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  • 1451.
    Tamarit, Daniel
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för cell- och molekylärbiologi, Molekylär evolution.
    Ellegaard, Kirsten Maren
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för cell- och molekylärbiologi, Molekylär evolution.
    Wikander, Johan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för cell- och molekylärbiologi, Molekylär evolution.
    Olofsson, Tobias
    Lund University.
    Vásquez, Alejandra
    Lund University.
    Andersson, Siv
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för cell- och molekylärbiologi, Molekylär evolution.
    Comparative Genomics of Lactobacillus kunkeii indicates Selection for Rapid Growth in the BeebreadManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 1452.
    Tamarit, Daniel
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för cell- och molekylärbiologi, Molekylär evolution. Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Neuvonen, Minna M.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för cell- och molekylärbiologi, Molekylär evolution. Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Engel, Philipp
    University of Lausanne.
    Guy, Lionel
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för cell- och molekylärbiologi, Molekylär evolution. Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Andersson, Siv G. E.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för cell- och molekylärbiologi, Molekylär evolution. Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Origin and evolution of the Bartonella Gene Transfer Agent2018Inngår i: Molecular biology and evolution, ISSN 0737-4038, E-ISSN 1537-1719, Vol. 35, nr 2, s. 451-464Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Gene transfer agents (GTAs) are domesticated bacteriophages that have evolved into molecular machines for the transferof bacterial DNA. Despite their widespread nature and their biological implications, the mechanisms and selective forcesthat drive the emergence of GTAs are still poorly understood. Two GTAs have been identifiedintheAlphaproteobacteria:the RcGTA, which is widely distributed in a broad range of species; and the BaGTA, which has a restricted host range thatincludes vector-borne intracellular bacteria of the genusBartonella. The RcGTA packages chromosomal DNA randomly,whereas the BaGTA particles contain a relatively higher fraction of genes for host interaction factors that are amplifiedfrom a nearby phage-derived origin of replication. In this study, we compare the BaGTA genes with homologous bac-teriophage genes identified in the genomes ofBartonellaspecies and close relatives. Unlike the BaGTA, the prophagegenes are neither present in all species, nor inserted into homologous genomic sites. Phylogenetic inferences and sub-stitution frequency analyses confirm codivergence of the BaGTA with the host genome, as opposed to multiple integra-tion and recombination events in the prophages. Furthermore, the organizationof segments flanking the BaGTA differsfrom that of the prophages by a few rearrangement events,which have abolished the normal coordination betweenphage genome replication and phage gene expression. Based on the results of our comparative analysis, we propose amodel for how a prophage may be transformed into a GTA that transfers amplified bacterial DNA segments.

  • 1453. Tamas, I
    et al.
    Klasson, L M
    Sandström, J P
    Andersson, S G
    Mutualists and parasites: how to paint yourself into a (metabolic) corner.2001Inngår i: FEBS Letters, ISSN 0014-5793, E-ISSN 1873-3468, Vol. 498, nr 2-3, s. 135-9Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Eukaryotes have developed an elaborate series of interactions with bacteria that enter their bodies and/or cells. Genome evolution of symbiotic and parasitic bacteria multiplying inside eukaryotic cells results in both convergent and divergent changes. The genome sequences of the symbiotic bacteria of aphids, Buchnera aphidicola, and the parasitic bacteria of body louse and humans, Rickettsia prowazekii, provide insights into these processes. Convergent genome characteristics include reduction in genome sizes and lowered G+C content values. Divergent evolution was recorded for amino acid and cell wall biosynthetic genes. The presence of pseudogenes in both genomes provides examples of recent gene inactivation events and offers clues to the process of genome deterioration and host-cell adaptation.

  • 1454. Tamas, Ivica
    et al.
    Klasson, Lisa
    Canbäck, Björn
    Näslund, A Kristina
    Eriksson, Ann-Sofie
    Wernegreen, Jennifer J
    Sandström, Jonas P
    Moran, Nancy A
    Andersson, Siv G E
    50 million years of genomic stasis in endosymbiotic bacteria.2002Inngår i: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 296, nr 5577, s. 2376-9Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Comparison of two fully sequenced genomes of Buchnera aphidicola, the obligate endosymbionts of aphids, reveals the most extreme genome stability to date: no chromosome rearrangements or gene acquisitions have occurred in the past 50 to 70 million years, despite substantial sequence evolution and the inactivation and loss of individual genes. In contrast, the genomes of their closest free-living relatives, Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp., are more than 2000-fold more labile in content and gene order. The genomic stasis of B. aphidicola, likely attributable to the loss of phages, repeated sequences, and recA, indicates that B. aphidicola is no longer a source of ecological innovation for its hosts.

  • 1455.
    Tamas, Ivica
    et al.
    Uppsala University ; Stockholm University.
    Wernegreen, Jennifer J
    Marine Biological Laboratory, USA.
    Nystedt, Björn
    Uppsala University.
    Kauppinen, Seth N
    Marine Biological Laboratory, USA.
    Darby, Alistair C
    Uppsala University.
    Gomez-Valero, Laura
    Uppsala University.
    Lundin, Daniel
    Stockholm University.
    Poole, Anthony M
    Stockholm University.
    Andersson, Siv G E
    Uppsala University.
    Endosymbiont gene functions impaired and rescued by polymerase infidelity at poly(A) tracts2008Inngår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 105, nr 39, s. 14934-9Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Among host-dependent bacteria that have evolved by extreme reductive genome evolution, long-term bacterial endosymbionts of insects have the smallest (160-790 kb) and most A + T-rich (>70%) bacterial genomes known to date. These genomes are riddled with poly(A) tracts, and 5-50% of genes contain tracts of 10 As or more. Here, we demonstrate transcriptional slippage at poly(A) tracts within genes of Buchnera aphidicola associated with aphids and Blochmannia pennsylvanicus associated with ants. Several tracts contain single frameshift deletions; these apparent pseudogenes showed patterns of constraint consistent with purifying selection on the encoded proteins. Transcriptional slippage yielded a heterogeneous population of transcripts with variable numbers of As in the tract. Across several frameshifted genes, including B. aphidicola cell wall biosynthesis genes and a B. pennsylvanicus histidine biosynthesis gene, 12-50% of transcripts contained corrected reading frames that could potentially yield full-length proteins. In situ immunostaining confirmed the production of the cell wall biosynthetic enzyme UDP-N-acetylmuramyl pentapeptide synthase encoded by the frameshifted murF gene. Simulation studies indicated an overrepresentation of poly(A) tracts in endosymbiont genomes relative to other A + T-rich bacterial genomes. Polymerase infidelity at poly(A) tracts rescues the functionality of genes with frameshift mutations and, conversely, reduces the efficiency of expression for in-frame genes carrying poly(A) regions. These features of homopolymeric tracts could be exploited to manipulate gene expression in small synthetic genomes.

  • 1456.
    Tan, Biyue
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Stora Enso AB.
    Genomic selection and genome-wide association studies to dissect quantitative traits in forest trees2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The convergence of quantitative genetics of complex traits with genomic technologies is quickly becoming an innovative approach to explore fundamental genetic questions and also have practical consequences for implementations in tree breeding. In this thesis, I used genomic selection and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to dissect the genetic basis of quantitative traits, i.e. growth, phenology and wood property traits. I also assessed the importance of dominance and epistatic effects in hybrid Eucalyptus. Both dominance and epistasis are important in hybrids, as they are the likely contributing to the genetic basis of heterosis. To successfully implement genomic selection models, several important factors have to be considered. I found that for a good model establishment, both the size and composition of the training population, as well as the number of SNPs to be important considered. Based on the optimal models, additive, dominance and epistasis genetic effects of growth and wood traits have been estimated to evaluate genetic parameters and how these influence the prediction accuracy, which can be used in selecting elite breeding individuals or clones. I also addressed the advantage of genotyping-based analyses by showing that we could accurately correct pedigree information errors. More importantly, genotyping-based analyses capture both Mendelian segregation variation within full-sib families and cryptic genetic links through unknown common ancestors, which are not available from traditional pedigree data. GWAS were used to analyse growth and phenology related traits. Using a single-trait GWAS method, we identified a region strongly associated with the timing of bud set in Populus tremula, a trait with high heritability. For the growth related traits, we found that a multi-traits GWAS approach was more powerful than single-trait analyses as it identified more associated SNPs in hybrid Eucalyptus. Moreover, many more novel associated SNPs were identified from considering over-dominance effects in the GWAS analyses. After annotating the associated SNPs I show that these functional candidate genes were related to growth and responding to abiotic and biotic stress. In summary, the results of genomic selection and GWAS provided a deeper understanding of the genetic backgrounds of quantitative traits in forest trees.

