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  • 1251.
    Yu, Ning
    et al.
    Univ Michigan, MI 48109 USA; Shanghai Skin Dis Hosp, Peoples R China.
    Lambert, Sylviane
    Univ Michigan, MI 48109 USA.
    Bornstein, Joshua
    Univ Michigan, MI 48109 USA.
    Nair, Rajan P.
    Univ Michigan, MI 48109 USA.
    Enerbäck, Charlotta
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för cellbiologi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Hudkliniken i Östergötland. Univ Michigan, MI 48109 USA.
    Elder, James T.
    Univ Michigan, MI 48109 USA; Ann Arbor Vet Affairs Hlth Syst, MI 48105 USA.
    The Act1 D10N missense variant impairs CD40 signaling in human B-cells2019Ingår i: Genes and Immunity, ISSN 1466-4879, E-ISSN 1476-5470, Vol. 20, nr 1, s. 23-31Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The TRAF3IP2 gene resides within one of at least 63 psoriasis susceptibility loci and encodes Act1, an adapter protein involved in IL-17 receptor and CD40 signaling pathways. TRAF3IP2 is distinctive (among amp;lt; 10% of candidate susceptibility genes) in that a strongly disease-associated variant encodes a missense SNP predicted to be functionally relevant (SNP rs33980500 C/T encoding Act1 pD10N). As assessed by flow cytometry, Act1 protein was expressed at the highest levels in monocytes, with lower levels in T-cells and B-cells. However, monocytes, T-cells and B-cells failed to respond to IL-17A stimulation of PBMC, as measured by flow cytometric determination of NF-kappa B phospho-p65. As an alternative stimulus, we treated PBMCs with trimerized recombinant human CD40L and assessed p65, p38 and Erk phosphorylation in CD19(+) B-cells as a function of D10N genotype. The increase of phosphorylated p65, p38, and Erk was well-correlated across individuals, and CD40L-induced phosphorylation of p65, p38, and Erk was significantly attenuated in B-cells from Act1 D10N homozygotes, compared to heterozygotes and nullizygotes. Our results indicate that the Act1 D10N variant is a relevant genetic determinant of CD40L responsiveness in human B-cells, with the risk allele being associated with lower B-cell responses in an acute signaling context.

  • 1252.
    Yu, Zhang
    et al.
    Changchun Brother Biotech Co Ltd, Changchun 130062, Peoples R China..
    Jing, Huang
    Jilin Univ, Affiliated Hosp 1, Dept Lab, Changchun 130021, Peoples R China..
    Hongtao, Pan
    Furong, Jia
    Yuting, Jin
    Xu, Shengyuan
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Biokemisk struktur och funktion.
    Venge, Per
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Biokemisk struktur och funktion.
    Distinction between bacterial and viral infections by serum measurement of human neutrophil lipocalin (HNL) and the impact of antibody selection2016Ingår i: JIM - Journal of Immunological Methods, ISSN 0022-1759, E-ISSN 1872-7905, Vol. 432, s. 82-86Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The distinction between acute infections of bacterial or viral causes is clinically important, but often very difficult even for experienced doctors. Previous studies indicated that serum measurements of HNL (Human Neutrophil Lipocalin) might be a superior diagnostic means in this regard, but also indicated that the antibody conformation of the HNL assay might have an impact on the diagnostic performance. The aim of the present report was to examine this further. Methods: Several different (n = 24) HNL ELISA assays were developed using different combinations of monoclonal and polyclonal HNL antibodies. Sera were collected from healthy persons (n = 188) and from 155 patients with acute infections.before any antibiotics treatment. The patients were diagnosed as having bacterial (n = 69) or viral causes (n = 86) of their infections. Plasma and serum were also examined by Western blotting using HNL-specific polyclonal antibodies. Results: The optimal assay format for the distinction between bacterial and viral infection resulted in an area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AuROC) for S-HNL of 0.98. (95% CI 0.94-1.00) as compared to 0.83 (0.76-0.88) for blood neutrophil counts and 0.69 (0.61-0.76) for S-CRP. Results also showed that different assay formats of HNL identified monomeric and dimeric HNL differently, the monomeric HNL being elevated in viral infections and the dimeric HNL being elevated in bacterial infections. Conclusion: We conclude that serum theasurement of HNL is a superior diagnostic means to distinguish between acute infections caused by bacteria or virus. For optimal clinical performance the immunoassay should address conformational epitopes in the dimeric HNL.

  • 1253.
    Zarnegar, Behdad
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Dahlin, Joakim
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Westin, Annika
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Hallgren Martinsson, Jenny
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Does Cell Proliferation Contribute to the OVA-Induced Increase of Lung Mast Cell Progenitors in a Mouse Asthma Model?2014Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology, ISSN 0300-9475, E-ISSN 1365-3083, Vol. 79, nr 6, s. 463-463Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 1254.
    Zarnegar, Behdad
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Mendez-Enriquez, Erika
    Westin, Annika
    Söderberg, Cecilia
    Dahlin, Joakim
    Grönvik, Kjell-Olov
    Hallgren, Jenny
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Influenza infection in mice induces the accumulation of lung mast cells through the recruitment and maturation of mast cell progenitorsManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 1255.
    Zarnegar, Behdad
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Mendez-Enriquez, Erika
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Westin, Annika
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Söderberg, Cecilia
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Dahlin, Joakim S.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Grönvik, Kjell-Olov
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi. Natl Vet Inst, Uppsala Immunobiol Lab, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Hallgren, Jenny
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Influenza Infection in Mice Induces Accumulation of Lung Mast Cells through the Recruitment and Maturation of Mast Cell Progenitors2017Ingår i: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 8, artikel-id 310Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Mast cells (MCs) are powerful immune cells that mature in the peripheral tissues from bone marrow (BM)-derived mast cell progenitors (MCp). Accumulation of MCs in lung compartments where they are normally absent is thought to enhance symptoms in asthma. The enrichment of lung MCs is also observed in mice subjected to models of allergic airway inflammation. However, whether other types of lung inflammation trigger increased number of MCp, which give rise to MCs, is unknown. Here, mouse-adapted H1N1 influenza A was used as a model of respiratory virus infection. Intranasal administration of the virus induced expression of VCAM-1 on the lung vascular endothelium and an extensive increase in integrin beta 7(hi) lung MCp. Experiments were performed to distinguish whether the influenza-induced increase in the number of lung MCp was triggered mainly by recruitment or in situ cell proliferation. A similar proportion of lung MCp from influenza-infected and PBS control mice were found to be in a proliferative state. Furthermore, BM chimeric mice were used in which the possibility of influenza-induced in situ cell proliferation of host MCp was prevented. Influenza infection in the chimeric mice induced a similar number of lung MCp as in normal mice. These experiments demonstrated that recruitment of MCp to the lung is the major mechanism behind the influenza-induced increase in lung MCp. Fifteen days post-infection, the influenza infection had elicited an immature MC population expressing intermediate levels of integrin beta 7, which was absent in controls. At the same time point, an increased number of toluidine blue(+) MCs was detected in the upper central airways. When the inflammation was resolved, the MCs that accumulated in the lung upon influenza infection were gradually lost. In summary, our study reveals that influenza infection induces a transient accumulation of lung MCs through the recruitment and maturation of MCp. We speculate that temporary augmented numbers of lung MCs are a cause behind virus-induced exacerbations of MC-related lung diseases such as asthma.

