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  • 1191701.
    Öbrink, Emma
    et al.
    Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, Institution for Clinical Science, Karolinska Institutet, Danderyds Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jildenstål, Pether
    Örebro University Hospital. Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care.
    Oddby, Eva
    Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, Institution for Clinical Science, Karolinska Institutet, Danderyds Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jakobsson, Jan G.
    Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, Institution for Clinical Science, Karolinska Institutet, Danderyds Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Post-operative nausea and vomiting: Update on predicting the probability and ways to minimize its occurrence, with focus on ambulatory surgery2015In: International Journal of Surgery, ISSN 1743-9191, E-ISSN 1743-9159, Vol. 15, p. 100-106Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Postoperative nausea and vomiting "the little big problem" after surgery/anaesthesia is still a common side-effect compromising quality of care, delaying discharge and resumption of activities of daily living. A huge number of studies have been conducted in order to identify risk factors, preventive and therapeutic strategies. The Apfel risk score and a risk based multi-modal PONV prophylaxis is advocated by evidence based guidelines as standards of care but is not always followed. Tailored anaesthesia and pain management avoiding too liberal dosing of anaesthetics and opioid analgesics is also essential in order to reduce risk. Thus multi-modal opioid sparing analgesia and a risk based PONV prophylaxis should be provided in order to minimise the occurrence. There is however still no way to guarantee an individual patient that he or she should not experience any PONV. Further studies are needed trying to identify risk factors and ways to tailor the individual patient prevention/therapy are warranted.

    The present paper provides a review around prediction, factors influencing the occurrence and the management of PONV with a focus on the ambulatory surgical patient.

  • 1191702.
    Öbrink, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    Två uppländska centralorter? En undersökning av Västra Rickeby i Gottröra sn och Tuna i Hjälsta sn1994Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
  • 1191703.
    Öcal, Fatos
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Nursing Science.
    Säfström, Moa
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Nursing Science.
    Livsstilsförändringar i efterförloppet av akut kranskärlssjukdom: En litteraturstudie2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Efter akut kranskärlssjukdom är det viktigt att förändra sin livsstil då det har stor betydelse för framtidsutsikten för dessa patienter. Trots detta så förändrar inte alla patienter sina livsstilsvanor, eller klarar av att bibehålla de nyligen förändrade vanorna.  

    Syfte: Syftet var att studera vad som påverkar genomförandet av livsstilsförändringar hos personer i efterförloppet av akut kranskärlssjukdom.  

    Metod: Litteraturstudie med ett systematiskt tillvägagångssätt. Datainsamling genomfördes i databaserna CINAHL, PsycINFO, PubMed, Swemed+ och UniSearch. Efter datainsamling och kvalitetsgranskning inkluderades 15 artiklar varav nio kvalitativa artiklar och sex kvantitativa artiklar. För bearbetning av data utfördes en analys där fyra huvudkategorier identifierades.  

    Resultat: De fyra huvudkategorierna som identifierades var: Den enskilde individen, Kunskap, Inre faktorer och Yttre faktorer. Dessa områden kunde både främja och/eller hämma genomförandet av livsstilsförändring i efterförloppet av akut kranskärlssjukdom.   

    Konklusion: Sjuksköterskan bör vara medveten om den multifaktoriella process som livsstilsförändring innebär för patienten. Patientens behov kan tillgodoses genom tydlig information om sjukdomen men även andra aspekter såsom livsstilsförändring och hantering av förändring. Patienten behöver stöd från sjukvården, likasinnade och närstående för att kunna förändra sin livsstil.

  • 1191704.
    Öckerman, Frode
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Climate impact assessment of coupling biogas production to agricultural and energy systems: crop variety of Solaris energy tobacco in Marble Hall, South Africa2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the context of global energy shortage and climate change, developing local biogas plants coupled with agricultural systems can become an important strategy for cleaner rural energy and sustainable agriculture. In this research, a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) method was applied to compare the climate impact of two essentially different systems: 1) Scenario I: an agricultural system based on the cultivation of 11 hectares of energy tobacco primarily for seed production; 2) Scenario II: a hypothetical Scenario Investigating the climate impact concerned with a crop variety – a higher yielding variety cultivated for both seed and biomass - and introducing biogas production. Both scenarios focus on the energy tobacco biomass residues. The overall aim of the study was to evaluate the climate impact of these two scenarios in the agricultural and energy system in Marble Hall, Limpopo Province, South Africa. The biogas was used for electricity production, replacing coal-based electricity on the grid. Biomass residues were chosen as feedstock for biogas production since this crop presently receives much attention in the region as the oily seeds can be used to produce sustainable jet fuel. Results from the modelling show that Scenario II would provide a positive climate impact: a 43% reduction of greenhouse gases compared to Scenario I. The higher yielding crop variety in Scenario II means that there is also potential to produce more sustainable jet fuel to replace conventional aviation fossil fuel. Taking this into account, the biogas scenario can reduce emissions by 79% compared to the base case. An analysis of the results indicates that there are several variables in the system model that are uncertain and sensitive to change, proving that more research is necessary to make robust conclusions about the validity of the presented results.

  • 1191705.
    Öckerman, Hannes
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Lundin, Emma
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Removal of Arsenic in Ground Water from Northern Burkina Faso through Adsorption with Granular Ferric Hydroxide: A SIDA Minor Field Study at the Department of Chemistry, University of Ouagadougou2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The need of making arsenic contaminated ground water potable is urgent in parts of Burkina Faso. An implementation of a treatment design using Granular Ferric Hydroxide (GFH) is under development. Water from a tube-well in Lilgomdé, Yatenga province, Burkina Faso, has been treated with the adsorbent GFH through column experiments. The water had an arsenic concentration varying between 99 and 215 μg/L and an average pH of 7.9. The study has shown that arsenic, predominantly in the form of arsenate, can be adsorbed to the material in significant amounts despite a high natural pH and the presence of ions competing with arsenic for adsorption sites on the GFH.

    When run through the column, the pH of the effluent water drastically decreased in the beginning. However, the low pH was soon followed by a slower readjustment towards the pH of the influent water. The adsorption of phosphates and fluorides was also studied. Both competitors exist in higher molar quantities than arsenic in the ground water. Even though arsenic displays a higher affinity for the GFH, an average 44 % of total phosphate and 64 % of the fluoride were adsorbed, making them a factor affecting the results of the study. Hydrogen carbonate is also believed to affect the adsorption process but this could not be confirmed. The empty bed contact time (EBCT), describing the average time of contact between the adsorbent and the water, has shown to be of importance. Increasing the EBCT resulted in notably more arsenic being adsorbed per volume GFH. When increasing the contact time, the study showed that reducing the speed of the flow was more effective than increasing the volume of the adsorbent.

