Endre søk
Begrens søket
23242526272829 1251 - 1300 of 1508
RefereraExporteraLink til resultatlisten
Permanent link
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Annet format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annet språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Treff pr side
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sortering
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Forfatter A-Ø
  • Forfatter Ø-A
  • Tittel A-Ø
  • Tittel Ø-A
  • Type publikasjon A-Ø
  • Type publikasjon Ø-A
  • Eldste først
  • Nyeste først
  • Skapad (Eldste først)
  • Skapad (Nyeste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Eldste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyeste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidligste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (siste først)
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Forfatter A-Ø
  • Forfatter Ø-A
  • Tittel A-Ø
  • Tittel Ø-A
  • Type publikasjon A-Ø
  • Type publikasjon Ø-A
  • Eldste først
  • Nyeste først
  • Skapad (Eldste først)
  • Skapad (Nyeste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Eldste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyeste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidligste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (siste først)
Merk
Maxantalet träffar du kan exportera från sökgränssnittet är 250. Vid större uttag använd dig av utsökningar.
  • 1251.
    Silva, Ingrid
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Lindblom, Jenny
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Viklander, Peter
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Assessment of internal erosion in the glacial till core of a Swedish dam2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Zoned embankment dams are a common type of dam in Sweden consisting of an impermeable central glacial till core flanked by zones of filter materials and rockfill shoulders. Dams with internal unstable core material allow fine particles to be transported by seepage, which may result in leakage paths and pore-pressure variations. These last two conditions are signs of initiated internal erosion. However, the effectiveness of the filter zone determines if the internal erosion will continue or not. This paper presents the assessment of internal erosion susceptibility of the glacial till core of a hydropower dam located in northern Sweden. The dam has experienced historical damages mainly in the form of sinkhole and leakage related to internal erosion. The study includes the analysis of the particle size distribution of samples obtained from boreholes, as well as a comparison of the geotechnical properties of the core with the Swedish dam safety guidelines available both during the dam construction in 1958 and today. The capability of the filter to stop the erosion process is not investigated.The results show that a well designed and constructed dams can be affected by local layers of internally unstable (suffusive) material susceptible to internal erosion.

    The capability of the filter to stop the erosion process is not investigated.The results show that a well-designed and constructed dams can be affected by local layers of internally unstable (suffusive) material susceptible to internal erosion.

  • 1252.
    Silva, Ingrid
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Viklander, Peter
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Effects of Void Ratio and Hydraulic Gradient on Permeability and Suffusion of Glacial Till Cores2018Inngår i: Internal Erosion in Earthdams, Dikes and Levees: Proceedings of EWG‐IE 26th Annual Meeting 2018 / [ed] Stéphane Bonelli, Cristina Jommi, Donatella Sterpi, Cham: Springer, 2018, s. 98-109Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Dams with core of broadly graded glacial moraines (tills) exhibit signs of internal erosion by suffusion to a larger extent than dams constructed with other types of materials, as reported by Sherard (1979). Garner and Fannin (2010) indicated that internal erosion initiates when an unfavorable combination of soil material, stress conditions and hydraulic load occur. A laboratory program, carried out at Luleå University of Technology (LTU), aims to study the effects of void ratio and hydraulic gradient on the initiation of suffusion of glacial till. It consists of suffusion tests conducted in permeameters with an inner diameter 101.6 mm and a height of 115 mm. Results show, as expected, that the hydraulic conductivity is lower with lower void ratio. Nevertheless, as the hydraulic gradient increases, the hydraulic conductivity reaches steady values. Changes in the hydraulic conductivity suggest variation in the initial void ratio due to detachment of the finer particles from the soil matrix. These fine particles start clogging the lower layers, therefore the rate of water flow decreases and so does the hydraulic conductivity. The hydraulic gradient for which the hydraulic conductivity reaches steady values is considered as the upper limit without suffusion evolved.

  • 1253.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    et al.
    Erbil, Iraq.
    Abdul Ahad, Ayda
    Iraq Geological Survey, Baghdad.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Geomorphology, Geology and Tectonics of Jabal Sanam, Southern Iraq2017Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 7, nr 3, s. 97-113Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Jabal Sanam is an outstanding geomorphological feature in south of Iraq located50 Km southwest of Basrah city; along the border with Kuwait. It stands high in a vast flat plain with elevation of 140. 61 m (a.s.l.). The relief difference between  the highest point; on top of Jabal Sanam and the surrounding flat plain ranges  from (108 –127) m. The E – W and N- S diameters of Jabal Sanam are 355.97 m and 489.45 m, respectively, whereas, the E – W and N – S diameters of the surrounding first circular rim are 1524.11 m and1857.90 m, respectively. The exposed rocks in the surroundings belong to the Dibdibba Formation (Pliocene – Pleistocene); show clear Hogback and Cuesta forms. The rocks of the Nfayil Formation (Middle Miocene) are exposed in the near surroundings of the intruded body; they are crushed, deformed and faulted. All the exposed rocks along the  rims show clear dipping towards the outer rim forming dome like structure. Beds of gypsum and black dolomite are also exposed in the central part of the dome, most probably intruded from deep lying beds. Other crushed rocks; some of them are igneous are also present, especially in the  central  part of the intruded body. The estimated age of those crushed rocks is Infra-Cambrian, as indicated from pollen and spores found in coal seams within the exposed sequence.The presence circular rims surrounding Jabal Sanam may indicate multi rising processes of the exposed sequence of the intruded body. All the previous works confirm the origin to be a salt plug; using gravity data. However, the current study hasused evidences of Neotectonic activity to support the salt plug assumption too.

  • 1254. Sissakian, Varoujan
    et al.
    Abduljabbar, Mawaheb
    Iraq Geological Survey.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    The Origin and Evolution of Wadi Al-Ajeej, Al-Jazira Vicinity, NW Iraq2015Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 5, nr 1, s. 69-83Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Al-Jazira Plain is located in the northwest part of Iraq. It forms the southern slopes of Sinjar Mountain. Among the dens drainage system in Sijar Mountain, Wadi Al-Ajeej is one of the main valleys; running almost in NE – SW trend, besides Wadi Al-Thar'thar, which runs in NW – SE trend. Both valleys flow from the southern flank of themountain. Although the main trend of Wadi Al-Ajeej is NE – SW, but west of longitude 41ᴼ 40' N, the branches have NNW – SSE trend, some of them flow inside Iraqi territory from Syria. Historical books and geological evidences confirm that Wadi Al-Ajeej, which is the continuation of JaghJagh River in Syria was flowing much far from its nowadays course, starting almost from extreme northeastern parts of Syria; crossing Sinjar Mountain within the nowadays Syrian territory, and then running southeast to merge in the Euphrates River. The old crossing site (water gap) along Sinjar anticline is slightly towards west of the Iraqi – Syrian border. Even now, it forms a low land where it is occupied as unpaved truck to cross the mountain; inside Syria. The estimated age of abandoning Wadi Al-Ajeej to its original course is most probably during the Late Pleistocene.

  • 1255. Sissakian, Varoujan
    et al.
    Abduljab'bar, Mawahib
    Iraq Geological Survey.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Meandering of Tributaries of the Tigris River Due to Mass Movements within Iraq2014Inngår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 6, nr 11, s. 712-730Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Tigris and Euphrates are the main rivers in Iraq. The former has 5 main tributaries while the latter has no tributaries within Iraq. All these rivers exhibit meandering and/ or shifting of their courses due to many reasons; such as mass movements and alluvial fan's development. The meandering and shifting of river courses due to mass movements is dealt with in this study. Many examples are given from different parts of Iraq within different rivers and streams. In each case, the geology of the involved area is described; the reasons of the shifting and/ or meandering of the river course are given. GIS technique was used to determine the coverage of the involved area. Landsat, Google Earth and DEM images were used to indicate the suffered areas from shifting and meandering of the rivers and streams. When possible, age of the shifting and/ or meandering of the river and stream courses was estimated; using exposure age determination; mainly depending on the presence of river terraces, erosional forms, vegetation cover and the maturity of the involved area. Some of the given examples of shifting of river courses were found to be still active; others are inactive. In many cases, indications for very large mass movement phenomena were seen. Moreover, some of the large involved areas are highly populated, others includes few houses and/ or farms. The majority of the meanders are developed due to mass movement phenomena; others are caused by alluvial fans and/ or tectonic features, lime plunging of anticlines.

