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  • 1201.
    Xie, Li
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem. KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Yang, Geng
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem. KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Mantysalo, Matti
    TUT.
    Jonsson, Fredrik
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem. KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zheng, Li-Rong
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem. KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    A system-on-chip and paper-based inkjet printed electrodes for a hybrid wearable bio-sensing system2012Inngår i: Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC), 2012 Annual International Conference of the IEEE, IEEE , 2012, s. 5026-5029Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a hybrid wearable bio-sensing system, which combines traditional small-area low-power and high-performance System-on-Chip (SoC), flexible paper substrate and cost-effective Printed Electronics. Differential bio-signals are measured, digitized, stored and transmitted by the SoC. The total area of the chip is 1.5 × 3.0 mm2. This enables the miniaturization of the wearable system. The electrodes and interconnects are inkjet printed on paper substrate and the performance is verified in in-vivo tests. The quality of electrocardiogram signal sensed by printed electrodes is comparable with commercial electrodes, with noise level slightly increased. The paper-based inkjet printed system is flexible, light and thin, which makes the final system comfortable for end-users. The hybrid bio-sensing system offers a potential solution to the next generation wearable healthcare technology.

  • 1202. Yaka, Cane
    Studies of axonal regeneration on a grid pattern of extracellular matrix proteins2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 1203.
    Yang, Xianyan
    et al.
    Zhejiang Univ, Zhejiang Calif Int Nanosyst Inst, Bionanomat & Regenerat Med Res Div, Yuhangtang Rd 866, Hangzhou 310058, Zhejiang, Peoples R China..
    Xu, Sanzhong
    Zhejiang Univ, Affiliated Hosp 1, Dept Orthopaed Surg, Sch Med, Hangzhou 310003, Zhejiang, Peoples R China..
    Chen, Xiaoyi
    Zhejiang Univ, Zhejiang Calif Int Nanosyst Inst, Bionanomat & Regenerat Med Res Div, Yuhangtang Rd 866, Hangzhou 310058, Zhejiang, Peoples R China.;Zhejiang Prov Peoples Hosp, Clin Res Inst, Hangzhou 310014, Zhejiang, Peoples R China..
    He, Dongshuang
    Zhejiang Univ, Zhejiang Calif Int Nanosyst Inst, Bionanomat & Regenerat Med Res Div, Yuhangtang Rd 866, Hangzhou 310058, Zhejiang, Peoples R China..
    Ke, Xiurong
    Wenzhou Med Univ, Ruian Peoples Hosp, Ruian 325200, Peoples R China.;Wenzhou Med Univ, Hosp Affiliated 3, Ruian 325200, Peoples R China..
    Zhang, Lei
    Wenzhou Med Univ, Ruian Peoples Hosp, Ruian 325200, Peoples R China.;Wenzhou Med Univ, Hosp Affiliated 3, Ruian 325200, Peoples R China..
    Yang, Guojing
    Wenzhou Med Univ, Ruian Peoples Hosp, Ruian 325200, Peoples R China.;Wenzhou Med Univ, Hosp Affiliated 3, Ruian 325200, Peoples R China..
    Liu, An
    Zhejiang Univ, Sch Med, Affiliated Hosp 2, Dept Orthopaed Surg, Hangzhou 310009, Zhejiang, Peoples R China..
    Mou, Xiaozhou
    Zhejiang Prov Peoples Hosp, Clin Res Inst, Hangzhou 310014, Zhejiang, Peoples R China..
    Xia, Wei
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Tillämpad materialvetenskap.
    Gou, Zhongru
    Zhejiang Univ, Zhejiang Calif Int Nanosyst Inst, Bionanomat & Regenerat Med Res Div, Yuhangtang Rd 866, Hangzhou 310058, Zhejiang, Peoples R China..
    Intra-bone marrow injection of trace elements co-doped calcium phosphate microparticles for the treatment of osteoporotic rat2017Inngår i: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A, ISSN 1549-3296, E-ISSN 1552-4965, Vol. 105, nr 5, s. 1422-1432Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Osteoporotic femur fractures are the most common fragility fracture and account for approximately one million injuries per year. Local intervention by intra-marrow injection is potentially a good choice for preventing osteoporotic bone loss when the osteoporotic femoral fracture was treated. Previously, it was shown that trace element co-doped calcium phosphate (teCaP) implants could stimulate osteoporotic bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell activity in vitro and bone regeneration in femoral bone defects in osteoporotic animal models. They hypothesized that local intra-marrow injection of teCaP particles could improve bone function because the teCaP can sustain release of biologically essential inorganic minerals and improve bone remodeling in osteoporosis. The teCaP and CaP particles were synthesized in simulated body fluid with and without adding silicon, zinc and strontium ions. Female rats (8 months) were ovariectomized (OVX) or sham-operated, and then intervened in the femoral marrow space at 12 months old. Groups include: (1) saline water; (2) CaP particles; and (3) teCaP particles. After 2-3 months of intervention, the sham groups showed higher bone mineral density (MBD) in the femur, and teCaP group increased the BMD in the OVX groups. The compressive strength of the OVX-teCaP group was significantly higher than that in the OVX-CaP group. Significant differences between OVX-teCaP and OVX-CaP groups were found for bone mineral microarchitecture, bone mineral density, and trace mineral content, but not for feces composition. These results confirm the teCaP particles could suppress osteoporotic bone loss by local intramarrow injection. Therefore, this biomaterial could be used as a next-generation combination treatment for osteoporotic trauma and osteoporosis itself.