  • 1457.
    Tan, Biyue
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Biomaterials Division, Stora Enso AB, Nacka SE-13104, Sweden.
    Grattapaglia, Dario
    Martins, Gustavo Salgado
    Ferreira, Karina Zamprogno
    Sundberg, Björn
    Ingvarsson, Pär K.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Evaluating the accuracy of genomic prediction of growth and wood traits in two Eucalyptus species and their F-1 hybrids2017Inngår i: BMC Plant Biology, ISSN 1471-2229, E-ISSN 1471-2229, Vol. 17, artikkel-id 110Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Genomic prediction is a genomics assisted breeding methodology that can increase genetic gains by accelerating the breeding cycle and potentially improving the accuracy of breeding values. In this study, we use 41,304 informative SNPs genotyped in a Eucalyptus breeding population involving 90 E. grandis and 78 E. urophylla parents and their 949 F-1 hybrids to develop genomic prediction models for eight phenotypic traits-basic density and pulp yield, circumference at breast height and height and tree volume scored at age three and six years. We assessed the impact of different genomic prediction methods, the composition and size of the training and validation set and the number and genomic location of SNPs on the predictive ability (PA). Results: Heritabilities estimated using the realized genomic relationship matrix (GRM) were considerably higher than estimates based on the expected pedigree, mainly due to inconsistencies in the expected pedigree that were readily corrected by the GRM. Moreover, the GRM more precisely capture Mendelian sampling among related individuals, such that the genetic covariance was based on the true proportion of the genome shared between individuals. PA improved considerably when increasing the size of the training set and by enhancing relatedness to the validation set. Prediction models trained on pure species parents could not predict well in F-1 hybrids, indicating that model training has to be carried out in hybrid populations if one is to predict in hybrid selection candidates. The different genomic prediction methods provided similar results for all traits, therefore either GBLUP or rrBLUP represents better compromises between computational time and prediction efficiency. Only slight improvement was observed in PA when more than 5000 SNPs were used for all traits. Using SNPs in intergenic regions provided slightly better PA than using SNPs sampled exclusively in genic regions. Conclusions: The size and composition of the training set and number of SNPs used are the two most important factors for model prediction, compared to the statistical methods and the genomic location of SNPs. Furthermore, training the prediction model based on pure parental species only provide limited ability to predict traits in interspecific hybrids. Our results provide additional promising perspectives for the implementation of genomic prediction in Eucalyptus breeding programs by the selection of interspecific hybrids.

  • 1458.
    Tavares, Valeria da C.
    et al.
    Univ Fed Minas Gerais, Inst Ciencias Biol, Dept Zool, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil.;UEMG, Dept Ciencias Biol, Ibirite, MG, Brazil..
    Warsi, Omar M.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi. SUNY Stony Brook, Dept Ecol & Evolut, Stony Brook, NY 11794 USA..
    Balseiro, Fernando
    Minist Ciencia Tecnol & Medio Ambiente, Inst Ecol & Sistemat, Div Colecc Zool, Havana, Cuba..
    Mancina, Carlos A.
    CITMA, Inst Ecol & Sistemat, Div Zool, Havana, Cuba..
    Davalos, Liliana M.
    SUNY Stony Brook, Dept Ecol & Evolut, Stony Brook, NY 11794 USA.;SUNY Stony Brook, Sch Marine & Atmospher Sci, Consortium Interdisciplinary Environm Res, Stony Brook, NY 11794 USA..
    Out of the Antilles: Fossil phylogenies support reverse colonization of bats to South America2018Inngår i: Journal of Biogeography, ISSN 0305-0270, E-ISSN 1365-2699, Vol. 45, nr 4, s. 859-873Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Previous phylogenies of extant short-faced bats (Chiroptera: Stenodermatina) supported either two colonization events from the mainland to the Antilles, or reverse colonization, but lacked both fossil data and statistical modelling of biogeography. Recent multi-locus phylogenies of noctilionoid bats and likelihood modelling of ancestral ranges support a continental origin for the clade. We include all known extinct and extant stenodermatina species and apply statistical modelling to test competing biogeographical hypotheses. Location: The Neotropics, including the Antilles. Methods: We combined mitochondrial and nuclear sequences with 302 new morphological characters to infer phylogenies. Bayesian tip-dating analyses applied codon models to protein-coding genes, with relaxed molecular clocks fitting a compound Poisson process. The combined maximum clade credibility tree was used in comparisons of alternative biogeographical models. Results: The new phylogenies support the fossil Cubanycteris silvai as sister to all extant species of short-faced bats. Among Artibeus (the sister group to short-faced bats), the Antillean fossil A. anthonyi has distinctive characters and is nested within the subgenus Artibeus. The common ancestor of all short-faced bats is inferred to be Antillean, as a mainland origin is unlikely. Founder-event speciation is the most probable process explaining the distribution of these highly divergent fossil lineages. Main conclusions: Dated, character-based phylogenies of fossil species are indispensable for biogeographical inference: without fossils, biogeographical analyses find a mainland origin for short-faced bats. The rate of founder speciation in this clade is twice as high as the estimate from noctilionoids in general, highlighting the role of founder events in the diversification of island taxa. Although rare, reverse colonization contributes key species to continental communities. Short-faced bats, including Cubanycteris, share biomechanical adaptations for a strong bite conferring access to harder figs. We hypothesize these adaptations and characters related to roosting ecology enabled ancestral lineages to successfully establish and diversify on the mainland.

  • 1459. Tedersoo, Leho
    et al.
    Bahram, Mohammad
    Ryberg, Martin
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för organismbiologi, Systematisk biologi.
    Otsing, Eveli
    Koljalg, Urmas
    Abarenkov, Kessy
    Global biogeography of the ectomycorrhizal/sebacina lineage (Fungi, Sebacinales) as revealed from comparative phylogenetic analyses2014Inngår i: Molecular Ecology, ISSN 0962-1083, E-ISSN 1365-294X, Vol. 23, nr 16, s. 4168-4183Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Compared with plants and animals, large-scale biogeographic patterns of microbes including fungi are poorly understood. By the use of a comparative phylogenetic approach and ancestral state reconstructions, we addressed the global biogeography, rate of evolution and evolutionary origin of the widely distributed ectomycorrhizal (EcM) /sebacina lineage that forms a large proportion of the Sebacinales order. We downloaded all publicly available internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences and metadata and supplemented sequence information from three genes to construct dated phylogenies and test biogeographic hypotheses. The /sebacina lineage evolved 45-57Myr ago that groups it with relatively young EcM taxa in other studies. The most parsimonious origin for /sebacina is inferred to be North American temperate coniferous forests. Among biogeographic traits, region and biome exhibited stronger phylogenetic signal than host family. Consistent with the resource availability (environmental energy) hypothesis, the ITS region is evolving at a faster rate in tropical than nontropical regions. Most biogeographic regions exhibited substantial phylogenetic clustering suggesting a strong impact of dispersal limitation over a large geographic scale. In northern Holarctic regions, however, phylogenetic distances and phylogenetic grouping of isolates indicate multiple recent dispersal events.

  • 1460. Tegelström, Håkan
    et al.
    Wyöni, Per-Ivan
    Gelter, Hans
    Jaarola, Maarit
    Concordant divergence in proteins and mitochondrial DNA between two vole species in the genus Clethrionomys1988Inngår i: Biochemical Genetics, ISSN 0006-2928, E-ISSN 1573-4927, Vol. 26, nr 3-4, s. 223-237Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 1461.
    Thibert-Plante, Xavier
    et al.
    National Institute for Mathematical and Biological Synthesis, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USA and Department of Ecology and Genetics, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Gavrilets, Sergey
    National Institute for Mathematical and Biological Synthesis, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USA and Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology and Department of Mathematics, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USA .
    Evolution of mate choice and the so-called magic traits in ecological speciation2013Inngår i: Ecology Letters, ISSN 1461-023X, E-ISSN 1461-0248, Vol. 16, nr 8, s. 1004-1013Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Non-random mating provides multiple evolutionary benefits and can result in speciation. Biological organisms are characterised by a myriad of different traits, many of which can serve as mating cues. We consider multiple mechanisms of non-random mating simultaneously within a unified modelling framework in an attempt to understand better which are more likely to evolve in natural populations going through the process of local adaptation and ecological speciation. We show that certain traits that are under direct natural selection are more likely to be co-opted as mating cues, leading to the appearance of magic traits (i.e. phenotypic traits involved in both local adaptation and mating decisions). Multiple mechanisms of non-random mating can interact so that trait co-evolution enables the evolution of non-random mating mechanisms that would not evolve alone. The presence of magic traits may suggest that ecological selection was acting during the origin of new species.

  • 1462.
    Thibert-Plante, Xavier
    et al.
    Redpath Museum and Department of Biology, McGill University, Montréal, QC, Canada and National Institute for Mathematical and Biological Synthesis, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USA.
    Hendry, A. P.
    Redpath Museum and Department of Biology, McGill University, Montréal, QC, Canada.
    Factors influencing progress toward sympatric speciation2011Inngår i: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 24, nr 10, s. 2186-2196Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Many factors could influence progress towards sympatric speciation. Some of the potentially important ones include competition, mate choice and the degree to which alternative sympatric environments (resources) are discrete. What is not well understood is the relative importance of these different factors, as well as interactions among them. We use an individual-based numerical model to investigate the possibilities. Mate choice was modelled as the degree to which male foraging traits influence female mate choice. Competition was modelled as the degree to which individuals with different phenotypes compete for portions of the resource distribution. Discreteness of the environment was modelled as the degree of bimodality of the underlying resource distribution. We find that strong mate choice was necessary, but not sufficient, to cause sympatric speciation. In addition, sympatric speciation was most likely when the resource distribution was strongly bimodal and when competition among different phenotypes was intermediate. Even under these ideal conditions, however, sympatric speciation occurred only a fraction of the time. Sympatric speciation owing to competition on unimodal resource distributions was also possible, but much less common. In all cases, stochasticity played an important role in determining progress towards sympatric speciation, as evidenced by variation in outcomes among replicate simulations for a given set of parameter values. Overall, we conclude that the nature of competition is much less important for sympatric speciation than is the nature of mate choice and the underlying resource distribution. We argue that an increased understanding of the promoters and inhibitors of sympatric speciation is best achieved through models that simultaneously evaluate multiple potential factors.

  • 1463.
    Thibert-Plante, Xavier
    et al.
    Redpath Museum and Department of Biology, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada.
    Hendry, A. P.
    Redpath Museum and Department of Biology, McGill University, Montréal, QC, Canada.
    Five questions on ecological speciation addressed with individual-based simulations2009Inngår i: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 22, nr 1, s. 109-123Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We use an individual-based simulation model to investigate factors influencing progress toward ecological speciation. We find that environmental differences can quickly lead to the evolution of substantial reproductive barriers between a population colonizing a new environment and the ancestral population in the old environment. Natural selection against immigrants and hybrids was a major contributor to this isolation, but the evolution of sexual preference was also important. Increasing dispersal had both positive and negative effects on population size in the new environment and had positive effects on natural selection against immigrants and hybrids. Genetic divergence at unlinked, neutral genetic markers was low, except when environmental differences were large and sexual preference was present. Our results highlight the importance of divergent selection and adaptive divergence for ecological speciation. At the same time, they reveal several interesting nonlinearities in interactions between environmental differences, sexual preference, dispersal and population size.