    The GFH was also found to have a self-regenerating ability to a certain extent. When interrupting the experiment and leaving the column material in the aqueous solution for several days, the arsenic adsorption capacity after the break was shown to be higher than just before it. A 13 % increased capacity was shown in one experiment. Conclusively, the results of this study suggest no hindrances towards developing larger scale columns and prototypes to be applied at tube-well pump stations. Further investigations on the treatment method with GFH, on arsenic contaminated water, are recommended.

  • 1191706.
    Öckert, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Effects of higher education and the role of admission selection2001Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Study I Using Admission Selection Rules to Estimate the University Earnings Premium - A Regression-Discontinuity Design

    This study estimates the earnings premiums for university admission and graduation, using unique data from the admission selection process. Applicants and non-applicants for university in Sweden in 1982 are studied in terms of earnings in 1996. Admitted applicants are compared with four groups of non-admitted individuals. The choice of comparison group proves crucial when estimating the admission earnings premium. A comparison between admitted applicants and a random sample of non-applicants yields a significantly higher admission effect than a similar comparison using withdrawals or screen-outs. When the admission selection variables are added to the model, the effect of admission is completely eliminated. When admitted applicants are decomposed into no-shows, dropouts and completers, the same pattern emerges as in the case of the effect of admission. The university completion premium falls from 18 per cent when non-applicants provide the comparison group to 5 per cent when screen-outs are used instead and admission selection variables are controlled for. Hence, two thirds of the estimated effects are attributable to unobserved differences, while only one third can be seen as a causal effect. In order to find unbiased estimates of the effects of different programmes or interventions, information about all the selection mechanisms seems to be crucial.

    Study II Estimating the Return to Higher Education Using a Social Experiment

    Applicants for a university education in Sweden who possess equal qualifications have been subject to selection by lottery, i.e. there has been a social experiment at the margin. This study uses a unique data set of over 1,600 individuals who in the autumn of 1982 were subject to randomized admission to university. Annual earnings between 1982 and 1996 are used to compute lifetime earnings. To adjust for dropout and substitution bias in the estimated treatment effects, two new estimators are proposed. They allow for non-zero effects of partial treatment and for alternative treatment for all treatment group members.

    The choice of estimator proves crucial. If no adjustments are made, only about half the estimated returns to university training are positive. Accounting for dropout bias raises the estimates. The result is not sensitive to alternative identifying assumptions. When the earnings differences between treatment group and control group members are adjusted for both dropout bias and substitution bias, the estimated effects becomes much higher. Allowing all treatment group members to receive alternative treatment reduces the estimates substantially. The estimates suggest that the internal rate of return to completed university education is about 20 per cent, significantly different from zero.

    Study IIIDoes Pre-University Background Matter?

    This study analyses the completion probability and the effects of university on labour market performance for groups with different pre-university background. The data includes detailed information on the admission selection process for most applicants to university education in Sweden in 1982. The results reveal considerable heterogeneity in the probability of obtaining a degree and the effect of university studies on labour market performance. Applicants with long upper secondary schooling are more likely to graduate from university than other students are. The best indicator of degree completion is grade point averages from upper secondary school and the field of educational interest. It is interesting to note that age is negatively related to student performance.

    In terms of employment and earnings, returning adults have more to gain from being admitted to university or receiving a degree there than students with any other pre-university background. Hence, the pay-off for allowing individuals a 'second chance' seems substantial. Another finding is that completers generally do better than no-shows, who in turn do better than dropouts. Further, the effects of attending university on employment and earnings are small for all groups, particularly for students with short upper secondary schooling. The return to a completed programme for students with long upper secondary schooling is estimated at 5 per cent. 

  • 1191707.
    Öckert, Björn
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    What's the value of an acceptance letter?: Using admissions data to estimate the return to college2010In: Economics of Education Review, ISSN 0272-7757, E-ISSN 1873-7382, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 504-516Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper exploits discontinuities and randomness in the college admissions in Sweden in 1982, to estimate the economic return to college in the 1990s. At the time, college admissions were highly selective and applicants were ranked with respect to their formal merits. Admissions were given to those ranked higher than some threshold value. At the margin, applicants were sometimes randomly assigned to college. Exploiting this Regression-Discontinuity design, individuals who were admitted in 1982 are estimated to have about 0.20 years longer college education in 1996. However, the earnings effects for applicants at the margin of admission are insignificant. Controlling for the college admission determinants, the OLS-estimates of the return to college is 1.4 percent in 1991-96. The IV-estimates are not significantly different from the OLS counterparts.

  • 1191708.
    Öckervall, Anna
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Andersson, Mikael
    Analyshusens kurspåverkan: En studie om hur de analyshusens aktierekommendationer påverkar svenska aktiemarknaden på kort sikt2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 1191709.
    Öcut, Belkiz
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Vägen till akademisk utbildning: En kvantitativ studie om hur etnicitet, kulturellt kapital och klass påverkar individens möjligheter till högre studier2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrunden till denna uppsats är ett intresse för att undersöka huruvida skillnader i utbildningsnivå kan förklaras utifrån etnicitet, kulturellt kapital och klass. Med utgångspunkt i litteraturen finns det förklaringar som menar att kulturellt kapital är en begränsad resurs i samhället och alla har inte de kulturella förutsättningar som gör det “enklare” för människor att satsa på utbildning för sig själva och sina framtida barn. Det förekommer även förklaringar som menar att beroende på föräldrarnas etniska och socioekonomiska ursprung uppstår det olikheter utbildningsprocessen som påverkar både livschanser och beteenden som i sin tur kan leda till att individer inte kan leva upp till sin fulla potential.I studien har kvantitativ metod använts och mätningar har gjorts med data från Levnadsnivåundersökningen (LNU) 2010. Uppsatsen utgår från två hypoteser och analyserar stödet för följande hypoteser: (1) Det finns skillnader i utbildning mellan personer födda i Sverige jämfört med personer som inte är det, (2) Dessa skillnader kan förklaras med socioekonomiska resurser och kulturellt kapital. I resultatet kan man se att den första hypotesen inte visar ett inget signifikant samband mellan skillnader etnicitet (individer med utländsk bakgrund och individer med svenskfödda föräldrar) och utbildning. Resultatet visar vidare att hypotesen 2 delvis stämmer. Socioekonomiska resurser och kulturellt kapital påverkar till en viss del skillnader som uppstår i utbildning, men enbart socioekonomiska resurser och kulturellt kapital kan inte förklara skillnader i utbildningsval mellan individer med utländsk bakgrund och individer med svenskfödda föräldrar.