  • 1204. Yassin, M. A.
    et al.
    Leknes, K. N.
    Sun, Yang
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Lie, S. A.
    Finne-Wistrand, Anna
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Mustafa, K.
    Surfactant tuning of hydrophilicity of porous degradable copolymer scaffolds promotes cellular proliferation and enhances bone formation2016Inngår i: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A, ISSN 1549-3296, E-ISSN 1552-4965Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Poly(l-lactide-co-e(open)-caprolactone) (poly(LLA-co-CL)) has been blended with Tween 80 to tune the material properties and optimize cell-material interactions. Accordingly, the aims of this study were fourfold: to evaluate the effect of low concentrations of Tween 80 on the surface microstructure of 3D poly(LLA-co-CL) porous scaffolds: to determine the effect of different concentrations of Tween 80 on proliferation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) in vitro under dynamic cell culture at 7 and 21 days; to assess the influence of Tween 80 on the degradation rate of poly(LLA-co-CL) at 7 and 21 days; and in a subcutaneous rat model, to evaluate the effect on bone formation of porous scaffolds modified with 3% Tween 80 at 2 and 8 weeks. Blending 3% (w/w) Tween 80 with poly(LLA-co-CL) improves the surface wettability (p<0.001). Poly(LLA-co-CL)/3% Tween 80 shows significantly increased cellular proliferation at days 7 and 21 (p<0.001). Moreover, the presence of Tween 80 facilitates the degradation of poly(LLA-co-CL). Two weeks post-implantation, the poly(LLA-co-CL)/3% Tween 80 scaffolds exhibit significant mRNA expression of Runx2 (p=0.004). After 8 weeks, poly(LLA-co-CL)/3% Tween 80 scaffolds show significantly increased de novo bone formation, demonstrated by μ-CT (p=0.0133) and confirmed histologically. It can be concluded that blending 3% (w/w) Tween 80 with poly (LLA-co-CL) improves the hydrophilicity and osteogenic potential of the scaffolds.

  • 1205.
    Ylinenjärvi, Cecilia
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Biomedicinsk laboratorievetenskap.
    Galleria mellonella som modellsystem för anrikning och identifiering av Francisella i miljöprover2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 1206.
    Yuan, Tian
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Effects  of  Ellagic  Acid  in  Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells: Effects on Tumor Necrosis Factor-α  Induced Inflammatory Mediators2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 1207.
    Zajac, Jakub
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för kardiovaskulär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Assessment of Ventricular Function in Normal and Failing Hearts Using 4D Flow CMR2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Heart failure is a common disorder and a major cause of illness and death in the population, creating an enormous health-care burden. It is a complex condition, representing the end-point of many cardiovascular diseases. In general heart failure progresses slowly over time and once it is diagnosed it has a poor prognosis which is comparable with that of many types of cancer.

    The heart has an ability to adapt in response to long lasting increases in hemodynamic demand; the heart conforms its shape and size in order to maintain adequate cardiac output. This process is called remodeling and can be triggered by pathologies such as hypertension or valvular disease. When the myocardial remodeling is maintained chronically it becomes maladaptive and is associated with an increased risk of heart failure.

    In many cases, heart failure is associated with left bundle branch block (LBBB). This electrical disturbance leads to dyssynchronous left ventricular (LV) contraction and relaxation which may contribute to cardiac dysfunction and ultimately heart failure. Mechanical dyssynchrony can be treated with cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). However, many heart failure patients do not demonstrate clinical improvement despite CRT.

    Blood flow plays an important role in the normal development of the fetal heart. However, flow-induced forces may also induce changes in the heart cells that could lead to pathological remodeling in the adult heart. Until recently, measurement tools have been inadequate in describing the complex three-dimensional and time-varying characteristics of blood flow within the beating heart.

    4D (3D + time) flow cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) enables acquisition of three-dimensional, three-directional, time-resolved velocity data from which visualization and quantification of the blood flow patterns over a complete cardiac cycle can be performed. In this thesis, novel 4D Flow CMR based methods are used to study the intraventricular blood flow in healthy subjects and heart failure patients with and without ventricular dyssynchrony in order to gain new knowledge of the ventricular function.

    Different flow components were assessed in normal heart ventricles. It was found that inflowing blood that passes directly to outflow during the same heartbeat (the Direct Flow component) was larger and possessed more kinetic energy (KE) than other flow components. Diastolic flow through the normal heart appears to create favorable conditions for effective systolic ejection. This organized blood flow pattern within the normal LV is altered in heart failure patients and is associated with decreased preservation of KE which might be unfavorable for efficient LV ejection. Inefficient flow of blood through the heart may influence diastolic wall stress, and thus contribute to pathological myocardial remodeling.

    In dyssynchronous LVs of heart failure patients with LBBB, Direct Flow showed even more reduced preservation of KE compared to similarly remodeled LVs without LBBB. Furthermore, in LBBB patients, LV filling hemodynamic forces, acting on the myocardium, were more orthogonal to the main flow direction compared to patients without LBBB. Deviation of LV flow forces and reduction of KE preservation and may reflect impairment of LV diastolic function and less efficient ensuing ejection related to dyssynchrony in these failing ventricles.

    Blood flow patterns were also studied with respect to fluctuations of the velocity of the flow (turbulent flow) in normal and failing LVs. In failing hearts, turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) was higher during diastole than in healthy subjects. TKE is a cause of energy loss and can thus be seen as a measure of flow inefficiency.

    Elucidating the transit of multidimensional blood flow through the heart chambers is fundamental in understanding the physiology of the heart and to detect abnormalities in cardiac function. The 4D Flow CMR parameters presented in this thesis can be utilized to detect altered intracardiac blood flow and may be used as markers of deteriorating cardiac function, pathological remodeling and mechanical dyssynchrony in heart failure.

  • 1208.
    Zamannoun, Sarah
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Biomedicinsk laboratorievetenskap.
    Distensibilitet i karotisartären hos patienter med nydiagnostiserad rheumatoid artrit jämfört med patienter med längre sjukdomsduration: En klinisk och metodologisk studie2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 1209.
    Zhang, Hanqian
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Dermatologi och venereologi.
    Ericsson, Maja
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Dermatologi och venereologi.
    Virtanen, Marie
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Dermatologi och venereologi.
    Weström, Simone
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Dermatologi och venereologi.
    Wählby, Carolina
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Avdelningen för visuell information och interaktion. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Bildanalys och människa-datorinteraktion.
    Vahlquist, Anders
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Dermatologi och venereologi.
    Törmä, Hans
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Dermatologi och venereologi.
    Quantitative image analysis of protein expression and colocalisation in skin sections2018Inngår i: Experimental dermatology, ISSN 0906-6705, E-ISSN 1600-0625, Vol. 27, nr 2, s. 196-199Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Immunofluorescence (IF) and in situ proximity ligation assay (isPLA) are techniques that are used for in situ protein expression and colocalisation analysis, respectively. However, an efficient quantitative method to analyse both IF and isPLA staining on skin sections is lacking. Therefore, we developed a new method for semi-automatic quantitative layer-by-layer measurement of protein expression and colocalisation in skin sections using the free open-source software CellProfiler. As a proof of principle, IF and isPLA of ichthyosis-related proteins TGm-1 and SDR9C7 were examined. The results indicate that this new method can be used for protein expression and colocalisation analysis in skin sections.