  • 1464.
    Thibert-Plante, Xavier
    et al.
    Redpath Museum and Department of Biology, McGill University, Montre´al, QC, Canada.
    Hendry, A. P.
    Redpath Museum and Department of Biology, McGill University, Montre´al, QC, Canada.
    The consequences of phenotypic plasticity for ecological speciation2011Inngår i: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 24, nr 2, s. 326-342Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We use an individual-based numerical simulation to study the effects of phenotypic plasticity on ecological speciation. We find that adaptive plasticity evolves readily in the presence of dispersal between populations from different ecological environments. This plasticity promotes the colonization of new environments but reduces genetic divergence between them. We also find that the evolution of plasticity can either enhance or degrade the potential for divergent selection to form reproductive barriers. Of particular importance here is the timing of plasticity in relation to the timing of dispersal. If plasticity is expressed after dispersal, reproductive barriers are generally weaker because plasticity allows migrants to be better suited for their new environment. If plasticity is expressed before dispersal, reproductive barriers are either unaffected or enhanced. Among the potential reproductive barriers we considered, natural selection against migrants was the most important, primarily because it was the earliest-acting barrier. Accordingly, plasticity had a much greater effect on natural selection against migrants than on sexual selection against migrants or on natural and sexual selection against hybrids. In general, phenotypic plasticity can strongly alter the process of ecological speciation and should be considered when studying the evolution of reproductive barriers.

  • 1465.
    Thibert-Plante, Xavier
    et al.
    Redpath Museum and Department of Biology, 859 Sherbrooke St. West, McGill University, Montréal, QC, Canada H3A 2K6.
    Hendry, Andrew P.
    Redpath Museum and Department of Biology, 859 Sherbrooke St. West, McGill University, Montréal, QC, Canada H3A 2K6.
    When can ecological speciation be detected with neutral loci?2010Inngår i: Molecular Ecology, ISSN 0962-1083, E-ISSN 1365-294X, Vol. 19, nr 11, s. 2301-2314Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It is not yet clear under what conditions empirical studies can reliably detect progress toward ecological speciation through the analysis of allelic variation at neutral loci. We use a simulation approach to investigate the range of parameter space under which such detection is, and is not, likely. We specifically test for the conditions under which divergent natural selection can cause a ‘generalized barrier to gene flow’ that is present across the genome. Our individual-based numerical simulations focus on how population divergence at neutral loci varies in relation to recombination rate with a selected locus, divergent selection on that locus, migration rate and population size. We specifically test whether genetic differences at neutral markers are greater between populations in different environments than between populations in similar environments. We find that this expected signature of ecological speciation can be detected under part of the parameter space, most consistently when divergent selection is strong and migration is intermediate. By contrast, the expected signature of ecological speciation is not reliably detected when divergent selection is weak or migration is low or high. These findings provide insights into the strengths and weaknesses of using neutral markers to infer ecological speciation in natural systems.

  • 1466.
    Thibert-Plante, Xavier
    et al.
    Redpath Museum and Department of Biology, McGill University, Montréal, Québec, Canada.
    Parrott, Lael
    Complex Systems Laboratory, Département de Géographie, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Québec, Canada.
    Prisoner’s dilemma and clusters on small-world networks2007Inngår i: Complexity, ISSN 1076-2787, E-ISSN 1099-0526, Vol. 12, nr 6, s. 22-36Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The structure of interaction plays an important role in the outcome of evolutionary games. This study investigates the evolution of stochastic strategies of the prisoner's dilemma played on structures ranging from lattices to small world networks. Strategies and payoffs are analyzed as a function of the network characteristics of the node they are playing on. Nodes with lattice-like neighborhoods tend to perform better than the nodes modified during the rewiring process of the construction of the small-world network.

  • 1467.
    Thompson, John N.
    et al.
    Univ Calif Santa Cruz, Dept Ecol & Evolutionary Biol, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 USA..
    Schwind, Christopher
    Univ Calif Santa Cruz, Dept Ecol & Evolutionary Biol, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 USA..
    Friberg, Magne
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Växtekologi och evolution.
    Diversification of Trait Combinations in Coevolving Plant and Insect Lineages2017Inngår i: American Naturalist, ISSN 0003-0147, E-ISSN 1537-5323, Vol. 190, nr 2, s. 171-184Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Closely related species often have similar traits and sometimes interact with the same species. A crucial problem in evolutionary ecology is therefore to understand how coevolving species diverge when they interact with a set of closely related species from another lineage rather than with a single species. We evaluated geographic differences in the floral morphology of all woodland star plant species (Lithophragma, Saxifragaceae) that are pollinated by Greya (Prodoxidae) moths. Flowers of each woodland star species differed depending on whether plants interact locally with one, two, or no pollinating moth species. Plants of one species grown in six different environments showed few differences in floral traits, suggesting that the geographic differences are not due significantly to trait plasticity. Greya moth populations also showed significant geographic divergence in morphology, depending on the local host and on whether the moth species co-occurred locally. Divergence in the plants and the moths involved shifts in combinations of partially correlated traits, rather than any one trait. The results indicate that the geographic mosaic of coevolution can be amplified as coevolving lineages diversify into separate species and come together in different combinations in different ecosystems.

  • 1468. Thompson, John N.
    et al.
    Schwind, Christopher
    Guimaraes, Paulo R
    Friberg, Magne
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Växtekologi och evolution.
    Diversification through multi-trait evolution in a coevolving interaction2013Inngår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 110, nr 28, s. 11487-11492Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Mutualisms between species are interactions in which reciprocal exploitation results in outcomes that are mutually beneficial. This reciprocal exploitation is evident in the more than a thousand plant species that are pollinated exclusively by insects specialized to lay their eggs in the flowers they pollinate. By pollinating each flower in which she lays eggs, an insect guarantees that her larval offspring have developing seeds on which to feed, whereas the plant gains a specialized pollinator at the cost of some seeds. These mutualisms are often reciprocally obligate, potentially driving not only ongoing coadaptation but also diversification. The lack of known intermediate stages in most of these mutualisms, however, makes it difficult to understand whether these interactions could have begun to diversify even before they became reciprocally obligate. Experimental studies of the incompletely obligate interactions between woodland star (Lithophragma; Saxifragaceae) plants and their pollinating floral parasites in the moth genus Greya (Prodoxidae) show that, as these lineages have diversified, the moths and plants have evolved in ways that maintain effective oviposition and pollination. Experimental assessment of pollination in divergent species and quantitative evaluation of time-lapse photographic sequences of pollination viewed on surgically manipulated flowers show that various combinations of traits are possible for maintaining the mutualism. The results suggest that at least some forms of mutualism can persist and even diversify when the interaction is not reciprocally obligate.

  • 1469.
    Thulin, Mats
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för organismbiologi, Systematisk biologi.
    Moore, Abigail J.
    Brown Univ, Dept Ecol & Evolutionary Biol, 80 Waterman St,Box G-W, Providence, RI 02912 USA..
    El-Seedi, Hesham
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Farmaceutiska fakulteten, Institutionen för läkemedelskemi, Avdelningen för farmakognosi. Univ Malaya, Dept Chem, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia..
    Larsson, Anders
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för organismbiologi, Systematisk biologi.
    Christin, Pascal-Antoine
    Univ Sheffield, Dept Anim & Plant Sci, Western Bank, Sheffield S10 2TN, S Yorkshire, England..
    Edwards, Erika J.
    Brown Univ, Dept Ecol & Evolutionary Biol, 80 Waterman St,Box G-W, Providence, RI 02912 USA..
    Phylogeny and generic delimitation in Molluginaceae, new pigment data in Caryophyllales, and the new family Corbichoniaceae2016Inngår i: Taxon, ISSN 0040-0262, E-ISSN 1996-8175, Vol. 65, nr 4, s. 775-793Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The circumscription of Molluginaceae has changed radically in recent years, with Corbichonia being moved to Lophiocarpaceae, Limeum to Limeaceae, Macarthuria to Macarthuriaceae and all species of Hypertelis, except the type, to Kewa in Kewaceae. In a broad analysis of core Caryophyllales using plastid trnK-matK and rbcL, sequences, the position of Molluginaceae in a strict sense as sister to the Portulacineae Glade is corroborated, as are the positions of Corbichonia, Limeum and Kewa outside the family. The phylogeny of Molluginaceae is reconstructed based on trnK-matK and nuclear ITS sequences of about half of the currently recognized species in the family and with representatives from all recognized genera. Mollugo is found to be polyphyletic and a new taxonomy for the family with 11 genera is proposed. Mollugo in its new restricted sense is a mainly American genus of about 15 species, including M. ulei comb. nov., previously placed in the monotypic Glischrothamnus. The Australian and Asian genus Trigastrotheca is resurrected for T. molluginea, T. pentaphylla comb. nov. and T. stricta comb. nov. The name Paramollugo nom. nov. is proposed for the Mollugo nudicaulis group and the combinations P. angustifolia comb. nov., P. cuneifolia comb. nov., P. decandra comb. nov., P. deltoidea comb. nov., P. navassensis comb. nov. and P. nudicaulis comb. nov. are made. Hypertelis is expanded to include, besides the type H. spergulacea, also H. cerviana comb. nov., H. fragilis comb. nov., H. umbellata comb. nov. and H. walteri comb. nov. In Pharnaceum, the new combination P. namaquense comb. nov. is made, Hypertelis longifolia is treated as a synonym of P. lineare and Mollugo tenella as a synonym of P. subtile. Corbichonia is proposed to be treated as a family of its own, Corbichoniaceae fam. nov. Several names are lectotypified, including the Linnaean Mollugo pentaphylla and M stricta. An anthocyanin is reported for the first time from Simmondsiaceae. The detection of anthocyanins in members of Kewaceae and Molluginaceae agree with previous reports and corroborate the view that these families represent reversals from betalains to anthocyanins. The report of an anthocyanin in Limeaceae, previously regarded as unpigmented, apparently represents a newly detected reversal from betalains to anthocyanins in this family.