  • 1191710.
    Ödahl, Mikaela
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Att leva med Irritable Bowel Syndrome: en intervjustudie om livskvalitet och fysisk aktivitet2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar:

    Syftet med studien var att undersöka hur det är att leva med IBS. Om och i så fall hur livskvaliteten påverkas hos unga kvinnor ur ett hälsoperspektiv samt att utforska inställningen till fysisk aktivitet efter att de diagnostiserats med IBS. För att besvara syftet formulerades följande frågeställningar:

    Påverkas livskvaliteten, hos kvinnor i 20-30 årsåldern diagnostiserade med IBS och i så fall

    på vilket sätt ur ett hälsoperspektiv?

    Vilken är de IBS-diagnostiserade kvinnornas inställning till fysisk aktivitet?

    Metod:

    För denna studie valdes en kvalitativ metod genom intervjuer. Fem unga kvinnor med en medelålder på 25 år och diagnostiserade med IBS i snitt i 2,7 år har under intervju besvarat frågor om hur IBS påverkar deras livskvalitet samt deras inställning till fysisk aktivitet. Kriterierna för att medverka i studien var att vara kvinna mellan 20 och 30 år och diagnostiserad med IBS. Som intervjumodell användes en semistrukturerad intervju med intervjuguide, förutbestämda ämnesområden och öppna frågor, detta för att möjliggöra följdfrågor och uttömmande svar.

    Resultat:

    Samtliga kvinnor som medverkade i studien anser att IBS påverkar deras livskvalitet. De upplever besvärande symtom samt att deras sociala liv och humör påverkas. Kvinnorna anser dock att de har lärt sig att leva med sin IBS. De har anpassat sitt liv efter sjukdomen och undviker sådant som de vet leder till besvär. Kvinnorna har en positiv inställning till fysisk aktivitet i allmänhet. I det akuta skedet, då smärtan och eventuella symtom redan utbrutit, undviks fysisk aktivitet av ett par av kvinnorna medan andra anser att lättare rörelse i form av exempelvis promenader har en hämmande effekt på symtomen.

    Slutsats:

    Studien tyder på att livskvaliteten påverkas av IBS men i vilken utsträckning livskvaliteten påverkas tycks dock skilja sig mellan enskild individ. Trots ett behov av anpassning av sina liv tycks kvinnorna ha accepterat sin sjukdom och lever vad de själva anser vara hälsosamma liv. Studien visar även att kvinnorna anser att fysisk aktivitet är viktigt för välmående i sig, vilket också påverkar deras IBS. Dock skulle de sannolikt utföra samma mängd och typ av fysisk aktivitet även om de var friska.

  • 1191711.
    Ödalen, Jörgen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Allt frid och fröjd?: Liberalismen och den mångkulturella utmaningen2001In: Politologen, ISSN 0345-9462, no 1, p. 46-49Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 1191712.
    Ödalen, Jörgen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Climate refugees: Normative problems and institutional solutions2010In: Democracy and governance for civil society / [ed] Yoshihisa Hagiwara, Tokyo: Fukosha Publishing , 2010, p. 123-142Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 1191713.
    Ödalen, Jörgen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Efter floden: Klimatmigration och den rika världens skyldigheter2011In: Statsvetenskaplig Tidskrift, ISSN 0039-0747, no 1, p. 140-147Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 1191714.
    Ödalen, Jörgen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Egalitarianism and Responsibility for Beliefs2002In: Presented at the Fourth Annual Graduate Conference in Political Theory, University of Warwick, 2002Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 1191715.
    Ödalen, Jörgen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Ekonomisk globalisering och global rättvisa2010In: Myt eller verklighet?: Om samband mellan demokrati och ekonomisk tillväxt / [ed] Sven Oskarsson och Sten Widmalm, Stockholm: Norstedts , 2010, p. 91-104Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 1191716.
    Ödalen, Jörgen
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ekonomisk globalisering och global rättvisa2014In: Myt eller verklighet?: om samband mellan demokrati och ekonomisk tillväxt / [ed] Sven Oskarsson och Sten Widmalm, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2014, 2Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 1191717.
    Ödalen, Jörgen
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Förord till den svenska utgåvan2016In: Politiskt tänkande - En introduktion / [ed] Peri Roberts & Peter Sutch, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2016, 2, p. 7-8Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 1191718. Ödalen, Jörgen
    Förord till den svenska utgåvan2016In: Politiskt tänkande - En introduktion, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB , 2016, p. 7-8Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 1191719.
    Ödalen, Jörgen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Integration eller assimilation?: Invandrarpolitikens etik och den svenska integrationspolitiken2000Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is a normative study of immigrant policy. The main question asked is how liberal democracies should respond in terms of immigrant policy to the fact that they now constitute multicultural societies. Divergent answers to this question are provided by two different schools of thought in the liberal tradition of political philosophy - liberal nationalism and liberal multiculturalism. The arguments presented by some prominent proponents of these two political philosophies are investigated and a favourable stance is taken towards liberal multiculturalism and its policy of immigrant integration as opposed to a liberal nationalist policy of immigrant assimilation. A question of great importance for liberal multiculturalists is whether the social stability and unity provided by national identity can be replaced in the multicultural society by new forms of postnational identities and communities. Some thoughts regarding this issue are presented and it is concluded that the development of such postnational identities and communities is likely since they already exist in some multinational states. The next object of investigation is the current Swedish immigrant policy expressed in a 1997 government bill. It is concluded that the current Swedish immigrant policy accords well with the policy of immigrant integration favoured by liberal multiculturalists.

  • 1191720.
    Ödalen, Jörgen
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Kan en stat gå under, men ändå finnas kvar?: Stigande havsnivåer och avterritorialiserade östater2015In: Tidskrift för politisk filosofi, ISSN 1402-2710, no 2, p. 26-43Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det finns en risk att klimatförändringar i framtiden leder till att hela stater går under. Det är framförallt små östater som är utsatta för detta hot eftersom de är känsliga för höjningar av havsvattennivån. Att befolkningarna på dessa östater kan bli tvungna att i framtiden helt överge sina territorier väcker frågor om vad som händer med dessa staters suveränitet och politiska självbestämmande.

