaires at 3 months and at 1 year, including the SF-36 health-related quality of life survey, which is a standardized measure validated for Swedish conditions. Post-concussion symptoms were rated as either existing or non-existing in a 21-item checklist [a modified version of Comprehensive Psychopathological Rating Scale (CPRS)].

    RESULTS:

    SF-36 showed impaired scores in all dimensions. Existing post-concussion symptoms were reported by 1545%. Significantly, more symptoms were present at 3 months than at 3 weeks after injury. Furthermore, a significant correlation between higher rates of post-concussion symptoms and lower SF-36 scores was found. CONCLUSIONS:

    The SF-36 results were significantly impaired compared with an age- and gender-matched normative control group and the rate of post-concussion symptoms was significantly higher at 3 months than at 3 weeks after injury. As a significant correlation between higher rates of symptoms and low SF-36 scores was also found we assume SF-36 to be a sensitive enough measure of MTBI-related effects.

  • 183.
    Björklund, Anita
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. HHJ. Quality improvements, innovations and leadership in health care and social work. AFR.
    Om arbetsterapeutstudenters och arbetsterapeuters syn på arbetsterapi2001In: At-forum 17-18 maj, 2001Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 184.
    Björklund, Anita
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. HHJ. Quality improvements, innovations and leadership in health care and social work. AFR.
    Paradigmatik inom arbetsterapi.1998In: Vetenskapens dag 22 september, 1998Conference paper (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
  • 185.
    Björklund, Anita
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. HHJ. Quality improvements, innovations and leadership in health care and social work. AFR.
    Tematiska diskussioner med fokus på arbetsterapeuters verksamhet.1997In: Program för At-forum 13-14 mars, 1997Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 186.
    Björklund, Anita
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. AFR. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Quality improvements, innovations and leadership in health care and social work.
    Borell, Lena
    Svensson, Tommy
    What Occupational Therapists Consider to be Worth Knowing: An Analysis of Swedish Occupational Therapists' Examination Papers 1984-96.1999In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 127-133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine and characterize an aggregation of experienced occupational therapists´ exam papers with regard to the occupational therapists´ research interests, concerning especially ontological and strategical matters, during the time period 1984-1996. The title pages, summaries and results discussions of 84 papers were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively with the starting point in two of the components from Törnebohm´s structure of paradigms: the world view- and the field of action view-component. The occupational therapists´ interest in research subjects related to the field of action view component of paradigms, and applied research on strategical matters, dominates throughout the material. The interest in research subjects related to the world view component of paradigms, and basic research on ontological matters, increases in the last five year period. The increasing interest in more ontological matters seems as a natural and necessary progress for a profession which is deeply involved in knowledge aquired by experience. Only by the development of a “double-edged” knowledge, the profession has the possibility of developing and adapting to future demands.

  • 187.
    Björklund, Anita
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Quality improvements, innovations and leadership in health care and social work.
    Svensson, Tommy
    A Longitudinal Study on the Transformation of Fifteen Occupational Therapist Students' Paradigms into Occupational Therapists' Paradigms.2006In: Australian Occupational Therapy Journal, ISSN 0045-0766, E-ISSN 1440-1630, Vol. 53, no 2, p. 87-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study describes the transformation of 15 occupational therapist students’ paradigms into occupational therapists’ paradigms according to Törnebohm’s theory of paradigms, over a period of six years. This research particularly considers the paradigm components world view and field of action view in Törnbohm’s sense. Qualitative data were collected using essay-questions on three occasions: first week, and last semester, at the Occupational Therapy Programme at the School of Health Sciences, Jönköping, Sweden, and after three years of occupational therapy practice. A content-analysis of the collected materials was performed and the transformation of the informants’ views could be characterized as comprising three different perspectives: a ‘public’ view in 1995, a ‘theoretical’ view in 1998 and an ‘experiential/contextual’ view in 2001.

  • 188.
    Björklund, Anita
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Quality improvements, innovations and leadership in health care and social work.
    Svensson, Tommy
    Begreppet 'Hälsa' som vägvisare för arbetsterapeuter.2005In: Arbetsterapeuten, ISSN 0345-0988, no 9, p. 10-14Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 189.
    Björklund, Anita
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. HHJ. Quality improvements, innovations and leadership in health care and social work.
    Svensson, Tommy
    Femton arbetsterapeutstudenters paradigmutveckling genom utbildning och yrkespraktik: en sexårsstudie2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studien handlar om paradigmutveckling hos arbetsterapeutstudenter, senare arbetsterapeuter, under en sexårsperiod. Speciellt studeras deras världsbild och verksamhetssyn enligt Törnebohms paradigmteori. Kvalitativ data samlades in genom essäfrågor, första veckan och sista terminen på arbetsterapeutprogrammet vid Hälsohögskolan i Jönköping, samt efter tre års yrkespraktik. Genom kvalitativ innehållsanalys framträdde informanternas syn på arbetsterapi vilken kan karaktäriseras som "allmänhetens syn" 1995, "teoretisk syn" 1998 och en "erfarenhetsbaserad/kontextuell syn" 2001.