  • 1256.
    Zarnegar, Behdad
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Westin, Annika
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Evangelidou, Syrmoula
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Hallgren, Jenny
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Innate Immunity Induces the Accumulation of Lung Mast Cells During Influenza Infection2018Ingår i: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 9, artikel-id 2288Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Mast cells release disease-causing mediators and accumulate in the lung of asthmatics. The most common cause of exacerbations of asthma is respiratory virus infections such as influenza. Recently, we demonstrated that influenza infection in mice triggers the recruitment of mast cell progenitors to the lung. This process starts early after infection and leads to the accumulation of mast cells. Previous studies showed that an adaptive immune response was required to trigger the recruitment of mast cell progenitors to the lung in a mouse model of allergic lung inflammation. Therefore, we set out to determine whether an adaptive immune response against the virus is needed to cause the influenza-induced recruitment of mast cell progenitors to the lung. We found that influenza-induced recruitment of mast cell progenitors to the lung was intact in Rag2(-/-) mice and mice depleted of CD4(+) cells, implicating the involvement of innate immune signals in this process. Seven weeks after the primary infection, the influenza-exposed mice harbored more lung mast cells than unexposed mice. As innate immunity was implicated in stimulating the recruitment process, several compounds known to trigger innate immune responses were administrated intranasally to test their ability to cause an increase in lung mast cell progenitors. Poly I:C, a synthetic analog of viral dsRNA, induced a TLR3-dependent increase in lung mast cell progenitors. In addition, IL-33 induced an ST2-dependent increase in lung mast cell progenitors. In contrast, the influenza-induced recruitment of mast cell progenitors to the lung occurred independently of either TLR3 or ST2, as demonstrated using Tlr3(-/-) or Il1rl1(-/-) mice. Furthermore, neutralization of IL-33 in Tlr3(-/-) mice could not abrogate the influenza-induced influx of mast cell progenitors to the lung. These results suggest that other innate receptor(s) contribute to mount the influx of mast cell progenitors to the lung upon influenza infection. Our study establishes that mast cell progenitors can be rapidly recruited to the lung by innate immune signals. This indicates that during life various innate stimuli of the respiratory tract trigger increases in the mast cell population within the lung. The expanded mast cell population may contribute to the exacerbations of symptoms which occurs when asthmatics are exposed to respiratory infections.

  • 1257.
    Zarnegar, Behdad
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Westin, Annika
    Hallgren, Jenny
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Stimulation of TLR3 or ST2 triggers an increase in the number of mast cell progenitors in the lungManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 1258. Zegenhagen, Loreen
    et al.
    Weber, Elvira
    Kurade, Chaitanya
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Virologi.
    Nair, Sharmila
    Överby, Anna K.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Virologi.
    Kroeger, Andrea
    Differential innate immune responses in various brain regions regulate antiviral response in the CNS during Tick-borne encephalitis virus infection2015Ingår i: Cytokine, ISSN 1043-4666, E-ISSN 1096-0023, Vol. 76, nr 1, s. 91-91Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 1259.
    Zhang, Boxi
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap och medicin.
    Khalaf, Hazem
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap och medicin.
    Sirsjö, Allan
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap och medicin.
    Bengtsson, Torbjörn
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för läkarutbildning.
    Gingipains from the Periodontal Pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis Play a Significant Role in Regulation of Angiopoietin 1 and Angiopoietin 2 in Human Aortic Smooth Muscle Cells2015Ingår i: Infection and Immunity, ISSN 0019-9567, E-ISSN 1098-5522, Vol. 83, nr 11, s. 4256-4265Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Angiopoietin 1 (Angpt1) and angiopoietin 2 (Angpt2) are the ligands of tyrosine kinase (Tie) receptors, and they play important roles in vessel formation and the development of inflammatory diseases, such as atherosclerosis. Porphyromonas gingivalis is a Gram-negative periodontal bacterium that is thought to contribute to the progression of cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of P. gingivalis infection in the modulation of Angpt1 and Angpt2 in human aortic smooth muscle cells (AoSMCs). We exposed AoSMCs to wild-type (W50 and 381), gingipain mutant (E8 and K1A), and fimbrial mutant (DPG-3 and KRX-178) P. gingivalis strains and to different concentrations of tumor necrosis factor (TNF). The atherosclerosis risk factor TNF was used as a positive control in this study. We found that P. gingivalis (wild type, K1A, DPG3, and KRX178) and TNF upregulated the expression of Angpt2 and its transcription factor ETS1, respectively, in AoSMCs. In contrast, Angpt1 was inhibited by P. gingivalis and TNF. However, the RgpAB mutant E8 had no effect on the expression of Angpt1, Angpt2, or ETS1 in AoSMCs. The results also showed that ETS1 is critical for P. gingivalis induction of Angpt2. Exposure to Angpt2 protein enhanced the migration of AoSMCs but had no effect on proliferation. This study demonstrates that gingipains are crucial to the ability of P. gingivalis to markedly increase the expressed Angpt2/Angpt1 ratio in AoSMCs, which determines the regulatory role of angiopoietins in angiogenesis and their involvement in the development of atherosclerosis. These findings further support the association between periodontitis and cardiovascular disease.

  • 1260.
    Zhang, Lu
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    IgG3 Complements IgM in the Complement-Mediated Regulation of Immune Responses2017Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    An intact complement system is essential for the initiation of a normal antibody response. Antibodies can regulate their own production against the antigens that they are specific for. Both IgG3 and IgM are able to enhance the antibody response via complement. Here, we have compared the fate of OVA-TNP (ovalbumin-2,4,6-trinitrophenyl) administered intravenously to mice either alone or in complex with monoclonal IgG3 anti-TNP. IgG3-antigen complexes bind to marginal zone (MZ) B cells via complement receptors 1 and 2 (CR1/2) and are transported into splenic follicles. The majority (50% - 90%) of the antigens is deposited on follicular dendritic cells (FDC) and the antigen distribution pattern is strikingly similar to peripheral dendrites/processes of FDC already 2 h after immunization. The development of germinal centers (GC) induced by IgG3-antigen complexes is impaired in mice lacking CR1/2. Experiments on bone marrow chimeric mice show that CR1/2 expression on both MZ B cells and FDC is required for optimal IgG3-mediated enhancement of antibody responses. Complement factors C3 and C1q are essential for OVA-TNP delivery and deposition on splenic FDC. The production of IgG anti-OVA is abrogated in mice lacking CR1/2, C1q, and C3. Further, IgG3-antigen complexes dramatically upregulate the memory response against OVA-TNP by inducing OVA-specific memory cells. Besides small protein OVA, IgG3 can also upregulate humoral responses against large soluble keyhole limpet hemocyanin.