    Vi tänker oss vanligen att det krävs ett territorium för att ett folk ska kunna vara politiskt självbestämmande. Men är detta verkligen nödvändigt? Vissa folkrättsjurister har hävdad att det är möjligt för ett folk att fortsätta utöva självbestämmande även efter att de tvingats överge sitt territorium. De har dessutom föreslagit att detta att tillåta existensen av avterritorialiserade stater kan vara en lösning på problemet att klimatförändringar i framtiden kan komma att undergräva självbestämmandet för vissa östater.

    I denna artikel granskas detta förslag kritiskt. Skulle ett sådant förslag verkligen bevara självbestämmande i någon meningsfull betydelse? Är förslaget moraliskt acceptabelt i betydelsen att det fullgör några av de skyldigheter som det

  • 1191721. Ödalen, Jörgen
    Kan en stat gå under, men ändå finnas kvar?: Stigande havsnivåer och avterritorialiserade östater2015In: Tidskrift för politisk filosofi, ISSN 1402-2710, no 2, p. 26-43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Det finns en risk att klimatförändringar i framtiden leder till att hela stater går under. Det är framförallt små östater som är utsatta för detta hot eftersom de är känsliga för höjningar av havsvattennivån. Att befolkningarna på dessa östater kan bli tvungna att i framtiden helt överge sina territorier väcker frågor om vad som händer med dessa staters suveränitet och politiska självbestämmande. Vi tänker oss vanligen att det krävs ett territorium för att ett folk ska kunna vara politiskt självbestämmande. Men är detta verkligen nödvändigt? Vissa folkrättsjurister har hävdad att det är möjligt för ett folk att fortsätta utöva självbestämmande även efter att de tvingats överge sitt territorium. De har dessutom föreslagit att detta att tillåta existensen av avterritorialiserade stater kan vara en lösning på problemet att klimatförändringar i framtiden kan komma att undergräva självbestämmandet för vissa östater. I denna artikel granskas detta förslag kritiskt. Skulle ett sådant förslag verkligen bevara självbestämmande i någon meningsfull betydelse? Är förslaget moraliskt acceptabelt i betydelsen att det fullgör några av de skyldigheter som det

  • 1191722.
    Ödalen, Jörgen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Rolling Out the Map of Justice2008Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditionally, the promotion of socio-economic justice has been seen as an exclusive concern for the state and its citizens. Many contemporary political thinkers criticize this view and argue that the principles of justice which apply within a state also apply to the global level. Further, they often argue that this conclusion is strengthened by the increased level of interconnectedness between people and states created by globalization. It is said that even if principles of justice are constrained by institutional boundaries, these boundaries no longer coincide with state borders but rather extend transnationally, or even globally. In this thesis it is argued that the impacts on justice inferred from globalization are often seriously overstated. The demand for socio-economic justice is created exclusively by a special relationship between citizens. This relationship is constituted by a common membership in the kind of coercive institutional structure epitomized by the state. Under current state of affairs, state coercion has no counterpart in the global arena. The conclusion is that concerns of socio-economic justice should be reserved for the domestic arena. Yet, it is also argued that justice is pluralistic and other kinds of concern are applicable on a global scale. Issues of fairness in international trade are discussed as examples of such concerns, and it is concluded that the international trade regime should institutionalize a number of safeguards that reduce the vulnerability of developing states.

  • 1191723.
    Ödalen, Jörgen
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The Rights of Climate Change Migrants2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 1191724.
    Ödalen, Jörgen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Underwater Self-determination: Sea-level Rise and Deterritorialized Small Island States2014In: Ethics, Policy & Environment, ISSN 2155-0085, E-ISSN 2155-0093, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 225-237Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Global climate change is likely to become a major cause of future migration. Small Island States are particularly vulnerable since territorial destruction caused by sea level rise poses a threat to their entire existence. This raises important issues concerning state sovereignty and selfdetermination. Is it possible for a people to remain self-determining even if it lacks a stable population residing on a specific territory? It has been suggested that migrants from disappearing Small Island States could continue to exercise sovereign control over their abandoned territory. Such an arrangement would allow them to retain a measure of selfdetermination. The question posed in this paper is whether this ‘deterritorialised state proposal’ is conceptually plausible and normatively acceptable. I argue that the proposal is conceptually plausible if we adopt a gradual understanding of ‘self-determination’, but that its normative acceptability is weak even if it is supplemented with compensatory measures.

  • 1191725.
    Ödalen, Jörgen
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Underwater self-determination: Sea-level rise and deterritorialized Small Island States2014In: Ethics, Policy & Environment, ISSN 2155-0085, E-ISSN 2155-0093, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 225-237Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Global climate change is likely to become a major cause of future migration. Small Island States are particularly vulnerable since territorial destruction caused by sea level rise poses a threat to their entire existence. This raises important issues concerning state sovereignty and self-determination. Is it possible for a state to remain self-determining even if it lacks a stable population residing on a specific territory? It has been suggested that migrants from disappearing Small Island States could continue to exercise sovereign control over their abandoned territory. Such an arrangement would allow them to retain a measure of self-determination. The question posed in this paper is whether this ‘deterritorialized state proposal’ is conceptually plausible and normatively acceptable. It is argued that the proposal is conceptually plausible if we adopt a gradual understanding of ‘self-determination’, but that its normative acceptability is weak even if it is supplemented with compensatory measures.

  • 1191726.
    Ödalen, Jörgen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Är filosofisk argumentation en tävling, en kamp, eller ett samarbete?2018In: Vänbok till Jörgen Hermansson / [ed] Johan Tralau, Jenny Jansson, Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2018Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 1191727.
    Ödalen, Jörgen
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bromesson, Douglas
    Department of Political Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Erlingsson, Gissur Ó
    Linköping University, Department for Studies of Social Change and Culture, Centre for Municipality Studies – CKS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Karlsson Schaffer, Johan
    School of Global Studies, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Fogelgren, Mattias
    Swedish Ministry of Finance, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Teaching university teachers to become better teachers: the effects of pedagogical training courses at six Swedish universities2019In: Higher Education Research and Development, ISSN 0729-4360, E-ISSN 1469-8366, Vol. 38, no 2, p. 339-353Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Do pedagogical training courses for university teachers have desirable effects on the participants? We set out to answer this question by following a panel of 183 university teachers from Sweden’s six largest universities, who participated in pedagogical training courses. Our study reveals that the participants’ self-reported confidence in their role as teachers increased slightly, and their self-assessed pedagogical skills increased notably after they had finished their courses. Even though the courses were rather short, we could also observe some changes in fundamental approaches to teaching in some of the subgroups of respondents, both toward more student-centeredness and, perplexingly, toward more teacher-centeredness. Additionally, most respondents (7 out of 10) found the courses useful or very useful. Course satisfaction was most notable among participants with less than three years of teaching experience. Considering the fact that we find the positive effects of pedagogical training courses to be present mainly in the group of participants with less than three years of teaching experience, we discuss whether a policy of making these courses mandatory for all university teachers implies an overestimation of their impact.