  • 1470.
    Thunga, Venkata Raghava Pavankumar
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning.
    Nucleotide diversity and Linkage disequilibrium in Norway spruce (Picea abies)2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 poäng / 45 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Pattern of Linkage Disequilibrium (LD) is a major factor largely determining the power of association mapping studies. Along with nucleotide diversities and DNA polymorphism, knowledge of patterns of LD along the genome needs to be to known to effectively design association mapping studies. In this study, patterns of nucleotide diversity, population structure, LD was estimated in Norway spruce (Picea abies). The data used for this were 23 nuclear loci sequenced in around 90 individuals originating from natural populations of Norway spruce throughout the current distribution range in Sweden and Finland. The observed levels of nucleotide diversity are variable among loci varying between 0.002 and 0.008 if measured by average pairwise nucleotide diversity. Despite the samples stretching large part of Finland and Sweden there were no evidence for strong population structure. As in earlier studies LD decays fast with distance and the average pattern of the squared correlation of allele frequencies drops to less than 0.2 within 100bp. In order to put the data in perspective previously generated data sets were re-analyzed and compared to the inferred results. 

  • 1471.
    Thuy, Ben
    et al.
    Geoscience Centre, University of Göttingen.
    Kiel, Steffen
    Geoscience Center, Göttingen.
    Dulai, Alfred
    Gale, Andy S.
    University of Portsmouth, UK.
    Kroh, Andreas
    Natural History Museum, Vienna.
    Lord, Alan S.
    Numberger-Thuy, Lea
    Stöhr, Sabine
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för zoologi.
    Wisshak, Max
    First glimpse into Lower Jurassic deep-sea biodiversity: in situ diversification and resilience against extinction2014Inngår i: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 281, artikkel-id 20132624Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 1472.
    Tibblin, Petter
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Migratory behaviour and adaptive divergence in life-history traits of pike (Esox lucius)2015Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Population divergence shaped by natural selection is central to evolutionary ecology research and has been in focus since Darwin formulated “The origin of species”. Still, the process of adaptive divergence among sympatric populations is poorly understood. In this thesis I studied patterns of adaptive divergence among subpopulations of pike (Esox lucius) that are sympatric in the Baltic Sea but become short-term allopatric during spawning and initial juvenile growth in freshwater streams. I also examined causes and consequences of phenotypic variation among individuals within subpopulations to evaluate the contribution of natural selection to population divergence.

     

    I first investigated homing behaviour and population structures of pike to assess the potential for adaptive divergence among sympatric pike that migrate to spawn in different streams. Mark-recapture data suggested that migrating pike displayed homing behaviour and repeatedly returned to the same stream. Analyses of microsatellite data revealed partial reproductive isolation among subpopulations spawning in different streams. These subpopulations, however, were truly sympatric during the life-stage spent in the Baltic Sea.

     

    To address whether short-term allopatry has resulted in adaptive divergence among sympatric subpopulations I combined observational, experimental and molecular approaches. Observational data showed that subpopulations differed in morphological and life-history traits and common-garden experiments suggested that differences were, at least in part, genetically based. Moreover, QST-FST comparisons indicated that genetically based phenotypic differences has been driven by divergent selection, and a reciprocal translocation experiment showed that phenotypic variation represented local adaptations to spawning habitats. Finally, longitudinal and cross-sectional comparisons among individuals revealed associations between phenotypes, performance and fitness components.

     

    In conclusion, my thesis illustrates how short-term allopatry due to migratory behaviour can result in adaptive divergence among sympatric subpopulations. These findings advance the understanding of evolutionary processes at the finest spatiotemporal scale and illustrate that local adaptations can arise in environments with high connectivity.  The results also emphasise that fine spatial scale population structures must be taken into consideration in management and conservation of biodiversity in the Baltic Sea.

  • 1473.
    Tibblin, Petter
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Migratory behaviour and adaptive divergence in life-history traits of pike (Esox lucius)2015Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Population divergence shaped by natural selection is central to evolutionary ecology research and has been in focus since Darwin formulated “The origin of species”. Still, the process of adaptive divergence among sympatric populations is poorly understood. In this thesis I studied patterns of adaptive divergence among subpopulations of pike (Esox lucius) that are sympatric in the Baltic Sea but become short-term allopatric during spawning and initial juvenile growth in freshwater streams. I also examined causes and consequences of phenotypic variation among individuals within subpopulations to evaluate the contribution of natural selection to population divergence.

     

    I first investigated homing behaviour and population structures of pike to assess the potential for adaptive divergence among sympatric pike that migrate to spawn in different streams. Mark-recapture data suggested that migrating pike displayed homing behaviour and repeatedly returned to the same stream. Analyses of microsatellite data revealed partial reproductive isolation among subpopulations spawning in different streams. These subpopulations, however, were truly sympatric during the life-stage spent in the Baltic Sea.

     

    To address whether short-term allopatry has resulted in adaptive divergence among sympatric subpopulations I combined observational, experimental and molecular approaches. Observational data showed that subpopulations differed in morphological and life-history traits and common-garden experiments suggested that differences were, at least in part, genetically based. Moreover, QST-FST comparisons indicated that genetically based phenotypic differences has been driven by divergent selection, and a reciprocal translocation experiment showed that phenotypic variation represented local adaptations to spawning habitats. Finally, longitudinal and cross-sectional comparisons among individuals revealed associations between phenotypes, performance and fitness components.

     

    In conclusion, my thesis illustrates how short-term allopatry due to migratory behaviour can result in adaptive divergence among sympatric subpopulations. These findings advance the understanding of evolutionary processes at the finest spatiotemporal scale and illustrate that local adaptations can arise in environments with high connectivity.  The results also emphasise that fine spatial scale population structures must be taken into consideration in management and conservation of biodiversity in the Baltic Sea.

  • 1474.
    Tibblin, Petter
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Berggren, Hanna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Nordahl, Oscar
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Larsson, Per
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Causes and consequences of intra-specific variation in vertebral number2016Inngår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, artikkel-id 26372Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Intraspecific variation in vertebral number is taxonomically widespread. Much scientific attention hasbeen directed towards understanding patterns of variation in vertebral number among individualsand between populations, particularly across large spatial scales and in structured environments.However, the relative role of genes, plasticity, selection, and drift as drivers of individual variation andpopulation differentiation remains unknown for most systems. Here, we report on patterns, causesand consequences of variation in vertebral number among and within sympatric subpopulations ofpike (Esox lucius). Vertebral number differed among subpopulations, and common garden experimentsindicated that this reflected genetic differences. A QST-FST comparison suggested that populationdifferences represented local adaptations driven by divergent selection. Associations with fitness traitsfurther indicated that vertebral counts were influenced both by stabilizing and directional selectionwithin populations. Overall, our study enhances the understanding of adaptive variation, which iscritical for the maintenance of intraspecific diversity and species conservation.

  • 1475.
    Tibblin, Petter
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Berggren, Hanna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Nordahl, Oscar
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Larsson, Per
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Causes and consequences of intra-specific variation in vertebral number2016Inngår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, artikkel-id 26372Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Intraspecific variation in vertebral number is taxonomically widespread. Much scientific attention hasbeen directed towards understanding patterns of variation in vertebral number among individualsand between populations, particularly across large spatial scales and in structured environments.However, the relative role of genes, plasticity, selection, and drift as drivers of individual variation andpopulation differentiation remains unknown for most systems. Here, we report on patterns, causesand consequences of variation in vertebral number among and within sympatric subpopulations ofpike (Esox lucius). Vertebral number differed among subpopulations, and common garden experimentsindicated that this reflected genetic differences. A QST-FST comparison suggested that populationdifferences represented local adaptations driven by divergent selection. Associations with fitness traitsfurther indicated that vertebral counts were influenced both by stabilizing and directional selectionwithin populations. Overall, our study enhances the understanding of adaptive variation, which iscritical for the maintenance of intraspecific diversity and species conservation.

  • 1476.
    Tibblin, Petter
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Koch-Schmidt, Per
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Nordahl, Oscar
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Johannessen, Peter
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Nilsson, Jonas
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Larsson, Per
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Evolutionary divergence of adult body size and juvenile growth in sympatric subpopulations of a top predator in aquatic ecosystems2015Inngår i: American Naturalist, ISSN 0003-0147, E-ISSN 1537-5323, Vol. 186, nr 1, s. 98-110Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Evolutionary theory predicts that different selective regimes may contribute to divergent evolution of body size and growth rate among populations, but most studies have focused on allopatric populations. Here, we studied five sympatric subpopulations of anadromous northern pike (Esox lucius) in the Baltic Sea subjected to allopatric habitats for a short period of their life cycle due to homing behavior. We report differences in adult body size among subpopulations that were in part due to variation in growth rate. Body size of emigrating juveniles also differed among subpopulations, and differences remained when individuals were reared in a common environment, thus indicating evolutionary divergence among subpopulations. Furthermore, a QST-FST comparison indicated that differences had evolved due to divergent selection rather than genetic drift, possibly in response to differences in selective mortality among spawning habitats during the allopatric life stage. Adult and juvenile size were negatively correlated across subpopulations, and reconstruction of growth trajectories of adult fishes suggested that body size differences developed gradually and became accentuated throughout the first years of life. These results represent rare evidence that sympatric subpopulations can evolve differences in key life-history traits despite being subjected to allopatric habitats during only a very short fraction of their life.

