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  • 1192851.
    Öhman, Lars-Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Latin Squares with Prescriptions and Restrictions2011In: The Australasian Journal of Combinatorics, ISSN 1034-4942, Vol. 51, p. 77-87Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1192852.
    Öhman, Lars-Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of mathematics.
    List colorings of graphs: a short survey2000Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    We present an overview of the current state of the List Chromatic Conjecture (LCC) and results on the choice number of planar graphs, as well as of general progress on the subject of list colorings.

  • 1192853.
    Öhman, Lars-Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    On the intricacy of avoiding multiple-entry arrays2012In: Discrete Mathematics, ISSN 0012-365X, E-ISSN 1872-681X, Vol. 312, no 20, p. 3030-3036Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Let A be any n x n array on the symbols vertical bar n vertical bar = {1, . . . , n}, with at most in symbols in each cell. An n x n Latin square L on the symbols till is said to avoid A if no entry in L is present in the corresponding cell of A, and A is said to be avoidable if such a Latin square L exists. The intricacy of this problem is defined to be the minimum number of arrays into which A must be split in order to ensure that each part is avoidable. We present lower and upper bounds for the intricacy, and conjecture that the lower bound is in fact the correct answer. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 1192854.
    Öhman, Lars-Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Partial latin squares are avoidable2011In: Annals of Combinatorics, ISSN 0218-0006, E-ISSN 0219-3094, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 485-497Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A square array is avoidable if for each set of n symbols there is an n x n Latin square on these symbols which differs from the array in every cell. The main result of this paper is that for m >= 2 any partial Latin square of order 4m - 1 is avoidable, thus concluding the proof that any partial Latin square of order at least 4 is avoidable.

  • 1192855.
    Öhman, Lars-Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    The intricacy of avoiding arrays2005Report (Other academic)
  • 1192856.
    Öhman, Lars-Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    The intricacy of avoiding arrays2005Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 1192857.
    Öhman, Lars-Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    The intricacy of avoiding arrays is 22006In: Discrete Mathematics, ISSN 0012-365X, Vol. 306, p. 531-532Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1192858.
    Öhman, Lars-Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Equilibrium studies of ternary aluminium(III) hydroxo complexes with ligands related to conditions in natural waters1983Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis is a summary and discussion of eight papers. During the last decades, precipitation has become increasingly acidic due to the extensive use of fossil fuels. In areas of poorly buffered bedrocks, e.g. Scandinavia, northeastern United States, this phenomenon has resulted in elevated amounts of Al(III) being leached into streams and lakes. Recent findings reveal that these elevated Al-concentrations could cause fish death and decreasing forest production.

    In the present thesis, the importance of taking naturally occurring substances into consideration when discussing Al(III) in natural waters, is emphasized. On the basis of a chemical characterization of relevant ligand classes in a natural water, the complex formation between Al^+, hydroxide ions and the inorganic ligand carbonic acid, the low-molecular weight organic ligand citric acid and the high-molecular weight model substances gallic acid, 1,2-dihydroxynaphtha-lene-4-sulfonate, 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulfonate, pyrocatechol and salicylic acid were investigated. The investigations were performed as series of Potentiometrie titrations and data were processed by means of the least-squares computer program LETAGROPVRID using a technique called pqr-analysis, permitting an unbiased search for complex model (and corresponding equilibrium constants) to be made. In most systems studied, the complexation at high ligand excesses can be described by a series of mononuclear complexes AIL-AIL^. Tentatively, the whole series consists of octahedrally coordinated (water and ligand oxygens) AI(III). At lower ligand excesses, the significance and in some cases even predominance of ternary mono- and polynuclear hydroxo complexes is demonstrated. In two of the systems, binary aluminium hydroxo species are evaluated.

    The potential importance of the substances with respect to Al-com-plexation in natural waters are indicated in a number of model calculations. The solubility of the clay mineral kaolinite is calculated as a function of -lg[H+] and ligand concentration. It is shown that citric acid, gallic acid, 1,2-dihydroxynaphthalene-4-sulfonate, pyrocatechol and salicylic acid contribute quite significant to the total solubilities, even at very low concentrations.

    As a complement and background to the equilibrium studies, the corrosion rate for one of the naturally occurring Al-bearing minerals, corundum, is reported. In this investigation, performed with a leach-ant solution of ground-water composition, an experimental technique was employed which made it possible to divide the corrosion into chemical and mechanical losses.

  • 1192859.
    Öhman, Lars-Olof
    Stockholm College.
    On the lipids of the sea-urchin egg1944Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 1192860.
    Öhman, Lars-Olof
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Forsling, Willis
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Equilibrium and Structural Studies of Silicon(IV) and Aluminium(III) in Aqueous Solution: 3. Potentiometric Study of Aluminium(III) Hydrolysis and Aluminium(III) Hydroxo Carbonates in 0.6 M Na(Cl)1981In: Acta Chemica Scandinavica, ISSN 0302-4377, Vol. A 35, p. 795-802Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1192861.
    Öhman, Lars-Olof
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Ganemi, B
    Björnbom, E
    Rahkamaa, K
    Keiski, R L
    Paul, J
    Catalyst preparation through ion-exchange of zeolite Cu-, Ni-, Pd-, CuNi- and CuPd-ZSM-52002In: Materials Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 73, no 2-3, p. 263-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ion-exchanged zeolite ZSM-5 is the best known catalyst for direct NOx decomposition and a viable candidate for NOx reduction with methane. The preparation is crucial for the efficiency of the conversion and this paper describes the ion-exchange, with Cu2+, Ni2+ or Pd2+, and the dual exchange, with Cu2+/Ni2+ or Cu2+/Pd2+, under appropriate pH and ion concentrations for maximum dispersion.

