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  • 1191501.
    Öberg, Lisa
    Södertörn University.
    Svenska diplomater – rekrytering, utbildning och sätt att vara: Avhandlingsrecension: Nevra Biltekin, Servants of diplomacy: The making of Swedish diplomats, 1905–1995 (Stockholm: Department of History, Stockholm University, 2016). 225 s.2017In: Historisk Tidskrift (S), ISSN 0345-469X, Vol. 137, no 3, p. 524-529Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 1191502.
    Öberg, Lisa
    Södertörn University, Avdelning 3, History.
    Så sannt mig Gud hjelpe til lif och själ: Om läkareden i Sverige förr och nu2000In: Människan i historien och samtiden: festskrift till Alf W Johansson, Stockholm: Hjalmarson & Högberg , 2000, p. 289-309Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 1191503.
    Öberg, Lisa
    Södertörn University, Institutionen för medier, konst och filosofi.
    Tandläkarna, tandrötan och den unga välfärdsstaten: Recension av Christer Lindblom: I väntan på tandvård : hur tandrötan blev politik2005In: Historisk Tidskrift (S), ISSN 0345-469X, Vol. 3, p. 492-499Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 1191504.
    Öberg, Lisa
    Södertörn University, Lärarutbildningen.
    The visible and the non-visible: underwear in an inventory of female working-class clothing, 1860-18702012In: Nordic Fashion Studies / [ed] Peter McNeil, Louise Wallenberg, Stockholm: Axl Books, 2012, p. 225-243Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The visible and the non-visible. An inventory of clothes belonging to deceased patients of the Stockholm maternity hospital 1860-1870.

     

    In mid19th century Stockholm pregnant women who lacked a home of their own usually gave birth at state-owned “Allmänna barnbördshuset”, free of cost. As with most maternity hospitals in Europe in the 1860s this public lying-in hospital had a towering mortality rate, mainly caused by outbreaks of puerperal fever.

    When patients died, their belongings were returned to their relatives. If not claimed within three months, the rest was sent off to the state orphanage to be distributed among the wet-nurses and girls of that establishment. An inventory used for this distribution, compiled between 1860 and 1870, provides unique information about the dress of working-class city women in the wake of the industrial society.

    The inventory shows that the publicly visible dress usually consisted of a skirt, with a jacket, combined with shawls and scarves depending on the season. Dresses were rare compared to skirts. The low number of hats indicates that working-class city women normally still stuck to the headscarf. Among a small number of fashion items appears the bonnet, the “beduin” (a knitted hood with frills) and the “Garibaldi-blouse” (a long shirt with wide sleeves, named after the Italian revolutionary.)     

                          Under the outer skirt women wore one or two more skirts or petticoats. In wintertime, the inner petticoat was occasionally a stubb, a quilted or knitted, tight miniskirt worn for warmth. This item appears more frequently in the inventory at the beginning of the period that at the end, indicating a gradual disappearance of the stubb. The initially small number of drawers listed increases however, suggesting that drawers were gradually replacing the stubb. Nevertheless, women did not normally wear underpants even by the end of the period.

    Joan L Severa comments in her book Dressed for the photographer: Ordinary Americans and fashion 1840-1900 the appearance of knickers in women’s dress in the 1860s in the following way: “Pantalettes seem to have been adopted by mature women by the late fifties, perhaps because of the undependability of large hoops [of the crinoline, LÖ] in certain circumstances. … Information on the wearing of this garment is scarce, however, since pantalettes were never a part of fashion discussion as they contributed nothing to the silhouette, though they are included in descriptions of sets of under-clothing” (Severa 1995 p 201). Similar findings are reported by researchers studying British women’s fashion of the same period.