  • 1256. Sissakian, Varoujan
    et al.
    AbdulJabbar, Mawahib
    State Company of Geological Survey and Mining, Baghdad.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    The Origin of Tar Al-Say’ed and Tar Al-Najaf, Karbala-Najaf Vicinity, Central Iraq2015Inngår i: Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, ISSN 1934-7359, E-ISSN 1934-7367, Vol. 9, nr 4, s. 446-459Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In central part of Iraq within the vicinity of Karbala-Najaf, two cliffs called “Tar Al-Say’ed” and “Tar Al-Najaf” form conspicuous geomorphological forms between the Mesopotamia Plain and the Western and Southern Deserts. The top surface between the two cliffs (tars) is covered by alluvial fan sediments, laid down by Al-Khir Valley when merging in a large depression due to the drop in the gradient of the valley. Consequently, the depression was divided into two parts, to the left is called Al-Razzazah Depression, whereas to the right is called Bahir Al-Najaf. This affected the course of the River Euphrates. The deposition stopped due to an uplift movement which caused the elevation of the two cliffs which are covered by alluvial fansediments. The two cliffs had and are still suffering from retreating, due to lateral erosion by wave actions in Al-RazzazahDepression. Springs located along a straight line, sag pond, deflected drainage, shutter ridges and pressure ridges can be noticed in the area. The age of both cliffs is estimated to be upper Late Pleistocene—early Holocene.

  • 1257.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    et al.
    University of Kurdistan, Iraq.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Geological and Geotechnical Study of Badush Dam, Iraq2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Badush Dam is a combined earthfill and concrete buttress dam; uncompleted, it is planned to be a protection dam downstream of Mosul Dam, which impounds the Tigris River. Mosul Dam is also an earthfill dam; it is the largest dam in Iraq. The safety of Mosul Dam is a matter of debate since its commissioning in 1986. This is attributed to the geological conditions at the dam site are not suitable due to thick exposures of karstified gypsum rocks, which extend

    , deep down, into the foundations. Therefore, Badush Dam was planned and designed to protect the population and present infrastructures downstream of Mosul Dam, if the latter would collapse. The geological conditions at Badush Dam site are similar to those at Mosul Dam site, which means; the foundations of the dam, are located on karstified gypsum beds also. Grouting works were planned and designed, and they were partly performed simultaneously with the beginning of the construction of Badush Dam in 1988 and continued until the suspension of the construction in 1991. The constructed parts attained about (30 – 40)% of the work items. The design of the Badush Dam indicates clearly the temporary nature of its use, which is reflected in the thin inclined clay core and other embankment details. The basic design considerations of the dam were to have a dam, which is high enough to contain the full volume of Mosul Dam wave of 10 X 109 m3 when routed through its reservoir, and to limit at the same time the released discharge within the capacity across the downstream reach of the river without causing flooding. In this study, we have presented and discussed the geological and engineering geological conditions; whether Badush Dam can function as a protection dam or can it be remodeled to become a normal storage dam to replace Mosul Dam.

  • 1258. Sissakian, Varoujan
    et al.
    Ahad, Ayda Abdul
    Iraq Geological Survey, Baghdad.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hassan, Rebwar
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    The Regional Geology of Dokan Area, NE Iraq2016Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 6, nr 3, s. 35-63Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The northern and northeastern part of Iraq, which includes the Iraqi Kurdistan Region, is characterized by mountainous area with very rugged relief. The difference in relief may reach up to 1000 m and locally more when the height reaches up to 3600 m (a.s.l.). The mountains usually represent anticlines, whereas the depressions are represented by synclines. The Lower Cretaceous rocks usually form the carapace of the mountains, whereas the soft clastics of Upper Cretaceous and Paleocene form the synclines. However, some exceptions occur when the area is affected structurally by main faults. The main trend of the anticlines in the study area is NW – SE, which are dissected by either NE – SW normal faults or by reverse and/ or thrust faults oriented in NW – SE trend; however, some exceptions occur too. The Dokan area is characterized by a large depression in which the Lesser Zab River was flowing; before construction of Dokan dam (1954 – 1959). The depression is a big one with surface area of about 260 Km2. The height at the surface of the reservoir when filled to normal operational level is 511 m (a.s.l.); however, the depression is surrounded; almost from all sides by high mountains that range from (800 – 1300) m (a.s.l.).he depression is believed to be structurally controlled, a normal fault with NE – SW trend had dissected the southwestern limb of Ranya anticline, the eastern block being the down thrown one that had formed the depression, besides the exposure of soft rocks of Sarmord, Chis Gara, Barsarin and Naokelekan formations that form the core of Ranya anticline. The regional geology of Dokan area including structure and tectonics, stratigraphy and geomorphology is discussed aiming to explain the development of the large and wide depression in a mountainous area.

  • 1259.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    et al.
    Consultant Geologist, Erbil.
    Ahad, Ayda Abdul
    Iraq Geological Survey, Baghdad.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Geology of the Archeological Hills and Monuments: Examples from Iraq2016Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 6, nr 2, s. 1-28Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq is the cradle of many civilizations; therefore, it is very rich in archeological sites, which are represented in different forms; among them are the archeological hills and monuments. Hundreds of archeological hills and monuments are located in different parts of Iraq, but the majority of the hills are located in the Mesopotamia and Low Mountainous Province; with less abundant in the Jazira Province. The isolated archeological hills are of two different forms: Either are in form of dumping soil to a certain height to build the hill, or has gained their heights due to the presence of multi stories of civilizations. In both cases, the geological setting has played a big role in the formation of the isolated archeological hills. The archeological isolated hills, which are built by soil dumping are usually of conical shape; flat topped and limited sizes; with heights not more than 10 m and base diameter of (20 – 100) m. They can be seen from far distances that attain to few kilometers. Since they are usually built in flat areas and are believed to be used as watching towers. However, those which are present in the Mesopotamia Province are smaller in size; not more than (3 – 5) m in height and about 10 m in base diameter; also with conical shape, they are called as "Ishan". The isolated archeological sites, which are built by multi stories, are either in form of citadels (castles) like Arbeel and Kirkuk castles, or built as a certain form and used for religious purposes; called "Zaqoorah", like Aqarqoof and Ur Zaqooras. Tens of monuments were discovered in different parts of Iraq witnessing different civilizations. Some of the monuments are built and/ or sculptured from rocks. Usually, the nearby exposed rocks were used; however, locally rocks were transported from few tens of kilometers. The most common used rocks are gypsum and limestone; however, very rarely basalt was used too. In certain locations, the geology of the quarried rocks is given too.

  • 1260.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    et al.
    Erbil, Iraq.
    Ahad, Ayda Abdul
    Iraq Geological Survey, Baghdad.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Geology of Wadi Hauran, the Largest Valley in Iraqi Western Desert2017Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 7, nr 2, s. 103-132Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Wadi (valley) Hauran is the largest valley not only in the Iraqi Western Desert but the whole Iraqi Territory. The length of the valley inside Iraq is about 420 Km, whereas the drainage basin area inside Iraq is 16550 Km2. The valley exhibits different forms along its course; like shallow and wide, deep and wide, and canyon. The valley starts from the Iraqi – Saudi Arabian international borders and even inside Saudi Arabia and runs generally northeast wards; with slight changes in its main course trend, exhibiting many right angle meanders. The oldest exposed rocks along the course and banks of wadi Hauran belong to the Upper Triassic Zor Hauran Formation, whereas the youngest exposed rocks belong to the Middle Miocene Nfayil Formation. Different Quaternary sediments occur in the valleys course and banks. The main structural elements along the course of wadi Hauran are a set of NW – SE trending faults, beside extensive jointing of the rocks, especially in the left bank northwest of Rutbah town. Different geomorphological units and forms are developed along the course of the valley and on its banks. From economical point of view, enormous amounts of sand and gravel are developed as valley fill sediments. Limestone for cement industry and many other metallurgical industries with huge geological reserves is available in different formations, like Ratga and Euphrates. Pure silica for glass and crystal industry is available in Rutbah Formation. Bauxite and sedimentary iron are available in Hussainiyat Formation. Clays for different industrial uses are available in different formations; like Ubaid, Hussainiyat, Muhaiwir, Hartha, Tayarat and Akashat formations. The different forms of wadi Hauran along its course with different exposed rocks and developed different slopes along its banks have developed different mass wasting phenomena in different parts. Among the most common forms are: Toppling, rock fall, slumping, creep and very rare sliding.

  • 1261. Sissakian, Varoujan
    et al.
    Ahad, Ayda Abdul
    Iraq Geological Survey, Baghdad.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Origin of a Circular Morphological Form in Lolan Valley, Khwakoork Area, North Iraq2016Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 6, nr 3, s. 121-132Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The northern and north-eastern parts of Iraq are mountainous area with very rugged topography that includes high and steep cliffs, deep valleys; locally canyon shape, and rare wide and flat plains. The main exposed rocks over all the area are the carbonates, especially limestone and dolostone of different varieties. Tens of geological formations consist of very think limestones and/ or dolostone.This article deals with the origin of a circular form developed in one of the main valleys called Lolan Valley in Khwakurk area, northern part of Iraq. Different geomorphological, lithological, structural and stratigraphical indications are used to conclude the origin of the circular form, which is confirmed to be a sinkhole due to karstification of thick carbonate rocks.The outer diameter of the circular form is 386 m; the width of the valley ranges from (35 – 150) m, the length of the circular form is 1045 m, which means the length to valley width ration is 20.9 times, the ratio of the radius to the width is 4 times. These two ratios are other indications that the meander of Lolan valley is not a normal meander, but a meander formed due to the collapse of existed sinkhole alongside the valley.

