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  • 151.
    Arvola, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    IT-artefacts for socializing: Qualities-in-use and research framework2000In: The 23rd Information Systems Research Seminar in Scandinavia: Doing IT together / [ed] Svensson, L Snis, U Sørensen, C Fägerlind, H., Lindroth, T., Magnusson, M., Östlund, C., Trollhättan: Laboratorium for Interaction Technology, University of Trollhättan Uddevalla , 2000, p. 1293-1301Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of computer artefacts in everyday social activities, is an unexplored research area. In this study, eight academics and university students were interviewed after playing a quiz game on interactive television. The methodology was interpretative to its nature. Four qualities-in-use are identified as means for design of IT-artefacts for socializing: ease of use, enchantment, entertainment, and togetherness. The qualities are placed in context of related research. In addition, the links between the qualities, and between the qualities and the theoretical concepts from the related research are examined. It is concluded that the relations between several of the concepts remain unclear and that IT-artefacts for socializing is a venture of opportunity for future research.

  • 152.
    Arvola, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Service Design Ways to Value-In-Use2016In: Service design geographies: Proceedings of the ServDes2016 Conference / [ed] Nicola Morelli, Amalia de Götzen, Francesco Grani, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2016, Vol. 125, p. 530-536Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What do we mean if we say that a service design work is an example of good design? This paper presents a provisional typology for the ways in which a service design proposal can contribute to value-in-use. The typology covers instrumentality, technical excellence, usefulness, social significance, mutual advantage, collective welfare, and aesthetic values. Moral implications related to norms, power structures and tensions between stakeholders are also considered. It is argued that the typology can facilitate service designers and researchers in framing and re-framing a design effort and conceptualise a value proposition. 

  • 153.
    Arvola, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    User Experience Qualities and the Use-Quality Prism2015In: The fuzzy front end of experience design: Workshop proceedings / [ed] Eija Kaasinen, Hannu Karvonen, Yichen Lu, Jari Varsaluoma, Heli Väätäjä, Espoo: VTT , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Deciding the desirable user experience qualities, i.e. UX goals, for a future product or service is important but difficult. This case study explores how a set of qualities is articulated in the concept design process. The case is a project aimed at exploring the use of smartphones to augment the childhood home of Astrid Lindgren—the children’s book author—with stories about her life and authorship. The results showed that articulated UX qualities focused the design work. It was also observed that one set of desirable qualities does not fit all phases in a project, and design consequences propagate between aspects of UX quality. 

  • 154.
    Arvola, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDI - Interaction and Service Design Research Group.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDI - Interaction and Service Design Research Group.
    Nygard, Stefan
    IDA MDI.
    Segelström, Fabian
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces.
    Wentzel, Jonatan
    IDA MDI.
    Greta & Torsten: Två personas för äldre användare av hälsans nya verktyg2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hälsans nya verktyg är en satsning på tillväxt i östgötaregionen, där planen är att successivt närma sig den växande världsmarknaden inom hälsa och vård. Fokuserade områden är sport och idrott, personlig hälsa, distribuerad vård och egenvård. Som ett led i tillväxtsatsningen identifieras intressanta marknads- och kundsegment, och för dessa segment gäller det att lära känna målgruppen som kommer att använda och beröras av olika tjänster och produkter. Ett sätt att åstadkomma detta är att ta fram personor och scenarios som kan användas som ett led i designarbetet.

  • 155.
    Arvola, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Larsson, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Regulating prominence: A design pattern for co-located collaboration2004In: Cooperative Systems Design: Scenario-Based Design of Collaborative Systems / [ed] Darses, F., Dieng, R., Simone, C., Zacland, M., Amsterdam: IOS Press , 2004, p. 115-130Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Co-located people do things individually while participating in collaboration. It is, however, difficult for designers to foresee what they will do individually and what they will do jointly. Participants therefore need to be able to move any information object between private and public states, but that is cumbersome to do with objects confined to a traditional PC-based workstation. This paper describes a design pattern, which addresses the problem. Designers can resolve it by making a platform where users can regulate how prominent they want to make information for themselves and others. The pattern is based on field studies and design work in three different settings where desirable use qualities were identified, categorized and translated into forces in a design pattern. Conflicts between forces were noted as problems, and solutions were sought to establish a pattern. A multiple-device platform was finally derived from the pattern to provide an example of how it can be realized. It is concluded that use qualities from a qualitative analysis of technology usage can provide the empirical basis for a design pattern. This fits well with several traditions within HCI and CSCW such as ethnographically informed design, scenario-based design, and design space analysis.

  • 156.
    Arvola, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Linder, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Know thy users by interpretative phenomenological analysis2018In: Journal of Interaction Science, E-ISSN 2194-0827, Vol. 6, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One approach to getting to know a user and understanding the user experience (UX) is phenomenology. Currently, there is a lack of clearly defined methods for phenomenological analysis of user experience in design projects. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) is an approach developed in psychology, and in this article, it is adapted to the case of a pro bono design project at a UX design agency supporting a disadvantaged group of people, newly arrived immigrants to Sweden. The design project involved research on how the immigrants experienced a service that introduced them to the job market. The adapted method, UX IPA, contributed to the pro bono project with a focus on both experience and meaning, which is important in design projects that relate to major events in users’ lives. The method was considered less appropriate in UX projects for specific products with highly instrumental use. The method can, in many cases, be too costly. However, costs can possibly be reduced by top-down approaches. In commercial UX projects, the method may be appropriate for the fuzzy front-end of design and innovation, but clients may be unimpressed by the small sample size. This can potentially be alleviated by mixed-methods approaches.

  • 157.
    Arvola, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Analysis of precedent designs: Competitive analysis meets genre analysis2010In: NordiCHI '10 Proceedings of the 6th Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction: Extending Boundaries / [ed] Hvannberg, E. Þ., Lárusdóttir, M. K., Blandford, A., Gulliksen, J., New York, NY, USA: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2010, p. 23-31Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Designers need to survey the competition and analyze precedent designs, but methods for that purpose have not been evaluated in earlier research. This paper makes a comparative evaluation between competitive analysis and genre analysis. A randomized between-group experiment was conducted where graphic design students were conducted one of the two analysis methods. There were 13 students in one group and 16 in the other. The results show that genre analysis produced more detailed descriptions of precedent designs, but its process was more difficult to understand. It is concluded that genre analysis can be integrated into competitive analysis, to make use of the strengths of both methods in the analysis of precedents.