    To conclude, the inventory offers evidence about the existence and the type of women’s publicly visible as well as publicly invisible clothing from 1860 to 1870, including underwear, worn in an urban, working-class context. Regarding the non-visible, a majority of the deceased women did not wear underpants, although a growing number began to do so during the period. At the same time the use of the traditional short and warm under-skirt, “stubb”, dwindled. These facts indicate a change of habits concerning below waistline underwear, taking place in Stockholm at the same time as in the United States and in Great Britain, or perhaps slightly later. At the time when visible trousers, so called Bloomers, were highly controversial and were being worn only by a limited number of avant-garde females outside Sweden, working-class women silently started to adopt the habit of wearing trousers, in the shape of drawers, under their skirts.

  • 1191505.
    Öberg, Lisa
    Södertörn University.
    Tove Paulsson Holmberg: 'Onaturlig födelse'2019In: Historisk Tidskrift (S), ISSN 0345-469X, Vol. 139, no 2, p. 381-383Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 1191506.
    Öberg, Lisa
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Treeline dynamics in short and long term perspectives: observational and historical evidence from the southern Swedish Scandes2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Treelines in high-mountain regions are constrained by heat deficiency, although the working mechanisms are still not entirely understood. Observational and paleoecological studies on treeline performance may contribute to increased understanding of the treeline phenomenon in general. The present thesis addresses elevational shifts of alpine treelines in the Swedish Scandes. By various analytical tools, the studies embrace widely different temporal scales.

    The concept treeline refers to the elevation (m a.s.l.) at a specific site of the upper individual tree of a certain tree species, at least 2 m tall. All the principal tree species in the Scandes are concerned, i.e. mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii), Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris).

    Paper I deals with regional treeline dynamics at more than 100 sites over the past 100 years. Concurrent with temperature rise by c. 1.4 °C over the same period, maximum treeline advances of all species amount to about 200 m. Thus, under ideal conditions, treelines respond in close equilibrium with air temperature evolution. However, over most parts of the landscape, treeline upshifts have been much smaller than 200 m, which relates to the combined action of geomorphology, wind, snow distribution and soil depth. After 1975, the birch has lost its role as the most rapidly advancing tree species, being superseded by pine and spruce.

    Paper II is a short-term (2005/2007-2010/2011) study of mountain birch treeline performance along a regional maritimity-continentality gradient. Upshift by 3.0 yr-1 in the maritime part of the gradient contrasts to retreat by 0.4 m yr-1 in the continental part. In the latter area, earlier and more complete melting of late-lying snow patches has seemingly progressed to a state when soil drought sets back the vigour of existing birches and precludes sexual regeneration and upslope advance of the treeline. In the maritime area, extensive and deep snow packs still exist above the treeline and constrain its position, although some release is taking place in the current warm climate.

    Paper III explores treeline change by phenotypic transformation of old-established stunted and prostrate spruce individuals (krummholz) growing high above the treeline and is based on analyses of radiocarbon-dated megafossils, preserved in the soil underneath clonal groups of spruce. Living spruce clones, which in some cases may date back to the early Holocene (9500 cal. yr BP), suggests that spruce immigrated from “cryptic” ice age refugia much closer to Scandinavia than conventionally thought. As the krummholz form presupposes open and windy habitats, it is inferred that permanently open spots prevailed in the high-mountain landscape even during periods when treelines in general were much higher than today.

    Paper IV reports radiocarbon dates of wood samples, retrieved from newly exposed glacier forefields at three main sites, located high above the modern treelines and embracing the entire Swedish Scandes. It appears that pine colonized early emerging nunataks already during the Late Glacial. Around 9600-9500 cal. yr BP a first massive wave of tree establishment, birch and pine, took place in “empty” glacier cirques. Both species grew 400-600 m above their present day treeline position and accordingly, the summer temperatures may have been 3.5 °C warmer than present (uncorrected for land uplift). During the entire interval 9600 to 4400 cal. yr BP, birch prospered 100-150 m above the uppermost pines. In response to Neoglacial cooling, treelines of both birch and pine descended until their final disappearance from the record 4400 and 5900 cal. yr BP, respectively. Thereafter, these habitats experienced increased snow accumulation and glacier inception.