  • 1210.
    Zhou, Yiwen
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Effect of the exposure to phthalates on phagocytotic activity in non-differentiated and differentiated THP-1 cells2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 1211.
    Zieba, Agata
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi, Molekylära verktyg.
    Application of Proximity Ligation Assay for Multidirectional Studies on Transforming Growth Factor-β Pathway2012Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    A comprehensive understanding of how the body and all its components function is essential when this knowledge is exploited for medical purposes. The achievements in biological and medical research during last decades has provided us with the complete human genome and identified signaling pathways that governs the cellular processes that facilitates the development and maintenance of higher order organisms. This has brought about the realization that diseases such as cancer is a consequence of genomic aberrations that effects these signaling pathways, endowing cancer cells with the capacity to circumvent homeostasis by acquiring features like self-sustained proliferation and insensitivity to apoptosis. The increased understanding of biology and medicine has been made possible by the development of advanced methods to carry out biological and clinical analyses. The demands of a method often differ regarding in what context it will be applied. It may be acceptable for method to be laborious and time consuming if it is used in basic research, but for medical purposes molecular methods need to be fast and straightforward to perform. Innovative technologies should preferentially address the demands of both researchers and clinicians and provide data not possible to obtain by other methods. An example of such a method is the in situ proximity ligation assay (in situ PLA). In this thesis I have used this method to determine the activity status, at the single-cell level, of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling pathway and activating protein-1 (AP-1) family of transcription factors.  Both of these pathways are frequently involved in cancer development and progression. In addition to this research I herein also present further modifications of in situ PLA, and analyses thereof, to increase the utility and resolution of this assay.

  • 1212.
    Ziethén, Kristina
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö.
    Validering av turbidimetrisk metod för koncentrationsbestämning av albumin i cerebrospinalvätska2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

     I denna studie jämfördes två olika metoder för att analysera cerbrospinalvätska (CSF); spinal-protein och spinal-albumin. Syftet med studien var att undersöka om spinal-albumin som baseras på turbidimetri skulle kunna ersätta spinal-protein som baseras på spektrofotometri. Denna används idag som rutinanalys på laboratoriet för klinisk kemi på S Södra Älvsborgs sjukhus (SÄS). 35 prover analyserades, tagna från det CSF -prover som ankom till SÄS. Varje prov kördes två gånger med respektive metod. Studien visade en god korrelation mellan metoderna, dock visade Bland-Altman diagram mindre spridning av värdena som erhölls med albumin-metoden. Resultaten för albumin jämfördes mot Sahlgrenska universitetssjukhus (SU) resultat, då albumin-metoden ingår i deras rutiner.  

    Studien visade också att de dagliga kontrollerna som kördes ej var lämpade för albumin metoden, då både innehåll och koncentration inte var anpassad till spinalprover. Kontrollerna kommer att bytas ut mot andra mer lämpade kontroller. Metoden för spinal-albumin kommer att kunna ersätta total-protein som rutinanalys av CFS.

  • 1213.
    Zulj, Jelena
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för kemi och biomedicin (KOB).
    Verifiering av metod för analys av tumörmarkörerna CA 125, CA 15-3 och CA 19-9 på Roche Cobas e4112014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Tumörmarkörer är substanser som frisätts i kroppsvätskor från cancerceller. Markörerna används inom sjukvården för att upptäcka och följa upp maligna sjukdomar med analyser av markörerna i serum/plasma. Tre av dessa är cancerantigenerna CA 125, CA 15-3 och CA 19-9. Syftet med studien var att verifiera analysmetoden för tumörmarkörerna CA 125, CA 15-3 och CA 19-9 på två Roche Cobas e411 instrument (instrument 1 och 2) inför införandet av dessa vid avdelningen för klinisk kemi och transfusionsmedicin, Lnadstinget Kalmar län. De av företaget rekommenderade cut-off värdena på Roche Cobas e411 (Roche Diagnostics) är för CA 125 <35 kU/l, för CA 15-3 ≤25 kU/l och för CA 19-9 <27 kU/l. Precisionen beräknades med hjälp av statistiska metoder genom analys av den mellanliggande precisionen (mätning av två kontrollnivåer under 5 dagar) och repeterbarheten (analys av två kontrollnivåer i en serie). En korrelationsstudie gjordes med patientprover som erhölls från Aleris Medilab (Abbot Architect i System). Den mellanliggande precisionenn resulterade i högre variationskoefficientvärden (CV %) för samtliga tre markörer i förhållande till ett åsatt CV från Roche Diagnostics. CV värdet skilde även mellan de två Roche Cobas e411 instrumenten. Repeterbarheten bedömdes vara acceptabel för samtliga tre markörer. Korrelationsstudien visade en skillnad i de uppmätta värdena mellan Roche Cobas e411 och Abbot Architect för samtliga tre markörer. Då Roche Cobas e411 tenderade att ge högre uppmätta värden (kU/l) (54 av 85 gånger). Samstämmigheten mellan metoderna var bra då det endast var två prover vid analys av CA 15-3 och två prover vid analys av CA 19-9 som var på skilda sidor om cut-off värdet. Sammanfattningsvis visade studien att den mellanliggande precisisonen (CV-värdet) för alla tre markörerna var högre än Roche Diagnostics angivna CV värde. Olika CV värden erhölls med Roche Cobas e411 jämfört med Abbot Architect. Olika CV värden erhölls också med instrument 1 jämfört med instrument 2. Precisionen anses vara tillräckligt god för införandet av metoderna i rutinbruk.