  • 1191728.
    Ödalen, Jörgen
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Brommesson, Douglas
    Lunds universitet, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Erlingsson, Gissur Ó.
    Linköpings universitet, Centrum för kommunstrategiska studier.
    Karlsson Schaffer, Johan
    Göteborgs universitet, Institutionen för globala studier.
    Fogelgren, Mattias
    Regeringskansliet, Finansdepartementet.
    Teaching university teachers to become better teachers: The effects of pedagogical training courses at six Swedish universities2019In: Higher Education Research and Development, ISSN 0729-4360, E-ISSN 1469-8366, Vol. 38, no 2, p. 339-353Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Do pedagogical training courses for university teachers have desirable effects on the participants? We set out to answer this question by following a panel of 183 university teachers from Sweden’s six largest universities, who participated in pedagogical training courses. Our study reveals that the participants’ self-reported confidence in their role as teachers increased slightly, and their self-assessed pedagogical skills increased notably after they had finished their courses. Even though the courses were rather short, we could also observe some changes in fundamental approaches to teaching in some of the subgroups of respondents, both toward more student-centeredness and, perplexingly, toward more teacher-centeredness. Additionally, most respondents (7 out of 10) found the courses useful or very useful. Course satisfaction was most notable among participants with less than three years of teaching experience. Considering the fact that we find the positive effects of pedagogical training courses to be present mainly in the group of participants with less than three years of teaching experience, we discuss whether a policy of making these courses mandatory for all university teachers implies an overestimation of their impact.

  • 1191729.
    Ödalen, Jörgen
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Erlingsson, Gissur
    Institutionen för Samhällsvetenskap, Växjö universitet.
    Kommunalt självstyre, demokrati och individuell autonomi2008In: Tidskrift för politisk filosofi, ISSN 1402-2710, no 2, p. 35-52Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 1191730.
    Ödalen, Jörgen
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Erlingsson, Gissur
    Kommunstruktur, självstyrelse och rätten till självbestämmande2007In: Federalism på svenska, Stockholm: Ratio , 2007Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 1191731.
    Ödalen, Jörgen
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Erlingsson, Gissur Ó
    Centrum för kommunstrategiska studier, Linköpings universitet.
    Självstyret och individens frihet2009In: Liberal debatt, ISSN 0024-1814, no 2Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 1191732.
    Ödalen, Jörgen
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Heyward, Clare
    University of Warwick.
    A Free Movement Passport for the Territorially Dispossessed2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a significant risk that some Small Island States will become uninhabitable due to sea level rises, driven by anthropogenic climate change. Should this happen, citizens of such states will be forced to migrate but, under the current system of international law, these migrants could become stateless. In this article we propose that migrants from threatened island states (the territorially dispossessed) should be provided with a “Passport for the Territorially Dispossessed” (PTD). A PTD also gives its holder a right to free movement and a right to choose their new nationality. The PTD proposal has an advantage over competing suggestions that states should admit a set proportion of these migrants. Quota schemes will generally fail to appropriately compensate the territorially dispossessed. The principle of free choice, by contrast, allows them to retain a measure of control over their destiny and to migrate with dignity.

  • 1191733.
    Ödalen, Malin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Model analysis of ocean carbon storage and transport across climate states2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The ocean carbon cycle plays a fundamental role in the Earth’s climate system, on decadal to multi-millennial timescales. Of the carbon held in the ocean, the atmosphere, and the terrestrial biosphere combined, more than 90% resides in the ocean. Carbon enters the surface ocean through air-sea gas exchange and from terrestrial sources. It is transported to the deep ocean with the ocean circulation and through the so-called biological pump, where carbon is taken up in the surface ocean by photosynthetic organisms that fall down and decompose at depth. This thesis contributes to the understanding of the processes involved in ocean carbon storage and transport. It examines how these processes respond to model perturbations, and how this response influences our attempts to simulate glacial-interglacial fluctuations in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2).

    The thesis investigates the response of the simulated ocean carbon storage, and distribution of the isotopic tracer δ13C, to changes in physical and biological parameters. In the included studies, we use observational as well as proxy records of oceanic properties to evaluate our model simulations. In addition, we use a climate model to interpret proxy evidence of glacial-interglacial changes in ocean δ13C. By using a separation framework, we identify the origin of the carbon in the model ocean, and attribute observed changes to the processes involved.

    The results indicate a strong link between ocean carbon storage and the strength of the global ocean overturning circulation. Stronger circulation leads to less carbon storage through a weakening of the biological pump, and through reduced solubility due to an increase in global ocean average temperature.

    In simulations of glacial climate, we find that biological adaptability to the surrounding nutrient conditions, through a flexible carbon-to-phosphorus ratio (C/P) in ocean photosynthesis, increases the ocean carbon storage compared to simulations where fixed C/P is applied. The biological flexibility improves the model’s ability to reproduce glacial atmospheric CO2. In line with previous research, we find freshwater input to the North Atlantic to be an important factor for reproducing glacial proxy records. The ensemble of simulations that achieve a good representation of glacial-interglacial δ13C indicates a deglacial whole-ocean change in δ13C of 0.28 ± 0.06‰.

    The thesis underlines the importance of the initial state, and the choice of model parameterisations, for the outcome of model ensemble, and intercomparison studies. Finally, it proposes a new method for estimation of ocean carbon transport, and attribution of this transport to different water masses and carbon system processes.