  • 1191507.
    Öberg, Lisa
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Treeline dynamics in short and long term perspectives: observational and historical evidence from the southern Swedish Scandes2010Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Against the background of past, recent and future climate change, the present thesis addresses elevational shifts of alpine treelines in the Swedish Scandes. By definition, treeline refers to the elevation (m a.s.l.) at a specific site of the upper trees of a specific tree species, at least 2 m tall.

    Based on historical records, the first part of the thesis reports and analyzes the magnitude of treeline displacements for the main trees species (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii, Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris) since the early 20th century. The study covered a large and heterogeneous region and more than 100 sites. Concurrent with temperature rise by c. 1.4 °C over the past century, maximum treeline advances of all species amount to about 200 m. That is virtually what should be predicted from the recorded temperature change over the same period of time. Thus, it appears that under ideal conditions, treelines respond in close equilibrium with air temperature evolution. However, over most parts of the landscape, conditions are not that ideal and treeline upshifts have therefore been much smaller. The main reason for that discrepancy was found to be topoclimatic constraints, i.e. the combined action of geomorphology, wind, snow distribution, soil depth, etc., which over large parts of the alpine landscape preclude treelines to reach their potential thermal limit.

    Recorded treeline advance by maximum 200 m or so over the past century emerges as a truly anomalous event in late Holocene vegetation history.

    The second part of the thesis is focused more on long-term changes of treelines and one specific and prevalent mechanism of treeline change. The first part of the thesis revealed that for Picea and Betula, treeline shift was accomplished largely by phenotypic transformation of old-established stunted and prostrate individuals (krummholz) growing high above the treeline. In obvious response to climate warming over the past century, such individuals have transformed into erect tree form, whereby the treeline (as defined here) has risen. As a means for deeper understanding of this mode of positional treeline change, extant clonal spruces, growing around the treeline, were radiocarbon dated from megafossil remains preserved in the soil underneath their canopies. It turned out that Picea abies in particular may attain almost eternal life due to its capability for vegetative reproduction and phenotypic plasticity. Some living clones were in fact inferred to have existed already 9500 years ago, and have thus persisted at the same spot throughout almost the entire Holocene. This contrasts with other tree species, which have left no living relicts from the early Holocene, when they actually grew equally high as the spruce. Thereafter they retracted by more than 300 m in elevation supporting that also on that temporal scale, treelines are highly responsive to climate change.

    The early appearance of Picea in the Scandes, suggests that Picea “hibernated” the last glacial phase much closer to Scandinavia than earlier thought. It has also immigrated to northern Sweden much earlier than the old-established wisdom.

    The experiences gained in this thesis should constitute essential components of any model striving to the project landscape ecological consequences of possible future climate shifts.

  • 1191508.
    Öberg, Lisa
    Mittuniversitetet, Avdelningen för naturvetenskap.
    Treeline dynamics in short and long term perspectives: observational and historical evidence from the southern Swedish Scandes2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Treelines in high-mountain regions are constrained by heat deficiency, although the working mechanisms are still not entirely understood. Observational and paleoecological studies on treeline performance may contribute to increased understanding of the treeline phenomenon in general. The present thesis addresses elevational shifts of alpine treelines in the Swedish Scandes. By various analytical tools, the studies embrace widely different temporal scales.

    The concept treeline refers to the elevation (m a.s.l.) at a specific site of the upper individual tree of a certain tree species, at least 2 m tall. All the principal tree species in the Scandes are concerned, i.e. mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii), Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris).

    Paper I deals with regional treeline dynamics at more than 100 sites over the past 100 years. Concurrent with temperature rise by c. 1.4 °C over the same period, maximum treeline advances of all species amount to about 200 m. Thus, under ideal conditions, treelines respond in close equilibrium with air temperature evolution. However, over most parts of the landscape, treeline upshifts have been much smaller than 200 m, which relates to the combined action of geomorphology, wind, snow distribution and soil depth. After 1975, the birch has lost its role as the most rapidly advancing tree species, being superseded by pine and spruce.