  • 190.
    Björklund, Anita
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    Svensson, Tommy
    Health, the Body and Occupational Therapy2000In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 26-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to identify and characterise conceptions of health in a group of experienced occupational therapists. Data-collection involved the occupational therapists´ personal accounts of the meaning of health and data analysis was accomplished qualitatively. The material was found to comprise 52 distinguishable articulations of the meaning of health, which were categorized under three main themes: 22 articulations of Health as “feeling fine“; 20 articulations of Health as ability to act; and 10 articulations of Health as an objective state of body and/or mind. The results show a very strong tendency towards holistic health conceptions and also toward a phenomenological view on the body. If this tendency should be taken to reflect current basic views within the profession this would indicate a movement away from biomedical frames of reference on the theoretical level. This would seem to imply consequent movements on the practice level away from organ focused interventions to the benefit of interventions in the person/context dimension of occupational performance. Studies of processes of change seem to be needed and we suggest that a paradigm theory approach probably be most pertinent.

  • 191.
    Björklund, Anita
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Quality improvements, innovations and leadership in health care and social work.
    Svensson, Tommy
    Read, Sanna
    Holistic and biomedical concepts of health: A study of health notions among Swedish occupational therapists and a suggestion for developing an instrument for comparative studies.2006In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 141-150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objectives of this study were to inquire into notions of health among a group of 439 Swedish occupational therapists and to test a model derived from a qualitative study by Björklund and Svensson in a representative sample of occupational therapists in Sweden. The data were collected through a questionnaire and were analyzed using descriptive statistics, cluster analysis and confirmatory factor analysis. The means and ranking of the health notions showed that the Swedish occupational therapists most frequently hold holistic notions of health, and to a smaller extent biostatistical ones. Most Swedish occupational therapists indicate that being clearly conscious of one’s health notions is important both to themselves and to their profession. The test of the model provides a step towards developing an instrument for measuring notions of health that clearly distinguishes between holistic and biomedical ones and that could possibly be used for comparative studies.

  • 192.
    Björklund, Ove
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Åbo Akademi University, Vaasa, Finland.
    Häggström, Elisabeth
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Åbo Akademi University, Vaasa, Finland.
    Nyström, Lisbet
    Åbo Akademi University, Vaasa, Finland.
    Young Finnish Unemployed Men's Experiences of Having Participated in a Specific Active Labor Market Program2017In: American Journal of Men's Health, ISSN 1557-9883, E-ISSN 1557-9891, Vol. 11, no 5, p. 1426-1435Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present study was to describe young Finnish unemployed men's experiences of having participated in a specific active labor market program, intended to fight unemployment and offered at a resource center. Fifteen young unemployed Finnish men in the age range 18 to 27 years were interviewed face-to-face. Purposive sampling was used to increase the variation among informants. The interview texts were analyzed using both manifest and latent qualitative content analysis. The present results reported that the young men felt that they, thanks to the program at the resource center, had acquired daily routines and could ultimately believe in the future. The young men described how they now had a structure, economic support, and that they could return to their daily life. The informants also described how they could see new possibilities and believe in oneself. There is a lack of empirical studies assessing the possible impact of active labor market programs on the unemployed based on participants' own experiences. Further research is needed to describe and elucidate in more detail the effects of targeted support measures and the needs of unemployed men of different ages and living in different contexts.

  • 193.
    Block, Fredrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Gym ombord på fartyg: Behöver sjömän träna och hur?2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 194.
    Blusi, Madeleine
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Dalin, Rolf
    FoU Västernorrland.
    Granholm, Ove
    Landstinget Västernorrland.
    Patienters upplevelser av hemsjukvården2014Report (Other academic)
  • 195.
    Bodin Törmä, Linda
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Böhm, Sandra
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Åka hem, jag ska väl föda barn!: -en intervjustudie med förstföderskor i latensfas2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The midwife's attitudes are important for a woman’s experience of feeling secure and manage pain during latent phase and delivery. The goal is that the woman should be at home during latent phase, because of that the hospital environment can have a negative impact on the physiological delivery process during this phase. Maternal health care has an important role by supporting and preparing the pregnant woman for birth. Objective: To explore women's experiences of latent phase, sought care at the maternity ward, and then had to go home. Method: A qualitative study has been done and is based on five individual interviews with first-time mothers. The data were analyzed according to content analysis. Results: The women felt unprepared and expressed ignorance about latent phase. The treatment from the midwife at the maternity ward was important for the women and how they could handle their experience of latent phase and delivery. Painful contractions and sleep deprivation were the main factors that made the women visit the maternity ward. Conclusion: The study showed that the information about latent phase from the midwife at the maternal health care center was inadequate and need improvement. The women found it  difficult to determine when they were in active phase and would go into the maternity ward. The midwife at the maternity ward need to see the individual woman and adapt care individually. Partners / relatives may be in need of advice and support from the midwife to make it easier to help the woman in latent phase.