    To further study the role of MZ B-cells and CR1/2 in enhancement of antibody responses, a knock-in mouse strain, Cμ13, was used. IgM in this mouse strain is unable to activate complement due to a point mutation in the constant µ-heavy chain. Cμ13 mice have a higher proportion of MZ B cells, with higher CR1/2 expression, than wild-type mice. More IgG3-immune complexes are captured by MZ B cells and deposited on FDC in Cμ13 than in WT mice. In spite of this, IgG3 did not enhance the primary antibody response more efficiently in Cμ13 mice. The existence of endogenous IgM-mediated feedback regulation was suggested by the observation that GC development and antibody responses, after priming and boosting with suboptimal doses of SRBC, was lower in Cμ13 than in WT mice.

  • 1261.
    Zhang, Lu
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Ding, Zhoujie
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Heyman, Birgitta
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    IgG3-Antigen Complexes Are Deposited on Follicular Dendritic Cells in the Presence of C1q and C3Ingår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 1262.
    Zhang, Lu
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Ding, Zhoujie
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Xu, Hui
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Heyman, Birgitta
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Marginal Zone B Cells Transport IgG3-Immune Complexes to Splenic Follicles2014Ingår i: Journal of Immunology, ISSN 0022-1767, E-ISSN 1550-6606, Vol. 193, nr 4, s. 1681-1689Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Ag administered together with specific IgG3 induces a higher Ab response than Ag administered alone, an effect requiring the presence of complement receptors 1 and 2 (CR1/2). In this study, we have investigated the fate of Ag, the development of germinal centers (GCs), and the Ab response after i.v. administration of IgG3 anti-trinitrophenyl (TNP) in complex with OVA-TNP. After 2 h, OVA-TNP was detected on marginal zone (MZ) B cells, and a substantial amount of Ag was detected in splenic follicles and colocalized with follicular dendritic cells (FDCs). After 10 d, the percentage of GCs and the IgG responses were markedly higher than in mice immunized with uncomplexed OVA-TNP. The effects of IgG3 were dependent on CR1/2 known to be expressed on B cells and FDCs. Using bone marrow chimeric mice, we demonstrate that an optimal response to IgG3-Ag complexes requires that CR1/2 is expressed on both cell types. These data suggest that CR1/2(+) MZ B cells transport IgG3-Ag-C complexes from the MZ to the follicles, where they are captured by FDCs and induce GCs and IgG production. This pathway for initiating the transport of Ags into splenic follicles complements previously known B-cell dependent pathways where Ag is transported by 1) MZ B cells, binding large Ags-IgM-C complexes via CR1/2; 2) recirculating B cells, binding Ag via BCR; or 3) recirculating B cells, binding IgE-Ag complexes via the low-affinity receptor for IgE, CD23.

  • 1263.
    Zhang, Lu
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Ding, Zhoujie
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Xu, Hui
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Heyman, Birgitta
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Marginal-zone B cells transport IgG3-antigen immune complexes into splenic B cell follicles2014Ingår i: Molecular Immunology, ISSN 0161-5890, E-ISSN 1872-9142, Vol. 61, nr 2, s. 278-278Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 1264.
    Zhang, Lu
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Ding, Zhoujie
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Xu, Hui
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Heyman, Birgitta
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    MZ B Cells Transport IgG3-Ag to Splenic Follicles and Induce Germinal Centers2014Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology, ISSN 0300-9475, E-ISSN 1365-3083, Vol. 80, nr 3, s. 239-239Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 1265.
    Zhang, Lu
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Sörman, Anna
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Westin, Annika
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Heyman, Birgitta
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Mice Producing IgM Unable to Activate Complement Have Impaired Endogenous Feedback Regulation but Increased Antigen Trapping in FolliclesManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 1266.
    Zhao, Fei
    et al.
    Leibniz Inst Nat Prod Res & Infect Biol, Deparment Infect Biol, Jena, Germany.
    Afonso, Sara
    Leibniz Inst Nat Prod Res & Infect Biol, Deparment Infect Biol, Jena, Germany.
    Lindner, Susanne
    Leibniz Inst Nat Prod Res & Infect Biol, Deparment Infect Biol, Jena, Germany.
    Hartmann, Andrea
    Leibniz Inst Nat Prod Res & Infect Biol, Deparment Infect Biol, Jena, Germany.
    Loeschmann, Ina
    Leibniz Inst Nat Prod Res & Infect Biol, Deparment Infect Biol, Jena, Germany.
    Nilsson, Bo
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi, Klinisk immunologi.
    Ekdahl, Kristina N.
    Linnaeus Univ, Linneaus Ctr Bomat Chem, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Weber, Lutz T.
    Univ Hosp Cologne, Childrens & Adolescents Hosp Cologne, Cologne, Germany.
    Habbig, Sandra
    Univ Hosp Cologne, Childrens & Adolescents Hosp Cologne, Cologne, Germany.
    Schalk, Gesa
    Univ Hosp Cologne, Childrens & Adolescents Hosp Cologne, Cologne, Germany.
    Kirschfink, Michael
    Heidelberg Univ, Inst Immunol, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Zipfel, Peter F.
    Leibniz Inst Nat Prod Res & Infect Biol, Deparment Infect Biol, Jena, Germany;Friedrich Schiller Univ Jena, Fac Life Sci, Jena, Germany.
    Skerka, Christine
    Leibniz Inst Nat Prod Res & Infect Biol, Deparment Infect Biol, Jena, Germany.
    C3-Glomerulopathy Autoantibodies Mediate Distinct Effects on Complement C3-and C5-Convertases2019Ingår i: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 10, artikel-id 1030Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    C3 glomerulopathy (C3G) is a severe kidney disease, which is caused by defective regulation of the alternative complement pathway. Disease pathogenesis is heterogeneous and is caused by both autoimmune and genetic factors. Here we characterized IgG autoantibodies derived from 33 patients with autoimmune C3 glomerulopathy. Serum antibodies from all 33 patients as well as purified IgGs bound to the in vitro assembled C3-convertase. Noteworthy, two groups of antibodies were identified: group 1 with strong (12 patients) and group 2 with weak binding C3-convertase autoantibodies (22 patients). C3Nef, as evaluated in a standard C3Nef assay, was identified in serum from 19 patients, which included patients from group 1 as well as group 2. The C3-convertase binding profile was independent of C3Nef. Group 1 antibodies, but not the group 2 antibodies stabilized the C3-convertase, and protected the enzyme from dissociation by Factor H. Also, only group 1 antibodies induced C3a release. However, both group 1 and group 2 autoantibodies bound to the C5-convertase and induced C5a generation, which was inhibited by monoclonal anti-C5 antibody Eculizumab in vitro. In summary, group 1 antibodies are composed of C3Nef and C5Nef antibodies and likely over-activate the complement system, as seen in hemolytic assays. Group 2 antibodies show predominantly C5Nef like activities and stabilize the C5 but not the C3-convertase. Altogether, these different profiles not only reveal a heterogeneity of the autoimmune forms of C3G (MPGN), they also show that in diagnosis of C3G not all autoimmune forms are identified and thus more vigorous autoantibody testing should be performed.