  • 1192862.
    Öhman, Lars-Olof
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Ingri, N.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Tegman, R.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Corrosion of Dense Polycrystalline -Al2O3 in NaHCO3-Buffered Water Solution of pH 8.5 at 40-100 °C1982In: American Ceramic Society Bulletin, ISSN 0002-7812, E-ISSN 1945-2705, Vol. 61, no 5, p. 567-571Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1192863.
    Öhman, Lars-Olof
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Lövgren, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Hedlund, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Sjöberg, Staffan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    The ionic strength dependency of mineral solubility and chemical speciation in solution2006In: Surface Complexation Modelling, Elsevier, 2006, p. 1-34Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 1192864.
    Öhman, Lars-Olof
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Paul, J
    Materials aspects of titanium-doped aluminas: 14%Ti/-Al2O3/Cu and sulfided Al2O3-TiO2/NiMo2002In: Materials Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 73, no 2, p. 242-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Materials aspects of titanium-doped alumina catalysts are discussed in light of a partly new synthesis route, ion exchange reactions and sulfidation. Starting with a solution of the isopropoxides of aluminum and titanium, we aimed at an Al:Ti ratio of 6:1, which corresponds to the maximum acidity of the final product. Transmission electron micrographs showed that the synthesis gave a product of nearly monodisperse, rectangular particles and X-ray diffractograms revealed an amorphous to nano-crystalline structure reminiscent of -Al2O3. The Brunauer-Emmet-Teller area was 340m2g-1 and the H+ titration found 3acidic sitesnm-2. These numbers indicate that the titanium modification may fourfold increase the ion exchange capacity of a regular alumina. The importance of titanium modification for catalysis is discussed in connection with selective catalytic reduction with hydrocarbon reactions over Cu/14%Ti-Al2O3 and hydrogenation of 1-Me-naphthalene over sulfided NiMo/Al2O3-TiO2. The Ti4+ ions in the alumina lattice are almost irreducible, but infrared spectra suggested that these ions act as dispersion agents not only for adsorbed Cu2+ ions, but also for a supported phase of sulfided NiMo. Finally, we show that a simple weight control can be used to monitor the sulfidation and to indicate if the synthesis has produced a separate, reducible titania phase.

  • 1192865.
    Öhman, Lars-Olof
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Sjöberg, Staffan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Equilibrium and Structural Studies of Silicon(IV) and Aluminium(III) in Aqueous Solution: 1. The Formation of Ternary Mononuclear and Polynuclear Complexes in the System Al(3+)--Gallic Acid--OH-. A Potentiometric Study in 0.6 M Na(Cl)1981In: Acta Chemica Scandinavica, ISSN 0302-4377, Vol. A 35, p. 201-212Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1192866.
    Öhman, Lars-Olof
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Sjöberg, Staffan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Equilibrium and Structural Studies of Silicon(IV) and Aluminium(III) in Aqueous Solution: 4. A Potentiometric Study of Polynuclear Aluminium(III) Hydroxo Complexes with Gallic Acid in Hydrolyzed Aluminium(III) Solutions.1982In: Acta Chemica Scandinavica, ISSN 0302-4377, Vol. A 36, p. 47-53Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1192867.
    Öhman, Lars-Olof
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Sjöberg, Staffan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Equilibrium and Structural Studies of Silicon(IV) and Aluminium(III) in Aqueous Solution: 8. A potentiometric study of aluminium(III) Salicylates and Aluminium(III) Hydroxo Salicylates in 0.6 M Na(C1)1983In: Acta Chemica Scandinavica. Series A., ISSN 0302-4377, Vol. 37, p. 875-880Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1192868.
    Öhman, Lars-Olof
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Sjöberg, Staffan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Equilibrium and Structural Studies of Silicon(IV) and Aluminium(III) in Aqueous Solution: Part 9. A Potentiometric Study of Mono- and Polynuclear Aluminium(III)-Citrates1983In: Journal of the Chemical Society. Dalton Transactions, ISSN 1472-7773, E-ISSN 1364-5447, no 11, p. 2513-2517Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1192869.
    Öhman, Lars-Olof
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Sjöberg, Staffan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Equilibrium and structural studies of silicon(IV) and aluminium(III) in aqueous solution—10: A potentiometric study of aluminium(III) pyrocatecholates and aluminium(III) hydroxo pyrocatecholates in 0.6 M Na(Cl)1983In: Polyhedron, ISSN 0277-5387, E-ISSN 1873-3719, Vol. 2, no 12, p. 1329-1335Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1192870.
    Öhman, Lars-Olof
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Sjöberg, Staffan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Ingri, Nils
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Equilibrium and Structural Studies of Silicon(IV) and Aluminium(III) in Aqueous Solution: 7. Redox, Hydrolysis and Complexation Equilibria in the System Al(3+)-1,2-Naphthoquinone-4-sulfonate/1,2-Dihydroxy-naphthalene-4-sulfonate-OH(-). A Potentiometric Study in 0.6 M Na(Cl)1983In: Acta Chemica Scandinavica, ISSN 0302-4377, Vol. A 37, p. 561-568Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1192871.
    Öhman, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Perceived chronic stress, health and cognition2006Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this licentiate thesis was to examine consequences of chronic stress for stressrelated diseases and to investigate the chronic stress – cognition relationship. In the first study data covering ten years was used from the Betula Prospective Cohort Study (Nilsson et al., 1997). Based on the ratings on a stress scale, matched samples between 40 and 65 years of age were divided into a high and low stress group. The reported incidence of cardiovascular, diabetes, psychiatric, tumor, and musculoskeletal diseases wasassessed five and ten years after a baseline assessment. The incidence of diseases five years after baseline assessment showed no differences between the groups. After ten years, there was a higher incidence of psychiatric diseases in the high stress group as well as a significant effect for tumors. These results indicated that moderately elevated stress levels may have an impact on psychiatric diseases, especially depression, and possibly also some tumor diseases, but it was concluded that prolonged moderate stress does not appear to be very harmful to health in general. In the second study cognitive performance was studied in chronic stress outpatients and matched controls. A battery of cognitive tests assessing processing speed, attention, episodic-, semantic- and working memory was used. Performance decrements for thechronic stress patients were found in episodic memory, particularly in learning across repeated trials, and in tasks requiring divided attention under either encoding or retrieval of words. Performance differences were also seen in aspects of working memory, mental tempo, semantic access (letter fluency) and prospective memory. It was concluded that executive functioning may be suboptimal in chronic stress patients and that letter fluency and prospective memory tests can be useful as clinical tools when evaluating chronic stressstates. Taken together, the findings indicate that there is no clear association between moderately elevated chronic stress and increased incidence of stress related diseases, whereas certain cognitive functions such as executive functioning appear vulnerable to chronic stress.