    Paper II is a short-term (2005/2007-2010/2011) study of mountain birch treeline performance along a regional maritimity-continentality gradient. Upshift by 3.0 yr-1 in the maritime part of the gradient contrasts to retreat by 0.4 m yr-1 in the continental part. In the latter area, earlier and more complete melting of late-lying snow patches has seemingly progressed to a state when soil drought sets back the vigour of existing birches and precludes sexual regeneration and upslope advance of the treeline. In the maritime area, extensive and deep snow packs still exist above the treeline and constrain its position, although some release is taking place in the current warm climate.

    Paper III explores treeline change by phenotypic transformation of old-established stunted and prostrate spruce individuals (krummholz) growing high above the treeline and is based on analyses of radiocarbon-dated megafossils, preserved in the soil underneath clonal groups of spruce. Living spruce clones, which in some cases may date back to the early Holocene (9500 cal. yr BP), suggests that spruce immigrated from “cryptic” ice age refugia much closer to Scandinavia than conventionally thought. As the krummholz form presupposes open and windy habitats, it is inferred that permanently open spots prevailed in the high-mountain landscape even during periods when treelines in general were much higher than today.

    Paper IV reports radiocarbon dates of wood samples, retrieved from newly exposed glacier forefields at three main sites, located high above the modern treelines and embracing the entire Swedish Scandes. It appears that pine colonized early emerging nunataks already during the Late Glacial. Around 9600-9500 cal. yr BP a first massive wave of tree establishment, birch and pine, took place in “empty” glacier cirques. Both species grew 400-600 m above their present day treeline position and accordingly, the summer temperatures may have been 3.5 °C warmer than present (uncorrected for land uplift). During the entire interval 9600 to 4400 cal. yr BP, birch prospered 100-150 m above the uppermost pines. In response to Neoglacial cooling, treelines of both birch and pine descended until their final disappearance from the record 4400 and 5900 cal. yr BP, respectively. Thereafter, these habitats experienced increased snow accumulation and glacier inception.

  • 1191509.
    Öberg, Lisa
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Trädgränsdynamik på Sånfjället2002In: Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0039-646X, Vol. 96, no 3/4, p. 177-185Article in journal (Other scientific)
  • 1191510. Öberg, Lisa
    Trädgränsen som indikator för ekologiska klimateffekter i fjällen2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Trädgränsprojektet är ett samprojekt mellan Länsstyrelserna i Jämtlands län och Dalarnas län med professor Leif Kullman, institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap, Umeå universitet som initiativtagare. Projektet syftar till att utveckla en metod för miljöövervakning med den alpina trädgränsen som indikator för klimateffekter i Jämtlands- och Dalafjällen. Metoden baseras på Leif Kullmans data över trädgränsens läge och förändring, som bygger på Harry Smiths data från åren kring 1915. Dessa data ställs härigenom till Länsstyrelsens förfogande för nyttjande inom den regionala miljöövervakningsverksamheten. Länsstyrelsen har härigenom blivit förvaltare av unika data, ovärderliga för miljöövervakning av ekologiska klimateffekter i fjällen, där långa tidsserier är av största betydelse för förutsägelser av klimatets påverkan på fjällen i ett längre perspektiv. De alpina trädgränserna är särskilt viktiga då det gäller att upptäcka förändringar i fjällandskapet och för att förstå de klimatberoende ekologiska processer som är av betydelse för den biologiska mångfalden. Detta är särskilt angeläget inför den klimatförändring som förväntas under innevarande århundrade. Överförandet av äldre data från Leif Kullmans databas (anteckningsböcker och fotografier) har inte varit helt okomplicerat och det har inneburit avsevärt större och mer tålamodskrävande arbete än det förhållandevis enkla förfarandet vid överförandet av datafiler från en dator till en annan. Ett särskilt tack riktas därför till Leif Kullman, som förutom en betydande arbetsinsats och överlåtelse av ovärderliga data, dessutom bidragit med värdefulla kommentarer och synpunkter som i hög grad förbättrat den slutgiltiga rapporten. Tack också till Ingemar Näslund, Lars Hedlund och Per-Erik Sandberg för konstruktiva synpunkter samt till Marcus Flarup, SMHI för tillhandahållande av klimatdata.