  • 1267.
    Zhao, Hongxing
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi, Genomik.
    Chen, Maoshan
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi.
    Pettersson, Ulf
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi, Genomik.
    A new look at adenovirus splicing2014Ingår i: Virology, ISSN 0042-6822, E-ISSN 1096-0341, Vol. 456, s. 329-341Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Adenovirus type 2 RNA splicing events were quantitatively mapped by using deep cDNA sequencing. The majority of the previously identified splice sites were detected. The lack of complete consistency between the present and previous results is because of some sites which were incorrectly mapped in previous studies, such as the splice sites for pVII, pVIII and E3-11.6K. Several previously predicted splice sites such as that for E3-14.5K and E4ORF3/4 were not detected. In addition, several new splice sites were identified. The novel RNAs may code for hitherto undetected proteins or alternatively spliced mRNAs for known proteins. The open reading frames downstream of two novel splice sites, located in the major late transcription unit region, were shown to be highly conserved. Another interesting possibility is that some of them are non-coding RNAs. Finally, the adenovirus mRNA polyadenylation sites were accurately mapped and in some cases shown to be heterogeneous.

  • 1268. Zhao, Linshu
    et al.
    Vahlquist, Anders
    Virtanen, Marie
    Wennerstrand, Lena
    Lind, Lisbet K.
    Lundström, Anita
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Dermatologi och venereologi.
    Pigg, Maritta Hellström
    Palmoplantar Keratoderma of the Gamborg-Nielsen Type is Caused by Mutations in the SLURP1 Gene and Represents a Variant of Mal de Meleda2014Ingår i: Acta Dermato-Venereologica, ISSN 0001-5555, E-ISSN 1651-2057, Vol. 94, nr 6, s. 707-710Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Palmoplantar keratoderma of the Gamborg-Nielsen type (PPK-GN) is a rare autosomal recessive skin disorder described in patients from Sweden. Mal de Meleda (MDM) is also a rare autosomal recessive inherited PPK first reported in 5 families from the island of Meleda. The 2 conditions phenotypically overlap and are characterised by palmoplantar erythematous hyperkeratotic plaques. The genetic background giving rise to PPK-GN has hitherto been unknown, whereas MDM is known to be caused by mutations in the gene encoding secreted Ly-6/uPAR-related protein 1, SLURP-1. In the present study we scrutinised individuals affected by PPK-GN for mutations in the SLURP1 gene and identified 2 different mutations. Fourteen Swedish patients were homozygous for a previously described mutation, c.43T>C, while one individual was a compound heterozygote with one copy of a novel mutation, c.280T>A, in addition to one copy of the c.43T>C mutation. Hereby we confirm that PPK-GN is an allelic variant of MDM.

  • 1269. Zhu, Bing
    et al.
    Trikudanathan, Subbulaxmi
    Zozulya, Alla L
    Sandoval-Garcia, Carolina
    Kennedy, Jennifer K
    Atochina, Olga
    Norberg, Thomas
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - BMC, Fysikalisk-organisk kemi.
    Castagner, Bastien
    Seeberger, Peter
    Fabry, Zsuzsa
    Harn, Donald
    Khoury, Samia J
    Guleria, Indira
    Immune modulation by Lacto-N-fucopentaose III in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis2012Ingår i: Clinical Immunology, ISSN 1521-6616, E-ISSN 1521-7035, Vol. 142, nr 3, s. 351-361Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Parasitic infections frequently lead to immune deviation or suppression. However, the application of specific parasitic molecules in regulating autoimmune responses remains to be explored. Here we report on the immune modulatory function of Lacto-N-fucopentaose III (LNFPIII), a schistosome glycan, in an animal model for multiple sclerosis. We found that LNFPIII treatment significantly reduced the severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and CNS inflammation, and skewed peripheral immune response to a Th2 dominant profile. Inflammatory monocytes (IMCs) purified from LNFPIII-treated mice had increased expression of nitric oxide synthase 2, and mediated T cell suppression. LNFPIII treatment also significantly increasedmRNA expression of arginase-1, aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 subfamily A2, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase and heme oxygenase 1 in splenic IMCs. Furthermore, LNFPIII treatment significantly reduced trafficking of dendritic cells across brain endothelium in vitro

    . In summary, our study demonstrates that LNFPIII glycan treatment suppresses EAE by modulating both innate and T cell immune response.

  • 1270. Zickert, Agneta
    et al.
    Amoudruz, Petra
    Sundstrom, Yvonne
    Rönnelid, Johan
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi, Klinisk immunologi.
    Malmstrom, Vivianne
    Gunnarsson, Iva
    IL-17 and IL-23 in lupus nephritis - association to histopathology and response to treatment2015Ingår i: BMC Immunology, ISSN 1471-2172, E-ISSN 1471-2172, Vol. 16, artikel-id 7Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Recent studies indicate a central role for the IL-23/IL-17 axis in the pathogenesis of lupus nephritis (LN) but the importance in the context of treatment outcome is unknown. We studied various cytokines, including the IL-23/IL-17 axis, in association to histopathology and response to therapy. Methods: Fifty-two patients with active LN were included. Renal biopsies were performed at baseline and after immunosuppressive treatment. Serum levels of TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, IL-23 and TGF-beta were analysed at both biopsy occasions and in 13 healthy controls. IL-17 expression in renal tissue was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Biopsies were evaluated regarding WHO-classification and renal disease activity was estimated using the BILAG-index. Improvement of 2 grades in renal BILAG was regarded complete response, and 1 grade partial response. Results: At baseline, all patients had high disease activity (BILAG A/B). Baseline levels of IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, IL-23 (p < 0.001) and IFN-gamma (p = 0.03) were increased in patients vs. controls. In contrast, TGF-beta was lower in patients compared to controls (p < 0.001). Baseline levels of IL-17 were higher in patients with persisting active nephritis (WHO III, IV, V) after treatment, i.e. a poor histological response, vs. WHO I-II (p < 0.03). At follow-up, IL-23 were higher in BILAG-non-responders vs. responders (p < 0.05). Immunostaining of renal tissue revealed IL-17 expression in inflammatory infiltrates. Conclusions: High baseline IL-17 predicted an unfavourable histopathological response, and BILAG-non-responders had high IL-23, indicating that that a subset of LN-patients has a Th-17 phenotype that may influence response to treatment and could be evaluated as a biomarker for poor therapeutic response.