  • 1192872. Öhman, Lena
    et al.
    Bergdahl, Jan
    Nyberg, Lars
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Longitudinal analysis of the relation between moderate long-term stress and health2007In: Stress and Health, Vol. 23, p. 131-138Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1192873.
    Öhman, Lena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bergdahl, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Longitudinal analysis of the relation between moderate long-term stress and health2007In: Stress and Health, ISSN 1532-3005, E-ISSN 1532-2998, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 131-138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main goal of the present work was to longitudinally examine consequences of long-term moderately elevated levels of stress for various health outcomes. To address this issue, data covering 10 years was used from the ongoing Swedish population-based prospective Betula Study. Based on the ratings on a validated self-reported stress scale, matched subsamples between 40 and 65 years of age were divided into a high (n = 137) and low (n = 211) stress group. The reported incidence of cardiovascular, diabetes, psychiatric, tumour and musculoskeletal diseases was assessed 5 and 10 years after baseline (baseline = 1993–1995) without contaminating effects of past health history. The incidence of diseases 5 years after baseline assessment showed no differences between the groups. After 10 years, there was a significantly higher incidence of psychiatric diseases, mainly depression in the high-stress group as well as a significant effect for tumours, although the number of cases was low. Although moderately elevated stress level may have a possible impact on psychiatric diseases especially depression and some tumours, it seems that prolonged moderate stress does not appear to be harmful to other stress-related diseases.

  • 1192874.
    Öhman, Lena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bergdahl, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Slunga Birgander, Lisbeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Enviromental Medicine.
    Stigsdotter-Neely, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Cognitive function in outpatients with perceived chronic stress2007In: Scand J Work Environ Health, ISSN 0355-3140, Vol. 33, no 3, p. 223-232Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1192875. Öhman, Lena
    et al.
    Stridsberg, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Biochemical endocrinology.
    Isaksson, Stefan
    Jerlstad, Pernilla
    Simrén, Magnus
    Altered Levels of Fecal Chromogranins and Secretogranins in IBS: Relevance for Pathophysiology and Symptoms?2012In: American Journal of Gastroenterology, ISSN 0002-9270, E-ISSN 1572-0241, Vol. 107, no 3, p. 440-447Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES:

    Chromogranins (Cg) and secretogranins (Sg) are proteins ubiquitous in secretory cells of the enteric, endocrine, and immune systems, and may reflect activity of these systems. We therefore performed a hypothesis generating study to evaluate the association between fecal levels of CgA, CgB, SgII, and SgIII, with the clinical and pathophysiological phenotype of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients.

    METHODS:

    Analyses of CgA, CgB, SgII, SgIII, and calprotectin in fecal samples of 82 IBS patients and 29 healthy controls were performed. All IBS subjects completed validated questionnaires to assess gastrointestinal and psychological symptom severity, and underwent rectal barostat test and colonic transit time measurement.