  • 1191734.
    Ödalen, Malin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Nycander, Jonas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Oliver, Kevin I. C.
    Brodeau, Laurent
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology . Barcelona Supercomputer Center, Spain.
    Ridgwell, Andy
    The influence of the ocean circulation state on ocean carbon storage and CO2 drawdown potential in an Earth system model2018In: Biogeosciences, ISSN 1726-4170, E-ISSN 1726-4189, Vol. 15, no 5, p. 1367-1393Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the four most recent glacial cycles, atmospheric CO2 during glacial maxima has been lowered by about 90-100 ppm with respect to interglacials. There is widespread consensus that most of this carbon was partitioned in the ocean. It is, however, still debated which processes were dominant in achieving this increased carbon storage. In this paper, we use an Earth system model of intermediate complexity to explore the sensitivity of ocean carbon storage to ocean circulation state. We carry out a set of simulations in which we run the model to pre-industrial equilibrium, but in which we achieve different states of ocean circulation by changing forcing parameters such as wind stress, ocean diffusivity and atmospheric heat diffusivity. As a consequence, the ensemble members also have different ocean carbon reservoirs, global ocean average temperatures, biological pump efficiencies and conditions for air-sea CO2 disequilibrium. We analyse changes in total ocean carbon storage and separate it into contributions by the solubility pump, the biological pump and the CO2 disequilibrium component. We also relate these contributions to differences in the strength of the ocean overturning circulation. Depending on which ocean forcing parameter is tuned, the origin of the change in carbon storage is different. When wind stress or ocean diapycnal diffusivity is changed, the response of the biological pump gives the most important effect on ocean carbon storage, whereas when atmospheric heat diffusivity or ocean isopycnal diffusivity is changed, the solubility pump and the disequilibrium component are also important and sometimes dominant. Despite this complexity, we obtain a negative linear relationship between total ocean carbon and the combined strength of the northern and southern overturning cells. This relationship is robust to different reservoirs dominating the response to different forcing mechanisms. Finally, we conduct a drawdown experiment in which we investigate the capacity for increased carbon storage by artificially maximising the efficiency of the biological pump in our ensemble members. We conclude that different initial states for an ocean model result in different capacities for ocean carbon storage due to differences in the ocean circulation state and the origin of the carbon in the initial ocean carbon reservoir. This could explain why it is difficult to achieve comparable responses of the ocean carbon pumps in model intercomparison studies in which the initial states vary between models. We show that this effect of the initial state is quantifiable. The drawdown experiment highlights the importance of the strength of the biological pump in the control state for model studies of increased biological efficiency.

  • 1191735.
    Ödalen, Malin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Nycander, Jonas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Ridgwell, Andy
    Oliver, Kevin I. C.
    Peterson, Carlye D.
    Nilsson, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Variable C/P composition of organic production and its effect on ocean carbon storage in glacial model simulations2019In: Biogeosciences Discussions, ISSN 1810-6277, E-ISSN 1810-6285Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During the four most recent glacial maxima, atmospheric CO2 has been lowered by about 90--100 ppm with respect to interglacial concentrations. It is likely that most of the atmospheric CO2 deficit was stored in the ocean. Changes of the biological pump, which are related to the efficiency of the biological carbon uptake in the surface ocean and/or of the export of organic carbon to the deep ocean, have been proposed as a key mechanism for the increased glacial oceanic CO2 storage. The biological pump is strongly constrained by the amount of available surface nutrients. In models, it is generally assumed that the ratio between elemental nutrients, e.g. phosphorus, and carbon (C/P ratio) in organic material is fixed according to the classical Redfield ratio. The constant Redfield ratio appears to hold approximately when averaged over basin scales, but observations document highly variable C/P ratios on regional scales and between species. If the C/P ratio decreases when nutrient availability is scarce, as observations suggest, this has the potential to further increase glacial oceanic CO2 storage in response to changes in surface nutrient distributions. In the present study, we perform a sensitivity study to test how a phosphate--concentration dependent C/P ratio influences the oceanic CO2 storage in an Earth system model of intermediate complexity (cGENIE). We carry out simulations of glacial--like changes in albedo, radiative forcing, wind--forced circulation, remineralisation depth of organic matter, and mineral dust deposition. Specifically, we compare model versions with with the classical constant Redfield ratio and an observationally-motivated variable C/P ratio, in which the carbon uptake increases with decreasing phosphate concentration. While a flexible C/P ratio does not impact the model's ability to simulate benthic d13C patterns seen in observational data, our results indicate that, in production of organic matter, flexible C/P can further increase the oceanic storage of CO2 in glacial model simulations. Past and future changes in the C/P ratio thus have implications for correctly projecting changes in oceanic carbon storage in glacial-to-interglacial transitions as well as in the present context of increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations.

  • 1191736.
    Ödalen, Malin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Peterson, Carlye D.
    Ridgwell, Andy
    Oliver, Kevin I. C.
    Valdes, Paul J.
    A revised Earth system model--based analysis of glacial--interglacial changes in ocean δ13CManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Across the latest deglaciation (from 21 to 0 ka), rearrangements in ocean circulation and carbon reservoirs occurred as climate changed. In the glacial state, atmospheric and terrestrial reservoirs of carbon were smaller, while carbon was stored in the deep ocean. The glacial-interglacial changes in atmospheric CO2 and deep ocean carbon storage are reflected by changes in the intermediate-to-deep ocean vertical δ13C gradient recorded in benthic foraminifera. However, sparse data coverage makes it difficult to infer ocean changes directly from the proxy records. In model studies, such records are often used to assess the validity of model simulations. In this study, we instead use a numerical model to interpolate and extrapolate the available benthic δ13C proxy records of Peterson et al. (2014) for the Holocene (HOL, 0-6 ka) and the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, 19-23 ka). We apply appropriate boundary conditions for each time slice, and search for the best-possible fit to the proxy records by running ensembles, where we vary the wind stress scaling parameter, the amount of Atlantic-to-Pacific freshwater redistribution, and the fraction of brine relocated from the surface to the deep ocean. For both HOL and LGM, we find that the best fits are acheived when we apply a wind stress scaling of 0.8 and we apply a brine rejection relocation of 20%. However, the best fit for the LGM is found for weak freshwater redistribution, while a stronger redistribution is optimal for HOL. The best-fit simulations reproduce well the shift from a stronger to a weaker surface-to-deep ocean δ13C gradient across the deglaciation, as indicated by the proxy records. The differences in boundary conditions combined with the difference in freshwater redistribution result in a 50% weaker Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) at the LGM compared to HOL, while the Pacific oxygen minimum zone is found in the deep (LGM), rather than the intermediate (HOL), ocean. After using model-data data misfit to remove bias from the best-fit simulations, we find that the LGM is more depleted in δ13C compared to HOL, with a deglacial change in whole-ocean δ13C of 0.30‰. For both time slices, good fits to the proxy data are also achieved for other combinations of brine rejection relocation and freshwater redistribution. We therefore compute a bias-corrected ensemble average for the deglacial whole-ocean change in δ13C, to account for uncertainty in the analysis. After weighting the ensemble members by their skill in reproducing the proxy records, we estimate the deglacial whole-ocean change in δ13C (HOL-LGM) to 0.28 ± 0.06. This corresponds to 430 ± 90 Pg C transferred between the terrestrial carbon reservoir and the ocean. This should not be interpreted as an estimate of the overall change in terrestrial carbon storage during the glacial cycle, but as an estimate of the change in carbon with a terrestrial δ13C signature that could be accomodated in the LGM ocean.