  • 1271.
    Zieba, Agata
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi. Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Ponten, Fredrik
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi. Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Uhlen, Mathias
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sci Life Lab, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Landegren, Ulf
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi. Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    In situ protein detection with enhanced specificity using DNA-conjugated antibodies and proximity ligation2018Ingår i: Modern Pathology, ISSN 0893-3952, E-ISSN 1530-0285, Vol. 31, nr 2, s. 253-263Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Antibodies are important tools in anatomical pathology and research, but the quality of in situ protein detection by immunohistochemistry greatly depends on the choice of antibodies and the abundance of the targeted proteins. Many antibodies used in scientific research do not meet requirements for specificity and sensitivity. Accordingly, methods that improve antibody performance and produce quantitative data can greatly advance both scientific investigations and clinical diagnostics based on protein expression and in situ localization. We demonstrate here protocols for antibody labeling that allow specific protein detection in tissues via bright-field in situ proximity ligation assays, where each protein molecule must be recognized by two antibodies. We further demonstrate that single polyclonal antibodies or purified serum preparations can be used for these dual recognition assays. The requirement for protein recognition by pairs of antibody conjugates can significantly improve specificity of protein detection over single-binder assays.

  • 1272. Zocher, Georg
    et al.
    Mistry, Nitesh
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Virologi.
    Frank, Martin
    Hähnlein-Schick, Irmgard
    Ekström, Jens-Ola
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Arnberg, Niklas
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Virologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS).
    Stehle, Thilo
    A sialic acid binding site in a human picornavirus2014Ingår i: PLoS Pathogens, ISSN 1553-7366, E-ISSN 1553-7374, Vol. 10, nr 10, s. e1004401-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The picornaviruses coxsackievirus A24 variant (CVA24v) and enterovirus 70 (EV70) cause continued outbreaks and pandemics of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC), a highly contagious eye disease against which neither vaccines nor antiviral drugs are currently available. Moreover, these viruses can cause symptoms in the cornea, upper respiratory tract, and neurological impairments such as acute flaccid paralysis. EV70 and CVA24v are both known to use 5-N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) for cell attachment, thus providing a putative link between the glycan receptor specificity and cell tropism and disease. We report the structures of an intact human picornavirus in complex with a range of glycans terminating in Neu5Ac. We determined the structure of the CVA24v to 1.40 angstrom resolution, screened different glycans bearing Neu5Ac for CVA24v binding, and structurally characterized interactions with candidate glycan receptors. Biochemical studies verified the relevance of the binding site and demonstrated a preference of CVA24v for alpha 2,6-linked glycans. This preference can be rationalized by molecular dynamics simulations that show that alpha 2,6-linked glycans can establish more contacts with the viral capsid. Our results form an excellent platform for the design of antiviral compounds to prevent AHC.

  • 1273. Zouikr, Ihssane
    et al.
    Karshikoff, Bianka
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Lifetime Modulation of the Pain System via Neuroimmune and Neuroendocrine interactions2017Ingår i: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 8, artikel-id 276Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Chronic pain is a debilitating condition that still is challenging both clinicians and researchers. Despite intense research, it is still not clear why some individuals develop chronic pain while others do not or how to heal this disease. In this review, we argue for a multisystem approach to understand chronic pain. Pain is not only to be viewed simply as a result of aberrant neuronal activity but also as a result of adverse early-life experiences that impact an individual's endocrine, immune, and nervous systems and changes which in turn program the pain system. First, we give an overview of the ontogeny of the central nervous system, endocrine, and immune systems and their windows of vulnerability. Thereafter, we summarize human and animal findings from our laboratories and others that point to an important role of the endocrine and immune systems in modulating pain sensitivity. Taking early-life history into account, together with the past and current immunological and endocrine status of chronic pain patients, is a necessary step to understand chronic pain pathophysiology and assist clinicians in tailoring the best therapeutic approach.

  • 1274.
    Åhlin, Erik
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi, Klinisk immunologi.
    Functional Role of Immune Complexes in Rheumatic and Parasitic Diseases2011Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Immune complexes (IC) have key pathological roles in both autoimmune and infectious diseases. In this thesis functional mechanisms behind IC-driven inflammation in rheumatic diseases and tropical infections have been studied, with special focus on the contribution of autoantibodies and cytokine-inducing properties of IC. In the autoimmune disease SLE, increased levels of IC-induced cytokines were associated with both increased classical complement activation and the occurrence of the autoantibodies anti-SSA and anti-SSB, both directed against RNA-associated antigens. In addition, complement activation and anti-SSA synergistically predisposed to higher levels of IC in sera. In the following study it was demonstrated that also other autoantibodies against RNA-associated autoantigens were more enriched than anti-dsDNA in SLE IC.

    Sudanese Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) patients had elevated IC levels, and precipitated IC induced higher levels of GM-CSF, IL10, IL6 and IL1RA than control IC. Levels of IC were especially prominent in severely ill patients receiving antimony treatment, and a parallel association with IC induction of GM-CSF was demonstrated. Leishmania-infected patients were often rheumatoid factor (RF) positive and a substantial number displayed reactivity towards cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) antigens. Contrary to what was seen in Sudanese RA sera, the CCP reactivity was not restricted to citrulline but reacted equally well with arginine-containing control peptides. Levels of anti-CCP among VL patients were not due to cross-reactions with, or CCP-reactivity bound to IC.

    I have demonstrated that IC are associated with the presence of autoantibodies in both SLE and in Leishmania infection. In SLE, autoantibodies against RNA-associated antigens were more prone to form circulating IC than anti-dsDNA. In Leishmania infection false reactivity against the CCP-autoantigen correlated to IC levels although the IC themselves did not contain such reactivity. In both diseases higher IC levels were associated with a more active disease, and purified IC induced key cytokines in disease pathogeneses.