    RESULTS:

    IBS patients demonstrated higher levels of fecal CgA (P=0.009), SgII (P<0.001), and SgIII (P<0.001), but lower levels of CgB (P<0.001) compared with controls. SgII had good discriminative validity to positively identify IBS patients, with an area under the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve (AUROC) of 0.86 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.78-0.94). SgIII and CgB both had fairly good discriminative validity to positively identify IBS patients, with an AUROC of 0.79 (95% CI: 0.71-0.87) and 0.78 (95% CI: 0.69-0.87), respectively. There were negative correlations between the colonic transit time and fecal levels of CgA (r=-0.53, P<0.001), SgII (r=-0.55, P<0.001), and SgIII (r=-0.28, P=0.03). Perceived abdominal pain was moderately associated with levels of CgA (r=0.32, P=0.004), SgII (r=0.31, P=0.006), and SgIII (r=0.24, P=0.04). Calprotectin levels were not associated with the levels of granins or with the clinical or pathophysiological phenotype of IBS patients.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    Fecal levels of Cg and Sg may be related to the underlying pathophysiology of IBS and of potential importance for symptoms of the patients. Granins also show promise to serve as future biomarkers of IBS. Further studies are needed to explore the potential role of granins in IBS patients.

  • 1192876.
    Öhman, Lilja
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Muskelaktiveringsmönster i quadriceps i relation till dynamisk valgus vid ett drop-landingtest.: – En studie gjord på kvinnliga fotbollsspelare2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Both biomechanical and neuromuscular factors affect the risk of suffering an ACL rupture among female soccer players. Unbalanced muscle activation around the knee has been found to affect the joint stability. The aim of this study was therefor to investigate the muscle activation in vastus medialis and vastus lateralis in relation to dynamic valgus among female soccer players. The study was conducted in cooperation with the Finnish company Fibrux OY, who has developed a portable sEMG testing equipment. The participants consisted of 15 female soccer players who were tested with sEMG electrodes on vastus medialis and vastus lateralis during a drop-landingtest that was filmed to enable 2D analysis of valgus angle. The results show a tendency to correlation between the activation ratio and valgus(r=0,51) (p>0,05), and between activation delay in vastus medialis and valgus (r=0,32) (p>0,05). But both correlations lack significance. The results could be explained by that there might be other muscles around the knee at that affects the joint stability even more than vastus lateralis and medialis do. Future studies should be conducted with larger sample size and focus on prospective epidemiological research because that is the only study design that reveals what variables can be associated with the risk of suffering a knee injury.

     

  • 1192877.
    Öhman, Linda
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Elevinflytande och elevansvar vid självstyrt arbete: En kvalitativ intervjustudie om elevinflytandets möjligheter och svårigheter2008Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 1192878.
    Öhman, Linda
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Kvinnors förhandlingsarena i förändring: - En studie om Fredrika Bremersförbundets Örebrokrets under övergången från husmoderskontrakt till jämlikhetskontrakt2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 1192879.
    Öhman, Linn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Brodin, Aygun
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Delat ledarskap: En studie av det delade ledarskapets betydelse för småföretagare2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Småföretagen har stor betydelse för Sveriges fortsatta utveckling och välfärd. De utgör en viktig del i näringslivets mångfald, i innovationsutvecklingen och för sysselsättningen i samhället. Småföretagare upplever dock en hel del problem och utmaningar relaterade till ledarskapet, då de både ska klara av det omfattande dagliga arbetet och företagets långsiktiga planering. Detta kan inverka negativt på den fortsatta samhällsutvecklingen. För att finna eventuella lösningar på denna problematik har författarna till denna studie valt att studera ett relativt nytt forskningsfält inom ledarskapsforskning som lyfter fram det växande antal organisationer där ledarskapet delas mellan två eller flera personer. De flesta studier inom detta område har fokuserat på delat ledarskap inom stora bolag och den offentliga sektorn och begränsad fokus har riktats mot delat ledarskap inom småföretag. Denna studie fokuserar således på delat ledarskap i småföretag, dels på grund av småföretagens betydelse för samhällets utveckling och dels för att det saknas forskning kring delat ledarskap i små företag. Genom intervjuer med sex ledare i tre småföretag har denna studie undersökt problemställningen:

    Kan delat ledarskap underlätta de utmaningar som ledarskapet innebär för småföretagare, och i så fall på vilket sätt?

    Med utgångspunkt i hermeneutisk syn på kunskap och ett abduktivt angreppssätt har denna studie undersökt vilka utmaningar småföretagare upplever, vilket ledarskap som utövas i småföretag som delar på ledarskapet samt hur delat ledarskap kan underlätta dessa utmaningar.

    Studiens resultat visar att delat ledarskap kan underlätta småföretagares utmaningar samt att de måste uppfylla en rad förutsättningar för att samarbetet mellan ledarna ska vara framgångsrikt. Analysen visar att småföretagarna i studien upplever fyra utmaningar som kan underlättas av att de är två som delar på ledarskapet. Dessa utmaningar handlar om småföretagares ansvar för företagets försäljning och ekonomiska stabilitet, ansvar för medarbetare, företagets tillväxt samt brist på erfarenheter av företagande. Studien visar att samtliga företag har ett funktionellt delat ledarskap som underlättar dessa utmaningar genom att ledarna får möjlighet att komplettera varandras kompetenser, diskutera med varandra och komma fram till bättre genomtänkta beslut, växla och varva sina idéer och tankar, samt att de känner sig modigare och får stöd av varandra. Den ledarstil som småföretagarna i studien har, med utgångspunkt i situationsanpassat ledarskap, beror inte på det delade ledarskapet utan på organisationens mognad, de anställningsformer som finns i företagen, samt medarbetarnas olika kapacitet att ta eget ansvar.

    Förutom det resultat som besvarar studiens syfte bidrar studien även till ökad kunskap om funktionellt delat ledarskap. Resultatet visar att möjligheten att varva och växla tankar och idéer samt gemensamt beslutsfattande utifrån verksamhetens bästa, påverkar framgångarna av det funktionellt delade ledarskapet inom företagen i studien. Dessutom fann författarna att företagare som delar på ledarskapet ibland kan ha olika grundvärderingar, men att det som är viktigt för samarbetets framgång är att ledarna själva känner att de är överens i de viktigaste frågorna.

  • 1192880.
    Öhman, Linn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business.
    Tjernström, Jennie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business.
    Bloggar - det nya marknadsföringsverktyget?: En studie i vilka för- och nackdelar det finns för företag med att använda sig av den indirekta marknadsföringen i bloggar.2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi möts dagligen av marknadsföring i olika former vart vi än befinner oss, men hur påverkas vi egentligen av den? Internet har blivit en central informationskälla för många och det tillkommer nya användare hela tiden. Ett av de senaste fenomenen på Internet är bloggar vilket har lett till att en helt ny form av marknadsföring har utvecklats, den indirekta marknadsföringen. Den här marknadsföringsformen innebär att bloggarna skriver och tipsar om produkter och tjänster i sina bloggar. Vi vill veta hur konsumenterna anser att den här nya marknadsföringsformen påverkar dem, och har därför valt att jämföra med hur de anser att de påverkas av den direkta marknadsföringen på Internet, genom pop-ups och banners. Med hjälp av den här jämförelsen vill vi besvara vår frågeställning som lyder: vilka för- och nackdelar finns det med att använda sig av indirekt marknadsföring för företag?

    När vi har undersökt problemet har vi utgått från konsumenterna i den aspekten att vi vill jämföra hur de anser att de påverkas av den direkta och den indirekta marknadsföringen eftersom deras åsikter ligger till grund för företagets agerade. För att undersöka vårt problem har vi använt oss av en enkätstudie för att samla in vårt material, vilken utfördes genom ett event på Facebook. Vårt insamlade material grundar sig på 457 facebooksanvändares åsikter som samlades in under fyra dagar. Det här materialet analyserade vi sedan med hjälp av teorier inom marknadsföring, konsumentbeteende och kommunikation.

    Vi har kommit fram till att det finns många för- och nackdelar för företag att använda sig av den indirekta marknadsföringen. Något som företagen kan dra nytta av är den ömsesidiga samverkan och tillit som finns mellan bloggare och bloggläsare samt att det blir en möjlighet för företaget att få direkt respons från sina konsumenter med den flervägskommunikationen som skapas. En risk som företaget står inför är att det här är ett informationsflöde som de inte kan kontrollera på samma sätt som den direkta marknadsföringen med pop-ups och banners. Vi kan inte rekommendera den indirekta marknadsföringen till företag då det finns en del nackdelar. Men med tanke på att det även finns många fördelar med den indirekta marknadsföringen så anser vi att om företag utvecklar marknadsföringsformen på rätt sätt och i rätt dos, så kan det leda till starkare relationer och en tillit som är svår att uppnå med den traditionella massmarknadsföringen.

  • 1192881.
    Öhman, Linnea
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Som på räls?: En fallstudie av offentlig-privat samverkan vid anläggandet av Bastuträskterminalen i Norsjö kommun2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 1192882.
    Öhman, Linnéa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Att förstå det lästa: En kvantitativ studie av läsförståelse med fokus på personer med utländsk utbildning2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En välutvecklad läsförståelse är bland annat betydelsefull för skolframgång. Mot bakgrund av att andelen utrikesfödda har ökat i Sverige, har den svenska befolkningen numera varierande språkkunskaper och utbildningsbakgrunder. Syftet med denna kvantitativa undersökning är att undersöka läsförmåga över tid såsom det återspeglas i högskoleprovets LÄS-prov, med huvudfokus på personer med utländsk utbildning.

    Resultatet i undersökningen visar på ett fallande resultat på högskoleprovets LÄS-prov hos de två yngsta åldersgrupperna och ett ökat resultat hos de två äldsta, oavsett vilken utbildningsbakgrund dessa har. Vidare framgår att provdeltagare med utländsk utbildning generellt har lägre poängmedelvärde jämfört med deltagare med svensk utbildning. Dessutom blir avstånden större mellan dessa utbildningstyper ju äldre deltagarna blir. När olika typer av utländska utbildningar jämförs sinsemellan har deltagare med utländsk högskoleutbildning nästintill genomgående det högsta poängmedelvärdet, medan deltagare med utländsk utbildning under gymnasienivå oftast har det lägsta. Sammantaget ger resultateten av studien visst stöd för interdependenshypotesen, som utgår från att individers läs- och skrivförmågor är gemensamma för alla språk.

  • 1192883.
    Öhman, Lisa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Riktade emissioner i noterade bolag: Reglering och skyddsintressen2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 300 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 1192884.
    Öhman, Lisa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    The Importance of Educating Girls: A critical discourse analysis of western development approaches to girls’ education2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 1192885.
    Öhman, Lisa
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Johansson, Barbro
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Didaktiskt stöd i gymnasieskolans bild och formundervisning2019Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 1192886.
    Öhman, L.O.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Paul, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Materials aspects of titanium-doped aluminas: 14%Ti/γ-Al2O3/Cu and sulfided Al2O3-TiO2/NiMo2002In: Materials Chemistry and Physics, ISSN 0254-0584, E-ISSN 1879-3312, Vol. 73, no 2-3, p. 242-251Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Materials aspects of titanium-doped alumina catalysts are discussed in light of a partly new synthesis route, ion exchange reactions and sulfidation. Starting with a solution of the isopropoxides of aluminum and titanium, we aimed at an Al:Ti ratio of 6:1, which corresponds to the maximum acidity of the final product. Transmission electron micrographs showed that the synthesis gave a product of nearly monodisperse, rectangular particles and X-ray diffractograms revealed an amorphous to nano-crystalline structure reminiscent of γ-Al2O3. The Brunauer-Emmet-Teller area was 340 m2 g-1 and the H+ titration found 3 acidic sites nm-2. These numbers indicate that the titanium modification may fourfold increase the ion exchange capacity of a regular alumina. The importance of titanium modification for catalysis is discussed in connection with selective catalytic reduction with hydrocarbon reactions over Cu/14%Ti-Al2O3 and hydrogenation of 1-Me-naphthalene over sulfided NiMo/Al2O3-TiO2. The Ti4+ ions in the alumina lattice are almost irreducible, but infrared spectra suggested that these ions act as dispersion agents not only for adsorbed Cu2+ ions, but also for a supported phase of sulfided NiMo. Finally, we show that a simple weight control can be used to monitor the sulfidation and to indicate if the synthesis has produced a separate, reducible titania phase.

  • 1192887.
    Öhman, Louisa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Hur sjuksköterskor kan bidra till följsamhet av basala hygienrutiner inom kommunal vård och omsorg2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Basic hygiene is an important measure to prevent healthcare associated infections, save patients’ lives, and reduce economic costs for health care. Healthcare associated infections are a threat to patient safety. In community care persons who are the care takers are a risk group and nurses must make sure that basic hygiene procedures are followed.

    Method: Literature studies with descriptive design, article search in databases Cinahl and PubMed. The results found are based on twelve chosen articles.

    Aim: To describe factors related to adherence to basic hygiene and how nurses in community care can help to improve compliance with these procedures.

    Results: In the nursing staff and leadership in health care interest in and the understanding of basic hygiene is described as being of most importance. Lack of knowledge of the meaning of patient care cleanliness, negative attitudes and non-existing availability of necessary tools and heavy workload had a negative impact. Intensified education and making sure that equipment is available as well as the application of standardized methods, were found to be prerequisite for adherence to basic hygiene routines.

    Conclusion: Nurses can contribute to improved adherence to basic hygiene routines by promoting education, positive attitudes, a positive adaption of the physical environment, strategic structuring of the workload, and standardized methods, applying basic hygiene routines, being part of and promoting increased interaction in nursing care. Suggestions for future studies is to implement web-based courses, updating courses and training in basic hygiene routines in the workplace. That may increase knowledge, understanding and awareness of the application of basic hygiene routines hence leading to improved nursing care and enhancing patient safety.

  • 1192888.
    Öhman, Ludvig
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Johansson, Magdalena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Jansson, Jan-Håkan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Lind, Marcus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Johansson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Positive predictive value and misclassification of diagnosis of pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis in Swedish patient registries2018In: Clinical Epidemiology, ISSN 1179-1349, E-ISSN 1179-1349, Vol. 10, p. 1215-1221Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To validate diagnoses of pulmonary embolism (PE) and deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in administrative registries. We also estimated the frequency of misclassified PE and DVT events.

    Patients and methods: A registry search for ICD codes representing PE and DVT was performed between 1985 and 2014 in a large population-based cohort in northern Sweden. An additional search using an extended set of ICD codes was performed to identify misclassified events. Diagnoses were validated manually by reviewing medical records and radiology reports.

    Results: Searching ICD codes in the National Patient Registry and Cause of Death Registry identified 2,450 participants with a first-time diagnosis of PE or DVT. The positive predictive value (PPV) for a diagnosis of PE or DVT was 80.7% and 59.2%, respectively. For the period of 2009 to 2014, the PPV was higher for PE (85.8%) but lower for DVT (54.1%). Misclassification occurred in 16.4% of DVT events and 1.1% of PE events.

    Conclusion: Registry-based data on PE, especially in recent years, are of acceptable quality and can be considered for use in registry-based studies. For DVT, we found that data were of low quality in regards to both PPV and misclassification and should not be used without validation.