  • 1191511.
    Öberg, Lisa
    Executive, Länstyrelserna, länsstyrelsen, lst, Länsstyrelsen Jämtlands län.
    Trädgränsen som indikator för ekologiska klimateffekter i fjällen2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    SAMMANFATTNING

    Kunskap om trädens svar på dokumenterade klimatändringar ger indikationer om var och med

    vilken frekvens framtida miljöövervakningsinsatser beträffande trädgränsvegetationen bör

    koncentreras. Som ett viktigt komplement till den regionala trädgränsövervakningen och för

    att ge en totalbild av klimatets effekter på hela ekosystemet föreslås även ett objekt lämpligt

    för detaljerad strikt lokal övervakning (

    monitoring) av träd- och fältskiktsvegetationen. På så

    sätt skapas en mer fördjupad förståelse av de ekologiska mekanismer som orsakar de

    förändringar som dokumenteras i fjällandskapet.

    Omfattande landskapsekologiska förändringar, bl.a. stigande artgränser och förändrade

    utbredningsmönster för olika växtarter pågår idag i Jämtlands- och Dalafjällen. Den

    klimatuppvärmning som konstaterats under 1900-talet och fram till idag framstår som den

    främsta anledningen till fjällandskapets pågående omvandling. Trädgränserna för fjällbjörk,

    gran och tall har avancerat inom hela det undersökta området, både fenotypiskt (tillväxt) och

    genotypiskt (nyetablering). Trenden är tydlig med vissa regionala och artspecifika skillnader.

    Förändringar av trädgränsens läge har tidigare visat sig indikera även förskjutningar av andra

    arters utbredningsgränser när klimatet och andra geoekologiska förutsättningar som t.ex.

    snöförhållanden, vegetationsperiodens längd och markfuktighet förändras. Ett viktigt resultat

    av projektet är att trädgränsen svarar på klimatets förändring direkt och utan nämnvärt

    dröjsmål (jfr. Kullman 2007, in press). Detta understryker dess styrka och användbarhet som

    miljöövervakningsindikator för klimatändringars ekologiska effekter på vegetationen i fjällen.

    Trädgränsens dynamik har också ett stort pedagogiskt värde, eftersom den är lätt identifierbar

    och förändringar av trädgränsens läge i fjällandskapet är lätta att förstå och visualisera.

  • 1191512.
    Öberg, Lisa
    Executive, Länstyrelserna, länsstyrelsen, lst, Länsstyrelsen Jämtlands län.
    Trädgränsen som indikator för ekologiska klimateffekter i fjällen2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    SAMMANFATTNING

    Kunskap om trädens svar på dokumenterade klimatändringar ger indikationer om var och med

    vilken frekvens framtida miljöövervakningsinsatser beträffande trädgränsvegetationen bör

    koncentreras. Som ett viktigt komplement till den regionala trädgränsövervakningen och för

    att ge en totalbild av klimatets effekter på hela ekosystemet föreslås även ett objekt lämpligt

    för detaljerad strikt lokal övervakning (

    monitoring) av träd- och fältskiktsvegetationen. På så

    sätt skapas en mer fördjupad förståelse av de ekologiska mekanismer som orsakar de

    förändringar som dokumenteras i fjällandskapet.