  • 1275.
    Åhlin, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi, Klinisk immunologi.
    Elshafie, Amir I.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi, Klinisk immunologi.
    Nur, M. A. M.
    Rönnelid, Johan
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi, Klinisk immunologi.
    Anti-Citrullinated Peptide Antibodies in Sudanese Patients with Leishmania donovani Infection Exhibit Reactivity not Dependent on Citrullination2015Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology, ISSN 0300-9475, E-ISSN 1365-3083, Vol. 81, nr 3, s. 201-208Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    African patients with Leishmania donovani infections have signs of strong systemic inflammation and high levels of circulating immune complexes (IC) and rheumatoid factor (RF), all serologic markers of rheumatic disease. As inflammation in general is associated with citrullination, we sought to investigate ACPA responses in Sudanese Leishmania patients. Serum samples were collected from Sudanese patients with visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) as well as from ACPA-positive Sudanese rheumatoid arthritis patients and compared to healthy Sudanese controls. Levels of circulating C1q-binding IC and anticyclic citrullinated peptide 2(CCP2) were investigated using ELISA, and RF was measured with nephelometry. C1q adsorption was carried out to investigate anti-CCP2 content in IC. Citrulline specificity was evaluated with control plates with cyclic arginine-containing control peptides. Leishmania-infected patients had elevated levels of RF and circulating IC but also a significant increase in anti-CCP2 (12%) as compared to healthy controls. Anti-CCP2-positive Leishmania patients displayed lower anti-CCP2 levels than Sudanese patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and anti-CCP2 levels in Leishmania patients showed a continuum not resembling the dichotomous pattern seen in patients with RA. Whereas the anti-CCP reactivity of Sudanese RA sera was strictly citrulline dependent, anti-CCP2-positive Leishmania sera reacted equally well with ELISA plates containing arginine control peptides. There was a strong correlation between anti-CCP2 and circulating IC among the Leishmania patients, but IC depletion only marginally diminished anti-CCP2 levels. Our findings stress the importance to interpret a positive CCP test carefully when evaluated in non-rheumatic conditions associated with macrophage activation.

  • 1276.
    Åhlin, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för onkologi, radiologi och klinisk immunologi, Enheten för klinisk immunologi.
    Ibrahim Elshafie, Amir
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för onkologi, radiologi och klinisk immunologi, Enheten för klinisk immunologi.
    Nur, Musa A. M.
    Unit of Rheumatology, Alribat University Hospital, Khartoum, Sudan.
    Hassan El Safi, Sayda
    Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Khartoum, Sudan.
    Rönnelid, Johan
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för onkologi, radiologi och klinisk immunologi, Enheten för klinisk immunologi.
    Occurrence of rheumatoid arthritis-associated autoantibodies in Sudanese patients with Leishmania donovani infection Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    Our aim with this investigation was to evaluate the occurrence of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (anti-CCP), rheumatoid factor (RF) and circulating immune complexes (IC) in Sudanese patients infected with Leishmania donovani parasite.

    Methods

    Serum samples were collected from Leishmania infected patients and healthy Sudanese controls. Sudanese anti-CCP positive RA patients were included as positive controls. Data from all analyses were also compared with Swedish healthy control cohorts. Levels of circulating IC and anti-CCP were measured using ELISA and RF using nephelometry. A control plate with cyclic control peptides containing arginine instead of citrulline was used to evaluate citrulline specific reactivity.

    Results

    We demonstrate that sera from Leishmania infected patients are often RF positive, have elevated IC levels and that a substantial number exhibit antibody reactivity towards CCP. However, contrary to what was evident the in Sudanese RA sera, the CCP reactivity was not restricted to citrulline but reacted equally well with the arginine control peptide.

    Conclusions

    Our findings stress the importance to interpret a positive CCP test carefully when evaluated in non-rheumatic conditions.

  • 1277.
    Åhlin, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi, Klinisk immunologi.
    Mathsson, Linda
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi, Klinisk immunologi.
    Eloranta, Maija-Leena
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper.
    Jonsdottir, Thorunn
    Unit of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet.
    Gunnarsson, Iva
    Unit of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet.
    Rönnblom, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper.
    Rönnelid, Johan
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi, Klinisk immunologi.
    Autoantibodies associated with RNA are more enriched than anti-dsDNA antibodies in circulating immune complexes in SLE2012Ingår i: Lupus, ISSN 0961-2033, E-ISSN 1477-0962, Vol. 21, nr 6, s. 586-595Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    To what extent different autoantibodies accumulate in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) immune complexes (ICs), and whether such accumulation is associated with disease activity has been investigated. ICs were isolated from SLE sera by both polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation and C1q-binding. Autoantibody specificities were determined using a lineblot assay quantified by densitometry. To compare the relative levels of autoantibodies, levels were normalized to the total levels of IgG measured by ELISA in sera and parallel ICs. Samples were investigated both in a cross-sectional design as well as in a paired design with samples obtained during both active and inactive SLE. All investigated autoantibody specificities except anti-dsDNA were enriched in circulating ICs as compared with parallel sera. The group of antibodies against RNA-associated antigens (anti-RNP/Sm, anti-Sm, anti-SSA/Ro60, anti-SSA/Ro52, anti-SSB/La) all exhibited higher median enrichment than the DNA-associated (anti-dsDNA, anti-histones, anti-nucleosomes) or cytoplasmic (anti-ribosomal P) antigens. In particular autoantibodies against RNP/Sm and SSA/Ro52 had the highest degree of enrichment in SLE PEG precipitates. These findings were corroborated by analysis of autoantibody content in C1q-bound ICs. There was no difference in degree of IC accumulation of the investigated autoantibodies during active and inactive SLE. Our findings demonstrate a difference in enrichment between autoantibodies against RNA- and DNA-associated autoantigens in isolated SLE IC, suggesting that the RNA-associated autoantibodies are more prone to form circulating ICs in SLE, in contrast to antibodies against DNA-associated autoantigens such as dsDNA. These finding have implications in understanding mechanisms of differential autoantibody accumulation in target organs in SLE.

  • 1278.
    Åhlund, Monika K
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Rydén, Patrik
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för matematik och matematisk statistik.
    Sjöstedt, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Stöven, Svenja
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Directed screen of Francisella novicida virulence determinants using Drosophila melanogaster2010Ingår i: Infection and Immunity, ISSN 0019-9567, E-ISSN 1098-5522, Vol. 78, nr 7, s. 3118-3128Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Francisella tularensis is a highly virulent, facultative intracellular human pathogen whose virulence mechanisms are not well understood. Occasional outbreaks of tularemia and the potential use of F. tularensis as a bioterrorist agent warrant better knowledge about the pathogenicity of this bacterium. Thus far, genome-wide in vivo screens for virulence factors have been performed in mice, all however restricted by the necessity to apply competition-based, negative-selection assays. We wanted to individually evaluate putative virulence determinants suggested by such assays and performed directed screening of 249 F. novicida transposon insertion mutants by using survival of infected fruit flies as a measure of bacterial virulence. Some 20% of the genes tested were required for normal virulence in flies; most of these had not previously been investigated in detail in vitro or in vivo. We further characterized their involvement in bacterial proliferation and pathogenicity in flies and in mouse macrophages. Hierarchical cluster analysis of mutant phenotypes indicated a functional linkage between clustered genes. One cluster grouped all but four genes of the Francisella pathogenicity island and other loci required for intracellular survival. We also identified genes involved in adaptation to oxidative stress and genes which might induce host energy wasting. Several genes related to type IV pilus formation demonstrated hypervirulent mutant phenotypes. Collectively, the data demonstrate that the bacteria in part use similar virulence mechanisms in mammals as in Drosophila melanogaster but that a considerable proportion of the virulence factors active in mammals are dispensable for pathogenicity in the insect model.