  • 1192889. Öhman, M
    et al.
    Källman, A.M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biology and Functional Genomics.
    Bass, B.L.
    In vitro analysis of the binding of ADAR2 to the pre-mRNA encoding the GluR-B R/G site2000In: RNA, ISSN 1355-8382, Vol. 6, p. 687-697Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1192890. Öhman, M
    et al.
    Nyström, J
    Oja, Johan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP - Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Prediction of compression wood in sawn products of Picea abies by 3-D sequential outer shape medelling of the log2005In: 5th workshop "Connection between forest resources and wood quality". Waiheke Island, Auckland, New Zealand. 2005-11-30, 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 1192891. Öhman, M.
    et al.
    Pommer, L.
    Nordin, A.
    Bed agglomeration characteristics and mechanisms during gasification and combustion of biomass fuels2005In: Energy & Fuels, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 1742-1748Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Controlled agglomeration tests, using six representative biomass fuels (bark, Lucerne, reed canary grass, bagasse, olive flesh, and cane trash) were performed in a bench-scale fluidized bed (5 kW) during both gasification and combustion conditions. The resulting bed materials were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS), and chemical equilibrium calculations were performed to facilitate the interpretation of the experimental findings. Layers of fuel-ash-derived compounds were built up on the bed particles during processing of all studied fuels. The accumulated material was determined to consist of two layers: (i) an inner thicker and more homogeneous layer that consisted of mainly K-Ca-silicates and (ii) a thinner, particle-rich outer layer. For all fuels except Lucerne, no major differences in bed agglomeration tendencies or bed particle layer characteristics could be detected between gasification and combustion, which suggested no major difference in layer formation processes or bed agglomeration mechanisms between the two different operational modes. Thus, initial silicate layer formation followed by subsequent viscous flow sintering and agglomeration was identified as the bed agglomeration process in all cases except during the combustion of Lucerne. For combustion of the relatively sulfur-rich Lucerne fuel, the agglomeration was induced by a salt melt where the bed material particles were directly glued together by a separate ash-particle-derived melt.

  • 1192892. Öhman, M.
    et al.
    Söderberg, Siv
    District nursing - Sharing an understanding by being present. Experiences of encounters with people with serious chronic illness and their close relatives in their homes2004In: Journal of Clinical Nursing, ISSN 0962-1067, E-ISSN 1365-2702, Vol. 13, no 7, p. 858-866Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. In the homecare setting, district nurses assume a heavy responsibility and are involved in a variety of care activities. They view themselves as having a central role in care at home that centres on the development of a relationship with those who are ill and their families. Aim. The aim of this study was to elucidate the meaning of district nurses experiences of encounters with people with serious chronic illness and their close relatives in their homes. A purposive sample of 10 district nurses (female) was interviewed using a narrative approach. Method. To achieve the aim, a phenomenological hermeneutic interpretation inspired by the philosophy of Ricoeur was used to interpret the interview text. Results. This study proposes that district nurses' experiences of encounters with people with serious chronic illness and their close relatives in their homes can be understood as district nurses being welcomed into the ill people's privacy, to share their intimacy and their understanding of being ill. This close relationship enables them to alleviate and to console the suffering and loneliness caused by illness. This is expressed in the three themes: being in a close relationship, sharing an understanding and weaving a web of protection. Conclusion. It seems that by being entirely present, in a close relationship, district nurses share the experiences of illness and through interpretation of the whole persons' expressions; they share an understanding of this illness experience. In this close relationship, at the home of the ill people and their close relatives, district nurses are available to alleviate people's suffering and loneliness caused by illness. Relevance to clinical practice. This study reveals the need to be entirely present in encounters between the district nurses and people with serious chronic illness and their close relatives. This relation makes it possible to establish a shared understanding of the illness experience. Being aware of the importance of this shared understanding within a relationship, will increase the health care personnel's possibility to alleviate and console those suffering of illness. This proposed interpretation could be useful for reflection of care interventions, in education and supervision of district nurses.

  • 1192893. Öhman, M.
    et al.
    Söderberg, Siv
    The experiences of close relatives living with a person with serious chronic illness2004In: Qualitative Health Research, ISSN 1049-7323, E-ISSN 1552-7557, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 396-410Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Living with serious chronic illness has a directly threatening effect on the life course of healthy relatives. The aim of this study was to elucidate the meaning of close relatives' experiences of living with a person with serious, chronic illness. Using a narrative approach, the authors interviewed 13 spouses and 1 daughter about the meaning of their experiences. They used a phenomenological hermeneutic method to interpret the interview text. The structural analysis revealed three major themes: A Shrinking Life, Forced to Take Responsibility, and Struggling to Keep Going. Close relatives in this study seemed to be living lives characterized by a reduced sense of individual freedom and an increased sense of responsibility for the care of the ill person. It means struggling to obtain the strength to manage their duty and an inner sense of community and of solidarity. The authors interpret the findings in the light of the works of philosophers who have described ethical demands and natural love between people. © 2004 Sage Publications.