  • 1477.
    Tibblin, Petter
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Koch-Schmidt, Per
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Nordahl, Oscar
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Johannessen, Peter
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Nilsson, Jonas
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Larsson, Per
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Evolutionary divergence of adult body size and juvenile growth in sympatric subpopulations of a top predator in aquatic ecosystems2015Inngår i: American Naturalist, ISSN 0003-0147, E-ISSN 1537-5323, Vol. 186, nr 1, s. 98-110Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Evolutionary theory predicts that different selective regimes may contribute to divergent evolution of body size and growth rate among populations, but most studies have focused on allopatric populations. Here, we studied five sympatric subpopulations of anadromous northern pike (Esox lucius) in the Baltic Sea subjected to allopatric habitats for a short period of their life cycle due to homing behavior. We report differences in adult body size among subpopulations that were in part due to variation in growth rate. Body size of emigrating juveniles also differed among subpopulations, and differences remained when individuals were reared in a common environment, thus indicating evolutionary divergence among subpopulations. Furthermore, a QST-FST comparison indicated that differences had evolved due to divergent selection rather than genetic drift, possibly in response to differences in selective mortality among spawning habitats during the allopatric life stage. Adult and juvenile size were negatively correlated across subpopulations, and reconstruction of growth trajectories of adult fishes suggested that body size differences developed gradually and became accentuated throughout the first years of life. These results represent rare evidence that sympatric subpopulations can evolve differences in key life-history traits despite being subjected to allopatric habitats during only a very short fraction of their life.

  • 1478.
    Tinnert, Jon
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Microevolution in pygmy grasshoppers2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge of how spatiotemporal environmental variation impacts ecological and evolutionary processes and contributes to genetic and phenotypic diversity of natural populations is key to understanding and protecting biological diversity. In this thesis I used pygmy grasshoppers to study how environmental conditions, population dynamics, dispersal and admixture may influence genetic structure and diversity, and to evaluate how functionally important variation may affect the ability of populations to cope with novel and changing habitats.

    Analyses of AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism) markers in Tetrix subulata individuals from 20 sampling locations in Sweden showed significant genetic structure and restricted gene flow among populations. Genetic diversity increased with population size and proportion of long-winged dispersive phenotypes on the island of Öland, but not on the mainland.

    A contrasting environment comparative approach (CECA) applied to 20 T. undulata populations suggested that processes associated with environmental change differently influence functional and neutral diversity. Long-winged phenotypes were more common in disturbed than in stable habitats, indicative of recent establishment. Color morph diversity was higher in disturbed environments consistent with the notion that polymorphism promotes establishment success. Conversely, neutral diversity (AFLP) was lower in disturbed habitats, pointing to a stronger eroding effect of genetic drift in disturbed compared to stable habitats.

    I compared genetic and morphological variation between sympatric populations of the two species. Populations of the generally dispersive T. subulata were genetically less differentiated compared with the more sedentary T. undulata, suggesting that the latter species has been less influenced by the homogenizing effects of gene flow. Non-parallel body size differences pointed to species-specific drivers of morphological change.

    Finally, comparisons of reproductive output of T. subulata females that had been experimentally mated with males from the same or from a different population suggested that responses to interbreeding and genetic admixture can differ in direction and magnitude even between populations within a species, and thus influence whether dispersal translates into gene flow.

    My thesis emphasizes the complexity of microevolution and illustrates how the effects of different ecological and evolutionary processes can vary according to disturbance regimes and geographic areas, and differ between closely related sympatric species.

  • 1479.
    Tinnert, Jon
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Berggren, Hanna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Population-specific effects of interbreeding and admixture on reproductive decisions and offspring quality2016Inngår i: Annales Zoologici Fennici, ISSN 0003-455X, E-ISSN 1797-2450, Vol. 53, nr 1-2, s. 55-68Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated interbreeding and admixture in Tetrix subulata grasshoppers from two maternal origin populations that differed in life-history and dispersal traits. We compared reproductive output of females that had been experimentally mated with males from the same or from a different population. Interbreeding affected clutch size and number of clutches; in one population females in the admixed treatment produced smaller clutches, in the other population females in the admixed treatment produced more clutches. Behavioral observations indicated that individuals can discriminate scents emitted by individuals from different populations; such that females might adjust reproductive allocation depending on male origin. However, hatchability of eggs and survival of nymphs were not affected by the mating treatment. Admixture influenced the production of viable offspring in the F2 generation, but the effect was opposite in the two populations of maternal origin. Results suggested that responses to interbreeding and admixture can differ between populations within a species.

  • 1480.
    Tinnert, Jon
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Hellgren, Olof
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM). Lund University.
    Lindberg, Jenny
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM). Naturbruksskolan Sotasen.
    Koch-Schmidt, Per
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Population genetic structure, differentiation, and diversity in Tetrix subulata pygmy grasshoppers: roles of population size and immigration2016Inngår i: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 6, nr 21, s. 7831-7846Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Genetic diversity within and among populations and species is influenced by complex demographic and evolutionary processes. Despite extensive research, there is no consensus regarding how landscape structure, spatial distribution, gene flow, and population dynamics impact genetic composition of natural populations. Here, we used amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) to investigate effects of population size, geographic isolation, immigration, and gene flow on genetic structure, divergence, and diversity in populations of Tetrix subulata pygmy grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Tetrigidae) from 20 sampling locations in southern Sweden. Analyses of 1564 AFLP markers revealed low to moderate levels of genetic diversity (PPL=59.5-90.1; Hj=0.23-0.32) within and significant divergence among sampling localities. This suggests that evolution of functional traits in response to divergent selection is possible and that gene flow is restricted. Genetic diversity increased with population size and with increasing proportion of long-winged phenotypes (a proxy of recent immigration) across populations on the island of oland, but not on the mainland. Our data further suggested that the open water separating oland from the mainland acts as a dispersal barrier that restricts migration and leads to genetic divergence among regions. Isolation by distance was evident for short interpopulation distances on the mainland, but gradually disappeared as populations separated by longer distances were included. Results illustrate that integrating ecological and molecular data is key to identifying drivers of population genetic structure in natural populations. Our findings also underscore the importance of landscape structure and spatial sampling scheme for conclusions regarding the role of gene flow and isolation by distance.

  • 1481. Tison, Jean-Luc
    et al.
    Edmark, Veronica Nyström
    Sandoval-Castellanos, Edson
    Van Dyck, Hans
    Tammaru, Toomas
    Välimäki, Panu
    Dalén, Love
    Gotthard, Karl
    Signature of post-glacial expansion and genetic structure at the northern range limit of the speckled wood butterfly2014Inngår i: Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, ISSN 0024-4066, E-ISSN 1095-8312, Vol. 113, nr 1, s. 136-148Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The post-glacial recolonisation of northern Europe has left distinct signatures in the genomes of many organisms, both due to random demographic processes and divergent natural selection. However, information on differences in genetic variation in conjunction with patterns of local adaptations along latitudinal gradients is often lacking. In this study, we examine genetic diversity and population structure in the speckled wood butterfly Pararge aegeria in northern Europe to investigate the species post-glacial recolonisation history and discuss how this may have affected its life-history evolution. We collected 209 samples and analysed genetic variation in nine microsatellite loci. The results demonstrated a more pronounced population structure in northern Europe compared with populations further south, as well as an overall decrease in genetic diversity with latitude, likely due to founder effects during the recolonisation process. Coalescent simulations coupled with approximate Bayesian computation suggested that central Scandinavia was colonised from the south, rather than from the east. In contrast to further south, populations at the northern range margin are univoltine expressing only one generation per year. This suggests either that univoltinism evolved independently on each side of the Baltic Sea, or that bivoltinism evolved in the south after northern Europe was recolonised. © 2014 The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2014, 113, 136–148.

  • 1482.
    Toljagic, Olja
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för organismbiologi, Evolution och utvecklingsbiologi. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning.
    Enigmatic basal archosauromorph from the Late Triassic of Poland2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Choristodera, a lineage of basal archosauromorphs (Reptilia: Diapsida), first appeared in Early/Middle Jurassic (possibly Late Triassic; approximately 201 million years ago) and extended all the way into early Miocene (approximately 23 million years ago). Choristoderans are the only group of more basal archosauromorphs that survived after the Jurassic period, along with Archosauriformes (a more derived group of Archosauromorphs). The time of origin of the lineage is still speculative and preceded with long ghost lineages, a timespan when the animals were known to be alive, but are not represented in the fossil record. Unresolved phylogenetic position and inter-relationships, along with limited information about such an important group of early semi-aquatic reptiles, set choristodera in the focus of tetrapod evolution. In order to add information to gaps in the fossil records during the long temporal range of the group, new discoveries and descriptions of early choristoderan taxa are needed. Here, a description of long bones of a choristodere-like animal from the Late Triassic of Poland is presented adding information to the basal archosauromorpha and possibly shifting back the time of choristodera origin. Furthermore, bone histology analysis was conducted for the first time for choristodera, adding new information to the group. The other description of postcranial material of a possible early choristodere from Storrs et al. (1996) sets the origin of the group to Latest Triassic (Rhaetian, approximately 201 Mya). Description of newly discovered fossil material along with the histology sections of such an important group of tetrapods that are choristoders is of great significance, not only for the Triassic tetrapod communities, but for tetrapod evolution, development, ecology and life history in general.