  • 1262. Sissakian, Varoujan
    et al.
    Ahad, Ayda Abdul
    Iraq Geological Survey, Baghdad.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Tourism in North and Northeastern Parts of Iraq2016Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 6, nr 3, s. 90-107Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Tourism Geology in Iraq is not common yet, although many sites do exist inthe northern and northeastern parts of Iraq, which are mountainous areas attaining 3600 m (a.s.l.) providing spectacular scenes. Majority of those sites are used by the local people and those coming from other parts of Iraq, all of them are linked by paved roads with a lot of facilities of relevant accommodation. However, all of those sites are abandoned in winter season due to very cold and rainy season; occasionally are covered by snow. Majority of those sites include fresh drinkable water; usually supplied from springs that yield enormous amount of water; some of them are controlled by structural elements and karst morphology. The exposed rocks in those sites are mainly of sedimentary dominated by carbonate rocks and very rarely some igneous and metamorphic rocks occur too.

  • 1263.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    et al.
    Consultant Geologist, Erbil.
    Ahad, Ayda D. Abdul
    Iraq Geological Survey, Baghdad.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Drainage Indications on the Growth of Anah Anticline, West of Iraq2016Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 6, nr 1, s. 29-46Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Anah anticline is a conspicuous structural and geomorphological feature in the central western part of Iraq, which is a flat plain dissected by dense drainage net, some of the valleys cross the anticline; whereas others run on both sides, the axis not being the water divide. The anticline trends almost E – W with length of about 90 km, the northern limb is steep, whereas the southern lomb is very gentle; giving monoclinal shape to the anticline. The oldest exposed rocks in the core of the anticline belong to the Baba Formation of Middle Oligocene age, whereas the carapace is built of the Euphrates Formation of Early Miocene age and partly by the Anah Formation of Late Oligocene age, all formations consist mainly of limestone, those of the Anah Formation are very hard to extremely hard, splintery; locally silicified and karstified.Anah anticline forms the extreme western part of the contact between the Inner and Outer Platforms of the Arabian Plate. Towards the north is the Jazira Zone, whereas towards the south is the Western Desert Zone. The continuation of the contact; towards southeast is the active Abu Jir – Euphrates Fault Zone. Anah anticline was originally a subsurface graben, which was inverted to anticline during Late Cretaceous – Paleocene, as many others towards north of the anticline; within the Jazira Zone. Many valleys cross the anticline in S – N trend; the largest one is Chab'bab valley, which exhibits canyon form in some parts with sharp knick point. Many other valleys exhibit knick points too along their courses; through crossing the anticline. The height of the knick points ranges from (3 – 8) m, all are located along one lineament, which is almost parallel to the axis of the anticline. The knick points along the courses of the valleys and the crossing of the anticline by many valleys; forming wind gaps are clear indications for the lateral and vertical growths of the anticline.

  • 1264.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    et al.
    University of Kurdistan, Erbil, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Karstification and Tectonic Effects on the Drainage Trend in the Southwestern Part of Iraq2017Inngår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 9, nr 8, s. 703-722, artikkel-id 78815Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The extreme southwestern part of Iraq forms a flat terrain, but densely dissected by valleys that flow in different directions with different types. The exposed rocks are horizontally lying, mainly of carbonates of Ratga Formation; Eocene in age; however, eastwards Cretaceous rocks are exposed of different formations; also mainly carbonates with some intercalations of fine clastics and marls. The concerned area is intensely karstified; exhibiting different karst forms and sizes. It is also intensely parted by lineaments of different orientations, which have controlled the drainage style and flow direction. Tectonically, the concerned area lies within the Outer Platform (Unstable Shelf) of the Arabian Plate. Structurally, apart from two main normal faults of E-W trend and intense jointing and lineaments; no other features exist in the area. The intense karstification, presence of lineaments and neotectonic activities has controlled the trends of the valleys forming very complex water shades and basins that locally interfere with each other. These abnormal drainage style and different flow directions of the valleys are studied and correlated with the regional tectonic frame of the region. Moreover, we have used subsurface data; such as groundwater flow directions and geophysical data to indicate the reasons for existing of abnormal drainage style and flow directions of surface water.

  • 1265.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    et al.
    Consultant Geologist, Erbil.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Issa, Issa
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    LTU team.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Mystery of Mosul Dam the most Dangerous Dam in the World: General Geology2015Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 5, nr 3, s. 1-13Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Mosul Dam project is the most important water resources project in Iraq. It is located on the River Tigris in northwestern part of Iraq, about 60 km north of Mosul city. This project is multipurpose project; to provide water for three irrigation projects in the north of Iraq and many other projects in the middle and south of the country, flood control and hydropower generation. Its storage capacity is 11.11 km3. The oldest exposed rocks in the reservoir area belong to the Pila Spi Formation of Late Eocene age, while at the dam site; the oldest exposed rocks belong to the Fatha Formation (ex-Lower Fars) of Middle Miocene age. The topography of the Mosul Dam and reservoir area is characterized by hilly terrain that rise to low mountainous area; representing physiographically Low Mountainous Province. Tectonically, Mosul Dam site and reservoir area are located within the Cham – Chamal Subzone of the Low Folded Zone of the Outer Platform of the Arabian Plate. The project is located far from Zagros Active Seismic Zone, but still many earthquakes were recorded in areas surrounding the project area.

  • 1266. Sissakian, Varoujan
    et al.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Age Estimation of Qash Qooly Valley in Dokan Vicinity, North Iraq Using Exposure Age Determination Method2015Inngår i: Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, ISSN 1934-7359, E-ISSN 1934-7367, Vol. 9, s. 90-103Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Qash Qooly valley runs parallel to Pera Magroon, Sara and Surdash anticlines, almost in SE-NW trend, and merges withthe Lesser Zab River 9 km southeast to Dokan town. Before its development, it was a large basin with width ranges between 2~3 km,which was filled during Pleistocene or may be Late Pliocene by different types of sediments. The presence of the calcrete on the topindicates a wet period that has lasted for a long time as indicated from the thickness of the calcrete and alluvial fan sediments. Theage of Qash Qooly valley was estimated using the exposure age determination method. The type of the sediments, their thicknesses,and erosion intensity and sediments’ dens dissection by rills were the main features used. This study concluded that the age of thebasin is Pliocene—Late

  • 1267.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    et al.
    Consultant Geologist, Erbil.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Karst Forms in Iraq2015Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 5, nr 4, s. 1-26Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq is one of the countries where karst forms are densely formed in different forms, sizes and shapes. Each physiographic province has its own form(s), except the Mesopotamia Plain, which is covered by Quaternary sediments; mainly of river flood plain sediments and their enclosures. Moreover, the extreme northeastern parts, which are covered by igneous and metamorphic rocks, are also free from karst forms.Karst forms developed in limestone beds are quite different from those developed in gypsum beds, the formers are more extensive, larger in size and depth and diverse in types than the latter. The main types are sinkholes and collapses, less abundant are caves. Each of these forms has a name indicating a geographical location or explaining the form. Among them are: Nuqrat Al-Salman; in the Southern Desert, Um Chaimin; in the Western Desert, and Shanidar in the northern part of Iraq.

  • 1268.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    et al.
    Consultant Geologist, Erbil.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Karstification Effect on the Stability of Mosul Dam and its Assessment, North Iraq2014Inngår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 6, nr 2, s. 84-92Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Mosul Dam is located on the Tigris river, 50 Km NW of Mosul; it is 113 m in height, 3.4 Km in length, 10 m wide in its crest and has a storage capacity of 11.1 billion cubic meters. It is an earth fill dam, constructed on bedrocks of Fat`ha Formation, which consists of gypsum beds alternated with marl and limestone, in cyclic nature. The thickness of gyp-sum beds attains 18 m; they are intensely karstified even in foundation rocks. Therefore, continuous grouting Pro-gramme was planned during construction, which was completed in June 1984, with planned operation age of 80 years. Due to insufficient grouting in the foundation, during last years of the last century, the Karrstification was enlarged in size and quantity, causing serious problems to the stability of the dam. Since late eighties of the last century, the status of the dam and its probable collapse has caused a panic to the people of Mosul city and near surroundings. Therefore, many attempts were carried out for assessment of the dam; all of them concluded that the Karrstification is the main problem and recommended continuous grouting, using modern techniques. In addition, the authorities started to build another “Badush Dam” south of Mosul Dam so that it can stop the first wave if Mosul Dam if collapsed.All geophysical and geological work executed on the dam site; it concluded that the existence of many weaknesses zones, faults and large karstified areas, in different parts of the dam site.