    Omfattande landskapsekologiska förändringar, bl.a. stigande artgränser och förändrade

    utbredningsmönster för olika växtarter pågår idag i Jämtlands- och Dalafjällen. Den

    klimatuppvärmning som konstaterats under 1900-talet och fram till idag framstår som den

    främsta anledningen till fjällandskapets pågående omvandling. Trädgränserna för fjällbjörk,

    gran och tall har avancerat inom hela det undersökta området, både fenotypiskt (tillväxt) och

    genotypiskt (nyetablering). Trenden är tydlig med vissa regionala och artspecifika skillnader.

    Förändringar av trädgränsens läge har tidigare visat sig indikera även förskjutningar av andra

    arters utbredningsgränser när klimatet och andra geoekologiska förutsättningar som t.ex.

    snöförhållanden, vegetationsperiodens längd och markfuktighet förändras. Ett viktigt resultat

    av projektet är att trädgränsen svarar på klimatets förändring direkt och utan nämnvärt

    dröjsmål (jfr. Kullman 2007, in press). Detta understryker dess styrka och användbarhet som

    miljöövervakningsindikator för klimatändringars ekologiska effekter på vegetationen i fjällen.

    Trädgränsens dynamik har också ett stort pedagogiskt värde, eftersom den är lätt identifierbar

    och förändringar av trädgränsens läge i fjällandskapet är lätta att förstå och visualisera.

     

  • 1191513.
    Öberg, Lisa
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Trädgränsen som indikator för ekologiska klimateffekter i fjällen: En metodstudie för långsiktig miljöövvervakning.2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kunskap om trädens svar på dokumenterade klimatändringar ger indikationer om var och med vilken frekvens framtida miljöövervakningsinsatser beträffande trädgränsvegetationen bör koncentreras. Som ett viktigt komplement till den regionala trädgränsövervakningen och för att ge en totalbild av klimatets effekter på hela ekosystemet föreslås även ett objekt lämpligt för detaljerad strikt lokal övervakning (monitoring) av träd- och fältskiktsvegetationen. På så sätt skapas en mer fördjupad förståelse av de ekologiska mekanismer som orsakar de förändringar som dokumenteras i fjällandskapet. Omfattande landskapsekologiska förändringar, bl.a. stigande artgränser och förändrade utbredningsmönster för olika växtarter pågår idag i Jämtlands- och Dalafjällen. Den klimatuppvärmning som konstaterats under 1900-talet och fram till idag framstår som den främsta anledningen till fjällandskapets pågående omvandling. Trädgränserna för fjällbjörk, gran och tall har avancerat inom hela det undersökta området, både fenotypiskt (tillväxt) och genotypiskt (nyetablering). Trenden är tydlig med vissa regionala och artspecifika skillnader. Förändringar av trädgränsens läge har tidigare visat sig indikera även förskjutningar av andra arters utbredningsgränser när klimatet och andra geoekologiska förutsättningar som t.ex. snöförhållanden, vegetationsperiodens längd och markfuktighet förändras. Ett viktigt resultatav projektet är att trädgränsen svarar på klimatets förändring direkt och utan nämnvärt dröjsmål (jfr. Kullman 2007, in press). Detta understryker dess styrka och användbarhet som miljöövervakningsindikator för klimatändringars ekologiska effekter på vegetationen i fjällen. Trädgränsens dynamik har också ett stort pedagogiskt värde, eftersom den är lätt identifierbar och förändringar av trädgränsens läge i fjällandskapet är lätta att förstå och visualisera.