  • 1214.
    Zygmuntowicz, Marcelina
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Biomedicinsk laboratorievetenskap. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Patologi.
    Optimering vid detektion av anti-superoxiddismutas 1 (SOD1) med immunohistokemi: I transgena möss med användning av olika vävnadsförbehandlingsmetoder2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 1215.
    Ådemo, Ida
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Biomedicinsk laboratorievetenskap.
    Tid- och temperaturoptimering av lipoproteinlipas-aktivitet: -   en studie på Soleus och Vastus lateralis hos möss2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 1216. Åkesson, Matilda
    The relationship between abdominal-height, energy consumption and glucose metabolism in obese children and adolescents.2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Diabetes type-2 and cardiovascular diseases are some of the consequences of obesity. Body Mass Index (BMI) is the most common tool for defining obesity, but measurement of the abdominal-height is something new that might work better for definition of obesity. In this study, the aim was to find out whether there was a relationship between abdominal-height, glucose metabolism and resting energy expenditure in obese children and adolescents. Furthermore, to investigate if the abdominal-height was a more appropriate tool for the definition of obesity than BMI.A retrospective study was made on 43 obese children and adolescents. Several measurements of their body composition was obtained. They had also made an oral glucose tolerance test, an indirect respiratory calorimetry, had their abdominal-height measured and made a Bodpod analysis. The patients were divided into two groups (Group 1 and 2) based on their abdominal-height, and from the same patients, two other groups were made based on their BMI (Group A and B). The patients in Group 1, with the higher abdominal-height than those in Group 2, also in average had a higher age, weight, height, BMI, fat mass and larger waist circumference and hip circumference. Their resting energy expenditure, i.e. RMR and respiratory quotient (RQ) were lower, and so were their fat-free mass. The waist/hip-ratio was very similar in the two groups. During the oral glucose tolerance test, Group 1 had a statistically significant higher number of patients with impaired glucose tolerance than Group 2. Similar differences could be seen between Group A and Group B, where Group A was comparable to Group 1 and Group B to Group 2. However, no statistically significance could be seen comparing the two groups on the impaired glucose tolerance test.

  • 1217.
    Åstrand, Bengt
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Naturvetenskapliga institutionen.
    ePrescribing: Studies in Pharmacoinformatics2007Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det övergripande syftet med den här avhandlingen har varit att, inom området läkemedelsinformatik, studera utvecklingen av elektroniska stöd inom läkemedelsförskrivning; för klinisk praxis, uppföljning och forskning.

    Under århundraden har det handskrivna receptet varit det sätt, med vilket läkare förmedlat sina läkemedelsordinationer till apotekare, vilket också för patienten blivit en informationskälla för hur läkemedel ska användas för att göra bästa nytta. Nu genomgår receptet en förändring från pappersbaserat till elektroniskt meddelande och att anpassa en traditionell process till en ny elektronisk era innebär både möjligheter och utmaningar.

    Studierna som ingår i avhandlingen har visat att exponeringen av förskrivna läkemedel i en allmän befolkning har ökat under de senaste tre decennierna. Risken för potentiella interaktioner mellan läkemedel, varmed avses den risk som finns att olika läkemedel kan påverka varandras effekter och biverkningar, har också visat sig öka starkt desto fler läkemedel som används av en individ. Denna ökade samtidiga användning av flera olika läkemedel, så kallad polyfarmaci, medför att det finns en större anledning för förskrivare och farmacevter att uppmärksamma risken för potentiella interaktioner mellan läkemedel.

    De nyinrättade nationella receptregistren över uthämtad receptförskriven medicin bör användas bland annat för att upptäcka potentiella läkemedelsinteraktioner, såväl i vårdens utövning som inom läkemedelsepidemiologisk forskning. Den svenska läkemedelsförteckningen, som omfattar information om uthämtade receptförskrivna läkemedel för huvuddelen av den svenska befolkningen, bedöms ha en stor klinisk potential. Den enskilde individens historiska information om uthämtade läkemedel är tillgänglig för individen på Internet med hjälp av e-legitimation; även förskrivare och farmacevter på apotek kan ta del av informationen med den enskildes samtycke. Brist på tillgång till enhetliga och säkra autenticeringsmetoder inom hälso- och sjukvården kan dock fördröja tillgången på individuell läkemedelsinformation för förskrivare. I och med att de flesta recepten i Sverige nu skrivs och överförs elektroniskt är det viktigt att kvalitetsmässiga aspekter tas tillvara så att en iakttagen ökad risk för receptförskrivningsfel inte överförs i informationskedjan.

    Avhandlingens slutsats är att e-förskrivning, med kommunikation och användning av lagrad information om receptexpeditioner, möjliggör att läkemedelsbehandling som process kan följas och studeras på ett helt nytt

  • 1218.
    Åstrand, Bengt
    et al.
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Naturvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Hovstadius, Bo
    Antonov, Karolina
    Petersson, Göran
    Högskolan i Kalmar, eHälsoinstitutet, Högskolan i Kalmar.
    The Swedish National Pharmacy Register2007Inngår i: MEDINFO 2007: Proceedings of the 12th World Congress on Health (Medical) Informatics – Building Sustainable Health Systems, 2007, Vol. 12, nr 1, s. 345-349Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 1219.
    Åstrand, Bengt
    et al.
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Naturvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Montelius, Emelie
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Humanvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Petersson, Göran
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Humanvetenskapliga institutionen. Högskolan i Kalmar, eHälsoinstitutet, Högskolan i Kalmar.
    Ekedahl, Anders
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Naturvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Assessment of ePrescription quality: an observational study at three mail-order pharmacies2009Inngår i: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making, ISSN 1472-6947, E-ISSN 1472-6947, Vol. 9, nr 1, s. Article number: 8-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The introduction of electronic transfer of prescriptions (ETP) or ePrescriptions in ambulatory health care has been suggested to have a positive impact on the prescribing and dispensing processes. Thereby, implying that ePrescribing can improve safety, quality, efficiency, and cost-effectiveness. In December 2007, 68% of all new prescriptions were transferred electronically in Sweden. The aim of the present study was to assess the quality of ePrescriptions by comparing the proportions of ePrescriptions and non-electronic prescriptions necessitating a clarification contact (correction, completion or change) with the prescriber at the time of dispensing.

    Methods: A direct observational study was performed at three Swedish mail-order pharmacies which were known to dispense a large proportion of ePrescriptions (38–75%). Data were gathered on all ePrescriptions dispensed at these pharmacies over a three week period in February 2006. All clarification contacts with prescribers were included in the study and were classified and assessed in comparison with all drug prescriptions dispensed at the same pharmacies over the specified period.