  • 1269.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    et al.
    Consultant Geologist, Erbil.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Origin of Different Types of Isolated Hills, Examples from Iraq2015Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 5, nr 2, s. 1-28Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Al-JaziraIraqi is located almost in the central part of the Middle East with diverse topography and different exposed sedimentary rocks covering an area of about 443 000 Km2. These diverse topography, lithology and tectonic activities have contributed in development of many types of natural isolated hills of different sizes and shapes; however, anthropogenic (artificial) hills of different shapes and sizes are developed too in different parts of the country. The main reason for development of the isolated hills is the differential weathering and erosion acting on the flat lying beds in the Western and Southern Deserts, as well in the Jazira Plain, which is located in the central western part of the country, besides some diagenetic processes. Anthropogenic hills are located in the Mesopotamia Plain witnessing different civilizations and in the northern central part; witnessing the Assyrian civilization and many others. The natural isolated hills are formed in forms of buttes, mesas and small plateaus, called "Tal, Tel, Marqab, Gara, whereas the anthropogenic hills have mainly flat lying pyramid shape with circular base; of different sizes, called either "Zaqoora" or "Ishan".

  • 1270. Sissakian, Varoujan
    et al.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Origin of some Transversal Linear Features of NE- SW Trend in Iraq, and their Geological Characters2014Inngår i: Natural Science, ISSN 2150-4091, E-ISSN 2150-4105, Vol. 6, nr 12, s. 996-1011Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq is located at the extreme northeastern part of the Arabian Plate, which is in collision with the Eurasian Plate. This collision is still onward; and has caused alignment of the evolved structures in NW – SE trend; mainly, especially in the northern, northeastern and eastern sides of Iraq. However, many transversal linear features of NE – SW trend, represented by rivers, streams, valleys, playas, anticlines and offsets are developed; in parallel trend to the main compressional forces created by the aforementioned collision. Many examples from different parts of Iraq confirm the mechanism of their formation through the geological, geomorphological, tectonics and structural aspects. Although the existing linear features are tens of kilometers in length, but almost no surface displacements were reported, except very few, in some parts of Iraq. The given examples are selected to be the most obvious, when geophysical data are available, the surface and subsurface geology of the involved area is correlated to deduce whether the surface expression coincides with the subsurface or otherwise. A brief tectonic history is also given.

  • 1271.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    et al.
    Consultant Geologist, Erbil.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Sand and dust storm events in Iraq2013Inngår i: Journal of Natural Science, ISSN 0075-4307, Vol. 5, nr 10, s. 1084-1094Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq is one of the most affected countries in the Middle East concerning the occurrences of sand and dust storms. The frequency of the occurrence has increased drastically in the last decade and it is increasing continuously. The events of sand and dust storms are either regional or local. The former, however, is more frequent than the latter. The regional events, generally extends outside the Iraqi territory, into different directions, but usually covers part of Syria, crossing the Iraqi territory towards Kuwait and Saudi Arabia, and/ or towards the Arabian Gulf, and less frequently extends to Iran. The main causes in the development of sand and dust storms, in Iraq are discussed. The causes are also either regional or local. The former, however, cause more economic losses and harsh effect on the human's health, as compared with the latter. One of the main reasons behind the development of sand and dust storms is the climatic changes within the region, especially the drastic decrease in the annual rate of rain fall, besides environmental changes, like drying of the marshes, land degradation, and desertification. From the local causes, the most effective reason is the haphazard driving and military operations, especially in the Iraqi Southern Desert.Prudent management of water resources by using non-conventional resources and adapting suitable irrigation methods can greatly help to overcome this phenomenon and minimize the number of dust storm.

  • 1272.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    et al.
    Consultant Geologist, Erbil.
    Al-Mousawi, Hala
    Iraq Geological Survey, Baghdad.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Old Alluvial Fan Relics in North and Northeast Iraq2015Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 5, nr 2, s. 45-62Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The southern part of Sulaimaniyah Governorate and northern parts of Erbil, Kirkuk and Diyala Governorates are mountainous and hilly areas, the relief difference ranges from (50 – 500) m. Tectonically, they represent the contact between the Low Folded and High Folded Zones, which is marked by an outstanding geomorphological feature that is a continuous limestone ridge represented by the Pila Spi Formation (Late Eocene). The ridge form the southwestern limb of tens of anticlines that have NW – SE trend. The continuous ridge faces; south and southwest ward a highly dissected plain, which is covered by clastics of Injana, Mukdadiya and Bai Hassan formations, the plain forms typical badland morphology. Moreover, the Pila Spi Formation is overlain mainly by the Fatha Formation (Middle Miocene), it consists of clastics alternated with rarelimestone and gypsum. However, locally, the Pila Spi Formation is overlain by Oligocene and Early Miocene rocks, mainly of carbonate. During Pleistocene, due to wet phases, the flat plain was a favorite depositional basin for the flowing rivers, streams and valleys from the north and northeast to deposit their carried loads after gradient changes. Accordingly, huge amount of sediments were laid down in form of alluvial fans that are usually capped by calcrete. The developed fans were covering vast areas that extend southwards; about 45 Km from the main ridge of the Pila Spi Formation. The thickness of the alluvial fans is highly variable, it ranges from (3 – 15) m. The main constituents are also variable; either consists mainly of carbonates that are derived from the Pila Spi Formation cemented by calcareous and sandy materials, or consists of pebbles; derived mainly from the Bai Hassan Formation, which are carbonates and silicates, with subordinate amounts of igneous and metamorphic rocks cemented by calcareous and sandy materials with rare gypsuous materials too. The size of the clasts is also variable, in the former case they reach up to 50 cm, whereas in the latter case, they reach up to 30 cm. During Holocene, most probably late Holocene, the alluvial fans have suffered from intense erosion, consequently large parts were eroded and washed out by the developed dense drainage system.The remaining parts nowadays, are in form of relics capping folded rocks of Fatha, Injana, Mukdadiya and Bai Hassan formations. Those which are nearby the main ridge form plateaus of different sizes, with gentle inclination manifesting the paleo-relief. Whereas,those which are far from the main ridge; form almost flat areas, occasionally are occupied as agricultural fields.

  • 1273. Sissakian, Varoujan
    et al.
    Al-Musawi, Hala
    Iraq Geological Survey, Baghdad.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    The Origin and Genesis of the Dokan Conglomerate, NE Iraq2016Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 6, nr 3, s. 1-15Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The "Dokan Conglomerate" is a new lithostratigraphic unit of Pleistocene age added to the Iraqi stratigraphic column within the Quaternary Period. The conglomerate is exposed northwest of Sulaimaniyah, starting from Khalikan anticline, near KaniWatman village; it extends on the top of the anticline for about 5 Km, and is exposed also along the southern and eastern banks of Dokan Lake. The Dokan Conglomerate consists of almost monotype clasts, which are derived mainly from the Qamchuqa Formation, well cemented by calcareous materials forming very hard beds; however, locally, sandstone and claystone are interbedded with the conglomerate beds. The thickness of the conglomerate reaches up to 300 m, but generally varies between (100 – 200) m.The Dokan Conglomerate is thickly well bedded to massive, either horizontally capping Tanjero, Shiranish, Kometan and Qamchuqa formations, on the top of Khalikan anticline, or overlies them along the northeastern limb of the anticline; with clear dipping beds. The origin and the mode of deposition of the Dokan Conglomerate are given, discussed and its deposition is tectonically correlated with the growth and development of Khalikan anticline, besides the effect of a large normal fault that is responsible for development of the depression, which is used as Dokan Reservoir. Geomorphological and structural evidences are given too; to confirm the mode of deposition. The estimated age of the conglomerate is Pliocene? – Pleistocene.

  • 1274.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    et al.
    Erbil, Iraq.
    Capigian, Arsen O.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Characters and Types of Alluvial Fans in the Middleand Eastern Parts of Iraq2017Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 7, nr 3, s. 115-140Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Hundreds of alluvial fans are developed and still under development in thecentral and eastern parts of Iraq. The fans are of different sizes, types, shapes   andstages, laid down by rivers, permanent streams and valleys. The composition of  the sediments of the fans differs widely depending on the source of the sediments, the depositional area, size and type of the fan. Some of the alluvial fans have typical fan forms; others are hardly recognized, especially in the field; in nature; and more specifically when the fan areas are occupied as agricultural fields and/ or are very large with very gentle gradient that hinder their occurrences.Majority of the studied alluvial fans in the studied area are not presented on geological maps. This is attributed to the fact that they are not presented on the base geological maps because they are unrecognizable in the field, mainly because they have lost their fan shapes. Others; however, are presented even on the geological map of Iraq at scale of 1:1000000.In this study, the main alluvial fans are presented and described with the reason and form of their deposition. Accordingly, different types of alluvial fans are presented and described including their coverage areas, types, number of stages, shape and constituents. This is performed through interpretation of different types of satellite images, documented field data and the experience of theauthors with their long careers and expertize in the field.