  • 1191514.
    Öberg, Lisa
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Trädgränsprojektet - lägesrapport 20062007Report (Other scientific)
  • 1191515.
    Öberg, Lisa
    Executive, Länstyrelserna, länsstyrelsen, lst, Länsstyrelsen Jämtlands län.
    Trädgränsprojektet: Lägesrapport 20062006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Sammanställningen av data från projektets första del, där merparten av lokalerna är belägna i Jämtlands län, visar att den största förändringen av björkens trädgräns ägde rum mellan 1915 och 1975 (Figur 5-6). Ett exempel på snabb tillväxt under 1900-talets senare del utgör den idag trädgränsbildande unga björken i Hårdeggens norra sluttning (Figur 7). Även i Molnets SSE-sluttning har björkens trädgräns flyttats upp mest under perioden 1975-2006 (Figur 8). I Brattriets sydvästra sluttning finns den trädformiga björk som bildar den högsta (hittills kända och dokumenterade) trädgränsen i Sverige (Figur 9).

    Även för granens trädgräns var altitudförändringen något större mellan 1915 och 1975 (Figur 10-11 respektive 14-15) jämfört med 1975-2006. I Lill-Skarvens SE-sluttning (Figur 12) höjdes emellertid granens trädgräns 165 m mellan 1975 och 2006, vilket är den allra snabbaste förändringen i denna delstudie. Granens trädgräns i Nipfjällets sydvästra sluttning (Figur 13) flyttades upp 26 m under 1900-talets senare del jämfört med 20 m mellan 1915 och 1975.

    Största altitudförändringen för tallens trädgräns ägde rum 1975-2006 (Figur 14-15). Den allra största höjningen har skett i Molnets SSE-sluttning med 128 m under perioden 1915-2006 (Figur 16). Här höjdes emellertid trädgränsen mest mellan 1915 och 1975 (105 respektive 23 m). Det kan jämföras med tallens trädgräns i Hårdeggens N-sluttning (Figur 17) där förändringen endast var 5 m mellan 1915 och 1975 och helt oförändrad mellan 1975 och 2006.

    De högsta trädgränserna för björk (1137 m ö.h.), gran (1029 m ö.h.) och tall (1044 m ö.h.) har uppmätts på Brattriet (SW) i västra Härjedalen (Figur 18). Här går också tallens trädgräns högre än granens. Detta förhållande tenderar att bli vanligare mot söder, där klimatet får en ökad grad av kontinentalitet. Samtliga trädgränser stiger mot söder, men allra tydligast är detta för tallen (Figur 19).

    Stor-Skarvens ESE-sluttning och Hårdeggens NW-sluttning är de enda lokaler där trädgränserna för samtliga arter (björk, gran och tall) har höjts under båda mätperioderna (Figur 20-22). I de undersökta objekten i Dalarna, med undantag av Molnets SSE-sluttning, har förändringarna varit relativt små jämfört med övriga delar av undersökningsområdet.

    De största enskilda uppmätta trädgränshöjningarna för respektive art är 190 m för björk på Brattriet SW (Figur 9) mellan 1915 och 2006, d.v.s. 2,3 m/år och för gran i Lill-Skarvens SE-sluttning (Figur 12) mellan 1975 och 2006, d.v.s. 5,3 m /år. Tallens trädgräns uppvisade den största förändringen med 165 m under perioden 1975-2006, d.v.s. 3,7 m /år, i Lill-Skarvens SSE-sluttning.