  • 1279. Åkesson, K
    et al.
    Tompa, Andrea
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för naturvetenskap och biomedicin. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. Biomedicinsk plattform.
    Rydén, A
    Faresjö, Maria
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för naturvetenskap och biomedicin. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. Biomedicinsk plattform.
    Low expression of CD39+/CD45RA+ on regulatory T cells (Treg) cells in type 1 diabetic children in contrast to high expression of CD101+/CD129+ on Treg cells in children with coeliac disease2014Ingår i: Clinical and Experimental Immunology, ISSN 0009-9104, E-ISSN 1365-2249, Vol. 180, s. 70-82Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) and coeliac disease are both characterized by an autoimmune feature. As T1D and coeliac disease share the same risk genes, patients risk subsequently developing the other disease. This study aimed to investigate the expression of T helper (Th), T cytotoxic (Tc) and regulatory T cells (Treg) in T1D and/or coeliac disease children in comparison to healthy children. Subgroups of T cells (Th:CD4+ or Tc:CD8+); naive (CD27+CD28+CD45RA+CCR7+), central memory (CD27+CD28+CD45RA-CCR7+), effector memory (early differentiated; CD27+CD28+CD45RA-CCR7- and late differentiated; CD27-CD28-CD45RA-CCR7-), terminally differentiated effector cells (TEMRA; CD27-CD28-CD45RA+CCR7-) and Treg (CD4+CD25+FOXP3+CD127-) cells, and their expression of CD39, CD45RA, CD101 and CD129, were studied by flow cytometry in T1D and/or coeliac disease children or without any of these diseases (reference group). Children diagnosed with both T1D and coeliac disease showed a higher percentage of TEMRA CD4+ cells (P<0·05), but lower percentages of both early and late effector memory CD8+ cells (P<0·05) compared to references. Children with exclusively T1D had lower median fluorescence intensity (MFI) of forkhead box protein 3 (FoxP3) (P<0·05) and also a lower percentage of CD39+ and CD45RA+ within the Treg population (CD4+CD25+FOXP3+CD127-) (P<0·05). Children with exclusively coeliac disease had a higher MFI of CD101 (P<0·01), as well as a higher percentage of CD129+ (P<0·05), in the CD4+CD25hi lymphocyte population, compared to references. In conclusion, children with combined T1D and coeliac disease have a higher percentage of differentiated CD4+ cells compared to CD8+ cells. T1D children show signs of low CD39+/CD45RA+ Treg cells that may indicate loss of suppressive function. Conversely, children with coeliac disease show signs of CD101+/CD129+ Treg cells that may indicate suppressor activity.

  • 1280.
    Åström, Maria
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper. Region Örebro län. Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden; Department of Laboratory Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; iRiSC – Inflammatory Response and Infection Susceptibility Centre, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Tajeddinn, Walid
    iRiSC – Inflammatory Response and Infection Susceptibility Centre, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Mats G.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper. Department of Laboratory Medicine.
    Linder, Olle
    Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Palmblad, Jan
    Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lindblad, Per
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper. Department of Urology.
    Cytokine Measurements for Diagnosing and Characterizing Leukemoid Reactions and Immunohistochemical Validation of a Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor and CXCL8-Producing Renal Cell Carcinoma2018Ingår i: Biomarker Insights, ISSN 1177-2719, E-ISSN 1177-2719, Vol. 13, artikel-id UNSP 1177271918792246Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Various paraneoplastic syndromes are encountered in renal cell carcinomas. This case report illustrates that a paraneoplastic leukemoid reaction may precede the diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma and be explained by cytokine production from the cancer cells.

    CASE PRESENTATIONS: A 64-year-old man was referred for hematology workup due to pronounced leukocytosis. While being evaluated for a possible hematologic malignancy as the cause, he was found to have a metastasized renal cell carcinoma, and hyperleukocytosis was classified as a leukemoid reaction. A multiplex panel for measurement of 25 serum cytokines/chemokines showed highly elevated levels of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and CXCL8 (C-X-C-motif chemokine ligand 8, previously known as interleukin [IL]-8). By immunohistochemistry it was shown that the renal carcinoma cells expressed both these cytokines. Two additional, consecutive patients with renal cell carcinoma with paraneoplastic leukocytosis also showed elevated serum levels of CXCL8, but not of G-CSF. Nonparametric statistical evaluation showed significantly higher serum concentrations of CXCL8, IL-6, IL-10, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), and tumor necrosis factor, but lower interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) and IL-1 alpha, for the 3 renal cell carcinoma cases compared with healthy blood donors.

    CONCLUSIONS: In suspected paraneoplastic leukocytosis, multiplex serum cytokine analyses may facilitate diagnosis and provide an understanding of the mechanisms for the reaction. In the index patient, combined G-CSF and CXCL8 protein expression by renal carcinoma cells was uniquely documented. A rapidly fatal course was detected in all 3 cases, congruent with the concept that autocrine/paracrine growth signaling in renal carcinoma cells may induce an aggressive tumor phenotype. Immune profiling studies could improve our understanding for possible targets when choosing therapies for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

  • 1281.
    Öhrvik, Helena
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Logeman, Brandon
    Duke Univ, Sch Med, Dept Pharmacol & Canc Biol, Durham, NC 27710 USA..
    Noguchi, Glyn
    Duke Univ, Sch Med, Dept Pharmacol & Canc Biol, Durham, NC 27710 USA..
    Eriksson, Inger
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Kjellen, Lena
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Thiele, Dennis J.
    Duke Univ, Sch Med, Dept Pharmacol & Canc Biol, Durham, NC 27710 USA.;Duke Univ, Sch Med, Dept Biochem, Durham, NC 27710 USA..
    Pejler, Gunnar
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi. Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Anat Physiol & Biochem, S-75651 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Ctr2 Regulates Mast Cell Maturation by Affecting the Storage and Expression of Tryptase and Proteoglycans2015Ingår i: Journal of Immunology, ISSN 0022-1767, E-ISSN 1550-6606, Vol. 195, nr 8, s. 3654-3664Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Copper (Cu) is essential for multiple cellular functions. Cellular uptake of Cu+ is carried out by the Ctr1 high-affinity Cu transporter. The mobilization of endosomal Cu pools is regulated by a protein structurally similar to Ctr1, called Ctr2. It was recently shown that ablation of Ctr2 caused an increase in the concentration of Cu localized to endolysosomes. However, the biological significance of excess endolysosomal Cu accumulation has not been assessed. In this study, we addressed this issue by investigating the impact of Ctr2 deficiency on mast cells, a cell type unusually rich in endolysosomal organelles (secretory granules). We show that Ctr2(-/-) mast cells have increased intracellular Cu concentrations and that the absence of Ctr2 results in increased metachromatic staining, the latter indicating an impact of Ctr2 on the storage of proteoglycans in the secretory granules. In agreement with this, the absence of Ctr2 caused a skewed ratio between proteoglycans of heparin and chondroitin sulfate type, with increased amounts of heparin accompanied by a reduction of chondroitin sulfate. Moreover, transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed a higher number of electron-dense granules in Ctr2(-/-) mast cells than in wild-type cells. The increase in granular staining and heparin content is compatible with an impact of Ctr2 on mast cell maturation and, in support of this, the absence of Ctr2 resulted in markedly increased mRNA expression, storage, and enzymatic activity of tryptase. Taken together, the present study introduces Ctr2 and Cu as novel actors in the regulation of mast cell maturation and granule homeostasis.