  • 1275. Sissakian, Varoujan
    et al.
    Jabbar, Mawaheb Abdul
    Iraq Geological Survey.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Development of Gulley Ali Beg Gorge in Rawandooz Area, Northern Iraq2015Inngår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 7, nr 1, s. 16-30Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The northern and northeastern parts of the Iraqi exhibit different types of gorges. Some of themare few kilometers in length and few hundred meters in height. The most significant gorge is theGulley Ali Bed gorge in Rawandooz area; its length is about 12.1 Km, with maximum and minimumwidths of 100 to 155 m, respectively. The water in the gorge flows in two opposite directions, fromthe north and south through two streams; they meet in the middle of the gorge, and then changethe streams direction towards west; for few kilometers before it merges in the Greater Zab River.The gorge runs within very hard thickly bedded to massive carbonate rocks, which belong to Sarmord,Qamchuqa and Bekhme formations (Cretaceous in age). To the right of the southern entrance;stands Korak anticline, whereas to the left occurs Peris anticline. To the right of the northernentrance; stands Handreen anticline, whereas to the left is Bradost anticline; represented byBalikian Mountain. The gorge is developed by continuous lateral and vertical growth of the fourmentioned anticlines, with continuous incision of both streams, Rawandooz from the north andKhlaifan from the south. Both shifted their courses, continuously

  • 1276. Sissakian, Varoujan
    et al.
    Jabbo, Basim
    Iraq Geological Survey, Baghdad.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Age Estimation of Alqosh Main Landslide, North Iraq Using Exposure Dating Method2016Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 6, nr 3, s. 163-176Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Alqosh town is located in the central part of north Iraq, along the southernlimb of Alqosh anticline, a rugged mountain with maximum elevation of 837 m(a.s.l.) in the study area. The exposed formation is Pila Spi (Eocene), it consists of thickly well bedded and hard dolostone, dolomitic limestone with some marlintercalations. The dip amount varies from (15 – 45) southwards. The southernlimb of Alqosh anticline is densely dissected by deep valleys; some of them are in canyon form. The spacing between valleys ranges from (115 – 235) m, they all run almost in straight courses downslope, with some slight meandering.Alqosh town is one of the old towns in the vicinity, it dates back to 1000years B.C. with population of about 11 000 inhabitants. In the old part of the town, the houses are built of large blocks of dolostone and dolomitic limestone quarried from the Pila Spi Formation. Due to north of the town, a large and very old landslide exists, the toe has reached the extreme northern part of the town. Tens of houses are built on the toe area; indicating that the landslide is very old. The involved area by the landslide is about 50 000 m2 with length and width of 500 m and (62 – 144) m, respectively. To estimate the age of the landslide, field work was carried out to map the toe area, check about the slid materials and to measure the size of the existing slid blocks and any other evidence of the landslide. The exposure dating method is used to estimate the age of the landslide. The old living people in the town were asked about the age of the houses that are built on the toe to estimate the age of the landslide. Moreover, the covered materials of the toe and other parts of the landslide were carefully inspected to find indications for age estimation. Some archaeological data also were used for age estimation. Depending on all available data, the age of the landslide is estimated to be about 3000 (three thousand) years.

  • 1277.
    Sissakian, Varoujan K.
    et al.
    Faculty of Geology, University of Kurdistan, Erbil .
    Abdul Ahad, Ayda
    Iraq Geological Survey, Baghdad.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Neotectonic Activity from the Upper Reaches of the Arabian Gulf and Possibilities of New Oil Fields12018Inngår i: Geotectonics, ISSN 0016-8521, E-ISSN 1556-1976, Vol. 52, nr 2, s. 240-250Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Upper reaches of the Arabian Gulf consist of different types of fine sediments including the vast Mes-opotamia Plain sediments, tidal f lat sediments and estuarine sabkha sediments. The height of the plain startsfrom zero meter and increases northwards to three meters with extremely gentle gradient. The vast plain to thenorth of the Arabian Gulf is drained by Shat Al-Arab (Shat means river in Iraqi slang language) and KhorAl-Zubair (Khor means estuary). The former drains the extreme eastern part of the plain; whereas, the latterdrains the western part. Shat Al-Arab is the resultant of conf luence of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers nearAl-Qurna town; about 160 km north of the Arabian Gulf mouth at Al-Fao town; whereas, the length of KhorAl-Zubair is about 50 km; as measured from Um Qasir Harbor. The drainage system around Khor Al-Zubair isextremely fine dendritic; whereas around Shat Al-Arab is almost parallel running from both sides of the rivertowards the river; almost perpendicularly. The fine dendritic drainage around Khor Al-Zubair shows clearrecent erosional activity, beside water divides, abandoned irrigation channels and dislocated irrigational chan-nels and estuarine distributaries; all are good indication for a Neotectonic activity in the region. These may indi-cate the presence of subsurface anticlines, which may represent oil fields; since tens of subsurface anticlinesoccur in near surroundings, which are oil fields.

  • 1278.
    Sissakian, Varoujan K.
    et al.
    University of Kurdistan, Hewler, KRG; Private Consultant Geologist, Erbil, Iraq.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    LTU team.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Badush Dam, NW Iraq: A Geological Study2018Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 8, nr 2, s. 1-15Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The river Tigris flows from Turkey towards Iraq in its northwestern part dissecting the whole Iraqi territory. During 1981– 1986 a very large earth fill dam was constructed, which is Mosul Dam impounding the flow of the Tigris River. It is the largest dam in Iraq and one of the largest in the Middle East. The geological conditions of the dam site and surroundings, however, are not suitable due to thick exposures of the Fatha Formation, which consists of marl, clay, limestone and gypsum. The gypsum and limestone beds are highly karstified causing severe problems to the dam foundation. Mosul dam suffers from serious problems due to the presence of karstified rocks; therefore, the Ministry of Irrigation in Baghdad, decided to construct a protection dam downstream of Mosul Dam; it is called Badush Dam. The geological conditions at Badush Dam site are the same as those at Mosul Dam site, which means the foundations of the dam are located on karstified rocks. Therefore, grouting works were planned and designed and it was partly performed from the beginning of the construction in 1988. The construction of the dam; however, stopped in 1991 due to the consequences of the First Gulf War. The constructed parts of the dam are (30 – 40) %. In this study, we have presented the main problems, which will cause real danger to Badush Dam, if its construction is re-started, and we have suggested many requirements to avoid any hazard that may cause the collapse of Badush Dam.

  • 1279.
    Sissakian, Varoujan K.
    et al.
    University of Kurdistan Hewler, Erbil, Iraq.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    LTU team.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Defects in Foundation Design Due to Miss-Interpretation of the Geological Data: A Case Study of Mosul Dam2017Inngår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 9, nr 7, s. 683-702, artikkel-id 78053Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Existing engineering problems in Mosul Dam and their background are discussed in this paper. A thorough review of the available geological reports was made. These reports covered many decades of investigations from 1953 up to the investigations performed during the construction of the dam. A large volume of geological information was accumulated during these investigations, but it is unfortunate to see that some of the basic facts were not interpreted correctly. This applies to the incorrect correlation of the encountered beds in the exploration boreholes and miss-understanding of the actual stratigraphic succession at the dam site. This misinterpretation contributed to misleading results regarding the true karst zones and the type of rocks and their thicknesses in the foundation zone and surrounding area. As a result, the dam was placed on problematic foundations consisting of brecciated and highly kartsified gypsum/anhydrite rocks and/or conglomerates in which gypsum forms the main constituent as cementing materials. Karstified beds were not recognized in some depths and were described as normal marl and/or breccias. This also added to the use of improper method of foundation treatment by adopting a deep grout curtain as the main anti-seepage measure instead of using a more positive measure by constructing a diaphragm wall. The mentioned misinterpretations are discussed here in details together with their consequences, and a more accurate picture of the geology is presented.