  • 1483.
    Topper, Timothy P
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Paleobiologi.
    Holmer, Lars E
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Paleobiologi.
    Skovsted, Christian B
    Department of Palaeozoology, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Brock, Glenn A
    Department of Biological Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia.
    Balthasar, Uwe
    School of Geographical and Earth Sciences, Gregory Building, Lilybank Gardens, University of Glasgow, UK.
    Larsson, Cecilia M
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Paleobiologi.
    Pettersson Stolk, Sandra
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Paleobiologi.
    Harper, David A T
    The oldest brachiopods from the lower Cambrian of South Australia2013Inngår i: Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, ISSN 0567-7920, E-ISSN 1732-2421, Vol. 58, nr 1, s. 93-109Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The morphology and organophosphatic shell structure of the paterinate brachiopod Askepasma is documented using new and previously collected specimens from the lower Cambrian of South Australia. Lack of adequately preserved material has seen the majority of paterinate specimens previously reported from South Australia referred to the genus Askepasma and treated under open nomenclature. Large collections of paterinates from the lower Cambrian Wilkawillina, Ajax, and Wirrapowie limestones in the Arrowie Basin, South Australia have prompted redescription of the type species Askepasma toddense and the erection of a new species, Askepasma saproconcha sp. nov. Askepasma saproconcha sp. nov. currently represents the oldest known brachiopod from the lower Cambrian successions in South Australia with a FAD in pre-trilobitic (Terreneuvian, Cambrian Stage 2, lower Atdabanian) strata in the basal part of the Wilkawillina and Wirrapowie limestones. Askepasma toddense predominantly occurs in Abadiella huoi Zone equivalent strata (Unnamed Cambrian Series 2, Stage 3, middle upper Atdabanian) in the upper part of the lower Wilkawillina, Wirrapowie, and Ajax limestones. The shell microstructure of Askepasma suggests a proximal stem group position within the Brachiopoda and similarities with tommotiid taxa provides further evidence that the ancestry of crown group brachiopods is firmly entrenched within the Tommotiida.

  • 1484.
    Torimaru, Takeshi
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Wennstrom, U.
    Lindgren, D.
    Wang, Xiao-Ru
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Effects of male fecundity, interindividual distance and anisotropic pollen dispersal on mating success in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) seed orchard2012Inngår i: Heredity, ISSN 0018-067X, E-ISSN 1365-2540, Vol. 108, nr 3, s. 312-321Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Quantifying the effect of pollen dispersal and flowering traits on mating success is essential for understanding evolutionary responses to changing environments and establishing strategies for forest tree breeding. This study examined, quantitatively, the effects of male fecundity, interindividual distance and anisotropic pollen dispersal on the mating success of Scots pine (Pious sylvestris), utilizing a well-mapped Scots pine seed orchard. Paternity analysis of 1021 seeds sampled from 87 trees representing 28 clones showed that 53% of the seeds had at least one potential pollen parent within the orchard. Pronounced variation in paternal contribution was observed among clones. Variations in pollen production explained up to 78% of the variation in mating success, which was 11.2 times greater for clones producing the largest amount of pollen than for clones producing the least pollen. Mating success also varied with intertree distance and direction, which explained up to 28% of the variance. Fertilization between neighboring trees 2.3 m apart was 2.4 times more frequent than between trees 4.6 m apart, and up to 12.4 times higher for trees downwind of the presumed prevailing wind direction than for upwind trees. The effective number of pollen donors recorded in the seed orchard (12.2) was smaller than the theoretical expectation (19.7). Based on the empirical observations, a mating model that best describes the gene dispersal pattern in clonal seed orchards was constructed.

  • 1485.
    Toräng, Per
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Växtekologi och evolution.
    Pollinators, Enemies, Drought, and the Evolution of Reproductive Traits in Primula farinosa2007Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis, I combined comparative and experimental approaches to examine selection on reproductive traits and population differentiation in the insect-pollinated, self-incompatible, perennial herb Primula farinosa. More specifically, I (1) determined whether the effects of floral display and interactions with pollinators and seed predators, and plant reproductive success were frequency-dependent and affected by surrounding vegetation context, (2) examined the consequences of intermittent drought years on population dynamics using numerical simulations based on demographic data collected over seven years, (3) analyzed among-population differentiation in flowering phenology and reproductive allocation, and its relationship to soil-depth at the site of origin.

    A field experiment suggested that conspicuous plants facilitate inconspicuous plants in terms of pollinator attraction, and that the facilitation effect is contingent on the height of the surrounding vegetation. Further experiments revealed that both mutualistic and antagonistic interactions can result in frequency-dependent selection on floral display. Among inconspicuous plants, both fruit initiation, and damage from seed predators increased with the proportion of the conspicuous morph. The relative strength of these effects, and therefore their net outcome on the relationship between morph ratio and seed production varied among years.

    I combined information on vital rates and their relation to environmental conditions in simulations to predict future population viability in changing environments. Simulated stochastic population growth rate decreased with increasing frequency of drought years.

    Reproductive allocation varied significantly among populations both in the field and in a common-garden experiment, but was correlated with soil depth at the site of origin only in the field. The results suggest that among-population variation in reproductive effort in the field mainly reflects plastic responses to environmental conditions, and that this plasticity may be adaptive. The common-garden experiment suggested that the study populations have diverged genetically in flowering time.

  • 1486.
    Toräng, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Växtekologi och evolution. Univ Skovde, Sch Biosci, SE-54128 Skovde, Sweden..
    Vikström, Linus
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Plant Ecol & Evolut, Evolutionary Biol Ctr, Norbyvagen 18D, SE-75236 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Wunder, Jörg
    Max Planck Inst Plant Breeding Res, Dept Plant Dev Biol, Carl von Linne Weg 10, D-50829 Cologne, Germany..
    Wötzel, Stefan
    Max Planck Inst Plant Breeding Res, Dept Plant Dev Biol, Carl von Linne Weg 10, D-50829 Cologne, Germany..
    Coupland, George
    Max Planck Inst Plant Breeding Res, Dept Plant Dev Biol, Carl von Linne Weg 10, D-50829 Cologne, Germany..
    Ågren, Jon
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Växtekologi och evolution.
    Evolution of the selfing syndrome: Anther orientation and herkogamy together determine reproductive assurance in a self-compatible plant2017Inngår i: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 71, nr 9, s. 2206-2218Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Capacity for autonomous self-fertilization provides reproductive assurance, has evolved repeatedly in the plant kingdom, and typically involves several changes in flower morphology and development (the selfing syndrome). Yet, the relative importance of different traits and trait combinations for efficient selfing and reproductive success in pollinator-poor environments is poorly known. In a series of experiments, we tested the importance of anther-stigma distance and the less studied trait anther orientation for efficiency of selfing in the perennial herb Arabis alpina. Variation in flower morphology among eight self-compatible European populations was correlated with efficiency of self-pollination and with pollen limitation in a common-garden experiment. To examine whether anther-stigma distance and anther orientation are subject to directional and/or correlational selection, and whether this is because these traits affect pollination success, we planted a segregating F2 population at two native field sites. Selection strongly favored a combination of introrse anthers and reduced anther-stigma distance at a site where pollinator activity was low, and supplemental hand-pollination demonstrated that this was largely because of their effect on securing self-pollination. The results suggest that concurrent shifts in more than one trait can be crucial for the evolution of efficient self-pollination and reproductive assurance in pollinator-poor habitats.

  • 1487.
    Traujtmann Gajardo, Deborah
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi.
    Selektion under stress: Evolutionär respons, trade-offs och supergenotyper2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 poäng / 16 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Stress can be defined as factors which reduce an individual’s survival and/or reproductive ability. Certain stressors strike harder against individuals the more harmful mutations they carry, thus increasing selection against harmful mutations. The aim of this project is to test if exposure to stress, during many generations, decreases the frequency of harmful mutations and lead to more adapted individuals, or if specific adaptations to the stressor override this effect and results in reduced adaptation in the original environment through trade-offs. To test these hypotheses, I use selection lines of Drosophila melanogaster, where the flies during the larval state either have been exposed to media with reduced nutritional value or a heat shock treatment over 22 generations. The results from this experiment show that the selection lines have adapted to their novel environments, since survival of the larvae had increased in the novel environment they had been exposed to for 22 generations. However, survival of selection lines were if anything decreased rather than elevated in the original environment. A plausible explanation to these results is that adaptations to stressors occur both through trade-offs and reduced frequency of generally harmful mutations, but that the effect of the former possibly is larger than the latter.

  • 1488.
    Troast, Daniel
    et al.
    Department of Biology, Rutgers University, Newark, New Jersey, United States of America.
    Suhling, Frank
    Institut für Geoökologie, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Braunschweig, Germany.
    Jinguji, Hiroshi
    School of Food, Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Miyagi University, Miyagi, Japan.
    Sahlén, Göran
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Bio- och miljösystemforskning (BLESS).
    Ware, Jessica
    Department of Biology, Rutgers University, Newark, New Jersey, United States of America.
    A Global Population Genetic Study of Pantala flavescens2016Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, nr 3, artikkel-id e0148949Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Among terrestrial arthropods, the dragonfly species Pantala flavescens is remarkable due to their nearly global distribution and extensive migratory ranges; the largest of any known insect. Capable of migrating across oceans, the potential for high rates of gene flow among geographically distant populations is significant. It has been hypothesized that P. flavescens may be a global panmictic population but no sufficient genetic evidence has been collected thus far. Through a population genetic analysis of P. flavescens samples from North America, South America, and Asia, the current study aimed to examine the extent at which gene flow is occurring on a global scale and discusses the implications of the genetic patterns we uncovered on population structure and genetic diversity of the species. This was accomplished using PCR-amplified cytochrome oxidase one (CO1) mitochondrial DNA data to reconstruct phylogenetic trees, a haplotype network, and perform molecular variance analyses. Our results suggested high rates of gene flow are occurring among all included geographic regions; providing the first significant evidence that Pantala flavescens should be considered a global panmictic population. © 2016 Troast et al.