  • 1192894. Öhman, M.
    et al.
    Söderberg, Siv
    Lundman, B.
    Hovering between suffering and enduring: The meaning of living with serious chronic illness2003In: Qualitative Health Research, ISSN 1049-7323, E-ISSN 1552-7557, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 528-542Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Illness is part of life and hence always has a place in a life history. All that went on before the time of the illness, how life was in the past and what hopes and dreams were interrupted and changed, all influence the experiences of illness. The authors interviewed 5 women and 5 men with different kinds of serious chronic illnesses and used phenomenological hermeneutic method to interpret the transcribed interviews. They present the findings in three major themes: experiencing the body as a hindrance, being alone in illness, and struggling for normalcy. Participants seemed to hover between an escape from the emotional suffering pain of illness and the emotionless state of enduring. The comprehensive understanding illuminated that living with a serious chronic illness means living a life that is hovering between enduring and suffering but also including the process of reformulation of the self. © 2003 Sage Publications.

  • 1192895. Öhman, M.
    et al.
    Wan, H.
    Blomberg, Lars G
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Hamberg, M.
    Separation of Divinyl Ether Fatty Acid Isomers by Micellar Electrokinetic Chromatography,2001In: Electrophoresis, 22 (2001) 1163-1169Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1192896.
    Öhman, M.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Reumatology.
    Öhman, M-L
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Reumatology.
    Wållberg-Jonsson, Solveig
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Reumatology.
    The apoB/apoA1 ratio predicts future cardiovascular events in patients with rheumatoid arthritis2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology, ISSN 0300-9742, E-ISSN 1502-7732, Vol. 43, no 4, p. 259-264Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have increased mortality and morbidity due to cardiovascular disease (CVD). A high apolipoprotein (apo)B/apoA1 ratio is known to predict cardiovascular events (CVEs) in the population. apoA1 has, besides anti-atherogenic effects, anti-inflammatory properties. The importance of apolipoproteins in the development of CVEs, in the context of lipids, haemostatic factors, and inflammation, was evaluated over 18 years in patients with RA. Method: Seventy-four patients with inflammatory active RA (61 females/13 males, mean age 63.6 years, disease duration 22.1 years) had been previously investigated in a study of haemostatic factors [tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1, von Willebrand factor (vWF)], lipids (cholesterol and triglycerides), apolipoproteins (apoA1 and apoB), lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)], and markers of inflammation [erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), and haptoglobin]. After 18 years, the first CVE during follow-up and the presence of traditional CV risk factors, extra-articular disease, and pharmacological treatment were registered. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to identify predictors of a new CVE. Results: A new CVE (n = 34) was predicted by the apoB/apoA1 ratio (p < 0.01), the triglyceride level (p < 0.01), PAI-1 (p < 0.01) and tPA (p < 0.01) activities, vWF (p < 0.001), ESR (< 0.001), CRP (< 0.05), and haptoglobin (p < 0.05). apoA1 (p = 0.056) and apoB (p < 0.05) correlated weakly and inversely with haptoglobin and CRP, respectively. In a multiple Cox regression model, adjusted for gender and previous CVD, the apoB/apoA1 ratio significantly predicted a new CVE, as did vWF, PAI-1, and ESR. Conclusions: The apoB/apoA1 ratio was a good predictor of CVE during 18 years of follow-up in patients with active RA. Apolipoproteins correlated negatively with inflammation.

  • 1192897.
    Öhman, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Determining the Contestants - Candidate Selection in Ghana's Political Parties for the 2000 Elections2002In: Critical Perspectives, Vol. 8Report (Other scientific)
  • 1192898.
    Öhman, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Elite consensus in a Ghanaian context : the Inter-Party Advisory Committee and the 1996 elections1999Other (Other scientific)
  • 1192899.
    Öhman, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Public Funding of Political Parties in Africa2001In: Paper presented at the International IDEA/ SADC Conference "Towards Sustainable Democratic Institutions in Southern Africa", Gaborone, 8th-10th May 2000, International IDEA , 2001Conference paper (Other scientific)
  • 1192900.
    Öhman, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    The Heart and Soul of the Party: Candidate Selection in Ghana and Africa2004Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The ambition of this book is to shed light on the power dynamics within African political parties through studying how different parties select their candidates for parliamentary elections. Having control over who should represent the party in elections is often considered an important factor in the distribution of power. This is however the first time that this research endeavour has been attempted in an African context. The study’s main focus is on the level of centralisation in the selection process and the vulnerability of incumbent Members of Parliament to challenges from others interested in standing for the party. In addition, attention is given to potential electoral effects of different selection systems and to local expectations on aspirants and MPs.

    The analysis takes place on three levels. A comparative study brings together information from 31 parties in 17 African countries. Thereafter, the selection process in Ghana’s main parties during the latest elections is analysed. Finally, Ghanaian constituency level case studies provide detailed information about the processes.

    All three studies indicate that the selection process is often significantly more decentralised than general theories about African parties would have us assume. In addition, incumbent MPs regularly lose out to challengers from within the party, often due to local discontent. It is argued that the clientelistic ties that play an important part in many African political parties go far in explaining these findings. Although such ties may generally strengthen the power of the centre, they often create possibilities for local party activists to reject patrons who do not fulfil their expectations.

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