  • 1280.
    Sissakian, Varoujan K.
    et al.
    University of Kurdistan, Howler, KRG; Private Consultant Geologist, Erbil, Iraq.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    LTU team.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Elagely, Malik
    Private consultant, Baghdad, Iraq.
    A Comparative Study of Mosul and Haditha Dams, Iraq: Geological conditions2018Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 8, nr 2, s. 35-52Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Mosul and Haditha Dams are the largest dams on the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers in Iraq, respectively. Both dams are of earthfill type and constructed on sedimentary rocks, but have different geological conditions. Both of them suffer from karstification problems. The former; however, suffers from intense karstification, which has endangered the stability of the dam and possible failure. The karstification in both sites is of different origins, types, shapes, sizes and depths, as well as in different rocks and geological formations. In Mosul Dam site, the highly dissolved gypsum beds of the Fatha Formation has formed solution type sinkholes with cavities of different shapes and sizes at different depth; attaining to about 250 m upon which the foundations of the dam are located. In Haditha Dam site, the karstification occur in the limestone beds of the Euphrates Formation, the developed sinkholes are of collapse type with regular shapes; either circular or oval apertures. The thickness of the karstified sequence in the foundations is not more 50 m. This research work is to highlight the role of the geological conditions, especially when the karstification in the safety of both dams is concerned and its effect on the foundations of the dams.

  • 1281.
    Sissakian, Varoujan K.
    et al.
    University of Kurdistan, Howler, KRG.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    University of Kurdistan, Howler, KRG, Iraq and Private Consultant Geologist, Erbil, Iraq.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    LTU team.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Geology of the Euphrates River with Emphasize on the Iraqi Part2018Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 8, nr 3, s. 167-185Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Euphrates River is one of the longest rivers in Iraq with five main tributaries along its course. But without any tributary inside Iraq. The river flows from eastern highlands of Turkey then through Syria and enters into the Iraqi territory from central western part and runs westwards to the central part of Iraq and then meets with the Tigris River in the southern part. The geology of the Euphrates River’s basin is presented with emphasize on the Iraqi part. Besides, the stratigraphy of the basin, the tectonic style, main geomorphological features and minerals’ resources are presented within the basin too. Wide range of rocks; age wise are exposed in the basin, with different economic potentials at different parts of the basin. This study is a unique one, which deals with the geology of the Euphrates River’s basin. It is conducted using the most relevant updated geological data.

  • 1282.
    Sissakian, Varoujan K.
    et al.
    University of Kurdistan, Howler, KRG, Iraq and Private Consultant Geologist, Erbil, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    University of Kurdistan, Howler, KRG, Iraq and Private Consultant Geologist, Erbil, Iraq.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    LTU team.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Geology of the Tigris River with Emphasize on the Iraqi Part2018Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 8, nr 3, s. 145-166Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Tigris River is the longest river in Iraq with 5 main tributaries inside Iraq. The river flows from the Eastern highlands of Turkey then crosses the Iraqi territory from extreme north-western part to the central part then meets with the Euphrates River in the southern part. The geology of the Tigris River’s basin is presented with emphasize on the Iraqi part. Besides, the stratigraphy of the basin, the tectonic style, main geomorphological features and minerals’ resources are presented within the basin too. Wide range of rocks; age wise, are exposed in the basin, with different economic potentials at different parts of the basin. This study is a unique one, which deals with the geology of the Tigris River’s basin. It is conducted using the most relevant updated geological data.

  • 1283.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    et al.
    Consultant Geologist, Erbil.
    Karim, Sahira
    Al-Kubaisy, Kifah
    Iraq Geological Survey.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    The Miocene Sequence in Iraq, a Review and Discussion on the Stratigraphy, Paleogeography and Economic potential2016Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 6, nr 3, s. 271-317Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Miocene Sequence (23.03 – 5.33 Ma), in Iraq has large diversity inlithofacies, biofacies, depositional environments, tectonic effect, and geographicaldistribution. The Savian movements caused development of broad and shallowbasins, which had covered large areas in the Iraqi territory, as compared with theearlier Oligocene sequence, which was characterized by great sea level dropcausing very limited depositional basins, the main intraplate basin becamenarrower due to the tilting of west Arabia.The Miocene Sequence, in Iraq includes 11 stratigraphic units, some of themhave not formation order, and these are: Serikagni, Euphrates, Ghar, DhibanAnhydrite, Jeribe, Fatha, Nfayil, Injana, Mukdadiya, Govanda Limestone and RedBed Series. However, some of these units have age that is not limited to theMiocene, they have range of either younger or older than Miocene.The main major event that had occurred during the Miocene was the changefrom the dominating marine phase in the Early Miocene to continental phaseduring the Late Miocene. This main change is attributed to the major thrusting,which occurred during the collision of the Sanandaj – Sirjan Zone with theArabian Plate. This event also is considered as the beginning of the Neotectoniceffect in Iraq. Many formations were terminated; others were started with differentlithological and depositional environments, as well as different faunalassemblages.The faunal assemblages, depositional environments, paleogeography, lithologyof each exposed stratigraphic units are reviewed and discussed. Moreover, thetectonic effect on each exposed unit in different tectonic zones is discussed too,beside the mutual relation between the exposed units.

  • 1284.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    et al.
    Erbil, Iraq.
    Mustafa, Hawkar L.
    University of Kurdistan, Hawler, Erbil.
    Haris, Gowar H.
    University of Kurdistan, Hawler, Erbil.
    Sadiq, Sakar A.
    University of Kurdistan, Hawler, Erbil.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Landslides in Hareer Anticline, Central Northern Part of Iraq: Landslides in Hareer Anticline, Central Northern Part of Iraq2017Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, EISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 7, nr 2, s. 25-43Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

     Hareer anticline is a double plunging anticline with NW – SE trends, very strange and special hinge zone, hence its northwestern plunge is normal but towards southeast the hinge zone becomes very wide. The northeastern limb is very gentle with dip amount that ranges from (5 – 15) whereas the southwestern limb is very steep with dip amount that ranges from (45 – 85). The well bedded and very hard carbonates of the Bekhme Formation form the carapace of Hareer Mountain, with small exposures of the Qamchuqa Formation in the southwestern limb within few deeply cut valleys. The main reasons of the landslides are the presence of soft to fairly hard succession of marl and limestone in the lowermost part of the Bekhme Formation and the steeply dipping beds of the southwestern limb of Hareer anticline. The wet climate during the sliding and the gravitational forces have played significant role in triggering and acceleration of the two landslides that have moved short distance from the mountain. This is attributed to the presence of cliffs of the Khurmala and Pila Spi Formation at the end of the slope; the cliffs played as retaining walls to stop the sliding. To estimate the age of the two landslides in Hareer anticline, the Exposure Dating Method is used. The diverted and blocked valleys, the developed small alluvial fans from the slid mass and the weathering status of the rock blocks within the slid mass are used to estimate the age of the two landslides. The age is estimated to be few thousand years, which means during late Holocene.

  • 1285. Sissakian, Varoujan
    et al.
    Shihab, Ahmad
    Iraq Geological Survey.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Batin Alluvial Fan, Southern Iraq2014Inngår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 6, nr 11, s. 699-711Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Al-Batin alluvial fan is one of the largest alluvial fans in Iraq, especially in the Iraqi Southern Desert. Its eastern and southern limits form parts of the Iraqi – Kuwait international borders. The fan is de-posited by Wadi Al-Batin, the last apex being on the southern limits of the main wide depression formed by the active Abu Jir – Euphrates Fault Zone. The main trend of the fan is almost SW – NE. The length and the maximum width of the fan are 110.192 Km and 119.1 Km, respectively, whereas the slope along its length is 0.7ᴼ. The fan is covered by gypcrete sheet with thickness varies from (0.5 – 1.5) m. Four stages were recognized within the fan, which is dated to be Pleistocene in age. The four stages are marked by clear height differences. The deposition of the alluvial fan is highly affected by the activity of the active Abu Jir – Euphrates Fault Zone, which is represented on the surface as a wide shallow depression in which the fan is laid down by Wadi Al-Batin. The continuous deposition of the fan has affected the course of the Euphrates Formation within Hammar Marsh and also the course of Khor Al-Zubair in its upper reaches south of Al-Qurna, where the Euphrates and Tigris rivers merge together. Also there is trace of ancient dis-tributary of the Euphrates River that was flowing directly to the Arabian Gulf; through an estuary, which is abandoned and does not exist anymore.