  • 1489. Trona, Federica
    et al.
    Anfora, Gianfranco
    Balkenius, Anna
    Bengtsson, Marie
    Tasin, Marco
    Knight, Alan
    Janz, Niklas
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen.
    Witzgall, Peter
    Ignell, Rickard
    Neural coding merges sex and habitat chemosensory signals in an insect herbivore2013Inngår i: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 280, nr 1760, s. 20130267-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the processing of odour mixtures is a focus in olfaction research. Through a neuroethological approach, we demonstrate that different odour types, sex and habitat cues are coded together in an insect herbivore. Stronger flight attraction of codling moth males, Cydia pomonella, to blends of female sex pheromone and plant odour, compared with single compounds, was corroborated by functional imaging of the olfactory centres in the insect brain, the antennal lobes (ALs). The macroglomerular complex (MGC) in the AL, which is dedicated to pheromone perception, showed an enhanced response to blends of pheromone and plant signals, whereas the response in glomeruli surrounding the MGC was suppressed. Intracellular recordings from AL projection neurons that transmit odour information to higher brain centres, confirmed this synergistic interaction in the MGC. These findings underscore that, in nature, sex pheromone and plant odours are perceived as an ensemble. That mating and habitat cues are coded as blends in the MGC of the AL highlights the dual role of plant signals in habitat selection and in premating sexual communication. It suggests that the MGC is a common target for sexual and natural selection in moths, facilitating ecological speciation.

  • 1490.
    Trunschke, Judith
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Växtekologi och evolution.
    Sletvold, Nina
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Växtekologi och evolution.
    Ågren, Jon
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Växtekologi och evolution.
    Interaction intensity and pollinator-mediated selection2017Inngår i: New Phytologist, ISSN 0028-646X, E-ISSN 1469-8137, Vol. 214, nr 3, s. 1381-1389Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In animal-pollinated plants, the opportunity for selection and the strength of pollinatormediated selection are expected to increase with the degree of pollen limitation. However, whether differences in pollen limitation can explain variation in pollinator-mediated and net selection among animal-pollinated species is poorly understood. In the present study, we quantified pollen limitation, variance in relative fitness and pollinator- mediated selection on five traits important for pollinator attraction (flowering start, plant height, flower number, flower size) and pollination efficiency (spur length) in natural populations of 12 orchid species. Pollinator-mediated selection was quantified by subtracting estimates of selection gradients for plants receiving supplemental hand-pollination from estimates obtained for open-pollinated control plants. Mean pollen limitation ranged from zero to 0.96. Opportunity for selection, pollinatormediated selection and net selection were all positively related to pollen limitation, whereas nonpollinator-mediated selection was not. Opportunity for selection varied five-fold, strength of pollinator-mediated selection varied three-fold and net selection varied 1.5-fold among species. Supplemental hand-pollination reduced both opportunity for selection and selection on floral traits. The results show that the intensity of biotic interactions is an important determinant of the selection regime, and indicate that the potential for pollinator-mediated selection and divergence in floral traits is particularly high in species that are strongly pollen-limited.

  • 1491.
    Tsuboi, Masahito
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Thinking in water: Brain size evolution in Cichlidae and Syngnathidae2015Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Brain size varies greatly among vertebrates. It has been proposed that the diversity of brain size is produced and maintained through a balance of adaptations to different types and levels of cognitive ability and constraints for adaptive evolution. Phylogenetic comparative studies have made major contributions to our understanding of brain size evolution. However, previous studies have nearly exclusively focused on mammalian and avian taxa and almost no attempts have been made to investigate brain size evolution in ectothermic vertebrates.

    In my thesis, I studied brain size evolution in two groups of fish with extreme diversity in ecology, morphology and life history, Cichlidae and Syngnathidae. Using phylogenetic comparative methods, I investigated four key questions in vertebrate brain size evolution; cognitive adaptation, sexual selection, phenotypic integration and energetic constraints.

    I have demonstrated i) that phenotypic integration can link functionally unrelated traits, and this may constrain independent evolution of each part involved or promote concerted evolution of an integrated whole, ii) that brain-body static allometry constrains the direction of brain size evolution, even though the static-allometry showed ability to evolve, allowing evolution of relative brain size under allometric constraints, iii) that the energetic constraints of development and maintenance of brain tissue is an important factor in forming the diversity in brain size in cichlids and syngnathids, both at macroevolutionary and microevolutionary time scales, and iv) that adaptation for feeding and female mating competition may have played key roles in the adaptive evolution of brain size in pipefishes and seahorses. To conclude, my thesis shows the strong benefit of using fish as a model system to study brain size evolution with a phylogenetic comparative framework.

  • 1492.
    Tsuboi, Masahito
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Gonzalez-Voyer, Alejandro
    Kolm, Niclas
    Functional coupling constrains craniofacial diversification in Lake Tanganyika cichlids2015Inngår i: Biology Letters, ISSN 1744-9561, E-ISSN 1744-957X, Vol. 11, nr 5, artikkel-id 20141053Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Functional coupling, where a singlemorphological trait performs multiple functions, is a universal feature of organismal design. Theory suggests that functional coupling may constrain the rate of phenotypic evolution, yet empirical tests of this hypothesis are rare. In fish, the evolutionary transition from guarding the eggs on a sandy/rocky substrate (i.e. substrate guarding) to mouthbrooding introduces a novel function to the craniofacial system and offers an ideal opportunity to test the functional coupling hypothesis. Using a combination of geometric morphometrics and a recently developed phylogenetic comparative method, we found that head morphology evolution was 43% faster in substrate guarding species than in mouthbrooding species. Furthermore, for species in which females were solely responsible for mouthbrooding the males had a higher rate of head morphology evolution than in those with biparental mouthbrooding. Our results support the hypothesis that adaptations resulting in functional coupling constrain phenotypic evolution.

  • 1493. Tsuboi, Masahito
    et al.
    Gonzalez-Voyer, Alejandro
    Kolm, Niclas
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen.
    Phenotypic integration of brain size and head morphology in Lake Tanganyika Cichlids2014Inngår i: BMC Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1471-2148, E-ISSN 1471-2148, Vol. 14, s. 39-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Phenotypic integration among different anatomical parts of the head is a common phenomenon across vertebrates. Interestingly, despite centuries of research into the factors that contribute to the existing variation in brain size among vertebrates, little is known about the role of phenotypic integration in brain size diversification. Here we used geometric morphometrics on the morphologically diverse Tanganyikan cichlids to investigate phenotypic integration across key morphological aspects of the head. Then, while taking the effect of shared ancestry into account, we tested if head shape was associated with brain size while controlling for the potentially confounding effect of feeding strategy. Results: The shapes of the anterior and posterior parts of the head were strongly correlated, indicating that the head represents an integrated morphological unit in Lake Tanganyika cichlids. After controlling for phylogenetic non-independence, we also found evolutionary associations between head shape, brain size and feeding ecology. Conclusions: Geometric morphometrics and phylogenetic comparative analyses revealed that the anterior and posterior parts of the head are integrated, and that head morphology is associated with brain size and feeding ecology in Tanganyikan cichlid fishes. In light of previous results on mammals, our results suggest that the influence of phenotypic integration on brain diversification is a general process.

  • 1494. Tsuboi, Masahito
    et al.
    Kotrschal, Alexander
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen.
    Hayward, Alexander
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen.
    Buechel, Severine Denise
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen.
    Zidar, Josefina
    Lovlie, Hanne
    Kolm, Niclas
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen.
    Evolution of brain-body allometry in Lake Tanganyika cichlids2016Inngår i: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 70, nr 7, s. 1559-1568Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Brain size is strongly associated with body size in all vertebrates. This relationship has been hypothesized to be an important constraint on adaptive brain size evolution. The essential assumption behind this idea is that static (i.e., within species) brain-body allometry has low ability to evolve. However, recent studies have reported mixed support for this view. Here, we examine brain-body static allometry in Lake Tanganyika cichlids using a phylogenetic comparative framework. We found considerable variation in the static allometric intercept, which explained the majority of variation in absolute and relative brain size. In contrast, the slope of the brain-body static allometry had relatively low variation, which explained less variation in absolute and relative brain size compared to the intercept and body size. Further examination of the tempo and mode of evolution of static allometric parameters confirmed these observations. Moreover, the estimated evolutionary parameters indicate that the limited observed variation in the static allometric slope could be a result of strong stabilizing selection. Overall, our findings suggest that the brain-body static allometric slope may represent an evolutionary constraint in Lake Tanganyika cichlids.

  • 1495.
    Tsuboi, Masahito
    et al.
    Evolutionary Biology Centre, Department of Ecology and Genetics/Animal Ecology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Kotrschal, Alexander
    Department of Zoology/Ethology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hayward, Alexander
    Department of Zoology/Ethology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Buechel, Severine Denise
    Department of Zoology/Ethology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Zidar, Josefina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Lovlie, Hanne
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Kolm, Niclas
    Department of Zoology/Ethology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Evolution of brain-body allometry in Lake Tanganyika cichlids.2016Inngår i: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 70, nr 7, s. 1559-1568Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Brain size is strongly associated with body size in all vertebrates. This relationship has been hypothesized to be an important constraint on adaptive brain size evolution. The essential assumption behind this idea is that static (i.e., within species) brain-body allometry has low ability to evolve. However, recent studies have reported mixed support for this view. Here, we examine brain-body static allometry in Lake Tanganyika cichlids using a phylogenetic comparative framework. We found considerable variation in the static allometric intercept, which explained the majority of variation in absolute and relative brain size. In contrast, the slope of the brain-body static allometry had relatively low variation, which explained less variation in absolute and relative brain size compared to the intercept and body size. Further examination of the tempo and mode of evolution of static allometric parameters confirmed these observations. Moreover, the estimated evolutionary parameters indicate that the limited observed variation in the static allometric slope could be a result of strong stabilizing selection. Overall, our findings suggest that the brain-body static allometric slope may represent an evolutionary constraint in Lake Tanganyika cichlids.