  • 196.
    Bohlenius, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Påverkas hälsan av den fysiska aktivitetsnivån för bröstcancerpatienter under cytostatikabehandling? 2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Bröstcancer är den vanligast förekommande cancerformen hos kvinnor. Vid diagnos och behandling är det vanligt med psykiska reaktioner och biverkningar. Bland annat förekommer ångest, oro, infektionskänslighet och trötthet. Fysisk aktivitet bidrar till många positiva hälsoeffekter som exempelvis ökad muskelstyrka och kondition, minskad depression och ångest och förbättrat immunförsvar. Detta gör det intressant att undersöka om detta samband även förekommer hos bröstcancerpatienter som genomgår cytostatikabehandling.

    Syfte: Syfte med studien är att undersöka hur hälsan påverkas av den fysiska aktivitetsnivån hos bröstcancerpatienter som genomgår cytostatikabehandling.

    Metod: Arbetet är en litteraturstudie. Artiklar söktes i databasen PubMed. Inklusionskriterier var att artiklarna skulle undersöka effekter av fysisk aktivitet avseende hälsan hos bröstcancerpatienter som behandlas med cytostatika.

    Resultat: Bröstcancerpatienter som utförde fysisk aktivitet under sin cytostatikabehandling, förbättrade, bibehöll eller minskade nedsättning av status på flertalet av de hälsoområden som undersöktes. På vissa hälsoområden sågs ingen skillnad mellan tränings- eller kontrollgrupp eller så var skillnaden inte signifikant. Fysisk aktivitet sågs inte i någon studie försämra hälsan hos patienterna. I något fall sågs att en mindre träningsdos var bättre än en högre. Fysisk aktivitet gav inga biverkningar.

    Slutsats: En ökad aktivitetsnivå för denna patientgrupp ger positiva hälsoeffekter, därmed bör fysisk aktivitet rekommenderas. 

  • 197.
    Bohäll, Amanda
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Malmström, Emma
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Personliga assistenters psykosociala arbetsmiljö: En kvalitativ studie inom offentlig och privat sektor2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Personal assistance is a unique profession to the extent that the assistant comes the client close to life through participation in order to improve the individual's life and living conditions. The work is also unique as it uses the client’s home environment. The purpose of the following essay is to explore personal assistants’ experiences of a psychosocial work environment in order to increase knowledge about risk and health factors in work with people with disabilities. The collection of the empirical material has been done through a qualitative design to capture the respondents' experiences about the psychosocial work environment. The qualitative method which has been used is semi structured interviews with the aim of giving respondents a possibility to express themselves freely about their psychosocial work environment. In total seven interviews have been conducted through a selection from four respondents as in turn entered new people. The interviews have been transcribed to enable an analysis of the collected empiricism. The empiricism shows that personal assistants feel motivation in work when they witness the clients’ development. The empiricism also shows that demands and control especially come from the client’s family and affect the psychosocial work environment a lot. The empiricism at last shows that social support from both colleagues and managers represent a great value for the psychosocial work environment for personal assistants.

    The conclusion of the psychosocial work environment based on the results is a work situation based on high demands, low control and low social support. Although the psychosocial work environment is perceived to be difficult by the assistants they appreciate the possibility to enable a more worthwhile life for the clients. The conclusion is as well that each employer has an important work to do with the psychosocial work environment in order to make the personal assistants work environment better in the future. 

  • 198.
    Bolic Baric, Vedrana
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Health, Activity and Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Support in school and the occupational transition process: Adolescents and young adults with neuropsychiatric disabilities2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this thesis was to describe and explore the experiences of support in school of adolescents and young adults with neuropsychiatric disabilities. Furthermore, the aim was to explore support that influences the occupational transition to upper secondary school, further education and work. The two first studies investigated computer use in educational activities and during leisure activities by adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Study II also aimed to explore how traditional leisure activities and Internet activities interrelate among adolescents with ADHD. In Studies I and II data was collected using a questionnaire focusing on information and communication technology (ICT) use in school and leisure. Adolescents with ADHD (n = 102) aged 12-18 years were compared with adolescents with physical disabilities (Study I) and adolescents from the general population (Studies I and II). In Study III the aim was to describe the experiences of support at school among young adults with AS and ADHD, and to explore what support they, in retrospect, described as influencing learning. Study IV aimed to describe the occupational transition process to upper secondary school, further education and/or work and to explore what support influenced the process from the perspectives of young adults with AS or ADHD. Studies III (n=13) and IV (n=15) used qualitative semi-structured interviews with young adults with AS or ADHD, aged 18-30 years and were analysed using hermeneutics according to Gadamer.