  • 158.
    Arvola, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Nordvall, Mathias
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. SICS East Swedish ICT, Linköping, Sweden.
    Broth, Mathias
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Transmodal interaction and user experience2016In: Proceedings of the 12'th SweCog Conference / [ed] Alexander Almér, Robert Lowe, Erik Billing, Skövde: The University of Skövde , 2016, p. 5-5Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We are in a series of studies, ranging from news production to computer gaming, looking into the intersection of transmodal interaction and user experience. The purpose of this abstract is to outline the theoretical framework for that intersection. The first area we are studying is Transmodal Interaction, which is a concept that refer to a specific aspect of multimodal interaction. Human action is multimodal (Streeck, Goodwin, & LeBaron, 2011), and different sensory modes play an important role in action. However, little attention has been given to the intricate ways in which sensory modalities (seeing – drawing, hearing – saying, moving – touching, etc.) integrate, affect, and transform each other during the course of an activity. There are transformations of meaning in every new materialisation of an idea or a thought, partly depending on the communication potential of the sensory modality. This render what we refer to as a transmodal process where ideas and thoughts materialise action by action in an emergent sequence across relatively long and discontinuous timespans (Murphy, 2012). Over a sequence of actions, the meanings expressed in one modality, dynamically blend and shape what is expressed in other modalities. This produces, according to (Murphy, 2012) “a series of semiotic modulations in which certain core qualities persist, but others are noticeably transformed in the transition from one mode to another. (p. 1969)” We can, in intersemiotic translation (Jakobson, 1959) between modalities, address what is lost, how we introduce distortions, or even introduce perceptions of things that do not exist. A question is then how continuity of meaning and experience is preserved in modality changes. The second area we are studying is User Experience. The term refers to a person's perceptions and responses resulting from the use and/or anticipated use of a product, system or service (ISO, 2010). We employ a three level model of user experience based on Leontiev’s account of consciousness (Kaptelinin & Nardi, 2012; Leont ́ev, 1978), which also relate closely to Norman’s model of emotional design (Norman, 2005). The first level is the sensory fabric of consciousness, Norman refers to this as the visceral level. It is the largely subconscious level of how things feel. The second level is the personal meaning of things, related to what and how we do things action by action. Norman (ibid.) refers to this level as the behavioural level. The third level has to do with meaning, and what Norman refers to as a reflective level. It is the level of cultural meaning and what things mean for us in our socially and historically rooted activities. The intersection of these two areas constitutes our current focus of research. We are, in domains as different as news production and computer gaming, investigating persons’ perceptions and actions resulting from interaction with each other and with materialisations across different sensory modalities that give rise to intersemiotic translation effects. 

    References ISO. (2010). ISO 9241-210: 2010 Ergonomics of human-system interaction -- Part 210: Human-centred design. Geneva: International Standardization Organization. Jakobson, R. (1959). On linguistic aspects of translation. In R. A. Brower (Ed.), On translation (pp. 232-239). Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. Kaptelinin, V., & Nardi, B. (2012). Activity theory in HCI: Fundamentals and Reflections. Synthesis Lectures on Human-Centered Informatics, 5(1), 1-105.  Leont´ev, A. N. (1978). Activity, Consciousness, and Personality. Englewood Cliffs, NJ.: Prentice-Hall. Murphy, K. M. (2012). Transmodality and temporality in design interactions. Journal of Pragmatics, 44(14), 1966-1981. doi:10.1016/j.pragma.2012.08.013 Norman, D. A. (2005). Emotional design: Why we love (or hate) everyday things. New York, NY.: Basic Books. Streeck, J. r., Goodwin, C., & LeBaron, C. (2011). Embodied interaction: language and body in the material

  • 159.
    Arvola, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Nordvall, Mathias
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hägglund, Sture
    SICS East Swedish ICT.
    Hult, Lars
    SICS East Swedish ICT.
    Katarina, Bohm
    Karolinska Institutet, Institution of Clinical Science and Education, Södersjukhuset.
    Multi-Touchpoint Design of Multimodal Healthcare Services2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to identify research themes and outline a research-through-design project that will explore opportunities and challenges in human-centred multi- touchpoint design for multimodal emergency calls, healthcare counselling, and elderly patient monitoring. Relevant research areas for the project include multimodal user interfaces and interaction, transmodality, accessibility, and multi-touchpoint user experience (UX) and service design. Research questions will primarily focus on opportunities and challenges of interaction and visualisation; dialogue and communication; and operations and organisation. On a higher level, beyond the specific case, the overarching research questions concern what roles modalities play in multi-touchpoint UX and service design. The knowledge contribution is a better understanding of how different modalities can be designed, employed, combined, and transduced in and between multiple touchpoints. 

  • 160.
    Arvola, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Samuelsson, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Högskolan Väst.
    Nordvall, Mathias
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ragnemalm, Eva L.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simulated provocations: A hypermedia radio theatre for reflection on classroom management2018In: Journal Simulation & Gaming, ISSN 1046-8781, E-ISSN 1552-826X, Vol. 49, no 2, p. 98-114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Learning to manage a classroom is a difficult but important part of teacher education. Earlier research on simulations for learning classroom management has highlighted the difficulty of supporting reflection.

    Purpose. This case study explores and evaluates the design of a simulation for student teachers’ reflection on classroom management.

    Design. The design process resulted in the scenario-based SIMPROV simulation, which was made in the form of a hypermedia radio theatre that students go through in pairs or triads. Authoritarian, authoritative, democratic, and compliant leadership styles were built into the choices student teachers made.

    Evaluation. The simulation was evaluated in two courses where the participants’ level of reflection and perceived knowledge improvement was measured using a questionnaire. Forty three first-year student teachers, 48 third-year student teachers, and 38 of the student teachers’ mentors participated in the evaluation.

    Results. The results indicate that participants engaged in reflection and understanding to a high degree, and only to a low degree in critical reflection or habitual action.

    Conclusions. The conclusions are that the scenario-based simulation designed as a hypermedia radio theatre supported knowledge improvement, understanding, and reflection and that social interaction during and after simulation sessions was an important feature.

  • 161.
    Arvola, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Information and Computer Science,Linköping, Sweden.
    Samuelsson, Marcus
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Nordvall, Mathias
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Ragnemalm, Eva L.
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Simulated Provocations: A Hypermedia Radio Theatre for Reflection on Classroom Management2018In: Journal Simulation & Gaming, ISSN 1046-8781, E-ISSN 1552-826X, Vol. 49, no 2, p. 98-114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Learning to manage a classroom is a difficult but important part of teacher education. Earlier research on simulations for learning classroom management has highlighted the difficulty of supporting reflection.Purpose. This case study explores and evaluates the design of a simulation for student teachers' reflection on classroom management.Design. The design process resulted in the scenario-based SIMPROV simulation, which was made in the form of a hypermedia radio theatre that students go through in pairs or triads. Authoritarian, authoritative, democratic, and compliant leadership styles were built into the choices student teachers made.Evaluation. The simulation was evaluated in two courses where the participants' level of reflection and perceived knowledge improvement was measured using a questionnaire. Forty-three first-year student teachers, 48 third-year student teachers, and 38 of the student teachers' mentors participated in the evaluation.Results. The results indicate that participants engaged in reflection and understanding to a high degree, and only to a low degree in critical reflection or habitual action.Conclusions. The conclusions are that the scenario-based simulation designed as a hypermedia radio theatre supported knowledge improvement, understanding, and reflection and that social interaction during and after simulation sessions was an important feature.

  • 162.
    Arvola, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Walfridsson, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    The Mediated Action Sheets: Structuring the Fuzzy Front-End of UX2015In: The fuzzy front end of experience design: Workshop proceedings / [ed] Eija Kaasinen, Hannu Karvonen, Yichen Lu, Jari Varsaluoma, Heli Väätäjä, Espoo: VTT , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Decisions about what to design, for whom, and why to design it, are made during the fuzzy front of user experience (UX) design. Our approach to structure this process is to use a theoretical and methodological framework based on mediated action. This position paper describes how we put the framework, called the Mediated Action Sheets, to test in UX design practice. The test consisted of two workshops with professional designers. Transcripts of video recordings and results were qualitatively analyzed. The results are used to improve the framework. 

  • 163.
    Arweström Jansson, Anders
    et al.
    Department of Information Technology, Visual Information & Interaction, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Axelsson, AntonDepartment of Information Technology, Visual Information & Interaction, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.Andreasson, RebeccaDepartment of Information Technology, Visual Information & Interaction, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.Billing, ErikUniversity of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Proceedings of the 13th Swecog conference2017Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 164.
    Asai, Ryoko
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Designing "Open Education": How does the ICT-based system function as a new medium of participation for sustainability?2013In: The possibilities of ethical ICT, Kolding: University of Southern Denmark , 2013, p. 33-36Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Information and communication technology (ICT) has developed and deployed rapidly since 1980’s. Until now ICT has been considered as one of the most important infrastructures in living in the present globalized society. Along with diffusion of personal computers and highly leveraging information on the web, the way of learning has been changing gradually. Hundreds universities, institutes and companies constructs and releases the “open education” platform based on ICT, for example iTunes U, TakingITGlobal and so on. These open education platforms are basically open for everyone who wants to learn by using contents on the website for free in so far as they can access the Internet. And the movement toward the construction and use of ICT-based education platform is supported by international organizations, such as the Centre for Educational Research and Innovation (CERI) in OECD and UNESCO’s project “the Virtual University and e-learning”.

  • 165.
    Asai, Ryoko
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Globalization and the change of employment system2011In: Management systems / [ed] Japanese Association of Management Systems, Tokyo: Nippon Hyoronsha , 2011Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 166.
    Asai, Ryoko
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    New form of social ties through communicating in social media (Sosharu media ga tukuru atarashii kizuna no katachi)2012In: Information and Management  64th Conferenceedings Spring / [ed] Japan Society for Information and Management, 2012, p. 141-144Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 167.
    Asai, Ryoko
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Research in Computer/Information Ethics: A Gender Gap Analysis and Consequences2013In: Ambiguous Technologies: Philosophical Issues, Practical Solutions, Human Nature, Lisbon: Universidade Autonoma de Lisboa , 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Technology democratization enforces a never-ending process of risk/responsibility harmonization through with ethical assumptions. However, it is crucial to debate the gender gap within our community (reasons) and explore the potential “outcome” of female contribution. This panel does not promote a direct hit with the sessions, although the intention is to be controversial and influencer concerning a latent problem inside our community. 

  • 168.
    Asai, Ryoko
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Rethinking ICT's contribution to sustainability and education2012In: New technologies, education for sustainable development and critical pedagogy / [ed] Vassilios Makrakis and Nelly Kostoulas-Makrakis, Rethymnon, Greece: ICTeESD, University of Crete , 2012, p. 232-235Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The open education system based on Information and communication technology (ICT) can provide great opportunities for people to learn regardless of resident area, language, gender, age and so on. Currently people use it actively and build up new social networks as learning communities or study groups on the Internet. Shared knowledge and the process of sharing knowledge established through online communication are considered as key elements in the context of strengthen the individual and the country. In other words, creating the open education platform and content plays a role of designing a culture and society. However, it is not easy to realize the ideal concept of “open education” because people have many differences in language, culture, political system, ideology, thought, deployment of ICT et cetera. In order to create the open education system, which has a high degree of usability and effectiveness, we need to closely examine social roles and difficulties of the ICT-based education system in designing sustainable societies. And also the ICT-based educational system is established through the continuous human-computer interaction. Therefore, all participants get involved with developing the open education and each of them assumes a responsibility for making the open educational contents more abundant.

  • 169.
    Asai, Ryoko
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Social Influence on Cooperation and Coordination2013In: ICT-ethics: Sweden and Japan, Linköping: LiU Tryck , 2013, p. 24-30Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) creates novel products and services and promotes innovation in the whole of global society, and the amount of data, which we can gather and use, or even just see, is increasing dramatically. Searching and checking information on the Internet is our ordinary way of doing, people enjoy online shopping commonly and sometime look for their partners through the Internet. Internet, mobile networks and social media have flourished greatly in our daily lives, ICT has developed and deployed very dynamic and diverse as well. Particulary our communication patterns are greatly affected by permeation of social media into our daily life.

  • 170.
    Asai, Ryoko
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Social media as a tool for change2011In: The social impact of social computing / [ed] A. Bisset et al., Sheffield, UK: Sheffield Hallam University , 2011, p. 44-50Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 171.
    Asai, Ryoko
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Social Media as Informal Public Spheres2012In: Creating and applying socially, ethically and professionally acceptable ICT systems: Current challenges and what is next? / [ed] Diane Whitehouse, 2012, p. 3-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Do social media generate social capital beyond borders between the real and virtual spaces? If so, how do social media function in forming and maintaining social capital? From the beginning of 2011, a huge number of people have seen political turmoil stimulated by use of social media and felt the inner stirrings of people’s cooperative networks via social media. Thus, some people strongly stressed that social media has a great power to change authoritarian regimes from the global political issues perspective. On the other hand, we recognized how social media worked effectively from the local issues perspective, for example in the case of the massive disaster in Japan. Existing media such as TV and newspapers didn’t work well, the Japanese got and exchanged information through social media and in fact some victims were rescued based on information via social media. Both cases, political changes and massive disasters, show information transaction process has been supported by thin trust, generalized reciprocity and loosely tied people’s network, regardless of geographical borders or real/virtual spaces. And some users opened their opinions about governments’ policies or their discontent with the government through social media and discuss with others online. Through this discussing process, it seems that social media plays an important role in fostering a social network leading to social capital. This study reconsiders characteristics of social capital and its role in improving people’s lives through social media. It also examines how social media affects social capital processes, by giving a few examples of using social media under critical social situations.