  • 1496.
    Tsuboi, Masahito
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Kotrschal, Alexander
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Zool Ethol, Svante Arrhenius Vag 18B, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hayward, Alexander
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Zool Ethol, Svante Arrhenius Vag 18B, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Buechel, Séverine
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Zool Ethol, Svante Arrhenius Vag 18B, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Zidar, Josefina
    Linkoping Univ, IFM Biol, Campus Valla, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Løvlie, Hanne
    Linkoping Univ, IFM Biol, Campus Valla, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Kolm, Niclas
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Zool Ethol, Svante Arrhenius Vag 18B, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Evolution of brain-body allometry in Lake Tanganyika cichlids2016Inngår i: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 70, nr 7, s. 1559-1568Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Brain size is strongly associated with body size at all taxonomic levels. This relationship has been hypothesized to be an important constraint on adaptive brain size evolution. The essential assumption of this idea is that allometry has a limited ability to evolve, and that evolution of relative brain size is therefore constrained to occur along the direction of static (i.e. within species) allometry. However, recent studies have reported mixed support for this view. Here, we examine if static allometry has affected the rate of relative brain size evolution in Lake Tanganyika cichlids. The evolution of brain-body allometry showed a recent rapid divergence whereas brain size evolution represented a more gradual phenotypic divergence across the history of diversification. Accordingly, we found no support for that static allometry affected the rate of absolute or relative brain size evolution in this group. Instead, we detected low, but existing evolvability of static allometry. Moreover, static allometry evolved faster in species with relatively small and large brains than in species with medium brain size. We propose that a combination of allometric constraints and partial evolvability of static allometry have allowed for independent evolution of brain size in Lake Tanganyika cichlids. Overall, our results demonstrate a complex, yet important, role of brain-body allometry in brain size evolution. 

  • 1497.
    Tsuboi, Masahito
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Lim, A. C. O.
    Univ Malaya, Inst Biol Sci, Fac Sci, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.; Save Our Seahorses Malaysia, Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia..
    Ooi, B. L.
    Univ Malaya, Inst Biol Sci, Fac Sci, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.; Save Our Seahorses Malaysia, Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia..
    Yip, M. Y.
    Univ Malaya, Inst Biol Sci, Fac Sci, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.; Save Our Seahorses Malaysia, Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia..
    Chong, V. C.
    Univ Malaya, Inst Biol Sci, Fac Sci, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.; Univ Malaya, Inst Ocean & Earth Sci, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia..
    Ahnesjö, Ingrid
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Kolm, N.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Zool Ethol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Brain size evolution in pipefishes and seahorses: the role of feeding ecology, life history and sexual selection2017Inngår i: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 30, nr 1, s. 150-160Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Brain size varies greatly at all taxonomic levels. Feeding ecology, life history and sexual selection have been proposed as key components in generating contemporary diversity in brain size across vertebrates. Analyses of brain size evolution have, however, been limited to lineages where males predominantly compete for mating and females choose mates. Here, we present the first original data set of brain sizes in pipefishes and seahorses (Syngnathidae) a group in which intense female mating competition occurs in many species. After controlling for the effect of shared ancestry and overall body size, brain size was positively correlated with relative snout length. Moreover, we found that females, on average, had 4.3% heavier brains than males and that polyandrous species demonstrated more pronounced (11.7%) female-biased brain size dimorphism. Our results suggest that adaptations for feeding on mobile prey items and sexual selection in females are important factors in brain size evolution of pipefishes and seahorses. Most importantly, our study supports the idea that sexual selection plays a major role in brain size evolution, regardless of on which sex sexual selection acts stronger.

  • 1498.
    Tsuboi, Masahito
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Lim, Adam Chee Ooi
    Ooi, Boon Leong
    Mei, Yee Yip
    Chong, Ving Ching
    Ahnesjö, Ingrid
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Kolm, Niclas
    Prey motility, egg size and female mating competition: brain size evolution in pipefishes and seahorsesManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Brain size varies greatly at all taxonomic levels. Feeding ecology, life history and sexual selection have been proposed as key components in generating the existing contemporary diversity in brain size across vertebrates. Analyses of brain size evolution have, however, been limited to lineages where males predominantly compete for mating and females choose mates. Here, we present the first original data set of brain sizes in pipefishes and seahorses (Syngnathidae). In this group, intense female mating competition occurs in many species (i.e. reversed sex-roles), and mating patterns include monogamy, polygynandry and polyandry. After controlling for the effect of shared ancestry and overall body size, relatively larger brains were positively correlated with relatively longer snout length, which is related to the propensity for feeding on motile and evasive prey items in Syngnathidae, and larger egg size. Furthermore, we found that females, on average, had 4.3% heavier brains than males and that polyandrous species tended to demonstrate female-favored brain size dimorphism. Our results suggest that adaptations for feeding on motile prey items, energetic constraints associated with production of large-brained juveniles and sexual selection in females are important factors in brain size evolution of pipefishes and seahorses.

  • 1499.
    Tsuboi, Masahito
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Shoji, Jun
    Sogabe, Atsushi
    Ahnesjö, Ingrid
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Kolm, Niclas
    Within species support for the expensive tissue hypothesis: a negative association between brain size and visceral fat storage in females of Pacific seaweed pipefishManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The brain is one of the most energetically expensive organs in the vertebrate body. Consequently, the high cost of brain development and maintenance is predicted to constrain adaptive brain size evolution (the expensive tissue hypothesis, ETH). Here, we test the ETH in a teleost fish with predominant female mating competition (reversed sex-roles) and male pregnancy, the pacific seaweed pipefish Syngnathus schlegeli. The relative size of the brain and other energetically expensive organs (kidney, liver, heart, gut, visceral fat, ovary/testis) was compared among three groups: pregnant males, non-pregnant males and egg producing females. Brood size in pregnant males was unrelated to brain size or the size of any other organ, whereas positive relationships were found between ovary size, kidney size and liver size in females. Moreover, we found that the size a suite of energetically expensive organs (brain, heart, gut, kidney, liver) as well as the amount of visceral fat did not differ between pregnant and non-pregnant males. However, we found marked differences in relative size of the expensive organs between sexes. Females had larger liver and kidney than males, whereas males stored more visceral fat than females. Furthermore, in females we found a negative correlation between brain size and the amount of visceral fat, whereas in males a positive trend between brain size and both liver and heart size was found. These results suggest that, while the majority of variation in the size of various expensive organs in this species likely reflects that individuals in good condition can afford to allocate resources to several organs, the cost of the expensive brain was visible in the visceral fat content of females, possibly due to the high costs associated with female egg production. 

  • 1500.
    Tsuda, Yoshiaki
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Växtekologi och evolution. CNR, Inst Biosci & Bioresources, Via Madonna del Piano 10, I-50019 Florence, Italy..
    Chen, Jun
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Växtekologi och evolution.
    Stocks, Michael
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Växtekologi och evolution.
    Källman, Thomas
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Sonstebo, Jorn Henrik
    Norwegian Inst Bioecon Res, Post Box 115, N-1431 As, Norway..
    Parducci, Laura
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Växtekologi och evolution.
    Semerikov, Vladimir
    Russian Acad Sci, Inst Plant & Anim Ecol, Urals Div, 8 Marta Str,202, Ekaterinburg 620144, Russia..
    Sperisen, Christoph
    Swiss Fed Res Inst Forest, Snow & Landscape Res WSL, Zurcherstr 111, CH-8903 Birmensdorf, Switzerland..
    Politov, Dmitry
    Russian Acad Sci, Vavilov Inst Gen Genet, Gubkin Str 3, Moscow 119991, Russia..
    Ronkainen, Tiina
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Environm Sci, Environm Change Res Unit, POB 65, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland..
    Valiranta, Minna
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Environm Sci, Environm Change Res Unit, POB 65, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland..
    Vendramin, Giovanni Giuseppe
    CNR, Inst Biosci & Bioresources, Via Madonna del Piano 10, I-50019 Florence, Italy..
    Tollefsrud, Mari Mette
    Norwegian Inst Bioecon Res, Post Box 115, N-1431 As, Norway..
    Lascoux, Martin
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Växtekologi och evolution.
    The extent and meaning of hybridization and introgression between Siberian spruce (Picea obovata) and Norway spruce (Picea abies): cryptic refugia as stepping stones to the west?2016Inngår i: Molecular Ecology, ISSN 0962-1083, E-ISSN 1365-294X, Vol. 25, nr 12, s. 2773-2789Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Boreal species were repeatedly exposed to ice ages and went through cycles of contraction and expansion while sister species alternated periods of contact and isolation. The resulting genetic structure is consequently complex, and demographic inferences are intrinsically challenging. The range of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Siberian spruce (Picea obovata) covers most of northern Eurasia; yet their geographical limits and histories remain poorly understood. To delineate the hybrid zone between the two species and reconstruct their joint demographic history, we analysed variation at nuclear SSR and mitochondrial DNA in 102 and 88 populations, respectively. The dynamics of the hybrid zone was analysed with approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) followed by posterior predictive STRUCTURE plot reconstruction and the presence of barriers across the range tested with estimated effective migration surfaces. To estimate the divergence time between the two species, nuclear sequences from two well-separated populations of each species were analysed with ABC. Two main barriers divide the range of the two species: one corresponds to the hybrid zone between them, and the other separates the southern and northern domains of Norway spruce. The hybrid zone is centred on the Urals, but the genetic impact of Siberian spruce extends further west. The joint distribution of mitochondrial and nuclear variation indicates an introgression of mitochondrial DNA from Norway spruce into Siberian spruce. Overall, our data reveal a demographic history where the two species interacted frequently and where migrants originating from the Urals and the West Siberian Plain recolonized northern Russia and Scandinavia using scattered refugial populations of Norway spruce as stepping stones towards the west.

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