  • 1286.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    et al.
    Erbil, Iraq.
    Shihab, Ahmed T.
    Iraq Geological Survey.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    The Geology and Evolution of the Ga’ara Depression,Iraqi Western Desert2018Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 8, nr 1, s. 65-90Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ga’ara

    Depression is the largest natural depression in the Iraqi Western Desert. The oldest and youngest exposed rocks in the area are of Permian and Eocene ages. Although the beds are almost horizontal in the area; towards the east, but the exposed formations on the four rims are not the same, large differences occur in ages of the exposed formations. Ga’ara Depression covers an area of about 1383 Km2, it has a rectangular shape; elongated in E – W direction. The southern rim is the highest and steepest, whereas the eastern one is the lowest with gentle slopes. The maximum and minimum elevations on the surrounding rims are 613 m and 423 m (a.s.l.), respectively. The four rims suffer from different type of mass movements. The depression is known to be a structural high and a topographic low. The structural high is confirmed by the exposure of Permian rocks, beside the presence of dense tension and shear joints; especially in the western, northwestern and southwestern sides of the depression. Those areas are also characterized by the presence of dense karst forms. The geomorphology and geology of the depression indicates that it started in development since the Oligocene Period, the area suffered from non-deposition; therefore, the whole deposited sequence above was subjected to intense erosion leading to the development of the depression and continuous retreatment of the rims, which is still active. The estimated numerical age of the nowadays depression is about 540655 years.

  • 1287.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    et al.
    Erbil, Iraq.
    Shihab, Ahmed T.
    Iraq Geological Survey.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    New Tectonic Finding and its Implications on Locating Oilfields in parts of the Gulf Region2017Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 7, nr 3, s. 51-75Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Oilfield in southern part of Iraq, Kuwait and Saudi Arabia represent subsurface anticlines within the folded zone. Iraq forms the extreme northeastern parts of the Arabian Plate. It is divided into two main tectonic units which are Inner and the Outer Platforms. The former covers the southern and western parts of Iraq and is less affected by tectonic forces than the Outer Platform, which has, and still is, affected by tectonic compressional forces. The contact between the Inner Platform and outer Platform is delineated by the Abu Jir - Euphrates Active Fault Zone. Its northwestern extension is clearly visible while the southeastern extension is less clear since it is hidden under Quaternary sediments. The delineation of the contact in this part of the fault zone is the main scope of this study. Geophysical and different types of Digital Elevation Models, Landsat images, Quick Bird images, GIS and remote sensing techniques were used to delineate the contact, besides other relevant geological data such as the location of subsurface oil fields, structural contour maps on top of Cretaceous rocks and the drop in surface gradients represented by Al-Batin Alluvial Fan. Therefore, the contact is likely to be more precisely located. The concerned contact has regional interest, since it forms the contact between the folded and unfolded areas within the Arabian Plate. The folded area represents the existing subsurface anticlines that form oil fields in the southern part of Iraq, and Kuwait and more southwards to Saudi Arabia.

  • 1288.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    et al.
    Erbil, Iraq.
    Sidiq, Sakar A.
    University of Kurdistan, Hawler, Erbil.
    Haris, Gowar H.
    University of Kurdistan, Hawler, Erbil.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Age Estimation of Qara Chattan Landslide, Using Exposure Dating Method, Sulaimaniyah, Northeast Iraq2017Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 7, nr 2, s. 1-23Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The northeastern part of Iraq; the Kurdistan Region is a mountainous area with rough topography that increases in relief differences and roughness towards north and northeast. Among those mountains is Pera Magroon with highest peak at elevation of 2773 m (a.s.l.) and relief difference with the southern plain of about 1000 m. Pera Magroon Mountain represents a double plunging anticline trending NW – SE; with many minor complications on both limbs. The oldest exposed rocks in the anticline belong to Late Jurassic, whereas the rocks of the Qamchuqa Formation form the carapace of the mountain. The southwestern limb is steeper than the northeastern one; almost being vertical. A very old and large landslide had occurred along the southwestern limb of Pera Magroon anticline ended near Qara Chattan village; therefore, it is called “Qara Chattan Landslide”. The landslide is a rock slide type with rectangular tongue-shaped and crescent-like toe area. The slid blocks belong to Qamchuqa Formation, range in size up to 3 m3; but the average size is about 1 m3. The Qara Chattan Slide had happened; most probably above an area that was originally an old alluvial fan. The slid mass has swiped the alluvial fan sediments as the large blocks were moving in very high speed down the slope during the sliding. However, on both sides of the landslide the remnant of the alluvial fan sediments can be seen in form of longitudinal and narrow masses; like embankments. To estimate the age of Qara Cahttan Landslide, the exposure dating method is used depending on the size, depth and length of the existing valleys, the age of the nearby landslide and alluvial fans, and historical data acquired from archaeological site. Accordingly, the age of the landslide is estimated to be few thousand years; during the Holocene.

  • 1289. Sissalkian, Varoujan
    et al.
    Ayda, Abdulahad
    Iraq Geological Survey, Baghdad.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Factors Controlling the Karstification Process in the Fatha Formation in Iraq2016Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 6, nr 3, s. 147-162Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Fatha Formation (ex-Lower Fars) is Middle Miocene of age and consistsof cyclic sediments, each ideal cycle consists of marl, limestone and gypsum.However, in the upper half part of the formation, reddish brown claystone occur in the cycles. Moreover, in the uppermost part of the formation, fine reddish brown siltstone and claystone occur in the cycles too. The formation is divided into two members depending on the lithological constituents. Lower Member and Upper Member, the former is characterised by the absence of red clastic in the cycles and presence of thick gypsum beds, whereas the latter is characterised by the presence of fine red clastic with subordinate limestone beds. The Fatah Formation covers considerable parts of the Iraqi territory,especially in the central western part and the central northern part too. In theformer area, the formation usually crops out in a horizontal beds, whereas in thelatter area; it is exposed in the limbs of anticlines and occasionally in their cores. The Fatha Formation is one of the main problematic geological formations in Iraq. Due to intense karstification, the rocks of the formation have caused severe damages to the constructed structures built on its exposure areas. This article deals with the factors controlling the karstification process in the rocks of the Fatha Formation and shade light why karstification is not distributed over all the exposure areas of the formation in Iraq. The study concluded that the main factors that control the karstification process in the Fatha Formation are lithological and tectonic factors.

  • 1290.
    Sjoberg, Lars E.
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geodesi och satellitpositionering.
    Grafarend, E. W.
    Joud, Seyed Mehdi Shafiei
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geodesi och satellitpositionering.
    The zero gravity curve and surface and radii for geostationary and geosynchronous satellite orbits2017Inngår i: Journal of Geodetic Science, ISSN 2081-9919, E-ISSN 2081-9943, Vol. 7, nr 1, s. 43-50Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A geosynchronous satellite orbits the Earth along a constant longitude. A special case is the geostationary satellite that is located at a constant position above the equator. The ideal position of a geostationary satellite is at the level of zero gravity, i.e. at the geocentric radius where the gravitational force of the Earth equals the centrifugal force. These forces must be compensated for several perturbing forces, in particular for the lunisolar tides. Considering that the gravity field of the Earth varies not only radially but also laterally, this study focuses on the variations of zero gravity not only on the equator (for geostationary satellites) but also for various latitudes. It is found that the radius of a geostationary satellite deviates from its mean value of 42164.2 km only within +/- 2 m, mainly due to the spherical harmonic coefficient J(22), which is related with the equatorial flattening of the Earth. Away from the equator the zero gravity surface deviates from the ideal radius of a geosynchronous satellite, and more so for higher latitudes. While the radius of the former surface increases towards infinity towards the poles, the latter decreases about 520 m from the equator to the pole. Tidal effects vary these radii within +/- 2.3 km.

  • 1291.
    Sollander, Joel
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Kommunikations- och transportsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Svensson, Marcus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Kommunikations- och transportsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Friktion mellan mobil vattenbarriär och mark2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Översvämningar är en naturkatastrof som uppkommer vid stor variation i vattentillförsel, exempelvis vid regn eller snösmältning. Detta är ett problem som man länge har bekämpat genom att bygga upp barriärer för att hålla vattnet borta. Tidigare har barriärerna vanligen byggts av sandsäckar, men under de senaste decennierna har många alternativ utvecklats för att göra uppbyggandet enklare och effektivare. Geodesign Barriers AB är ett företag som utvecklat mobila vattenbarriärer med syftet att vara snabba och enkla att montera samt platseffektiv när den inte används. Barriären är utvecklad för att kunna klara stora vattentryck, men vissa markförhållanden ställer högre krav på konstruktionen. Därför har man utvecklat två komplement som ökar barriärens kapacitet. Det ena är förankringsstag som förankras i marken och det andra är en skopa som monteras på barriärens undersida. Syftet har varit att med hjälp av tester i fält, ta reda på när respektive komplement bör användas på den undersökta modellen EUR125.