  • 172.
    Asai, Ryoko
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Social Media Supporting Democratic Dialogue2013In: Ambiguous Technologies: Philosophical Issues, Practical Solutions, Human Nature, Lisbon: Autónoma University , 2013, p. 36-43Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The term of “social media” appears in newspapers and magazines everyday and the huge number of people use social media actively in daily life. Nowadays, in the highly Information and Communication Technology (ICT) developed country Japan, Japanese people enroll in social media and evolve a new way of communicating with others based on the “virtual” social distance between them. Among social media, Twitter has been focusing on its strong power as the tool for political change recent years. While Twitter has of-expressed problems as well as the “traditional” social media, it is characterized by the limited number of characters, strong propagation and optional reciprocity. Those characteristics stimulate people’s communication online and bring about opportunities for social interaction and democratic dialogue. On the other hand, in the deluge of information, we need to nurture skills to utilize critical and rational way of thinking through dialogue not only between others also between themselves internally. This study explores characteristics of social media and differences between “traditional” social media and Twitter, and how the difference affects people’s information behavior in Japan.

  • 173.
    Asai, Ryoko
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Technology as Mask2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 174.
    Asai, Ryoko
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    情報倫理研究におけるジェンダーの射程 (The range of gender perspective in computer ethics research)2014In: 経営情報学会誌 (The Japan Society of Management Information (JASMIN) Journal), ISSN 0918-7324, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 158-161Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [ja]

    情報通信技術(Information and CommunicationTechnology: ICT)は現代社会において必要不可欠なものであり,ICT なくしては私達の日常生活は成り立たない.一方で,ICT を利用するがゆえにかつては予想されなかった新たな社会的問題ないし社会的リスクが引き起こされている.顕著な例としては,監視社会,ソーシャル・エンジニアリングあるいはサイバーセキュリティなどが挙げられよう.これらの問題は互いに複雑に入り組み合い,より大きな社会的問題へと発展してきた.またICT が普及し人々のライフスタイルが変化するなかでは,セックスやジェンダーといった性にまつわる事象もICT からの影響を免れることは難しく,性別に基づくデジタル・デバイドや,サイバーストーキング,ポルノグラフィ,出会い系サイトなどICT と性との関係性における倫理的問題が議論されるに至る.本稿では,ICT が性に与える影響と,その影響をジェンダーの視角からどのように考察することが可能かについて検討する.

  • 175.
    Asai, Ryoko
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    男女共同参画社会って何だろう? (What is "gender equal society"?): 日本とスウェーデンの現状から 考える私たちの「ライフスタイル」 (Think about our life-style together)2013Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [ja]

    世界有数の福祉国家として知られ、また、ワーク・ライフ・バランスの実現度が高い国としても知られているスウェーデン。セミナー講師が住むスウェーデンでは、育児休業中の所得保障を受けるため、両親がともに育児休業を取らなければならないといった制度が整っています。福祉を実現するため高い税金が課税されていることは有名な話ですが、その税金によって全ての福祉施策 を充実させているわけではないことなど、さまざまな日本との違いを学びます。

  • 176.
    Asai, Ryoko
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Do social media generate social capital?2012In: ICT, society and human beings / [ed] Gunilla Bradley, Diane Whitehouse and Angela Lin, Lisbon: IADIS Press , 2012, p. 133-136Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Do social media generate social capital beyond borders between the real and virtual spaces? If so, how do social media function in forming and maintaining social capital? This study is triggered by those simple questions. From the beginning of 2011, a huge number of people have seen political turmoil stimulated by use of social media and felt the inner stirrings of people’s cooperative network via social media. Thus, some people strongly stressed that social media has a great power to change authoritarian regimes from the global political issues perspective. On the other hand, we recognized how social media worked effectively from the local issues perspective, for example in the case of the massive disaster in Japan. Under the critical situation, where existing traditional media like phones, TV, radio and newspapers didn’t work, the Japanese got and exchanged information through social media and in fact some victims were rescued based on information via social media. Both cases, political changes and massive disasters, show information transaction process has been supported by thin trust, generalized reciprocity and loosely tied people’s network, regardless of geographical borders or real/virtual spaces. Therefore it seems that social media plays an important role in fostering a social network leading to social capital. This paper reconsiders characteristics of social capital and its role in improving people’s lives through social media. It also examines how social media influences social capital by giving a few examples of social media and social issues, more specifically, the political turmoil in Tunisia and big earthquake disasters in Japan.

  • 177.
    Asai, Ryoko
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Ethical Competence and Social Responsibility in Scientific Research using ICT Tools2015In: Computers & Society: The Newsletter of the ACM Special Interest Group on Computers and Society Special Issue on 20 Years of ETHICOMP / [ed] Mark Coeckelbergh, Bernd Stahl, and Catherine Flick; Vaibhav Garg and Dee Weikle, ACM Digital Library, 2015, p. 345-347Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores how to improve and support researchers'ethical competence in scientic research and how to conduct research ethically, especially in research activities using Information and Communication Technology (ICT). Refining research ethics relating to ICT is unavoidable in the highly technological society of today, for example big data is used in different scientic research activities, and systems which support our daily lives are constructed based on the existing systems. In other words, technology reproduces technology itself. And almost all research activities need to use ICT through the whole research process. Moreover, researchers are required to be able to participate and react sensibly in ethical dialogues with society and citizens. Seen in that light, this study could be applicable not only to computer science and technology but also to a broad spectrum of research areas as the constructive notions of ethics, liberty and responsibility in research activity.

  • 178.
    Asai, Ryoko
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    ICT supported crisis communication and dialog2013In: The possibilities of ethical ICT, Kolding: University of Southern Denmark , 2013, p. 37-41Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores how people use social media under serious social conditions, and how social media affects people’s behavior after a disaster based on the case of the March 2011 disaster in Japan. In this critical situation, where existing traditional media like phones, television, radio and newspapers did not work well, the Japanese exchanged and received information through social media. In fact some victims were rescued based on information via social media. Corresponding to people’s need, social media provided various services to support people immediately after the disaster. Therefore it seems that social media plays an important role in fostering a social network leading to horizontal communication, critical thinking, dialog; supporting social capital. This study reconsiders characteristics of social capital and its role in improving people’s lives and supporting democratic communication as well as the difficulties in people bonding together through social media.

  • 179.
    Asai, Ryoko
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Regulation of potentially harmful contents on minors2012In: Equity, integrity and beauty in information law and ethics / [ed] Maria Botti, Kerkyra, Greece: Ionian Academy , 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In democratic societies, freedom of expression is the indispensable right and duty of citizens. Although there are a few exceptions, it is generally considered that governments should not intervene and regulate this right. Both in digital and analog environments, sexual and violent descriptions are usually regulated by self-censorship of participants. However, trying to protect minors from potentially harmful contents by controlling and regulating them is very difficult. The definition of what is “potentially harmful contents on minors” varies depending on the values and on the culture of each social group. Moreover, along with the rapid spread of mobile phones and smartphones, it becomes more difficult for parents and teachers to control children’s access to harmful contents; something that might have been easier regarding the use of personal computers. Access to the Internet provides huge opportunities not only of visiting websites but also of participating in online communication such as Social Networking Service (SNS). An incredible surge of SNS evokes some issues in considering juvenile access to SNS, categorized roughly into three types. One is the very old and new problem in accessing the Internet, which is how to shield minors from harmful contents. Second is how to block inappropriate contact with a pedophile. Third is cyber bullying. SNS is a very new medium and its market and technology are evolving drastically and are constantly changing. Thus the agent of taking the lead in making and enforcing rules or self-regulation is still absent. Additionally, SNS services utilize the function of social graph actively, and third parties can provide contents and applications using open API. In response to these situations, European Commission implemented Safer Social Networking Principle for the EU, and United States released the guideline for SNS users and worked on SNS companies and users to promote voluntary efforts for using SNS properly. In Japan, mobile contents companies built the Content Evaluation and Monitoring Association (EMA) as a voluntary reviewing entity. However those measures don’t include any severe legal penalty. Those remain self-regulation relying on voluntary activities of private sectors. On the other hand, self-regulation itself is regulated by laws, social norms, market conditions and technological architectures. In this paper we discuss the conditions of regulation and self-regulation, and we explore some ideas about what would be the best way to regulate SNS.

  • 180.
    Asai, Ryoko
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Robots as companions in feelings and discussions2017In: Retfærdighed – Justice, Robophilosophy / [ed] Martin Mose Bentzen, Copenhagen, 2017, p. 42-42Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Robots are used in emotional relationships. On the other hand, it is not very common to think that robots can be used as partners in a philosophical dialog. It would be challenging to find the conditions under which a robot can be one of the parts in an emotional relationship or in a Socratic dialog. Robots usable as emotional or philosophical companions need probably to function well at both dimensions, providing continuous and interchanging support for feelings and reasoning. Our aim here is not to investigate the technical possibilities for such a machine but the theoretical requirements and ethical conditions for its creation and use.

  • 181.
    Asai, Ryoko
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Social movement and social media2012In: Critique, democracy and philosophy in 21st century information society: Towards critical theories of social media / [ed] Christian Fuchs, 2012, p. 76-77Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How do social media affect the process of building a democratic society? Information and communication technology (ICT) made it possible for people to communicate beyond national borders and other obstacles. Social media in particular play an important role in creating a place where people communicate with each other, for example Facebook, MySpace, YouTube and so on. In other words, under these circumstances, social media function as the third place in addition to home and workplaces, which contributes not only to unite people in commu- nities but also to the resolution of various problems and crises. Therefore, the third place nurtures relationships and mutual trust under internet access conditions, and it is open for free discussions, and becomes a ground for democracy.

    In face-to-face communication, participants’ behavior is affected by social context cues, and users let their behavior adjust to particular communication manners. However, in online communicati- on, it is more difficult for participants to understand static and dynamic cues surrounding other participants compared to face-to-face communication. Because, in many cases, whereas social media makes it possible for users to communicate with others easily regardless of physical dis- tance, national boundaries and time difference, it limits the number of characters and the amount of data that they can post and use. However, participation in online communication, especially in social media, is seen as the key element in the recent trend toward democratization. In fact, millions of users send and receive a huge amount of information via social media in order to cultivate a relationship with others and strengthen mutual exchange beyond borders. Generally it is recognized that social media advance participation through exchanging information with minimal social context cues.

    However, communication through social media has some problems. Firstly, exchanged informa- tion via social media minimizes social context cues under severe restricted or censored internet access conditions; because simplified messages can be more understandable and impressive for other users in communicating. Therefore information tends to be extreme, and it could evoke a risk of group polarization. Secondly, in social media, information receivers gather fragmented information in borderless cyberspace, for any purpose. Following this they try to transform infor- mation into something they can understand, something closer to their own experience, or they try to perceive the feelings and experience of the senders of information. Through this process, users develop a sense of solidarity and share expectations and norms, which bring them together as one community. Therefore, social norms have a considerable influence on users in particular communities and advance self-stereotyping among them as solidarity and social identity are en- hanced. This situation carries the social risk of exclusion of others. Some people call Middle-east political change “Facebook revolution” or “twitter revolution” on the internet. Is this naming really pertinent? Indeed, social media has played an important role as “hub for information” and as the third place in political change. Still, social media has to contribute to the development of skills for dialog in order to achieve a really democratic society. 

  • 182.
    Asai, Ryoko
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    The paradoxical nature of privacy2012In: Privacy in the social networked world / [ed] Andrew A. Adams, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Privacy appears to be a very important issue today when ICT permeates more and more aspects of our life. Mainly this is understood as a risk of breaking the privacy of persons, and possibly the privacy of groups, organizations, corporations and states. It is therefore interesting to investigate the main definitions of privacy, try to grasp its nature and to discern its features, and to discuss the possible ways of suitable and needed activities.

     

    There are essentially two types if definitions. One is focused on the protection of information and on the rules that govern openness and protection. Moor (1997), defines privacy like “the expression of a core value, viz., the value of security” or “sometimes used to designate a situation in which people are protected from intrusion or observation by natural or physical circumstances.... In addition to natural privacy there is normative privacy. A normatively private situation is a situation protected by ethical, legal, or conventional norms.” A similar definition is given by Edmund Byrne (1998): Privacy as a “zone of inaccessibility”.

     

    A different approach to the definition of privacy is focused on the control of information, and the main example of this kind of definition is given by Charles Fried (1968): “Privacy is not simply an absence of information about us in the minds of others, rather it is the control we have over information about ourselves”. In the same wavelength we find the definition given by Quinn (2011): “Privacy is a social arrangement that allows individuals to have some level of control over who is able to gain access to their physical selves and their personal information”.

     

    Which of the two lines of definitions is more accurate and fruitful, regarding its power to guide our activities toward the achievement of desired goals? If we make an effort to describe the nature of privacy we can easily and rather fast come to the conclusion that privacy is not only something that has to be protected. Although this is important, underlined by both lines of definitions, it seems that privacy sometimes has to be diminished or invaded in order to satisfy important interests and values. One is to create a bond to another person, group or organization. To achieve this one has to give access to private information, or even to give up part or all limitations toward this special person or organization. It is a matter of trust between each other. The other situation, which is the most common one, is that a person, group or organization, which we may call a separate entity, has always another important interest added to the interest of protecting its own privacy: To break, diminish or invade the privacy of any other entity that is a prospective or actual partner in any sense. It is very important for any entity to acquire access to the information about any other entity that is of some interest.

     

    If we now go back to the definitions of privacy, and look upon them through the glasses of our observations of its nature we may have good arguments to maintain that a definition focused on the control of information is more plausible. Given the controversial nature of privacy (protect it and break it at the same time) and the clashes arising constantly between all entities in a social interaction, the focus cannot be on normative solutions which if they work are always limited to a certain situation, but on the ways skills, methods and tools we use to create, revise and apply policies, guidelines, rules and principles to manage the issues of privacy.

     

    References

    Byrne, E. F. (1998). “Privacy”. Encyclopedia of Applied Ethics, 3, 649-659.

    Fried, C. (1968). “Privacy: A moral analysis”. Yale Law Journal, 77, 475-493.

    Moor, J. (1997). “Towards a theory of privacy in the information age”. Computer and Society, 27, 27-32.

    Quinn, M. J. (2011). Ethics for the Information Age. Boston: Pearson.

  • 183.
    Asai, Ryoko
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Virtue as ethical competence2011In: EBEN Annual Conference 2011 / [ed] Luc Van Liedekerke, Antwerp: Universiteit Antwerpen , 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organizations active in an environment of increasing internal and external diversity and change need the guidance of suitable moral values. This implies many challenges. However, focus on processes is unavoidable and necessary. Particularly, regarding ethical aspects this is the only possible way for the construction and applicationof right values. In achieving that, skills and processes are very helpful because they provide a good base for the promotion of personal and organizational ethical competence, a competence referring to the ability using the right ways to handle ethical issues and which is not constrained by normative aspects. Since it is not possible to create moral values once and for all, in the diverse and changing conditions of today, continuous moral value creation and interpretation is the only way. Consequently, the focus must be on the process itself, and on the skills and structures behind this process, i.e. on personal and organizational ethical competence. Ethical competence is therefore a virtue.

  • 184.
    Asai, Ryoko
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Murata, Kiyoshi
    The holding function of robots in highly technological society2015In: Proceedings of Japan Society for Infomation and Management 70th Annual Conference, 2015, Vol. 70, p. 65-68Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 185.
    Aserod, Hanne
    et al.
    Univ Bergen, Norway.
    Babic, Ankica
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Division of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Bergen, Norway.
    Pharmacovigilance Mobile Tool Design in the Field of Arhroplasty2017In: INFORMATICS EMPOWERS HEALTHCARE TRANSFORMATION, IOS PRESS , 2017, Vol. 238, p. 104-107Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pharmacovigilance is an important part of the patient safety and it has a great appeal to physicians. It is concerned with the safety of medical devices and treatments in the light of understanding the risks and dangers based on the already reported safety issues. Internet resources such as the Manufacturer And User Facility Device Experience (MAUDE) web-site are often retrieved due to the lack of internal, local safety databases. The research looked at how Human Computer Interaction could improve user experience. We have designed data entry for safety reporting and pharmacovigilance based on the web-bases system called WebBISS (Web-based implant search system). The expectation is not only to improve usability, but also to stimulate physicians to enter their safety data and become also contributors, and not only users of information. The expert evaluation has been generally positive and encouraged stronger help and error reporting functions. The high fidelity design has given a good impression of the future mobile solution.

  • 186.
    Asklund Andersson, Alexandra
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Digitala spel och dyslexi2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the modern world there is a great emphasis on the individuals ability to partake in written information; however, as there is between 5% and 8% of the Swedish population that suffers from a learning disability, this can quickly become a problem. The fact that Dyslexia is hard to detect early on adds to the burden of those affected and can even lead to low self-esteem and failing motivation to study.

     

    Therefore, there is a need for new screening tools that can detect dyslexia early, an idea centered on a game for such a tool is what this study has chosen to focus on. The viability of such a game has been tried through a series of 16 qualitative interviews and 15 benchmarking analyses. The author makes the case for the requirement specification such a game based screening tool will have, what must be considered in its development, and how kids reflect upon games.

     

    The requirement specification presented in the results serves not only as a basis for a screening tool but also gives valuable insight into the opinions of children on the topic of gaming and provides the more practical suggestions for the tool itself.

  • 187.
    Asklöf, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Kommersiella spel som plattform för ledningssystem: En jämförande studie mellan klanledare och kompanichefers situationsmedvetenhet i form av riskbedömning.2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport syftar till att undersöka i vilken utsträckning stridsvagnskompanichefer skiljer och/eller liknar ”commanders” (i spelet ”Battlefield 2”) i sitt sätt att skapa och upprätthålla situationsmedvetenhet med avseende på riskbedömning kopplat till fiendens position i slagfältet. Studien grundar sig på en tanke om att utnyttja positiva effekter från datorspelande, i morgondagens ledningssystem genom att bygga ledningssystem grundade på en kommersiell spelplattform. Resultaten pekar bland annat på skillnader mellan de båda aktörernas metoder för att uppnå full situationsmedvetenhet, men även på vissa likheter som till exempel att se på en situation med fiendens ögon för att bedöma hur denna kommer att agera.

  • 188.
    Aslamy, Benjamin
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Computer and Electronic Engineering.
    Utveckling av ett multisensorsystem för falldetekteringsanordningar2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Accidental falls among the elderly is a major public health problem. As a result, a variety of systems have been developed for remote monitoring of the elderly to permit early detection of falls. The majority of the research that has been done so far in fall accidents has focused on developing new more successful algorithms spe- cifically to identify fall from non-fall. Although the statistics show that mortality and injuries caused by falls are increasing every year in conjunction with the in- creasing proportion of older people in the population.

    This thesis is about improving the current fall detection devices by covering the gaps and meet the needs of the current fall detection techniques. The improve- ments that have been identified is to provide a secure assessment of the patient's health and be able to call for aid more quickly when a fall occurs. Another im- provement is the mobility for the elderly to be outdoors and have the ability to per- form daily activities without being limited by the location position.

    In summary it can be said that a multisensor system in form of a prototype has been designed to cover the deficiencies and improvements that have been identi- fied. Apart from detection of falls and body movements through an accelerometer sensor the prototype does also include a sensor for detecting vital signs in form of ECG. It also supports cellular and wireless network communication in form of GPRS and Wi-Fi to enable freedom of movement for the elderly. Furthermore, the prototype includes a sensor for GPS that provides information about location position. 

  • 189.
    Asp, Simon
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Reducing Food Waste with a Sustainable Lunch Concept: A Service Design Project2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental problems such as pollution and overconsumption is something that is mentioned often in the news as this thesis is written. Food waste is a problem that causes valuable resources to be lost, as on average one third of all food globally is being wasted. The food chain is complicated, from the farm to the table, and innovations in all parts of the chain could help reduce the waste. We have aimed our scope to the end of the chain, when food is made at a restaurants to be served to customers. Figures say that about 23% of food in the restaurant business in Sweden is being wasted. To try to solve this problem, we have turned to service design and the methodologies presented there, to find a potential solution that could help reduce food waste.

    An extensive service design process was made with many interviews with restaurants to find where a solution could be made. The whole design process is presented in the report, and the final concept resolves around a sustainable lunch dish that can be made out of ingredients that would otherwise be thrown out. The dish would be sold at lunch restaurants for a reduced price since it is cheap to make, and would make more people act sustainable. A concept test was made to evaluate the the sustainable dish concept with the help from the public. The main question was:

    Is this concept something that could be adopted by people who buy lunch on a regular basis in Sweden?

    The concept test resulted in 165 respondents that were asked what they would choose to eat from a given menu. 32% chose the sustainable dish, and although biases were believed to have played a role in the decision, the concept was deemed successful. A website was then designed, aimed towards restaurants that wanted to adopt the concept and to get started in an easy way.

  • 190.
    Aspling, Fredrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Juhlin, Oskar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Väätäjä, Heli
    Understanding animals: A critical challenge in ACI2018In: NordiCHI '18 Proceedings of the 10th Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2018, p. 148-160Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a qualitative content analysis of visual-verbal social media posts, where ordinary dog owners pretend to be their canine, to identify meaningful facets in their dogs' life-worlds, e.g. pleasures of human-dog relation, dog-dog relations, food etc. We use this knowledge to inform design of "quantified pets". The study targets a general problem in Animal-Computer Interaction (ACI), i.e. to understand animals when designing "for" them, although lacking a common language. Several approaches, e.g. ethnography and participatory design, have been appropriated from HCI without exhausting the issue. We argue for a methodological creativity and pluralism by suggesting an additional approach drawing on "kinesthetic empathy". It implies to understand animals by empathizing with their bodily movements over time and decoding the realities of their life-worlds. This, and other related approaches, has inspired animal researchers to conduct more or less radical participant observations during extensive duration to understand the perspective of the other. We suggest that dog owners whom share their lives with their dogs already possess a similar understanding as these experts, and thus uphold important experiences of canine life that could be used to understand individual dogs and inspire design.

  • 191.
    Ataei, Mehrnaz
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    ME|EMO: Application concept for sharing emotions through non-verbal communication2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ME|EMO provides a method to help users to express, visualize and share emotions through digital nonverbal communication. This application will enable the users to map their emotions to colors and encourage users to paint their feelings. A canvas with uncolored images and a color palette with color coded emotions creates an environment for expressing and visualizing the feelings. The result is an image file in the form of a simple piece of modern art with the possibility of sharing it through social networks, or to record the emotions and save precious moments of life. Technology development, new ways of communication, digital tools, apps, social media, have helped people to have a better life by giving people the opportunity to communicate easier with loved ones and friends. ME|EMO tries to enhance the way of modern communication (digital text-based) such as social networks or modern healthcare systems, by supporting the emotional side of communications. 

  • 192.
    Augustian, Midhumol
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    ur Réhman, Shafiq
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Sandvig, Axel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience. Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Norway.
    Kotikawatte, Thivra
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Yongcui, Mi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Evensmoen, Hallvard Røe
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Norway.
    EEG Analysis from Motor Imagery to Control a Forestry Crane2018In: Intelligent Human Systems Integration (IHSI 2018) / [ed] Karwowski, Waldemar, Ahram, Tareq, 2018, Vol. 722, p. 281-286Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Brain-computer interface (BCI) systems can provide people with ability to communicate and control real world systems using neural activities. Therefore, it makes sense to develop an assistive framework for command and control of a future robotic system which can assist the human robot collaboration. In this paper, we have employed electroencephalographic (EEG) signals recorded by electrodes placed over the scalp. The human-hand movement based motor imagery mentalization is used to collect brain signals over the motor cortex area. The collected µ-wave (8–13 Hz) EEG signals were analyzed with event-related desynchronization/synchronization (ERD/ERS) quantification to extract a threshold between hand grip and release movement and this information can be used to control forestry crane grasping and release functionality. The experiment was performed with four healthy persons to demonstrate the proof-of concept BCI system. From this study, it is demonstrated that the proposed method has potential to assist the manual operation of crane operators performing advanced task with heavy cognitive work load.

  • 193.
    Augustsson, Linus
    Gotland University, School of Game Design, Technology and Learning Processes.
    Design with Virtual Reality in Mind2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper features an analysis of how some games are better designed for virtual reality than others and what we can learn from the games that work better to improve those that do not work as well. The thesis will briefly go through some of the problems in working with virtual reality. Data was collected by letting ten participants play four different games with the Oculus Rift and then answer questions related to their experience with these said games. Did the game cause the feeling of discomfort or create a sense of presence and did the game somehow break that presence? Based on the collected data and the analysis, the results indicate that some types of games work better than others for virtual reality, but that some design decisions can carry over to other games, granted with some effort, but that it is better if a game is created with virtual reality in mind from the start of the development.

  • 194. Avatare, Anneli
    et al.
    Jää-Aro, Kai-Mikael
    The APS/AMID Project1991Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 195.
    Avindell, Ann-Sofi
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    En fallstudie av hur gränssnittsriktlinjer kan skapas ur varumärke och existerande produktportfölj2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta arbete beskriver en kvalitativ fallstudie som utförts för att undersöka hur ett företags produktportfölj samt varumärke kan skrivas in i gränssnittsriktlinjer för att framtida gränssnitt ska designas i enhetlighet med existerande produktportfölj samt varumärke. Fallstudien utfördes inom robotindustrin där en gränssnittsriktlinje utvecklades. Gränssnittet som var föremål för studien fanns på en handhållen enhet vilken används för att programmera och manövrera en robot. En arbetsgång i 13 steg togs fram, vilken anses kunna appliceras även på andra områden än robotindustrin för att skapa gränssnittsriktlinjer där både varumärke och produktportfölj tydligt framgår. En analys av de framtagna riktlinjerna efter utförd fallstudie, styrkte även denna uppfattning. Dock visade en andra analys att riktlinjerna verkar ha samma problem som visats i tidigare studier, nämligen att den största svårigheten är att få riktlinjer använda samt att finna en struktur i dokumentet och en nivå på riktlinjerna som passar in i användarnas behov. Studien har också visat på ett sätt att binda samma relevanta delar av både gränssnittsteorier, varumärkesteorier och teori kring interaktionsdesign.

  • 196.
    Awada, I. A.
    et al.
    Univ Politehn Bucuresti, Bucharest, Romania..
    Cramariuc, O.
    Ctr IT Pentru Stiinta & Tehnol, Bucharest, Romania..
    Mocanu, I.
    Univ Politehn Bucuresti, Bucharest, Romania..
    Seceleanu, Cristina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Kunnappilly, Ashalatha
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Florea, A. M.
    Univ Politehn Bucuresti, Bucharest, Romania..
    AN END-USER PERSPECTIVE ON THE CAMI AMBIENT AND ASSISTED LIVING PROJECT2018In: 12TH INTERNATIONAL TECHNOLOGY, EDUCATION AND DEVELOPMENT CONFERENCE (INTED) / [ed] Chova, LG Martinez, AL Torres, IC, IATED-INT ASSOC TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION & DEVELOPMENT , 2018, p. 6776-6785Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present the outcomes and conclusions obtained by involving seniors from three countries (Denmark, Poland and Romania) in an innovative project funded under the European Ambient Assisted Living (ALL) program. CAMI stands for "Companion with Autonomously Mobile Interface" in "Artificially intelligent ecosystem for self-management and sustainable quality of life in AAL". The CAMI solution enables flexible, scalable and individualised services that support elderly to self-manage their daily life and prolong their involvement in the society (sharing knowledge, continue working, etc). This also allows their informal caregivers (family and friends) to continue working and participating in society while caring for their loved ones. The solution is designed as an innovative architecture that allows for individualized, intelligent self-management which can be tailored to an individual's preferences and needs. A user-centred approach has ranked health monitoring, computer supervised physical exercises and voice based interaction among the top favoured CAMI functionalities. Respondents from three countries (Poland, Romania and Denmark) participated in a multinational survey and a conjoint analysis study.

  • 197.
    Ax, Jens
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Informatics.
    Obrelius, Jesper
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Informatics.
    Vad har du på menyn?: Designriktlinjer för naturliga interaktioner och mobilitet i en stationär miljö2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today many companies have intranet failing to meet the users need and the most frequent complaint is that users do not find what they are looking for. This leads companies to lose both time and money on having employees that are unable to utilize the system in a sufficient manner, which often leads to expensive educational costs and loss of productivity. The primary reason that information is not found is that there is a lack of a consistent navigation tool that clearly indicates where the user should go to find what he/she is looking for. Design and structure in an interface plays a large role when it comes to how users understand and interpret an interface. However, the difficulty is that it tends to be visually disruptive and provide a cognitive load. Currently are a strong development of mobile devices taking place and questions are raised regarding how these interfaces can be optimized to make it easier for the user. Especially, when it comes to the mobile context and the limitations it causes. To make it easier are designers advised to develop natural interactions which are supposed to ease the cognitive load. This study therefore explores how design principles stemming from natural interactions, together with the mobility, affect the usability and ease of use for work in a desktop environment. The study has been conducted upon request of CLX Networks, a company that provide solutions for, among others, sms, voice and data. The assignment has entailed suggestions of improvements of the company’s intranet menu, which has been considered as inadequate by CLX.

    In this study, a user test of CLX’s current intranet menu was performed as well as five interviews with employees that work and use the system. The interviews concerned the topics of findability, actability, usability and mobile usability. Continuously was a card sorting performed to let the informants themselves visualize a proposed menu. The results from the empirical investigation were used to create an interactive prototype. Design principles from findability, actability, usability and natural interactions have been utilized in the creation of the new menu.

    Based on the investigations performed in this study is it possible to conclude that design principles from natural interactions and the mobility have a positive influence on ease of use concerning the menu in the graphical interface in a desktop environment. The study also confirms that a combination of the two viewpoints, natural interactions and desktop paradigm that facilitate the usage and cognitive load, which previously was troublesome for the employees. 

  • 198.
    Axelsson, Anton
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Context: The abstract term for the concrete2016Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis deals with the term 'context' and the aim has been to reason about the term in order to see whether it is possible to reach a satisfactory understanding of the concept. But the thesis is also a journey into human reasoning and conveys a certain view of human cognition. It aims to synthesise results of studies within psychology, cognitive science, anthropology, and human-computer interaction. My understanding is that context is not something we are a part of, but rather something we create mentally in relation a specific goal. Determination of something ambiguous thus comes from top-down processes related to a goal. I believe context has been wrongly interpreted in HCI as that which a user is situated in and which a product is being used in. I suggest instead a separation between the user environment and the user context.

  • 199.
    Axelsson, Anton
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction.
    Experience and Visual Expertise: A First Look at Eye Behaviour in Train Traffic ControlIn: Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigated differences in visual expertise across levels of proficiency in train traffic control during a simulated scenario. Eye tracking metrics found to correlate with expertise reported in a meta-analysis on visual expertise were used. The aim of the study was to investigate whether the same results found in the meta-study could be obtained in the less controlled and dynamic work environment of train traffic control. Studies of this character are rare and also notoriously difficult to conduct due to a high level of potential noise. Results of the study indicates that eye behaviour seemed to correlate with years of experience also in a more naturalistic setting, but it did not correlate with expert ranking by instructors or a post-hoc measure of proactivity in task performance. A discussion is provided where a delineation of experience and expertise is made in light of differences between eye movement behaviour and cognitive aspects of problem-solving.

  • 200.
    Axelsson, Anton
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Knowledge elicitation as abstraction of purposive behaviour2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Researchers use knowledge elicitation methods to document expert knowledge for the primary purpose of understanding cognitive processes and with this understanding, technical solutions to resolve human factors issues can be produced. This dissertation offers a novel perspective on knowledge elicitation as an abstraction process. Such a theoretical framework has emerged by consolidating the ecological approach of Brunswikian psychology with the ideas of tacit and personal knowledge of Polanyian epistemology. Traditionally, knowledge elicitation has been considered an extraction process in which knowledge can be readily transferred from one individual to another. Here, this traditional position is rejected in favour of Polanyi’s premise that much of the knowledge individuals possess is tacit in nature, which implies that it cannot be documented easily, expressed in explicit form or explained. In this dissertation, knowledge is characterised as a personal process of knowing, highlighting context as a subjective knowledge structure of personal experiences that is formulated implicitly and indirectly over time through a dynamic interaction with the environment. Therefore, tacit knowledge cannot be articulated or shared; however, learners can be inspired by observing other individuals' purposive (i.e., goal-directed) behaviours and thus shape their own tacit knowledge once they practise the observed skills and develop conceptual understanding through reasoning about the learning process. Knowledge elicitation thereby makes use of observations, questions, or more structured process tracing methods in environments familiar to the observed individuals to elicit purposive behaviour from them. Accordingly, functional descriptions can be produced in this process that further conceptual understanding of a particular domain. Knowledge elicitation procedures are a powerful set of methods for reaching such functional descriptions. Moreover, by understanding the resulting knowledge elicitation data as an abstraction derived from multiple collection points in the same environment, the focus shifts from purely subjective mental constructs to the impact of environmental constraints.

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