    Results: Of the 31225 prescriptions dispensed during the study period, clarification contacts were made for 2.0% (147/7532) of new ePrescriptions and 1.2% (79/6833) of new non-electronic prescriptions. This represented a relative risk (RR) of 1.7 (95% CI 1.3–2.2) for new ePrescriptions compared to new non-electronic prescriptions. The increased RR was mainly due to 'Dosage and directions for use', which had an RR of 7.6 (95% CI 2.8–20.4) when compared to other clarification contacts. In all, 89.5% of the suggested pharmacist interventions were accepted by the prescriber, 77.7% (192/247) as suggested and an additional 11.7% (29/247) after a modification during contact with the prescriber.

    Conclusion: The increased proportion of prescriptions necessitating a clarification contact for new ePrescriptions compared to new non-electronic prescriptions indicates the need for an increased focus on quality aspects in ePrescribing deployment. ETP technology should be developed towards a two-way communication between the prescriber and the pharmacist with automated checks of missing, inaccurate, or ambiguous information. This would enhance safety and quality for the patient and also improve efficiency and cost-effectiveness within the health care system.

  • 1220.
    Åstrand, Bengt
    et al.
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Naturvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Åstrand, Emelie
    Uppsala universitet.
    Antonov, Karolina
    Apoteket AB, Stockholm.
    Petersson, Göran
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Humanvetenskapliga institutionen. Högskolan i Kalmar, eHälsoinstitutet, Högskolan i Kalmar.
    Detection of potential drug interactions: a model for a national pharmacy register2006Inngår i: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, ISSN 0031-6970, E-ISSN 1432-1041, Vol. 62, nr 9, s. 749-756Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective  The widespread use of pharmaceuticals prescribed by different physicians has caused the Swedish government to propose a new legislation with registration of all prescriptions dispensed at the Swedish pharmacies. In the present study, we wanted to examine the frequency, distribution and determinants of potential drug interactions.Methods  The prescriptions from all individuals (n=8,214) with two or more prescriptions during October 2003 to December 2004 were collected from the ongoing Jämtland cohort study of a total of about 11,000 individuals. Potential drug–drug interactions were detected with a computerized interaction detection system and classified according to clinical relevance (types A–D).Results  On average each individual filled 14.6 (men 14.3, women 14.8) prescriptions during the study period. 3.6% of the individuals used more than 15 different drugs. The number of detected potential drug interactions type A–D was 4,941 (men 1,949, women 2,992). The risk of receiving a potential interaction type A–D was estimated as the cumulative incidence 0.26 (2,116/8,214) overall, 0.22 (748/3,467) for men and 0.29 (1,368/4,747) for women during the 15-month study period. The age adjusted risk, RRadj, for women was estimated as 1.30. Excluding sex hormones and modulators of the genital system, the RRadj was 0.96, with no elevated risk for women. For potential interactions type D, that might have serious clinical consequences, 167 (cumulative incidence 0.0203) individuals (72 men, cumulative incidence 0.0208, 95 women cumulative incidence 0.0200) were detected. The risk of receiving a combination of potentially interacting drugs was positively correlated to age and polypharmacy. The cumulative incidence for elderly was estimated as 0.36 (65–84 years) and 0.39 (85 years and above). The relative risk for individuals with 15 drugs or more was estimated as 3.67 (95% CI 3.46–3.90).Conclusion  In a general population there were relatively few severe potential drug interactions. The new Swedish national pharmacy register will provide health care professionals with a powerful tool to systematically review all prescriptions. An alert system should focus on the more potential drug interactions, type C–D, with close monitoring of elderly and patients with polypharmacy.

  • 1221.
    Åstrand, Emelie
    et al.
    Högskolan i Kalmar.
    Åstrand, Bengt
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Naturvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Antonov, Karolina
    The Association of Pharmaceutical Industry, Stockholm.
    Petersson, Göran
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Humanvetenskapliga institutionen. Högskolan i Kalmar, eHälsoinstitutet, Högskolan i Kalmar.
    Erratum: Potential drug interactions during a three-decade study2007Inngår i: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, ISSN 0031-6970, E-ISSN 1432-1041, Vol. 63, nr 11, s. 1095-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 1222.
    Åstrand, Emelie
    et al.
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Naturvetenskapliga institutionen. Högskolan i Kalmar, eHälsoinstitutet, Högskolan i Kalmar.
    Åstrand, Bengt
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Naturvetenskapliga institutionen. Apoteket AB.
    Antonov, Karolina
    The Association of Pharmaceutical IndustryStockholm.
    Petersson, Göran
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Humanvetenskapliga institutionen. Högskolan i Kalmar, eHälsoinstitutet, Högskolan i Kalmar.
    Potential drug interactions during a three-decade study period: a cross-sectional study of a prescription register2007Inngår i: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, ISSN 0031-6970, E-ISSN 1432-1041, Vol. 63, nr 9, s. 851-859Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives  The increased risk of adverse events in patients receiving potentially interacting drugs has long been recognized. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the change in the risk of receiving potentially interacting drugs during a period covering three decades and to examine the relative risk of actual drug combinations. Methods  The prescriptions from all individuals (about 8,000) with two or more prescriptions during three periods of 15 months, October to December 1983–1984, 1993–1994 and 2003–2004, were collected from an ongoing cohort study in the county of Jämtland, Sweden. The potential interactions were detected by a computerized system. Results  The relative risk (RR) of receiving potentially interacting drugs increased for type C interactions [RR: 1.177, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.104–1.256] and decreased for type D interactions (RR: 0.714, 95% CI: 0.587–0.868) from the period 1983–1984 to 2003–2004. Polypharmacy for the participants increased by 61%, from 9.05 filled prescriptions per subject in 1983–1984 to 10.6 in 1993–1994 and 14.6 in 2003–2004. The RR was positively correlated to the pronounced increase in polypharmacy; in addition, an exponential relationship was found for the more severe type D interactions. Few interacting drug combinations were responsible for a large proportion of the risk. Conclusion  We conclude that the risk of receiving potentially interacting drugs was strongly correlated to the concomitant use of multiple drugs. The pronounced increase in polypharmacy over time implies a growing reason for prescribers and pharmacists to be aware of drug interactions. Recently established national prescription registers should be evaluated for drug interaction vigilance, both clinically and epidemiologically.

  • 1223.
    Åström, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Biomedicinsk instrumentteknik.
    Johansson, Johannes
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Biomedicinsk instrumentteknik.
    Hariz, Marwan
    Institute of Neurology London.
    Eriksson, Ola
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Biomedicinsk instrumentteknik.
    Wårdell, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Biomedicinsk instrumentteknik.
    The effect of cystic cavities on deep brain stimulation in the basal ganglia: A simulation-based study2006Inngår i: Journal of Neural Engineering, ISSN 1741-2560, E-ISSN 1741-2552, Vol. 3, nr 2, s. 132-138Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the therapeutic effect of deep brain stimulation (DBS) is well recognized, a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms responsible is still not known. In this study finite element method (FEM) modelling and simulation was used in order to study relative changes of the electrical field extension surrounding a monopolar DBS electrode positioned in grey matter. Due to the frequently appearing cystic cavities in the DBS-target globus pallidus internus, a nucleus of grey matter with and without a cerebrospinal fluid filled cystic cavity was modelled. The position, size and shape of the cyst were altered in relation to the electrode. The simulations demonstrated an electrical field around the active element with decreasing values in the radial direction. A stepwise change was present at the edge between grey and white matters. The cyst increased the radial extension and changed the shape of the electrical field substantially. The position, size and shape of the cyst were the main influencing factors. We suggest that cystic cavities in the DBS-target may result in closely related unexpected structures or neural fibre bundles being stimulated and could be one of the reasons for suboptimal clinical effects or stimulation-induced side effects. © 2006 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  • 1224.
    Åström, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Biomedicinsk instrumentteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Tripoliti, Elina
    University College, London.
    Hariz, Mawan I.
    University Hospital, Umeå .
    Zrinzo, Ludvig U.
    University College, London.
    Martinez-Torres, Irene
    University College, London.
    Limousin, Patricia
    University College, London.
    Wårdell, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Biomedicinsk instrumentteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Patient-Specific Model-Based Investigation of Speech Intelligibility and Movement during Deep Brain Stimulation2010Inngår i: Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery, ISSN 1011-6125, E-ISSN 1423-0372, Vol. 88, nr 4, s. 224-233Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background/Aims: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is widely used to treat motor symptoms in patients with advanced Parkinson’s disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the anatomical aspects of the electric field in relation to effects on speech and movement during DBS in the subthalamic nucleus. Methods: Patient-specific finite element models of DBS were developed for simulation of the electric field in 10 patients. In each patient, speech intelligibility and movement were assessed during 2 electrical settings, i.e. 4 V (high) and 2 V (low). The electric field was simulated for each electrical setting. Results: Movement was improved in all patients for both high and low electrical settings. In general, high-amplitude stimulation was more consistent in improving the motor scores than low-amplitude stimulation. In 6 cases, speech intelligibility was impaired during high-amplitude electrical settings. Stimulation of part of the fasciculus cerebellothalamicus from electrodes positioned medial and/or posterior to the center of the subthalamic nucleus was recognized as a possible cause of the stimulation-induced dysarthria. Conclusion: Special attention to stimulation-induced speech impairments should be taken in cases when active electrodes are positioned medial and/or posterior to the center of the subthalamic nucleus.

  • 1225.
    Åström, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Biomedicinsk instrumentteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Zrinzo, Ludvic U
    University College London.
    Tisch, Stephen
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Tripoliti, Elina
    University College London.
    Hariz, Marwan I
    University College London.
    Wårdell, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Biomedicinsk instrumentteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Method for patient-specific finite element modeling and simulation of deep brain stimulation2009Inngår i: Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing, ISSN 0140-0118, E-ISSN 1741-0444, Vol. 47, nr 1, s. 21-28Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an established treatment for Parkinsons disease. Success of DBS is highly dependent on electrode location and electrical parameter settings. The aim of this study was to develop a general method for setting up patient-specific 3D computer models of DBS, based on magnetic resonance images, and to demonstrate the use of such models for assessing the position of the electrode contacts and the distribution of the electric field in relation to individual patient anatomy. A software tool was developed for creating finite element DBS-models. The electric field generated by DBS was simulated in one patient and the result was visualized with isolevels and glyphs. The result was evaluated and it corresponded well with reported effects and side effects of stimulation. It was demonstrated that patient-specific finite element models and simulations of DBS can be useful for increasing the understanding of the clinical outcome of DBS.

  • 1226.
    Öberg, Åke
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Fysiologisk mätteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Medicinsk teknik i Japan1973Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 1227.
    Ödin, Patrik
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Biomedicinsk laboratorievetenskap.
    Internalisering av yttermembranvesiklar från Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans i humana celler2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 1228.
    Ögren, Jessica
    et al.
    Division of Medical Diagnostics, Clinical Microbiology Laboratory, County Hospital Ryhov, Region Jönköping County, Sweden.
    Van Nguyen, Song
    Department of Medical Laboratory, Da Nang University of Medical Technology and Pharmacy, Da Nang, Vietnam.
    Dimberg, Jan
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för naturvetenskap och biomedicin. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. Biomedicinsk plattform.
    Matussek, Andreas
    Division of Medical Diagnostics, Clinical Microbiology Laboratory, County Hospital Ryhov, Region Jönköping County, Sweden.
    Prevalence of Dientamoeba fragilis, Giardia duodenalis, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, and Cryptosporidium spp inDa Nang, Vietnam, detected by a multiplex real-time PCR2016Inngår i: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica et Immunologica Scandinavica (APMIS), ISSN 0903-4641, E-ISSN 1600-0463, Vol. 124, nr 6, s. 529-533Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We surveyed the prevalence of Dientamoeba fragilis, Giardia duodenalis, Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, and Cryptosporidium spp in individuals with and without gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms residing in and around Da Nang city, Vietnam. Fecal samples were collected from children (n = 100) and adults (n = 80) with GI symptoms and from healthy individuals (n = 88) reporting no GI symptoms. Parasite detection was performed by multiplex real-time PCR. Overall, except for G. duodenalis, we found a low prevalence (<5%) of D. fragilis and E. dispar and no detection of E. histolytica and C. spp in all participants with GI symptoms. Specifically for D. fragilis this contrasts with findings in European populations of children with GI symptoms showing prevalence up to 73%. Moreover, our results indicate that the prevalence of G. duodenalis is higher in patients with GI symptoms compared to asymptomatic individuals and this difference is most obvious in young patients.

  • 1229.
    Öhberg, Fredrik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Biomechanical methods and error analysis related to chronic musculoskeletal pain2009Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Spinal pain is one of humanity’s most frequent complaints with high costs for the individual and society, and is commonly related to spinal disorders. There are many origins behind these disorders e.g., trauma, disc hernia or of other organic origins. However, for many of the disorders, the origin is not known. Thus, more knowledge is needed about how pain affects the neck and neural function in pain affected regions. The purpose of this dissertation was to improve the medical examination of patients suffering from chronic whiplash-associated disorders or other pain related neck-disorders.

    Methods A new assessment tool for objective movement analysis was developed. In addition, basic aspects of proprioceptive information transmission, which can be of relevance for muscular tension and pain, are investigated by studying the coding of populations of different types of sensory afferents by using a new spike sorting method. Both experiments in animal models and humans were studied to accomplish the goals of this dissertation. Four cats where were studied in acute animal experiments. Mixed ensembles of afferents were recorded from L7-S1 dorsal root filaments when mechanical stimulating the innervated muscle. A real-time spike sorting method was developed to sort units in a multi-unit recording. The quantification of population coding was performed using a method based on principal component analysis. In the human studies, 3D neck movement data were collected from 59 subjects with whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) and 56 control subjects. Neck movement patterns were identified by processing movement data into parameters describing the rotation of the head for each subject. Classification of neck movement patterns was performed using a neural network using processed collected data as input. Finally, the effect of marker position error on the estimated rotation of the head was evaluated by computer simulations.

    Results Animal experiments showed that mixed ensembles of different types of afferents discriminated better between different muscle stimuli than ensembles of single types of these afferents. All kinds of ensembles showed an increase in discriminative ability with increased ensemble size. It is hypothesized that the main reason for the greater discriminative ability might be the variation in sensitivity tuning among the individual afferents of the mixed ensemble will be larger than that for ensembles of only one type of afferent. In the human studies, the neural networks had a predictivity of 0.89, a sensitivity of 0.90 and a specificity of 0.88 when discriminating between control and WAD subjects. Also, a systematic error along the radial axis of the rigid body added to a single marker had no affect on the estimated rotation of the head.

    Conclusion The developed spike sorting method, using neural networks, was suitable for sorting a multiunit recording into single units when performing neurophysiological experiments. Also, it was shown that neck movement analysis combined with a neural network could build the basis of a decision support system for classifying suspected WAD or other pain related neck-disorders.

  • 1230.
    Öhberg, Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper.
    Biomechanical methods and error analysis related to chronic musculoskeletal pain2009Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Spinal pain is one of humanity’s most frequent complaints with high costs for the individual and society, and is commonly related to spinal disorders. There are many origins behind these disorders e.g., trauma, disc hernia or of other organic origins. However, for many of the disorders, the origin is not known. Thus, more knowledge is needed about how pain affects the neck and neural function in pain affected regions. The purpose of this dissertation was to improve the medical examination of patients suffering from chronic whiplash-associated disorders or other pain related neck-disorders.

    Methods A new assessment tool for objective movement analysis was developed. In addition, basic aspects of proprioceptive information transmission, which can be of relevance for muscular tension and pain, are investigated by studying the coding of populations of different types of sensory afferents by using a new spike sorting method. Both experiments in animal models and humans were studied to accomplish the goals of this dissertation. Four cats where were studied in acute animal experiments. Mixed ensembles of afferents were recorded from L7-S1 dorsal root filaments when mechanical stimulating the innervated muscle. A real-time spike sorting method was developed to sort units in a multi-unit recording. The quantification of population coding was performed using a method based on principal component analysis. In the human studies, 3D neck movement data were collected from 59 subjects with whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) and 56 control subjects. Neck movement patterns were identified by processing movement data into parameters describing the rotation of the head for each subject. Classification of neck movement patterns was performed using a neural network using processed collected data as input. Finally, the effect of marker position error on the estimated rotation of the head was evaluated by computer simulations.

    Results Animal experiments showed that mixed ensembles of different types of afferents discriminated better between different muscle stimuli than ensembles of single types of these afferents. All kinds of ensembles showed an increase in discriminative ability with increased ensemble size. It is hypothesized that the main reason for the greater discriminative ability might be the variation in sensitivity tuning among the individual afferents of the mixed ensemble will be larger than that for ensembles of only one type of afferent. In the human studies, the neural networks had a predictivity of 0.89, a sensitivity of 0.90 and a specificity of 0.88 when discriminating between control and WAD subjects. Also, a systematic error along the radial axis of the rigid body added to a single marker had no affect on the estimated rotation of the head.

    Conclusion The developed spike sorting method, using neural networks, was suitable for sorting a multiunit recording into single units when performing neurophysiological experiments. Also, it was shown that neck movement analysis combined with a neural network could build the basis of a decision support system for classifying suspected WAD or other pain related neck-disorders.

  • 1231.
    Öhman, Caroline
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Tillämpad materialvetenskap.
    Nouhi, Shirin
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Tillämpad materialvetenskap.
    Hulsart-Billström, Gry
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Ortopedi.
    Engqvist, Håkan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Tillämpad materialvetenskap.
    Larsson, Sune
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Ortopedi.
    Facilitating separation of bone from bonelike materials in micro-computed tomography images2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 1232.
    Öhman, Martin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Biomedicinsk laboratorievetenskap.
    RNA uttryck av KIF23 i humana vävnader2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 1233.
    Ölvebo, Isabelle
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Biomedicinsk laboratorievetenskap.
    Leukotoxinproduktion i isolat från Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans: En parodontitpatogen med stor genetisk variation2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 1234.
    Örnborg, Madelene
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Basal expression i Mo, M1 och M2 makrofager samt bakterien Propionibacterium acnes påverkan på M0 makrofagers uttryck av CCL2,CCR2,CSF-1 och CSF-1R mRNA2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 1235.
    Österman, Marie
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, NV.
    Utvärdering av kapillärt protrombinkomplex i EDTA-microtainerrör2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Blodcirkulationen är essentiell för människans överlevnad. När blodets koagulation- och antikoagulationssystem kommer i obalans kan koagelbildning orsaka venös tromboembolism, blodpropp. Patienter som har haft en blodpropp behandlas med antivitamin K-läkemedel (Waran®) för att förebygga recidiv. Dosen är individanpassad och för att erhålla rätt terapeutisk verkan krävs övervakning genom mätning av protrombinkomplex i plasma.

    Syftet med studien var att utföra en utvärdering samt göra en hållbarhetsstudie på en ny provtagningsrutin för kapillära protrombinkomplex.I studien ingick 48 personer varav 33 män och 15 kvinnor. Åldersfördelning var 22-88 år och medianålder var 62 år. I samband med ordinarie provtagning, vilken användes som referensmetod, för P-protrombinkomplex togs ca 350 μL blod kapillärt i EDTA-microtainerrör. Genom spädning (1:4) av EDTA-blod i citratbuffert möjliggjordes analys av kapillärt P-protrombinkomplex efter 1, 8 och 24 timmar. Samtliga prover analyserades med turbidimetrisk detektion i instrumentet ACL Top 500. Studiens analysresultat jämfördes mot referensmetoden.Studien visar att protrombinkomplexaktiviteten är stabil i blod med EDTA-tillsats i upp till 8 timmar efter provtagning. Dock kan stabiliteten inte garanteras hos individer med hereditära koagulationsrubbningar.

  • 1236.
    Östlund, Helena
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa.
    Evaluating the Congo red staining method with the aim to solve problematics in the work process and optimize amyloidosis diagnostics2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Some diagnostic methods have been used for a very long time. Congo red stain saw the light of day in 1883, and quickly became important in many fields of use. Nowadays we recognize the importance of Congo red in diagnose of amyloid diseases. However, the technique and experience needed throughout the process from a suspected case to the diagnose is of greate importance. When diagnostic difficulties appeared in a few patient cases at the local hospital in Gävle, Sweden, a solution was needed. A delayed diagnose could have a potential devastating outcome seen in the perspective of the patient. Therefore it is crucial to have both sensitive and specific diagnostic methods that are optimized against the sought pathogenesis. This study aspired to find the solution to the difficulties in diagnostic work, brought to light by a pathology doctor at the hospital. Several different methodical procedures are used throughout the process, and were evaluated with focus lying on the thickness of the tissue, the staining method and the microscopes used in diagnostics. Different thickness of the tissue was cut and stained. The results demonstrated the importance of proper techniques and methods in preparing the tissue, and the tools to analyse it with. The thickness of tissue and the lightsource in the microscope played a cruicial role in diagnostics. Additionally it showed the importance to continue to raise the quality of work and make progress in the diagnostic and scientific field, possibly by finding new applications for old methods.

  • 1237.
    Öystilä Sjödin, Madelen
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Biomedicinsk laboratorievetenskap.
    Kronisk behandling med allopregnanolon påverkar inte mängden beta-amyloida plack i AβPPSwePSEN1E9 AD-möss2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 1238.
    Öz, Diana
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa.
    Investigating distribution of DIO2 and MOT8 mRNA with quantitative reverse transcription-PCR and immunohistochemistry staining of endometrial and fallopian tube tissue2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Infertility is defined as not being able to conceive after 1 year of regular intercourse without use of contraception. Unexplained infertility is a diagnosis given to couples where the reason to infertility cannot be clarified even after the routine examination. Undefined infertility is a common and growing problem because most people are not aware of the fact that fertility decreases after the age of 35. Hyper- and hypothyroidism has been known to affect the menstrual cycle as well as increased risk of miscarriage. However, the specific effect of thyroid hormones on infertility has not yet been clarified. This study aims to compare the gene expression of two thyroid hormone receptors DIO2 and MOT8 in human endometrium and fallopian tube tissue from two phases of the menstruation cycle, follicular phase and lutheal phase. The methods used were RT-qPCR and immunohistochemistry, which showed a statistically significant difference in the expression of DIO2 and MOT8 between fallopian tube tissue and endometrium, but not between follicular and lutheal phase. However, MOT8 seemed to have a tendency to be down-regulated in the follicular phase but the results need to be validated with different endogenous controls and larger study groups.

  • 1239.
    Özarslan, Evren
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Avdelningen för medicinsk teknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Yolcu, Cem
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Avdelningen för medicinsk teknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Herberthson, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Matematiska institutionen, Matematik och tillämpad matematik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Knutsson, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Avdelningen för medicinsk teknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Centrum för medicinsk bildvetenskap och visualisering, CMIV.
    Westin, Carl-Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Avdelningen för medicinsk teknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Laboratory for Mathematics in Imaging, Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.
    Influence of the Size and Curvedness of Neural Projections on the Orientationally Averaged Diffusion MR Signal2018Inngår i: Frontiers in Physics, E-ISSN 2296-424X, Vol. 6, s. 1-10, artikkel-id 17Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Neuronal and glial projections can be envisioned to be tubes of infinitesimal diameter as far as diffusion magnetic resonance (MR) measurements via clinical scanners are concerned. Recent experimental studies indicate that the decay of the orientationally-averaged signal in white-matter may be characterized by the power-law, Ē(q) ∝ q−1, where q is the wavenumber determined by the parameters of the pulsed field gradient measurements. One particular study by McKinnon et al. [1] reports a distinctively faster decay in gray-matter. Here, we assess the role of the size and curvature of the neurites and glial arborizations in these experimental findings. To this end, we studied the signal decay for diffusion along general curves at all three temporal regimes of the traditional pulsed field gradient measurements. We show that for curvy projections, employment of longer pulse durations leads to a disappearance of the q−1 decay, while such decay is robust when narrow gradient pulses are used. Thus, in clinical acquisitions, the lack of such a decay for a fibrous specimen can be seen as indicative of fibers that are curved. We note that the above discussion is valid for an intermediate range of q-values as the true asymptotic behavior of the signal decay is Ē(q) ∝ q−4 for narrow pulses (through Debye-Porod law) or steeper for longer pulses. This study is expected to provide insights for interpreting the diffusion-weighted images of the central nervous system and aid in the design of acquisition strategies.

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