  • 1292.
    Spets, Anna
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Atthammar, Sofia
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Sättningar och portryck i sulfidjord: En jämförelse mellan uppmätta värden och simuleringar i Plaxis 2D2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
  • 1293.
    Springman, Sarah
    et al.
    Institut für Geotechnik, ETH Zürich.
    Laue, JanInstitut für Geotechnik, ETH Zürich.Seward, Linda
    Physical Modelling in Geotechnics: proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Physical Modelling in Geotechnics 2010 (ICPMG 2010) Zurich, Switzerland, 28 June-1 July 20102010Collection/Antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 1294.
    Springman, Sarah M.
    et al.
    Institute for Geotechnical Engineering, Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule Zurich.
    Laue, Jan
    Institute for Geotechnical Engineering, ETH Zürich.
    Askarinejad, Amin
    Institute for Geotechnical Engineering, ETH Zürich.
    Gautray, J.N.F.
    Institute for Geotechnical Engineering, ETH Zürich.
    On the Design of Ground Improvement for Embankments on Soft Ground2012Inngår i: Ground improvement & ground control: transport infrastructure development and natural hazards mitigation : ICGI - 2012, Research Publishing , 2012, Vol. 1, s. 67-83Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 1295.
    Springman, Sarah M
    et al.
    Institute of Geotechnical Engineering, ETH Hönggerberg, Zürich, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich.
    Laue, Jan
    Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich.
    Boyle, Richard
    Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich.
    White, Josh
    Golder Associates, Perth.
    Zweidler, Adi
    Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich.
    The ETH Zurich geotechnical drum centrifuge2001Inngår i: International Journal of Physical Modelling in Geotechnics, ISSN 1346-213X, Vol. 1, nr 1, s. 59-70Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A new 2.2 m diameter drum centrifuge with a maximum acceleration level of 440 g has been installed at the Institute of Geotechnical Engineering of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich (Eidgenossiche Technische Hochschule: ETHZ). Twin concentric shafts allow separate control of a central tool table and a drum channel. Together with multipurpose actuator units, which can be fitted to the tool table, radial, circumferential and vertical control of construction processes or test activities may be achieved. Control and data acquisition systems are provided in modular form, allowing a flexible choice of sampling and recording modes. The development of the facility, the additional accessories required and the first geotechnical centrifuge test are described.

  • 1296.
    Springman, Sarah M
    et al.
    Institute of Geotechnical Engineering, ETH Hönggerberg, Zürich, Institute for Geotechnical Engineering, ETH Zurich.
    Laue, Jan
    Institute for Geotechnical Engineering, ETH Zurich.
    Gautray, Jean
    Institute for Geotechnical Engineering, ETH Zurich.
    Askarinejad, Amin
    Institute for Geotechnical Engineering, ETH Zurich.
    Ground improvement for embankments on soft ground2014Inngår i: Institution of Civil Engineers. Proceedings. Ground Improvement, ISSN 1755-0750, Vol. 167, nr 3, s. 149-161Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Constructing embankments on soft ground to adhere to the requirements of modern codes of practice is challenging without ground improvement. An overview is presented on the types of columnar inclusions and embankment base reinforcement in terms of load–settlement behaviour, together with calculation procedures using partial safety factors. These are based on the Swiss Code 267, Switzerland's national annex to Eurocode 7; they are relevant in the project phase and in understanding the general behaviour of the whole system. Three-dimensional inclusions have been incorporated in a two-dimensional slip circle analysis. Simple assumptions are validated against a physical model for the serviceability limit state, with good agreement. First design approximations may therefore be calculated in this way.

  • 1297.
    Springman, Sarah M.
    et al.
    IInstitute for Geotechnical Engineering, ETH Zürich.
    Laue, Jan
    Institute for Geotechnical Engineering, ETH Zürich.
    Herzog, Ralf
    Institute for Geotechnical Engineering, ETH Zürich.
    El-Hamalawi, Ashraf
    Civil and Building Engineering School, Loughborough University.
    The evolution of a physical modelling course over two decades2014Inngår i: Physical Modelling in Geotechnics: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Physical Modelling in Geotechnics 2014, ICPMG 2014, 2014, Vol. 1, s. 433-439Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The "Modelling in Geotechnics" course was created in 1996 and was delivered in the final year of diploma studies in civil engineering at ETH Zürich. The principles of modelling were presented and discussed with reference to aspects of physical, constitutive and numerical modeling. This was followed by a series of applications to demonstrate that models can deliver a fast track to developing engineering judgement for promoting optimal geotechnical design, without the concomitant damage that occurs due to real failures, as long as the model is suitable and adheres to the requisite scaling laws. This course is now entitled 'Physical Modelling in Geotechnics' and has seen a significant rise in enrolment. A wide-ranging set of notes was developed at the beginning. These have since been extended, together with an in-house Geotechnical Information Platform GEOTip, which provides the virtual environment for documentation and exchange of ideas. © 2010 Taylor & Francis Group, London.

  • 1298.
    Spross, Johan
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Jord- och bergmekanik.
    A Critical Review of the Observational Method2014Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Building a sustainable structure in soil or rock that satisfies all predefined technical requirements implies choosing a rational and effective construction method. An important aspect is how the performance of the structure is verified. For cases when the geotechnical behaviour is hard to predict, the existing design code for geotechnical structures, Eurocode 7, suggests the so-called “observational method” to verify that the performance is acceptable. The basic principle of the method is to accept predefined changes in the design during construction, in order to accommodate the actual ground conditions, if the current design is found unsuitable. Even though this in theory should ensure an effective design solution, formal application of the observational method is rare. It is therefore not clear which prerequisites and circumstances that must be present for the observational method to be applicable and be the more suitable method.

    This licentiate thesis gives a critical review of the observational method, based on, and therefore limited by, the outcome of the performed case studies. The aim is to identify and highlight the crucial aspects that make the observational method difficult to apply, thereby providing a basis for research towards a more applicable definition of the method. The main topics of discussion are (1) the apparent contradiction between the preference for advanced probabilistic calculation methods to solve complex design problems and sound, qualitative engineering judgement, (2) the limitations of measurement data in assessing the safety of a structure, (3) the fact that currently, no safety margin is required for the completed structure when the observational method is applied, and (4) the rigidity of the current definition of the observational method and the implications of deviations from its principles.

    Based on the review, it is argued that the observational method can be improved by linking it to a probabilistic framework. To be applicable, the method should be supported by guidelines that explain and exemplify how to make the best use of it. The engineering judgement is however not lost; no matter how elaborate probabilistic methods are used, sound judgement is still needed to define the problem correctly. How to define such a probabilistic framework is an urgent topic for future research, because this also addresses the concerns regarding safety that is raised in the other topics of discussion.

  • 1299.
    Spross, Johan
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Jord- och bergmekanik.
    Toward a reliability framework for the observational method2016Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Constructing sustainable structures in rock that satisfy all predefined technical specifications requires rational and effective construction methods. When the geotechnical behaviour is hard to predict, the Euro­pean design code, Eurocode 7, suggests application of the observational method to verify that the performance is acceptable. The basic principle of the method is to accept predefined changes in the design during con­struction to comply with the actual ground conditions, if the current de­sign is found unsuitable. Even though this in theory should ensure an effective design solution, formal application of the observational method is rare.

    Investigating the applicability of the observational method in rock en­gineering, the aim of this thesis is to identify, highlight, and solve the aspects of the method that limit its wider application. Furthermore, the thesis aims to improve the conceptual understanding of how design deci­sions should be made when large uncertainties are present.

    The main research contribution is a probabilistic framework for the observational method. The suggested methodology allows comparison of the merits of the observational method with that of conventional design. Among other things, the thesis also discusses (1) the apparent contradiction between the preference for advanced probabilistic calculation methods and sound, qualitative engineering judgement, (2) how the establishment of limit states and alarm limits must be carefully considered to ensure structural safety, and (3) the applicability of the Eurocode defini­tion of the observational method and the implications of deviations from its principles.

  • 1300.
    Spross, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Jord- och bergmekanik.
    Johansson, Fredrik
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Jord- och bergmekanik.
    When is the observational method in geotechnical engineering favourable?2017Inngår i: Structural Safety, ISSN 0167-4730, E-ISSN 1879-3355, Vol. 66, s. 17-26Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The observational method in geotechnical engineering is an acceptable verification method for limit states in Eurocode 7, but the method is rarely used despite its potential savings. Some reasons may be its unclear safety definition and the lack of guidelines on how to establish whether the observational method is more favourable than conventional design. In this paper, we challenge these issues by introducing a reliability con­straint on the observational method and propose a probabilistic optimi­sation methodology that aids the decision-making engineer in choosing between the observational method and conventional design. The method­ology suggests an optimal design after comparing the expected utilities of the considered design options. The methodology is illustrated with a practical example, in which a geotechnical engineer evaluates whether the observational method may be favourable in the design of a rock pillar. We conclude that the methodology may prove to be a valuable tool for deci­sion-making engineers’ everyday work with managing risks in geotech­nical projects.

23242526272829 1251 - 1300 of 1508
RefereraExporteraLink til resultatlisten
Permanent link
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Annet format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annet språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf