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  • 1200251.
    Zarfeshani, Asghar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Lättballastbetong med skumglas som lättballast2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Production of concrete in Sweden is normally based on glaciofluvial gravel storages (natural gravel). Since the access to natural gravel has become remarkably limited in some parts of the country in resent years, the environmental considerations demand a reduction in consumption of natural gravel. Recycled materials that can replace natural gravel are environment friendly and will open the way for production of a concrete with new characteristics.

    Lightweight concrete is defined as concrete whose ballast materials are totally or partially made of light ballast whose density is significantly less than what is normal for rock materials such as granite, gneiss or limeston. Light ballast is porous and therefore has lower strength than normal ballast. In light ballast concrete, the ballast particles play a decisive role for the resulting quality and characteristics of the concrete, such as strength, elasticity and shrinkage.

    The first part of this master project is a state-of-the-art report, which deals with production of light ballast concrete in general, both in fresh and hardened forms. It is also covers information about the various components of light ballast concrete, with focus on foam-glass as ballast. The following part presents laboratory work that first deals with the composition of concrete mixes containing foam-glass. The ballast was crushed and sorted prior to mixing. Concrete cubes were cast for the following compressive tests and for studies of the structure of the hardened concrete. The results show that the compressive strength of the light ballast concrete with foam-glass depends on the stiffness of the ballast and that higher strength than corresponding to C 28/35 is not to be expected in this case. Finally, practical recommendations for the use and manufacturing of the tested type of light ballast concrete are given.

  • 1200252. Zargar, S. T.
    et al.
    Moulavi, M. Amir
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication: Services and Infrastucture (Closed 20120101), Software and Computer Systems, SCS (Closed 20120101).
    Buyya, R.
    Naghibzadeh, M.
    Joshi, J. B. D.
    RRNA: Reliable soft real-time network aware grid scheduling algorithm using round trip time2009In: Spring Simulation Multiconference 2009 - Co-located with the 2009 SISO Spring Simulation Interoperability Workshop, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2009, article id 78Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Assigning jobs to optimum resources in a grid environment is the main aim of a grid scheduler. Communication cost has always been an important issue in grid environments. Proposing new scheduling algorithms to consider this cost accurately and allocate jobs to an optimum resource efficiently has always been of great importance. In this paper we have proposed a grid scheduling algorithm that is aware of the costs for different network paths.We have also considered soft realtime characteristics of jobs in our proposed algorithm. We have simulated and compared our algorithm with some key scheduling algorithms such as Least Load First (LLF), Random, and First Come First Served (FCFS) in Gridsim by considering soft real-time jobs. Results show the superiority of our scheduling algorithm due to its ability to predict network cost and to satisfy the demands of soft real-time tasks.

  • 1200253.
    Zargari Afshar, Sara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    On Resource Sharing under Multiprocessor Semi-Partitioned Scheduling2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Semi-partitioned scheduling has been the subject of interest compared to conventional global and partitioned scheduling algorithms for multiprocessors due to better utilization results. In Semi-partitioned scheduling most of tasks are assigned to fixed processors while a few number of tasks are split up and allocated to different processors.

    Various techniques have been proposed recently on different assigning protocols under semi-partitioned scheduling. Yet an appropriate synchronization mechanism for resource sharing in semi-partitioned scheduling have not been investigated. In this thesis we propose two methods for handling resource sharing under semi-partitioned scheduling on multiprocessor platforms. The main challenge is handling the resource requests of tasks that are split over multiple processors.

    The solutions include handling non-split tasks as well as split tasks over requests for shared resources in the system. In this thesis we investigate delays caused by blocking on resources. Furthermore, we perform the schedulability analysis for both algorithms.

    Finally we evaluate the performance of our proposed synchronization algorithms by means of experimental evaluations.

  • 1200254. Zargari, Arezou
    et al.
    Boban, Mirta
    Heessen, Stijn
    Andréasson, Claes
    Thyberg, Johan
    Ljungdahl, Per O
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Wenner-Gren Institute for Experimental Biology.
    Inner nuclear membrane proteins Asi1, Asi2, and Asi3 function in concert to maintain the latent properties of transcription factors Stp1 and Stp2.2007In: J Biol Chem, ISSN 0021-9258, Vol. 282, no 1, p. 594-605Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1200255. Zargham, Ali
    et al.
    Rakhshande, Mohammadi
    Sayede Fatemeh Haghdoost, Oskouie
    Sandberg, Jonas
    Iranian nurses’ preparation for loss: finding a balance in end-of-life care2008In: Journal of Clinical Nursing, ISSN 0962-1067, E-ISSN 1365-2702, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 2329-2336Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim.  To explore the nurse–patient interaction in terminally ill situations in acute care, focusing on the nurses’ preparation for loss.

    Background.  Caring for dying patients can be a distressing and sometimes even threatening experience for nurses. Despite the vast body of literature on nurse/patient interaction and the quality of end-of-life care, few studies focus specifically on nurses’ experience.

    Design.  A grounded theory approach was used to explore nurses’ interaction with dying patients and their families and examine how nurses deal with situations in which the patient’s death is inevitable.

    Method.  Eighteen nurses were interviewed up to three times each at three teaching hospitals in Isfahan, Iran, during autumn 2006. A shortlist of possible participants was obtained by means of theoretical sampling and those who had experienced the death of patients and were able to express their feelings verbally were selected.

    Results.  The results clarified a core consideration: striking a balance between restorative and palliative care, information and hope, expectations and abilities and intimacy and distance.

    Conclusion.  Attaining a balance in caring for dying patients is a major challenge to nurses: it concerns not only their interactions with patients and their families, but also their perceptions of themselves and their actions in end-of-life care.

    Relevance to clinical practice.  In end-of-life care, it is important for nurses to be able to change the focus of their care when the patient’s condition is diagnosed as irreversible. They also need to be well equipped to maintain a balance, thereby preparing themselves for the patient’s forthcoming death.

  • 1200256.
    Zarghami, Alireza
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    Fazeli, Soude
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    Dokoohaki, Nima
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication: Services and Infrastucture (Closed 20120101), Software and Computer Systems, SCS (Closed 20120101).
    Matskin, Mihhail
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication: Services and Infrastucture (Closed 20120101), Software and Computer Systems, SCS (Closed 20120101).
    Social Trust-aware Recommendation System: A T-Index Approach2009In: 2009 IEEE/WIC/ACM INTERNATIONAL JOINT CONFERENCES ON WEB INTELLIGENCE (WI) AND INTELLIGENT AGENT TECHNOLOGIES (IAT), VOL 3 / [ed] BaezaYates R; Berendt B; Bertino E; Lim EP; Pasi G, LOS ALAMITOS: IEEE COMPUTER SOC , 2009, p. 85-90Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Collaborative Filtering based on similarity suffers from a variety of problems such as sparsity and scalability In this paper, we propose an ontological model of trust between users on a social network to address the limitations of similarity measure in Collaborative Filtering algorithms. For enhancing the constructed network of users based on trust, we introduce an estimate of a user's trustworthiness called T-index to identify and select neighbors in an effective manner We employ T-index to store raters of an item in a so-called TopTrustee list which provides information about users who might not be accessible within a predefined maximum path length. An empirical evaluation shows that our solution improves both prediction accuracy and coverage of recommendations collected along few edges that connect users on a social network by exploiting T-index. We also analyze effect of T-index on structure of trust network to justify the results.

  • 1200257.
    Zaric, Dusanka
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine.
    Quantitative methodological studies of motor and sensory blockade in epidural analgesia: with special reference to early mobilization and a new local anesthetic - ropivacaine1995Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 1200258.
    Zaric, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    The principle of self-determination: and the case of Kosovo2013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 1200259.
    Zarif, Neela
    et al.
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Andersson, Linn
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Butikslayout- mer än bara estetik2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the connection between store layout and how it affects us as shoppers. We formed our research questions based on literature. The study was based on observations of shoppers without their knowing they were observed. We didn’t tell shoppers since the science of shopping says that shoppers pattern of movement is something that’s subconscious and if the shoppers had known it would have affected the result of the study. The character of this study therefore demanded that shoppers were free to move naturally around in the stores where our study took place. After only a few observations we could see what the result was going to be. Shoppers were affected by the store layout. We also discovered a pattern of the shoppers’ movement and came to the conclusion that the store layout at MQ in Borås wasn’t optimal. The back part of their store wasn’t as well visited by the shoppers as it could have been with a better layout. The store manager, Jägmark, had in an interview confirmed that products that were places in this back part weren’t as new and even as trendy as the products in the front part of the store. She also said that this was due to products that was placed in the back part didn’t get as much attention as the ones in the front part. We came to the same conclusion but could see that this was partly because of a lack of understanding of their costumers’ pattern of movement through the store. Based on our research we think that MQ should make a few changes and by that receive a higher number of visitors in their back part of the store as well as get a better flow through the store. We found it especially interesting that the store, after all, already had a good store layout. For example we observed a phenomenon called “the pinball effect” which is a very good way of leading the shoppers through different parts of the store. We were surprised by the fact that Jägmark already had an understanding of how her costumers moved around in her store. Even if her understanding, according to us, can become better it was a new fact for us that managers or store owners already was considering the science of shopping as a tool for improving their store layout. The fact that shop owners should consider shopping as a tool for development and to improve their store layout is something we have made the conclusion of with this study. Perhaps even more important is that we think shop owners should all take some time to observe their shoppers in order to make improvements on their layout in order to enhance their strength as competitors. Since the costumers are kings in today’s competitive business of fashion retailer, all store owners should consider that the best place to influence consumers is in the store.

  • 1200260.
    Zarif Saffari, Amin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Biology Education Centre.
    Exploring the diversity of unmapped reads from human deep sequencing2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    currently DNA and RNA sequencing are performed as standard parts of many scientific experiments. While the majority of the reads produced in these experiments do map to the genome of the organism of interest there are a significant fraction that do not. These reads have often been viewed as uninteresting and thus discarded, sometimes explained as errors created in the sequencing process. However, there may be a real possibility that these reads actually contain genomic sequences belonging to, but not currently in the genome ofthe organism investigated, as well as information about other organisms which live and thrivein the sample material. Considering this, it is of great interest to investigate these reads to see if they contain any usable information. In this project the unmapped reads from SOLiD sequencing of blood and saliva from a twin pair were assembled. The assembled parts were thencompared to different blast databases to investigate if similar genomic regions are reported inother species. We can conclude that indeed a large fraction of the contigs found in this assemblyhave homology to bacterial genes while other contigs share similarity to genomic regions foundin apes and other species closely related to us. All in all the results show that there is more to the unmapped reads than just sequencing errors.

  • 1200261.
    Zarifi, Zoya
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik..
    Nilfouroushan, Faramarz
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Berggrundsgeologi.
    Raeesi, Mohammad
    Department of Earth Science, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
    Crustal stress Map of Iran: Insight from seismic and geodetic computations2014In: Pure and Applied Geophysics, ISSN 0033-4553, E-ISSN 1420-9136, Vol. 171, no 17, p. 1219-1236Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We used the focal mechanisms of crustal earthquakes (depth <40 km) in the period 1909-2012 and the available GPS velocities, estimated from the data collected between 1999 to 2011, to estimate the magnitude and directions of maximum principal stress and strain rates in Iran. The Pearson product moment correlation was used to find the correlation between the stress field obtained from the focal mechanism stress inversion and that obtained using the seismic and geodetic strain rates. Our assumption is that stresses in a continuum are produced by tectonic forces and the consequent deformation on the crustal scale. Therefore, the direction of the stress and strain (or strain rate) are ideally be the same. Our results show a strong correlation between the directions of the principal components of stress and strain (rate) obtained using the different data/methods.  Using  weighted average analysis, we present a new stress map for Iran.

  • 1200262.
    Zarifi, Zoya
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Geophysics.
    Nilfouroushan, Faramarz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Solid Earth Geology.
    Raeesi, Mohammad
    Department of Earth Science, University of Bergen, Allegaten 41, 5007 Bergen, Norway.
    Crustal stress Map of Iran: Insight from seismic and geodetic computations2014In: Pure and Applied Geophysics, ISSN 0033-4553, E-ISSN 1420-9136, Vol. 171, no 17, p. 1219-1236Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We used the focal mechanisms of crustal earthquakes (depth <40 km) in the period 1909-2012 and the available GPS velocities, estimated from the data collected between 1999 to 2011, to estimate the magnitude and directions of maximum principal stress and strain rates in Iran. The Pearson product moment correlation was used to find the correlation between the stress field obtained from the focal mechanism stress inversion and that obtained using the seismic and geodetic strain rates. Our assumption is that stresses in a continuum are produced by tectonic forces and the consequent deformation on the crustal scale. Therefore, the direction of the stress and strain (or strain rate) are ideally be the same. Our results show a strong correlation between the directions of the principal components of stress and strain (rate) obtained using the different data/methods.  Using  weighted average analysis, we present a new stress map for Iran.

  • 1200263.
    Zarifnejad, Karwan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Rantala, Daniel
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Kommunikation på SANDVIK: Brist i befintligt kommunikationssystem2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 1200264.
    Zarifnejad, Saman
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Akravi, Zerevan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
      IP-telefoni i ett befintligt nät2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Examensarbetet är en studie i felsökning och optimering av IP-telefonisystem i ett befintligt nät. Här beskrivs hur ett IP-telefoninät bör byggas och konfigureras för optimal prestanda utifrån Ciscos rekommendationer. Det aktuella nätet är IT-Partners nät som drivs av Nortel när det gäller IP-telefonidelen. I dagsläget har de vissa återkommande problem när det gäller IP-telefonin t.ex. att samtalet bryts då och då. Det är nämnt vad problemet kan vara och vilka lösningar som skulle passa nätet. I allmänt brister kunskaperna i IP-telefoni vilket medför att problem kan uppstå med att få ett IP-telefonisystem att fungera som det ska. Vidare berättas varför ett IP-telefonisystem inte optimeras redan från första stadiet.

  • 1200265.
    ZARIFNEJAD, SHIMAN
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    VUKOVIC, DANIJELA
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    LUNDGREN, STÉPHANIE
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
      The Absence of IKEA - A Study into the South African Furniture Market2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

     Title: The Absence of IKEA - A Study into the South African Furniture Market

     Research questions:

    - Is the South African furniture market favourable for IKEA?

    - Would it be beneficial for IKEA to have production there?

    - How could IKEA promote itself if they were going to enter the South African market?

    Purpose of the research:

    The purpose of the paper is to identify possible opportunities and threats for IKEA in the South African furniture market by describing the market from a furniture company’s perspective. The paper will also point out strengths and weaknesses on the South African market that can be helpful for Swedish furniture firms that are interested in establishing business in South Africa.

    Methodology:

    Different method approaches were used including; observations, a survey among consumers and interviews with the Swedish Trade Council, a marketer and furniture companies. The information gathered through these approaches was complemented with previously published data.

    Conclusion:

    It was discovered that the investment climate in South Africa is favourable and that there is a market for IKEA. However, considering the current condition of the market, we argue that the market is not favourable enough from a manufacturing perspective and therefore not beneficial for IKEA to set up production. The biggest threat identified is the furniture store Mr Price because of its similar concept. To begin with IKEA should focus on brand building followed by in store marketing.

    Keywords:South Africa, IKEA, Market analysis, External analysis, Marketing mix, South African furniture market, Black Diamond.

     

     

  • 1200266.
    ZARIFNEJAD, SHIMAN
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    VUKOVIC, DANJELA
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    VÄGERMARK, MARIELLE
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    En studie om varumärkesidentitet ochvarumärkesimage inom utbildningssektorn2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Nivå: Kandidatuppsats i företagsekonomi, inriktning marknadsföring, 15 poäng

    Författare: Danijela Vukovic, Marielle Vägermark, Shiman Zarifnejad

    Handledare: Cecilia Erixon

    Titel: En studie om varumärkesidentitet och varumärkesimage inom utbildningssektorn

     

    Bakgrund: I en tid där utbudet är större än efterfrågan och det råder en ständigt växande konkurrens bland företagen, ökar vikten i att ha ett starkt varumärke. Det är via varumärket som konsumenten kan erhålla information om produktens pris, kvalitet och funktion. Eftersom varumärket fungerar som informationskälla blir det viktigt för företag att veta om deras varumärkesidentitet, det vill säga hur företaget vill bli uppfattade, stämmer överens med konsumenternas uppfattning om företaget, som då blir företagets varumärkesimage. Eftersom utbildningssektorn efter införandet av decentraliserings-, friskole- och valfrihetsreformerna under 1990-talet, har blivit mer konkurrensutsatt blir det viktigt för skolor att veta hur väl deras varumärkesidentitet stämmer överens med deras varumärkesimage. En friskola som agerar inom utbildningssektorn och som valts som undersökningsexempel för uppsatsen är John Bauer.

    Syfte: Syftet med uppsatsen är att beskriva överensstämmelsen mellan en gymnasieskolas varumärkesidentitet och varumärkesimagen av gymnasieskolan.

    Metod: För att uppfylla uppsatsens syfte har tre olika undersökningar genomförts. Först genomfördes två semistrukturerade intervjuer med personal på John Bauer med avsikt att få fram varumärkesidentiteten. Vidare gjordes en enkätundersökning på John Bauers befintliga elever samt en mindre enkätundersökning på deras potentiella elever för att få fram varumärkesimagen. Den mindre enkätundersökningen som genomfördes på John Bauers potentiella elever ämnade att komplettera varumärkesimagen och var begränsad till kännedom och associationer.

    Slutsatser: Studien visar att John Bauers varumärkesidentitet i överlag stämmer överens med den varumärkesimage som de befintliga och potentiella eleverna har till John Bauer. Dock bör de delar där dessa två inte överensstämmer uppmärksammas då de utgör en del av det som John Bauer anser är viktigast att förmedla, närmare bestämt ”entreprenöriellt lärande” och hälsa och idrott.

  • 1200267.
    Zarifnejad, Sirwan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Johansson, Petra
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Nudge Management; a way to Motivate Healthier Behavior2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today, organizations are facing rising costs caused by increased employee sick - leave. A way to motivate employees to choose a healthier lifestyle is for the employer to offer wellness incentives. However, not too many employees are taking advantage of the incentives. According to the Transtheoretical Model of Health Behavior Change (TTM) , people are at different stages in their behavior change process. By knowing their personal obstacles to change, organizations can use nudge management and wellness incentives to help their employees to choose a healthier lifestyle. In order to get some answers, we conducted qualitative interviews at the Swedish Migration Agency. The result of our research showed seven main obstacles, and in this thesis we have explored dif erent nudges organizations can use to promote health and to lower sick - leave.

  • 1200268.
    Zarifovic, Minela
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Unga mäns kriminella beteende: - En studie av vilka sociala och personliga förhållanden som kan påverka unga män att utveckla ett kriminellt beteende2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    My purpose of this paper was to explore the social and personal circumstances that contribute to the development of criminal behaviour among young men. I have conducted interviews with a number of young men aged 18 to 19 years old from the same circle of friends to get an insight into their explanations of their criminal behaviour. This essay draws on their stories and reflections on their situation. Essay material has been collected through qualitative interviews which were analyzed from a social psychological perspective. The result shows in particular that young people report that they are committing crimes of rational reasons to get quick money and things they want. They also acknowledged social motives for their behaviour as to plan and carry out crimes with others. Of their stories revealed that there are underlying causes that would explain their behaviour. It may include family relationships and upbringing in childhood. Adolescents' stories describing the family's finances as tight, many parents were single and have to spend much time at work to support themselves and family. This meant that supervision of the young could be secondary. The young consider also situational and environmental conditions in the residential area as contributing to their criminal behaviour. Most young people described in the interviews, the neighbourhood grew up in the run-down. It was an environment in which the environment was looked down upon and in which criminal values ​​and norms were common. 

  • 1200269.
    Zarin, Rouien
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Institute of Design.
    Faster. Stronger. Better?: designing for enhanced engagement of extreme sports2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The human body is capable of very rich and complex movements and gestures which we use in everyday life to manipulate, navigate and negotiate the world around us—it is our interface for human experience. However, as technology advances it simultaneously shrinks, moving closer to our bodies, intertwining with the many facets of our lives and positions itself between our experiences of the physical environments around us. When utilizing these technological systems in the context of intense sporting activities this competition for our focus leads to problematic scenarios—in the best case altering the aesthetic qualities of physical activity and in the worst case leaving us vulnerable to perilous situations. 

    This constructive design research thesis aims to understand how design may be used in relation to the body as part of an informative research approach to generate knowledge about how people actively engage with technology. This is deemed increasingly important as the advancements in technological connectivity and its corresponding trend in miniaturization create a pervasive effect that beckons closer examination and attention as these elements influence how we move. This is achieved by investigations conducted through studies in the area of extreme sports—specifically mountain biking and climbing activities— with the purpose of deepening understanding about human engagement with digital technologies situated within particular contexts. This research explores how the body’s movements can be considered a material to be worked with, designed and assessed in order to influence performance behaviour.

    Overall, the thesis undertakes a mixed methods approach to addressing interaction design issues within the context of movement. By advocating making as a generative activity, this research produces a series of artifacts drawing from notions of embodiment that is used to ‘tease out’ knowledge, which is then reflected upon and iterated. These corresponding artifacts embody and imbue designerly intention, subsequently raising pertinent questions of what it means to be connected in an ever evolving digital world, and how we can distinguish, address and begin to design for/with information realities relating to the natural and artificial.

    Ultimately the thesis offers three main contributions to designers and researchers: (1) the Stages of Performativity framework that serves to increase awareness of the temporal aspects when designing for activities (2) A proposed model of the makers prototyping process and its corresponding seduction loop phenomenon (3) a series of non-prescriptive artifacts intended to be aspirational such as the Blackbox, Heel hook, Morpheel, Griptile and Climbing Sleeve prototypes. These contributions could be of particular interest to those intent on utilizing a maker driven prototyping practice by primarily proposing a comprehensive account of the transactions occurred during my prototyping process that is conducive to heightening awareness and cognition towards athletes engaged in extreme sports. The hope is to inspire an active role in designing experiences that enhance or support physical activities rather than impeding them.

    In addition, this research approach advocates the unpacking or engagement with technological materials as a means for extending understanding and defining their functions in for the sake of employing them for thought provoking, prototyping endeavors to challenge complex and seemingly established systems while simultaneously providing a discourse in regards to the advancements of connected technologies towards a more humanizing experience.  

    Finally, it is suggested that the probing of alternate realities by means of constructive design exploration is an essential step towards sketching meaningful engagement when considering the role that we desire technology to play in our lives.

  • 1200270.
    Zarin, Rouien
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Institute of Design. Interactive Institute.
    The Voice Harvester: An Interactive Musical Instrument2014Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The Voice Harvester is an exploratory interactive installation that embodies human voice in physical materials. Sound input is amplified and transmitted through audio drivers connected to a thin, flexible membrane that agitates the material on it. The title “Voice Harvester” was derived from the fact that the installation create was able to elicit nonlinguistic, expressive, and naturalistic human vocal sounds to explore the full range of capability of the human voice through use of a novel, playful, and embodied interaction.

    This design exploration took place by a team at Interactive Institute Umeå under the guidance of Artist and Composer Anders Lind. The concepts of human engagement, involvement, and embodiment as well as the creation of a physical tangible thing were central to this design exploration.

    The object elicits curiosity and subsequent interaction utilizing the unusual appearance and leveraging tacit knowledge within users of the purpose of microphones. When a user speaks (or makes any sound) into the microphone they will see the materials in the acrylic tubes animate with the physical embodiment of their voice. The intent was that once this happens users will continue to engage and interact with the Voice Harvester to see the different ways in which they are able to manipulate the materials into action.

    The Voice Harvester is built as part of a series of interactive installations to be shown in Umeå, Sweden as part of the Umeå 2014 Capital of Culture and has already been exhibited at the MADE festival 2013.

    Co-created with Anders Lind, Music Composer and Rouien Zarin

  • 1200271.
    Zarin, Rouien
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Institute of Design. Interactive Institute.
    Trollskogen: A Framework for Enhancing Communication for Cognitively Disabled Children2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    All people need to communicate - but not all people have the same preconditions. Some are limited in their ability to speak, read and write, for example, people with severe learning difficulties.To help support this communities it is apparent that new tools need to be created to help enhance communication by providing alternative means.

    Promoting independence

    Communicative technologies can potentially increase independence amongst a group of people who rely on caregivers and assistance on a daily basis and provide opportunities of enhancing community and safety through social connectedness.

    Multi-Touch Devices

    The technology for multitouch tables and devices has existed for a few years and is continually improving. This opens new doors for interaction and can be a potential asset for people with Cognitive Disabilities.

  • 1200272.
    Zarin, Rouien
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Institute of Design. Interactive Institute.
    Trollskogen: A Multitouch Platform for Kids with Cognitive Disabilities2009In: In proceedings of Interactive Tabletops and Surfaces in Banff, Canada, ACM Press, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1200273.
    Zarin, Rouien
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Institute of Design. Interactive Institute.
    Trollskogen: Enhancing Communication for Cognitively Disabled Children using a Multi-touch Tabletop System2009In: In Proceedings of STELLAR Alipine Rendez-vous December 2 – 3, 2009, Garmisch-Partenkirchen (Germany)., stellar , 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Few examples exist of applying multi-touch tabletop computing to particular groups of users and tasks. In this abstract, we provide such an example by describing a project that focuses on enhancing communication skills among cognitively disabled children. In carrying out this project, we have come to realize that to successfully implement such a system it takes inclusion or ‘real’ users at early stages in the design process as well as numerous rounds of testing and iteration to overcome the substantial amount of experiential differences between designers and users. We also argue that such a user group cannot naively be regarded as a homogeneous group, expected to provide a unanimous response to particular designs. Rather, we have come to regard these users as making up a heterogeneous group where each individual is vital in contributing and inspiring the design process in his or her own, unique ways.

  • 1200274.
    Zarin, Rouien
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå School of Architecture. Interactive Institute Swedish ICT.
    Fällman, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå School of Architecture. Interactive Institute Swedish ICT.
    Ambient Interactive Architecture: Enriching Urban Spaces with Low-cost, Lightweight Interactive Lighting2010In: Proceedings of Colour & Light in Architecture, An International Conference, (November 11-12, Venice, Italy), Colour & Light in Architecture , 2010, p. 296-301Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate how an existing urban space, a pedestrian tunnel under a busy road, can be enriched using low-cost, lightweight sensors, digital technology, and lighting equipment. Our installation utilizes bars of LED lights placed in a pedestrian tunnel and connected to and individually controlled by a microcontroller. When vehicles pass overhead, a laser sensor detects the movement and passes on this data to the microcontroller that processes the data and changes the lighting within the tunnel in various ways according to our custom-made algorithms. The purpose of the installation has been to convey meaning in an ambient, non-prescriptive way to the pedestrians, bicyclists, and others passing through the tunnel about the traffic situation on the busy roadway overhead. In carrying out this project in a public space not originally designed for installations and events of this kind, we have encountered a large number of practical concerns that need to be dealt with, including issues of access to the power grid, changing weather condition, stakeholders and gatekeepers with different perspectives, and issues of safety and vandalization.

  • 1200275.
    Zarin, Rouien
    et al.
    Interactive Institute Swedish ICT.
    Fällman, Daniel
    Interactive Institute Swedish ICT.
    The Woodbot Pilots: Exploring No-hands Interaction for Interactive Public Installations2011In: IASDR 2011: Diversity and unity: Book of abstracts & programme / [ed] Norbert Roozenburg, Lin-Lin Chen, Pieter Jan Stappers, the International Association of Societies of Design Research (IASDR) and Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Industrial Design Engineering , 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present and discuss the Woodbot Pilots, an interactive experience in the form of a gesture-based game that runs on a large-scale interactive installation designed to be placed in an airport terminal and used by the general public. The background of the project is described, as well as the installation itself and a scenario of its use. To end the paper, we discuss some of the issues it raises in relation to public installations as well as some of the lessons we have learnt in conceiving, designing, implementing, and studying its use.

  • 1200276.
    Zarin, Rouien
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Institute of Design.
    Fällman, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    The woodbot pilots: exploring no-handsinteraction for interactive public installations2011In: Diversity and unity: Proceedings of IASDR2011, the 4th World Conference on Design Research / [ed] N.F.M. Roozenburg, L.L. Chen & P.J. stappers, IASDR , 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present and discuss the Woodbot Pilots, an interactive experience in the form of a gesture-based game that runs on a large-scale interactive installation designed to be placed in an airport terminal and used by the general public. The background of the project is described, as well as the installation itself and a scenario of its use. To end the paper, we discuss some of the issues it raises in relation to public installations as well as some of the lessons we have learnt in conceiving, designing, implementing, and studying its use.

  • 1200277.
    Zarin, Rouien
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå School of Architecture. Interactive Institute.
    Fällman, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Through the troll forest: exploring tabletop interaction design for children with special cognitive needs2011In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, ACM Press, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe the interaction design process of conceiving, designing, implementing, and testing Trollskogen, a purpose-built tabletop multitouch system featuring a range of small software applications, termed ‘micro applications’. Each micro application is devised as a tool intended to improve or allow for exercise of social communication skills. Throughout the project, we have worked closely with a group of six children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) or Down’s syndrome, all in the age range of 5-8. The system has been designed together with the users, their teachers, and various experts as a complement to the current curricula. In this paper, the three main phases of our design process are described and we conclude the paper by reporting on and discussing some preliminary findings and observations from a small user study

  • 1200278.
    Zarin, Rouien
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Institute of Design.
    Lindbergh, Kent
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Fällman, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Stop Motion Animation as a Tool for Sketching in Architecture2012In: Proceeding of the 2012 Design Research Society International Conference, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Widely acknowledged as an archetypal design activity, sketching is typically carried out using little more than pen and paper. Today’s designed artifacts however, are often given qualities that are hard to capture with traditional means of sketching. While pen and paper sketching catches the character of a building, it may not equally well capture how that building changes with the seasons, how people pass through it, how the light moves in between its rooms from sunrise to dawn, and how its façade subtly decays over centuries. Yet, it is often exactly these dynamic and interactive aspects that are emphasized in contemporary design work. So is there a way for designers to be able to sketch also these dynamic processes? Over several years and in different design disciplines, we have been exploring the potential of stop motion animation (SMA) to serve this purpose. SMA is a basic form of animation typically applied to make physical objects appear to be alive. The animator moves objects in small increments between individually photographed frames. When the photographs are combined and played back in continuous sequence, the illusion of movement is created. Although SMA has a long history in filmmaking, the animation technique has received scarce attention in most design fields including product design, architecture, and interaction design. This paper brings SMA into the area of sketching in architecture by reporting on the planning, conduct, result, and evaluation of a workshop course carried out with a group of 50 students at Umeå School of Architecture, Umeå University, Sweden.

  • 1200279.
    Zarin, Rouien
    et al.
    Interactive Institute Umeå.
    Lindbergh, Kent
    Interactive Institute Umeå.
    Fällman, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics. Interactive Institute Umeå.
    Using Stop Motion Animation to Sketch in Architecture: A Practical Approach2012In: Design and Technology Education: An International Journal, ISSN 1360-1431, E-ISSN 2040-8633, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 78-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Widely acknowledged as an archetypal design activity,sketching is typically carried out using little more than penand paper. Today’s designed artifacts however, are oftengiven qualities that are hard to capture with traditionalmeans of sketching. While pen and paper sketchingcatches the character of a building, it may not equally wellcapture how that building changes with the seasons, howpeople pass through it, how the light moves in betweenits rooms from sunrise to dawn, and how its façade subtlydecays over centuries. Yet, it is often exactly these dynamicand interactive aspects that are emphasised incontemporary design work. So is there a way for designersto be able to sketch also these dynamic processes?Over several years and in different design disciplines, wehave been exploring the potential of stop motionanimation (SMA) to serve this purpose. SMA is a basicform of animation typically applied to make physicalobjects appear to be alive. The animator moves objects insmall increments between individually photographedframes. When the photographs are combined and playedback in continuous sequence, the illusion of movement iscreated. Although SMA has a long history in filmmaking,the animation technique has received scarce attention inmost design fields including product design, architecture,and interaction design. This paper brings SMA into thearea of sketching in architecture by reporting on theplanning, conduct, result, and evaluation of a workshopcourse carried out with a group of 50 students at Umeå School of Architecture, Umeå University, Sweden.

  • 1200280.
    Zarin, Rouien
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Institute of Design. Interactive Institute.
    True, Nicholas
    Interactive Institute Swedish ICT.
    Papworth, Nigel
    Interactive Institute Swedish ICT.
    Lindbergh, Kent
    Interactive Institute Swedish ICT.
    Fällman, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics. Interactive Institute Swedish ICT.
    Be Green: Implementing an Interactive, Cylindrical Display in the Real World2013In: Proceedings of the 2nd ACM International Symposium on Pervasive Displays, New York, NY: ACM Press, 2013, p. 55-60Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many studies in Human-Computer Interaction and related fields, such as pervasive displays, have historically centered around user evaluation and knowledge production, focusing on usability issues and on creating a more efficient user experience. As the trajectory of HCI moves toward the so-called ‘third wave’, new values are being emphasized and explored. These include concepts such as embodiment and engagement, complementing usability as the primary metric of evaluation. This paper explores the ideation, iteration, design, and real-world deployment of such a ‘third wave’ interactive pervasive installation in the form of an interactive, large cylindrical display. The purpose was to display the air quality data in a manner that would inspire elevated environmental consciousness and discussion among Umeå citizens, especially with regard to the environmental impact of different methods of transportation.

  • 1200281.
    Zarin, Rouien
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Institute of Design.
    True, Nicholas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Papworth, Nigel
    Interactive Institute Swedish ICT.
    Lindbergh, Kent
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Fällman, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Be Green: implementing an Interactive,Cylindrical Display in the Real World2013In: Proceedings of the 2nd ACM International Symposium on Pervasive Displays (PerDis '13): , ACM Press, 2013, p. 55-60Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many studies in Human-Computer Interaction and related fields,such as pervasive displays, have historically centered around userevaluation and knowledge production, focusing on usability issuesand on creating a more efficient user experience. As the trajectoryof HCI moves toward the so-called ‘third wave’, new values arebeing emphasized and explored. These include concepts such asembodiment and engagement, complementing usability as theprimary metric of evaluation. This paper explores the ideation,iteration, design, and real-world deployment of such a ‘thirdwave’ interactive pervasive installation in the form of aninteractive, large cylindrical display. The purpose was to displaythe air quality data in a manner that would inspire elevatedenvironmental consciousness and discussion among Umeåcitizens, especially with regard to the environmental impact ofdifferent methods of transportation.

  • 1200282.
    Zarin, Ru
    et al.
    Interactive Institute Swedish ICT.
    Fällman, Daniel
    Interactive Institute Swedish ICT.
    Through the Troll Forest: Exploring Tabletop Interaction Design for Children with Special Cognitive Needs2011In: Proceeding ACM CHI '11 Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, New York: ACM Digital Library, 2011, p. 3319-3322Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe the interaction design process of conceiving, designing, implementing, and testing Trollskogen, a purpose-built tabletop multitouch system featuring a range of small software applications, termed 'micro applications'. Each micro application is devised as a tool intended to improve or allow for exercise of social communication skills. Throughout the project, we have worked closely with a group of six children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) or Down's syndrome, all in the age range of 5-8. The system has been designed together with the users, their teachers, and various experts as a complement to the current curricula. In this paper, the three main phases of our design process are described and we conclude the paper by reporting on and discussing some preliminary findings and observations from a small user study.

  • 1200283.
    Zarin, Ru
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Interactive Institute.
    True, Nic
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Interactive Institute.
    Papworth, Nigel
    Lindbergh, Kent
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Interactive Institute.
    Fallman, Daniel
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Interactive Institute.
    Be Green: Implementing an Interactive, Cylindrical Display in the Real World2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many studies in Human-Computer Interaction and related fields, such as pervasive displays, have historically centered around user evaluation and knowledge production, focusing on usability issues and on creating a more efficient user experience. As the trajectory of HCI moves toward the so-called 'third wave', new values are being emphasized and explored. These include concepts such as embodiment and engagement, complementing usability as the primary metric of evaluation. This paper explores the ideation, iteration, design, and real-world deployment of such a 'third wave' interactive pervasive installation in the form of an interactive, large cylindrical display. The purpose was to display the air quality data in a manner that would inspire elevated environmental consciousness and discussion among Ume citizens, especially with regard to the environmental impact of different methods of transportation.

  • 1200284. Zarina, Gunita
    et al.
    Sholts, Sabrina B.
    Tichinin, Alina
    Rudovica, Vita
    Viksna, Arturs
    Engizere, Austra
    Muiznieks, Vitolds
    Bartelink, Eric J.
    Wärmländer, Sebastian K. T. S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics. UCLA/Getty Conservation Programme, UCLA, United States.
    Cribra orbitalia as a potential indicator of childhood stress: Evidence from paleopathology, stable C, N, and O isotopes, and trace element concentrations in children from a 17th-18th century cemetery in Jekabpils, Latvia2016In: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, ISSN 0946-672X, E-ISSN 1878-3252, Vol. 38, p. 131-137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cribra orbitalia (CO), or porotic hyperostosis (PH) of the orbital roof, is one of the most common pathological conditions found in archaeological subadult skeletal remains. Reaching frequencies higher than 50% in many prehistoric samples, CO has been generally attributed to a variety of factors including malnutrition (e.g., megaloblastic anemia) and parasitism. In this study, we tested the relationship between CO, trace element concentrations, and stable isotope values (delta C-13, delta N-15, delta O-18) in subadult skeletons from a 17th to 18th century cemetery in the historic town of Jekabpils, Latvia. A total of 28 subadults were examined, seven of which (25%) showed evidence of CO. Bioarchaeological evidence indicated high mortality for children in this cemetery: half of the burials were subadults under the age of 14, while a third were under the age of four. Life expectancy at birth was estimated to have been only 21.6 years. Trace element concentrations measured by Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) showed no relationship between presence or absence of CO and levels of manganese, zinc, strontium, barium, copper, cadmium, or lead in the bones (p>0.05). However, a significant correlation (p<0.05) was found between the presence of CO and decreased levels of iron. The correlations between CO and decreased levels of copper and lead approached significance (p=0.056 for both elements). Individuals with CO furthermore displayed significantly lower delta N-15 isotope values, suggesting greater consumption of lower trophic level food resources than those unaffected by CO; delta C-13 and delta O-18 values, in contrast, showed no significant differences. These results suggest that the prevalence of CO may be related to dietary deficiencies. In this case, low iron levels may also signify a diet low in other key vitamins (e.g., B-g and B-12), which are known to cause megaloblastic anemia.

  • 1200285. Zaring, Helen
    Barn med dyslexi2007Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree)Student thesis
  • 1200286.
    Zaring, Helen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    Barn med dyslexi: Hur kan barn med dyslexi kompensera sitt funktionshinder2007Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    How can children with dyslexia compensate their disability? This is the question on which I base my research. By interviews I have tried to get answers to this question. I have concluded that there are several ways children with dyslexia can compensate their disability. The compensation does not look the same for all, as it is an individual disability. This is why it is important for the teacher to ask the student about his or hers problem. Together they will find the best solution. I understand the difficulty to find the right compensation, the pedagogue always have to see to each individual student.

    By this work I have received a better understanding about dyslexia and the problems that it can cause. Compensation helps the students to overcome their problems.

    The interviews have given me a better understanding of pedagogues’ knowledge about students with dyslexia.

    Pedagogues’ knowledge is high, and it shows that they understand the importance that students with dyslexia need compensation to be able to learn.

  • 1200287.
    Zaring, Per
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    On Process Quality in Integrative Frameworks for Information Systems Development1993Report (Other academic)
  • 1200288.
    Zarins, Johanna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Söderlund, Nina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskors egenskattade arbetstillfresställelse och kompetens inom kommunal hemsjukvård2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Att beskriva hur sjuksköterskor inom den kommunala hemsjukvården skattar sin kompetens och arbetstillfredsställelse. Metod: En deskriptiv tvärsnittsstudie genomfördes med 16 deltagande där samtliga arbetade som sjuksköterskor inom den kommunala hemsjukvården. En enkät med fem delområden och 48 huvudfrågor administrerades och besvarades som elektroniskt dokument. Resultatet beskrivs med deskriptiv statisktik. Resultat: De flesta sjuksköterskorna i studien kände sig tillfredställda med sin kompetens. Den viktigaste aspekten för en sjuksköterska som arbetar inom hemsjukvården ansågs vara attityd och förhållningssätt, såsom att visa hänsyn och ta ansvar för given vård. Majoriteten av deltagarna i studien kände sig trötta men nöjda efter ett avslutat arbetspass och de hade en positiv bild på arbetet inom hemsjukvården men att det var en stressig arbetsmiljö. Slutsats: De flesta kände sig trötta men nöjda med sitt arbete efter ett avslutat arbetspass. Majoriteten av sjuksköterskorna i studien var tillfredställda med sin kompetens och hade en positiv bild av arbetet inom hemsjukvården. Över hälften av deltagarna uppgav att det var stressigt att arbeta som sjuksköterska inom hemsjukvården. Detta skulle kunna leda till ökad delegering av arbetsuppgifter och på så sätt riskera att försämra vårdkvaliteten.

  • 1200289.
    Zarins, Kristina
    Red Cross University College of Nursing.
    Family involvement in nurs¡ng care - a resource or burden?: from the perspective of Tanzanian nurses2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The health of the individual affects all family members, and families influence the process and outcome of healthcare. Nurses attitudes about the importance of involving the patients families in nursing care, greatly influences the quality of the meeting between the family and the nurse. Nurses working inTanzania feel they can not provide adequate healthcare due to heavy work load and limited resources. Tanzanian nurses and patients are highly dependent on the help of the patients' families. The aim of the study was to investigate Tanzanian nurses' attitudes towards involvement of patients' families in nursing care. In this quantitative, descriptive study, a questionnaire called "Families'importance in NursingCare-Nurses'Attitudes" (FINC-NA) was handed out to registered nurses working at a regional hospital inTanzania in 2009. The results were analysed and presented by descriptive statistics such as charts, tables and central values. The 47 nurses who answered the questionnaire had in general supportive attitudes towards the involvement of the patients' family in nursing care. One fifth of the nurses however viewed the patients' families as a burden. One third of the nurses feel that the presence of the patients' families holds them back in their work. Nurses above 40 years of age and nurses with no experience of a familymember being seriously ill had less supportive attitudes towards patients family involvement compared to other subgroups in this study. The nurses with least years of nursing experience had the most supportive attitudes of all the subgroups. Besides nurses own experience of an ill familymember, this study suggests that attitudes are affected by culture, working environment and education.

  • 1200290.
    Zarins, Kristina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Johansson, Åke
    U-Pb geochronology of gneisses and granitoids from the Danish island of Bornholm: new evidence for 1.47-1.45 Ga magmatism at the southwestern margin of the East European Craton2009In: International journal of earth sciences, ISSN 1437-3254, E-ISSN 1437-3262, Vol. 98, no 7, p. 1561-1580Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Danish island of Bornholm is located at the southwestern margin of the Fennoscandian Shield, and features exposed Precambrian basement in its northern and central parts. In this paper, we present new U-Pb zircon and titanite ages for granites and orthogneisses from 13 different localities on Bornholm. The crystallization ages of the protolith rocks all fall within the range 1,475-1,445 Ma (weighted average Pb-207/Pb-206 ages of zircon). Minor age differences, however, may imply a multi-phase emplacement history of the granitoid complex. The presence of occasional inherited zircons (with ages of 1,700-1,800 Ma) indicates that the Bornholm granitoids were influenced by older crustal material. The east-west fabric observed in most of the studied granites and gneisses, presumably originated by deformation in close connection with the magmatism at 1,470-1,450 Ma. Most titanite U-Pb ages fall between 1,450 and 1,430 Ma, reflecting post-magmatic or post-metamorphic cooling. Granitoid magmatism at ca. 1.45 Ga along the southwestern margin of the East European Craton has previously been reported from southern Sweden and Lithuania. The ages obtained in this study indicate that the Bornholm magmatism also was part of this Mesoproterozoic event.

  • 1200291. Zarit, Steven H
    et al.
    Johansson, Boo
    Malmberg, Bo
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Changes in Functional Competency in the Oldest Old: A Longitudinal Study.1995In: Journal of Aging and Health, ISSN 0898-2643, E-ISSN 1552-6887, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 3-23Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1200292. Zarit, Steven
    et al.
    Johansson, Boo
    Berg, Stig
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Functional impairment and co-disability in the oldest-old: A multidimensional approach1993In: Journal of Aging and Health, ISSN 0898-2643, E-ISSN 1552-6887, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 291-305Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1200293. Zarkada, Georgia
    et al.
    Heinolainen, Krista
    Mäkinen, Taija
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Vascular Biology.
    Kubota, Yoshiaki
    Alitalo, Kari
    VEGFR3 does not sustain retinal angiogenesis without VEGFR22015In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 112, no 3, p. 761-766Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels, is regulated by vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) and their receptors (VEGFRs). VEGFR2 is abundant in the tip cells of angiogenic sprouts, where VEGF/VEGFR2 functions upstream of the delta-like ligand 4 (DLL4)/Notch signal transduction pathway. VEGFR3 is expressed in all endothelia and is indispensable for angiogenesis during early embryonic development. In adults, VEGFR3 is expressed in angiogenic blood vessels and some fenestrated endothelia. VEGFR3 is abundant in endothelial tip cells, where it activates Notch signaling, facilitating the conversion of tip cells to stalk cells during the stabilization of vascular branches. Subsequently, Notch activation suppresses VEGFR3 expression in a negative feedback loop. Here we used conditional deletions and a Notch pathway inhibitor to investigate the cross-talk between VEGFR2, VEGFR3, and Notch in vivo. We show that postnatal angiogenesis requires VEGFR2 signaling also in the absence of Notch or VEGFR3, and that even small amounts of VEGFR2 are able to sustain angiogenesis to some extent. We found that VEGFR2 is required independently of VEGFR3 for endothelial DLL4 up-regulation and angiogenic sprouting, and for VEGFR3 functions in angiogenesis. In contrast, VEGFR2 deletion had no effect, whereas VEGFR3 was essential for postnatal lymphangiogenesis, and even for lymphatic vessel maintenance in adult skin. Knowledge of these interactions and the signaling functions of VEGFRs in blood vessels and lymphatic vessels is essential for the therapeutic manipulation of the vascular system, especially when considering multitargeted antiangiogenic treatments.

  • 1200294.
    Zarkani, Ershad
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    A proposed Generic Framework for Qualitative Risk Analysis Based on PMBOK2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis presents a generic framework for project managers and/or other stakeholders to assist them in qualitatively assessing and evaluating project risks. The main structure of this framework is constructed based on risk management area in PMBOK (Project Management Body of Knowledge) standard. Additionally, different best practices and methods in the field of risk management and decision making are studied and embedded in the framework. In spite of being theoretical in nature, the framework can contribute to the project risk management area developed by PMBOK, opening the possibility of further research for its verification.

  • 1200295. Zarkesh, Mohammad
    Customizing strategic planning model for Iran’s cement industry2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Strategy is concept which differentiates between success and failure of a manager. That’s why a substantial volume of management literature has been devoted to strategy formulation. There are different approaches in strategy which each one works well in a certain context. Strategic planning as an approach to strategy making is applicable in organizations in which production process has low degree of complexity and environment is fairly stable. Cement companies in Iran experience such a context, so strategic planning can be a valuable tool for identifying strategies in cement industry. This study aims to identify a basic strategic planning model so that it takes into consideration the characteristics of Iran’s cement industry. Driving forces, value chain, key success factors, and generic strategies: are the main elements which have been customized according to industry’s features. The needed information for this purpose has mainly been gathered through document review and experts interview. The findings of the study show that in near future cement companies will face big changes and they have to meet the requirements of new competition environment. Economy liberation, elimination of government subsidies and supports, and a growing demand due to renovation of neighbor countries: are the main driving forces which shape the future of industry. Primary activities of value chain have been identified to assess a company against its competitors. It has been identified that Iranian cement companies generally have serious problems in their marketing because government’s interventions have prevented creation of real competition in this industry. Energy productivity, management skills, capacity utilization, being close to market, and investment on cement downstream products are the KSFs major issues which companies should pay close attention. Cost leadership seems to be the most effective generic strategy in this industry.

  • 1200296.
    Zarkovic Dimovski, Josefin
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication.
    Varför är klassiker värda att läsas?: En analys av sex klassiker2009Student paper other, 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this essay was to examine why classics are literature with durable value and what they can offer to the modern reader. In order to be classified as classics the literature must fulfill some criteria. Italo Calvino’s book Why read the classics? presents some criteria which at the same time depict common features of classic literature. In order to be able to discuss this standpoint I have analyzed a selection of six classics and tried to demonstrate their importance and influence on our cultural heritage. Ultimately, I have compiled the results of the analysis with Calvino’s criteria. The study has shown that the classics are books that give the reader greater knowledge about life.

  • 1200297.
    Zarmpou, Theodora
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Dalianis, Hercules
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Vlachopoulou, Maro
    Data Migration Between Web Content Management Systems2009In: 4th Mediterranean Conference on Information Systems, MCIS 2009, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1200298.
    Zarmén, Carl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of ALM.
    Digital tillgänglighet. Museet på webben2002Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 1200299.
    Zarnegar, Behdad
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Mechanisms triggering the recruitment of mast cell progenitors to the lung and regulation of mast cell degranulation2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Mast cells stem from the bone marrow and migrate via the blood as mast cell progenitors. Upon arrival in peripheral tissues, they develop into mast cells. These rare immune cells have numerous granules that contain large amounts of pro-inflammatory mediators. Mast cells accumulate at certain sites in the asthmatic lung, and once activated they release mediators that are thought to induce symptoms. In mouse models of allergic airway inflammation, the increase in lung mast cells in asthma can be mimicked and is mainly caused by the recruitment of mast cell progenitors to the lung. However, whether other types of lung inflammation stimulate the recruitment of mast cell progenitors to the lung was unknown until now.

    Here, using a murine model of influenza A virus infection, this type of virus was demonstrated to trigger an extensive recruitment of mast cell progenitors to the lung, most likely through the induction of VCAM-1 expression in the lung endothelium. Thereafter, some influenza-induced mast cell progenitors developed into an intermediate mast cell stage before they matured into mast cells. However, upon the resolution of inflammation, the mast cells that accumulated in the lung upon influenza infection were gradually lost.

    Because the recruitment of mast cell progenitors started early after influenza infection, the role of innate immune signals in inducing the recruitment of mast cell progenitors was addressed. The intranasal administration of either Poly I:C or IL-33 was sufficient to induce an increase in lung mast cell progenitors in a TLR3- or ST2-dependent fashion. However, the influenza-induced recruitment of mast cell progenitors to the lung occurred independently of TLR3 and ST2.

    VAAT/SLC10A4 is a member of the solute carrier family of proteins that is expressed in nerve cells and mast cells. In this study, murine VAAT was localized to mast cell granules and regulated the IgE/antigen-mediated release of granule-associated mediators and ATP. However, the absence of VAAT did not affect IgE/antigen-mediated de novo synthesis of cytokines and lipid mediators. Additionally, mice lacking VAAT had attenuated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reactions and scratched less frequently in response to compound 48/80 injections, suggesting that VAAT regulates reactions for which mast cells are implicated in vivo.

  • 1200300.
    Zarnegar, Behdad
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Dahlin, Joakim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Westin, Annika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Hallgren Martinsson, Jenny
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Does Cell Proliferation Contribute to the OVA-Induced Increase of Lung Mast Cell Progenitors in a Mouse Asthma Model?2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology, ISSN 0300-9475, E-ISSN 1365-3083, Vol. 79, no 6, p. 463-463Article in journal (Other academic)
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