  • 1282.
    Önnberg, Anna
    et al.
    Departments of Laboratory Medicine, Clinical Microbiology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Mölling, Paula
    Departments of Laboratory Medicine, Clinical Microbiology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Zimmermann, Johanna
    Departments of Laboratory Medicine, Clinical Microbiology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Söderquist, Bo
    Örebro universitet, Hälsoakademin. Departments of Laboratory Medicine, Clinical Microbiology and Department of Infectious Diseases, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Molecular and phenotypic characterization of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae producing extended-spectrum β-lactamases with focus on CTX-M in a low-endemic area in Sweden2011Ingår i: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica et Immunologica Scandinavica (APMIS), ISSN 0903-4641, E-ISSN 1600-0463, Vol. 119, nr 4-5, s. 287-295Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decade increasing prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae has been detected worldwide, mainly due to dissemination of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae producing CTX-M-type ESBLs. CTX-M-15 is the most widespread CTX-M type, and the predominant type in various countries. Dissemination of ESBL-producing organisms is caused not only by horizontal transfer of plasmids, but also by clonal spread of ESBL-producing strains. In this study, the molecular epidemiology of class A ESBL (ESBL(A))-producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolated in Örebro County, Sweden, was investigated. Out of 200 ESBL(A) -producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolates, collected over a 10-year period, 87% were producing CTX-M, belonging to subgroup CTX-M-1 (64%), CTX-M-9 (34%), or CTX-M-2 (2%). The remaining isolates were producing variants of SHV and TEM. Sequencing of the bla(CTX-M) genes revealed 10 different CTX-M types, with a dominance of CTX-M-15 (E. coli 54%, K. pneumoniae 50%) followed by CTX-M-14 (E. coli 28%, K. pneumoniae 27%). Phenotypic characterization of the CTX-M-producing isolates was performed using the PhenePlate system. Although a few minor clusters of CTX-M-15 and CTX-M-14 producers were identified, the majority of the isolates did not appear to be clonally related.

  • 1283.
    Österlund, Camilla
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Lungmedicin.
    Grönlund, Hans
    Gafvelin, Guro
    Bucht, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Lungmedicin.
    Non-proteolytic aeroallergens from mites, cat and dog exert adjuvant-like activation of bronchial epithelial cells2011Ingår i: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology, ISSN 1018-2438, E-ISSN 1423-0097, Vol. 155, nr 2, s. 111-118Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Exposure to seasonal or indoor allergens may cause sensitisation and development of allergic airway diseases. We have previously demonstrated that the non-proteolytic major house dust mite (HDM) allergen Der p 2 stimulates pro-inflammatory responses in bronchial epithelial cells. We aimed to determine if other clinically relevant non-proteolytic aeroallergens originating from HDMs, storage mites, cat, dog, birch and timothy also activate respiratory epithelial cells.

    Methods: Cultures of human bronchial epithelial cell line BEAS-2B, normal human bronchial epithelial cells and alveolar epithelial cell line A549 were exposed to recombinant (r)Der p 2, natural (n)Der f 2, rEur m 2, rLep d 2, rFel d 1, nFel d 1, rCan f 2, rBet v 1 or rPhl p 5a. A panel of secreted mediators and expression of cell adhesion receptors involved in recruitment, survival and adhesion of inflammatory cells in asthmatic airways was assessed.

    Results: The mite allergens rDer p 2, nDer f 2, rEur m 2 and rLep d 2 as well as the cat and dog allergens rFel d 1, nFel d 1 and rCan f 2 induced granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, monocyte-chemotactic protein-1 and macrophage inflammatory protein-3α secretion from bronchial epithelial cells as well as surface expression of intracellular adhesion molecule-1. The pollen allergens rBet v 1 and rPhl p 5a from birch and timothy did not activate the cells. None of the studied allergens affected the alveolar epithelial cells.

    Conclusion: These results show that both mite and structurally unrelated cat and dog allergens can activate respiratory epithelial cells by adjuvant-like protease-independent mechanisms.

  • 1284.
    Özmen, Lisa
    et al.
    Rudbeck Laboratory, University Hospital, Uppsala.
    Nilsson Ekdahl, Kristina
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Naturvetenskapliga institutionen. Rudbeck Laboratory, University Hospital, Uppsala.
    Elgue, Graciela
    Rudbeck Laboratory, University Hospital, Uppsala.
    Larsson, Rolf
    Rudbeck Laboratory, University Hospital, Uppsala.
    Korsgren, Olle
    Rudbeck Laboratory, University Hospital, Uppsala.
    Nilsson, Bo
    Rudbeck Laboratory, University Hospital, Uppsala.
    Inhibition of Thrombin Abrogates the Instant Blood-Mediated Inflammatory Reaction Triggered by Isolated Human Islets: Possible application of the thrombin inhibitor melagatran in clinical islet transplantation2002Ingår i: Diabetes, ISSN 0012-1797, E-ISSN 1939-327X, Vol. 51, nr 6, s. 1779-1784Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A thrombotic/inflammatory reaction is elicited when isolated islets of Langerhans come in contact with ABO-compatible blood. The detrimental effects of this instant blood-mediated inflammatory reaction (IBMIR) provide a reasonable explanation for the observation that an unexpectedly high number of islets, from several donors, are needed to produce normoglycemia in transplant patients with type 1 diabetes. In this study, the hypothesis that a specific thrombin inhibitor, Melagatran, could reduce IBMIR in an in vitro model in which human islets are exposed to ABO-compatible blood was tested. The administration of Melagatran abrogated IBMIR dose-dependently. Islets exposed to blood, in the absence or presence of 0.4 μmol/l Melagatran, exhibited a loss of integrity and were found to be trapped in macroscopic clots containing platelets and CD11b+ leukocytes. At concentrations from 1 to 10 μmol/l, Melagatran inhibited both coagulation and complement activation. Also, platelet and leukocyte activation and consumption were decreased. Islet morphology was maintained with almost no platelets adhering to the surface, and infiltration by CD11b+ leukocytes was considerably reduced. In conclusion, Melagatran significantly reduced IBMIR in this model system. This protective effect indicates that thrombin plays a pivotal role in IBMIR and suggests that thrombin inhibition can improve the outcome of clinical islet transplantation.

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