  • 1191737.
    Ödberg, Christer
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Miljöbalken och hushållen2008Report (Other academic)
  • 1191738.
    Ödberg, Christer
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Skogsavverkningsrätt2004Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An analysis from civil law point of view with special reference on one hand to the parties´ rights and obligations and on the other hand to the treatment of cer-tain third party conflicts. An agreement between a landowner and another subject of law meaning that the latter is entitled to fell trees on the landowner’s property is according to Swedish law regarded as right to use the property, a usufruct. The Swedish Real Estate Law, however, does not pay much attention to the question of the parties’ rights and obligations regarding this kind of usufruct. Since this kind of agreement has also got important similarities with purchase, it has in Swedish legal writing been a common point that the Swedish Sale of Goods Act ought to be, either directly or analogically, applicable at least as long as the question concerns the parties rights and obligations. The dissertation examines some of several unclear or uncertain questions concerning the parties´ rights and obligations and especially such questions that from a practical point of view seem to be of interest in the line of business. A few examples of questions of this kind that are discussed are if and when the risk is handed over to the feller, if the feller has to pay compensation even if the felling has not been carried out, if the feller is entitled to make claims against the landowner if there is faults or shortage or the land-owner’s corresponding possibilities if the feller breaches the contract. In this connection special questions concerning the forming of standard contracts in this field are observed. The dissertation also deals with different kinds of third party conflicts concerning rights to fell trees. In this case there is no doubt that the rules of the Real Property Code are applicable, but the special circumstances seem to make the application troublesome, especially when the conflict primarily has reference to the ownership of the timber in-stead of the right to use the property. Such conflicts where the creditors of the feller or the landowner are involved are also examined. The main purpose is to find appropriate answers to the different questions according to Swedish law, but the answers are often uncertain. In several questions the relevant ju-ridical sources are not admitting certain conclusions. These difficulties have more or less enforced an approach to the subject characterised by recommendations and sugges-tions de lege ferenda.

  • 1191739. Ödberg, Fridolf
    Om Axevalla slott: föredrag hållet i Axevalla slotts ruiner vid Svenska Fornminnesföreningens besök der den 19 juni 18831883In: Svenska fornminnesföreningens tidskrift, ISSN 0283-2496, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 226-230Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 1191740. Ödberg, L
    et al.
    Forsberg, S
    McBride, G
    Persson, M
    Stenius, P
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Ström, G
    Surfactant behaviour of wood resin components.Part 2. Solubilization in micelles of rosin and fatty acids1985In: Svensk Papperstidning, ISSN 0283-6831, Vol. 88, p. R118-R125Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1191741.
    Ödberg, L
    et al.
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    McBride, G
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Magnusson, KE
    Characterization of the surface of cellulosic fibers using aqueous two-phase partitioning1985In: Progress in Colloid and Polymer Science, ISSN 0340-255X, E-ISSN 1437-8027, Vol. 70, p. 109-112Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1191742. Ödberg, L
    et al.
    Ström, G
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    ESCA studies of retention and dewatering aids. The adsorption of polymin SNand polymin SN-lignosulfonate complexes on cellulose1983In: Svensk Papperstidning, ISSN 0283-6831, Vol. 86, p. R141-R145Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1191743.
    Ödborn Jönsson, Linnéa
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Mapping re-growth following chemotherapy in high-risk neuroblastoma: The research process in laboratory work2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the current study is to study characteristics of high-risk cancer cells within the childhood disease neuroblastoma (NB) by mapping regrowth after treatment with the chemotherapy doxorubicin (doxo). The cell-line SK-N-BE(2)-C (BE(2)-C) was used as a model. Results from a previous study by Hultman et al., (2018) have indicated that while a majority of BE(2)-C cells could be shown resilient to a 1 μM dose of doxorubicin (doxo), only a very small fractions had the capacity for immediate replication following a single or double treatment of doxo (“remaining replicating cells”; RRC). The current study aims to investigate if RRC are responsible for regrowth. Cultured BE(2)-C cells were exposed to doxo and labelled with the nucleoside analogues EdU (5-ethynyl-2’-deoxyuridine) and BrdU (5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine). The results from the current study indicated that the RRC subpopulation might not be responsible for regrowth since the nucleoside labelling was not shown to be present in the cells of the regrowing colonies. However, technical challenges, e.g. the settings of thresholds for EdU and BrdU detection, in combination with the dilution of DNA markers in replication, call for further studies using additional methods, e.g. isotope markers, in order to firmly conclude that other subpopulation(s) than the RRC population are responsible for regrowth.

    Apart from studying cell populations responsible for regrowth, a pilot study was performed including another combination of treatment using an ATM-inhibitor (KU-60019) together with the chemotherapy doxo. There were some measurement points missing, but the current results indicate that regrowth is postponed when the ATM-inhibitor is added in combination with single or double treatment of doxo.

    The research procedures and processes involved in this thesis, are similar to those included in the syllabi for the natural science subjects for the upper secondary school. This underlines the importance of studying inquiry and laboratory work. A literature review was performed, analysing current research on open-and closed ended laboratory work. Ten research articles were collected and characterized by natural science subject, type of laboratory style (open or closed) and student learning competences. Findings from the current study indicate that open-ended laboratory work promotes student interest in the subject. The learning competences problem-solving ability and procedure ability are most commonly studied in laboratory work based on the results from the current study.

  • 1191744.
    Ödborn, Sofia
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH).
    The Science of Deodorants2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Deodorants are cosmetic products that are consumed by people regularly and globally. In this thesis, the opportunities to develop a deodorant for the Swedish cosmetics brand IDUN Minerals AB is investigated. The deodorant market in Swedish pharmacies, deodorant formulation and deodorant packaging are studied. Furthermore, controversial ingredients, such as synthetic aluminum compounds, are explored.

    The scientific aspects of using synthetic aluminum compounds, which are used as antiperspirant in deodorants, are investigated. There is a general fear that they may increasethe risk of developing breast cancer. However, after a full review of exciting scientific evidence, it is clear that there is currently no study that can prove or disprove the suspicions. The use of aluminum-based antiperspirants therefore continues to be a controversial topic.

    The conclusion of this thesis is that there is a market opening for IDUN Minerals, especially since they aim for a synthetic aluminum-free, unperfumed and preservative-free deodorant. Furthermore, it is concluded that a Nordic Swan Ecolabel would make their product uniquein its product category. Lastly, it is determined that traditional plastic packaging is more accessible and possesses many favorable properties, but that bioplastics should be further researched.

  • 1191745.
    Ödeen, Anders
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology.
    Effects of Post-Glacial Range Expansions and Population Bottlenecks on Species Richness2001Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis relates modern speciation theory to the effects of sudden changes in the range and size of populations. Special reference is made to the climatic oscillations during the Quaternary ice ages. A meta-analysis of laboratory experiments showed that support for allopatric speciation is weak, especially for the peripatric type of allopatric speciation. Furthermore, factors traditionally believed to increase the likelihood of speciation have had little effect on the generation of reproductive isolation in speciation experiments. However, the method of testing reproductive isolation appeared important, in the sense that experimentally derived sister populations were likely to demonstrate reproductive isolation from each other but not from the unaffected mother population. Raw data from mating tests showed that the poor isolation between mother and daughter populations was an effect of asymmetric mate preferences towards males from the mother population. This suggests that peripatric speciation can be effective in generating reproductive isolation between sister populations. The proposed mechanism is that males become less attractive to females by losing certain secondary sexual traits during population bottlenecks, and that females shift their preferences towards other male traits. Support for this mode of speciation is found in the widespread bird genus Motacilla (wagtails). This genus is characterised by extensive plumage variation and contains a large number of widely distributed taxa in the northern parts of its distribution. This thesis shows that taxonomic diversity of wagtails is inversely related to complexity in song and to diversity in molecular and mitochondrial markers. The northern taxa seem to be descendants of southern populations, which were subjected to bottlenecks during expansions into re-opened habitats after the last ice age. The bottlenecks would not only reduce genetic diversity but also inhibit cultural transmission of song to the leading edge of colonisers, allowing sexual selection on other traits, such as plumage. Rapid plumage differentiation among wagtail taxa appears to be a recurrent process and has lead to convergent evolution, making the currently recognised species Motacilla flava (Yellow Wagtail) polyphyletic.

  • 1191746.
    Ödeen, Anders
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology. Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology. Zooekologi.
    Björklund, Mats
    Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Dynamics in the evolution of sexual traits: losses and gains, radiation and convergence in yellow wagtails (Motacilla flava)2003In: Molecular Ecology, ISSN 09621083, Vol. 12, no 8, p. 2113-2130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyse patterns of genetic diversity and song complexity in the Palaearctic yellow wagtail (Motacilla flava), a highly polytypic species complex. Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA show that the complex is polyphyletic, despite parallel plumage variation i

  • 1191747.
    Ödeen, Anders
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Hart, Nathan S.
    School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane.
    Håstad, Olle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Evolutionary Organism Biology.
    Assessing the use of genomic DNA as a predictor of the maximum absorbance wavelength of avian SWS1 opsin visual pigments2009In: Journal of Comparative Physiology A. Sensory, neural, and behavioral physiology, ISSN 0340-7594, E-ISSN 1432-1351, Vol. 195, no 2, p. 167-173Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, in vitro mutation studies have made it possible to predict the wavelengths of maximum absorbance (λmax) of avian UV/violet sensitive visual pigments (SWS1) from the identity of a few key amino acid residues in the opsin gene. Given that the absorbance spectrum of a cone's visual pigment and of its pigmented oil droplet can be predicted from just the λmax, it may become possible to predict the entire spectral sensitivity of a bird using genetic samples from live birds or museum specimens. However, whilst this concept is attractive, it must be validated to assess the reliability of the predictions of λmax from opsin amino acid sequences. In this paper, we have obtained partial sequences covering three of the known spectral tuning sites in the SWS1 opsin and predicted λmax of all bird species for which the spectral absorbance has been measured using microspectrophotometry. Our results validate the use of molecular data from genomic DNA to predict the gross differences in λmax between the violet- and ultraviolet-sensitive subtypes of SWS1 opsin. Additionally, we demonstrate that a bird, the bobolink Dolichonyx oryzivorus L., can have more than one SWS1 visual pigment in its retina.

  • 1191748. Ödeen, Anders
    et al.
    Håstad, Olle
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Animal Ecology.
    Complex Distribution of Avian Color Vision Systems Revealed by Sequencing the SWS1 Opsin from Total DNA2003In: Molecular Biology and Evolution, ISSN 0737-4038, Vol. 20, no 6, p. 855–861-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1191749.
    Ödeen, Anders
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology.
    Håstad, Olle
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology.
    Complex distribution of avian color vision systems revealed by sequencing the SWS1 opsin from total DNA2003In: Molecular Biology and Evolution, ISSN 0737-4038, Vol. 20, no 6, p. 855-861Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To gain insights into the evolution and ecology of visually acute animals such as birds, biologists often need to understand how these animals perceive colors. This poses a problem, since the human eye is of a different design than that of most other anim

  • 1191750.
    Ödeen, Anders
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Håstad, Olle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Evolutionary Organism Biology.
    New Primers for the Avian SWS1 Pigment Opsin Gene Reveal New Amino Acid Configurations in Spectral Sensitivity Tuning Sites2009In: Journal of Heredity, ISSN 0022-1503, E-ISSN 1465-7333, Vol. 100, no 6, p. 784-789Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, polymerase chain reaction-based estimates of visual pigment spectral tuning from genomic DNA have offered an alternative to the authoritative but rather slow and complicated retinal microspectrophotometry method. The genomic DNA method involves sequencing a fragment of the short-wavelength sensitive pigment, type 1 (SWS1) opsin gene covering amino acid positions 86, 90, and 93 and has been utilized in a wide range of avian species. Other key tuning sites have been proposed but not sequenced in the genomic DNA-based spectral sensitivity studies. We have designed 5 new primers for sequencing gene fragments of the ultraviolet-/violet-tuned SWS1 opsin gene containing the first, second and third, and sixth and seventh α-helical transmembrane regions and the spectral tuning sites 49, 86, 90, 93, 116, 118 and 298. Testing these primers on various bird species reveals some novel combinations of amino acid residues at the tuning sites. The potential significance of these on spectral tuning is discussed.

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