    The findings of Study I showed that students with ADHD reported significantly less frequent use of computers for almost all educational activities compared with students with physical disabilities and students from the general population. They reported low satisfaction with computer use in school and a desire to use computers more often and for more activities in school compared with students with physical disabilities. Study II showed that Internet activities among adolescents with ADHD during leisure, tended to focus on online games. Furthermore, analysis demonstrated that Internet activities were broadening leisure activities among adolescents with ADHD, rather than being a substitute for traditional leisure activities. Study III found that young adults with AS or ADHD experienced difficulties at school that included academic, social, and emotional aspects, all of which influenced learning. Support addressing difficulties with academic performance was described as insufficient and only occasionally provided in school. In conclusion, support for learning among students with AS or ADHD needs to combine academic and psychosicial support. The findings of Study IV identified three different pathways following compulsory school. Support influencing the occupational transition process included: occupational transition preparation in compulsory school, practical work experience in a safe environment, and support beyond the workplace. Support from community-based day centres was described both as an important step towards work in the regular labour market, as well as being too far away from the regular labour market.

    In conclusion, this thesis revealed that support in school among students with AS or ADHD needs to combine academic and psychosocial support. Despite being regarded as facilitating learning, individuals with ADHD or AS reported limited computer and Internet use in school. Based on the results it is suggested that Internet activities may provide adolescents with neuropsychiatric disabilities with new opportunities for social interaction and educational activities. On the basis of the results it is suggested that the occupational transition process should be viewed as a longitudinal one, starting in compulsory school and continuing on until young adults obtain and are able to remain in work or further education. This thesis revealed that extended transition planning, inter-service collaboration and support from communitybased day centres were aspects of the environment that influenced the occupational transition process.

  • 199.
    Bolic Baric, Vedrana
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Occupational Therapy.
    Hemmingsson, Helena
    Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Occupational Therapy.
    Hellberg, Kristina
    Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden .
    Kjellberg, Anette
    Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Occupational Therapy.
    The Occupational Transition Process to Upper Secondary School, Further Education and/or Work in Sweden: As Described by Young Adults with Asperger Syndrome and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder2017In: Journal of autism and developmental disorders, ISSN 0162-3257, E-ISSN 1573-3432, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 667-679Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to describe the occupational transition process to upper secondary school, further education and/or work, and to discover what support influences the process from the perspectives of young adults with Asperger’s disorder (AS) or attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This qualitative study comprised semi-structured interviews with 15 young adults with AS or ADHD, eight men and seven women (aged 20 to 29 years). Most of the participants were attending community-based day centres at local businesses. Analysis identified three different occupational transition pathways following compulsory school. Support influencing the occupational transition process included: occupational transition preparation in compulsory school, practical work experience in a safe environment, and support beyond the workplace. The overall understanding shows that the occupational transition process was a longitudinal one starting as early as in middle school, and continuing until the young adults with AS and ADHD obtained and were able to remain in employment or further education. Support from community-based day centres was described both as an important step towards finding employment in the regular labour market in which participants could develop practical work experience, and as being too far away from the regular labour market.

  • 200.
    Bolic, Vedrana
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Occupational Therapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Hellberg, Kristina
    Specialpedagogiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kjellberg, Anette
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Occupational Therapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Hemmingsson, Helena
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Occupational Therapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Support for learning- goes beyond academic support: voices of students with Asperger’s disorder and ADHD2016In: Autism, ISSN 1362-3613, E-ISSN 1461-7005, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 183-195Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to describe and explore the experiences of support at school among young adults with Asperger’s disorder (AS) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and also to examine what support they, in retrospect, described as influencing learning. Purposive sampling was used to enroll participants. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with thirteen young adults aged between 20-29 years. A qualitative analysis, based on interpreting people’s experiences was conducted by grouping and searching for patterns in data. The findings indicate that the participants experienced difficulties at school that included academic, social and emotional conditions, all of which could influence learning. Support for learning included small groups, individualized teaching methods, teachers who cared, and practical and emotional support. These clusters together confirm the overall understanding that support for learning aligns academic and psychosocial support. In conclusion, academic support combined with psychosocial support at school seems to be crucial for learning among students with AS and ADHD.

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