  • 1191516.
    Öberg, Lisa
    Södertörn University, Avdelning 3, History.
    Varför svär inte svenska läkare ed?2001In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 98, no 37, p. 3935-3937Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1191517.
    Öberg, Lisa
    Södertörn University, Institutionen för medier, konst och filosofi.
    Vår yttre person: Dräkt och kropp i sjuksköterskeyrket 1850-19502005In: Iklädd identitet: historiska studier av kropp och kläder / [ed] Madeleine Hurd, Tom Olsson, Lisa Öberg, Stockholm: Carlsson , 2005, p. 126-162Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 1191518.
    Öberg, Lisa
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, History. Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Teacher Education.
    With an eye to the future2013In: 300 years in the service of life: The Swedish association of midwives / [ed] Margareta Rehn, Donald Boström, Stockholm: Svenska barnmorskeförbundet , 2013, 1, p. 61-64Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 1191519.
    Öberg, Lisa
    et al.
    Södertörn University College, Avdelning 3, History.
    Danielsson, Maria
    Tema medicinsk vetenskap2002Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 1191520.
    Öberg, Lisa
    et al.
    Södertörn University, Avdelning 1, Centre for Studies in Practical Knowledge.
    Hirdman, YvonneMisgeld, KlausWallensteen, Peter
    Tema Alva Myrdals frågor till vår tid2003Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 1191521.
    Öberg, Lisa
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Kullman, L.
    Fjällvärld i förvandling - klimatförändringens effekter på fjällens växtliv2006In: Jämten, Östersund: Jamtli förlag , 2006, p. 83-91Chapter in book (Other scientific)
  • 1191522.
    Öberg, Lisa
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Kullman, Leif
    Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap, Umeå universitet.
    Ancient subalpine clonal spruces (Picea abies) – sources of postglacial vegetation history in the Swedish Scandes2011In: Arctic, ISSN 0004-0843, E-ISSN 1923-1245, Vol. 64, no 2, p. 183-196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study addresses the long-standing issue of postglacial immigration of Picea abies (Norway spruce) into Scandinavia. Methodologically, the main focus is on megafossil tree remains (wood and cones) of spruce and other species, retrieved from the treeline ecotone (Swedish Scandes), as a tool for vegetation reconstruction. Radiocarbon dating of megafossils, preserved in the soil underneath layering clonal groups of Picea abies, provide the core data. Living spruce clones, with in some cases likely continuity back to the early Holocene (9500 cal. yr BP onwards), were found at high-elevations. First postglacial arrival to the Swedish Scandes at this stage concurs with previous megafossil inferences. This is several millennia earlier than inferred from pollen data and very soon after regional deglaciation. Persistence of some individual Picea clones since the early Holocene thermal optimum and up to the present is indicative of permanently open or semi-open spots in the high-mountain landscape, also at times when treelines in general were much higher than present. Initially, Picea clones appear to have existed in a regional no-analogue vegetation matrix of widely scattered pine (Pinus sylvestris), mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii), Siberian larch (Larix sibirica) and thermophilic broadleaved deciduous species. In response to subsequent neoglacial cooling, the alpine character of the landscape has been enhanced through a lowered pine treeline and disappearance of larch and thermophiles. Spruces, which escaped fire and other calamities, endured due to their inherent phenotypic plasticity. Increasing climatic harshness throughout the Holocene conserved them as crippled krummholz, protected from winter stress by almost complete snow coverage. Appearance of Picea abies exclusively in the west, shortly after the deglaciation, could suggest that it has immigrated from “cryptic” ice age refugia much closer to Scandinavia than conventionally thought.

  • 1191523.
    Öberg, Lisa
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Kullman, Leif
    Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap, Umeå universitet.
    Contrasting short-term performance of mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii) treeline along a latitudinal continentality-maritimity gradient in the southern Swedish Scandes2012In: Fennia, ISSN 0015-0010, Vol. 190, no 1, p. 19-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Positional treeline shift is a fundamental aspect and indicator of high-mountain vegetation response to climate change. This study analyses treeline performance during the period 2005/2007 -2010/2011 in the Swedish Scandes. Focus is on mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii) along a regional climatic maritimity-continentality gradient. Treeline upshift by 3.0 yr-1 in the maritime part differed significantly from retreat by 0.4 m yr-1 in the continental part of the transect. This discrepancy is discussed in terms of differential warming-induced snow cover phenology patterns and their influence on soil moisture conditions. In the continental area, earlier and more complete melting of prior relatively rare late-lying snow patches, even high above the treeline, has progressed to a state when melt water irrigation ceases. As a consequence, soil drought sets back the vigor of existing birches and precludes sexual regeneration and upslope advance of the treeline. In the maritime area, extensive and deep snow packs still exist above the treeline and constrain its position, although some release is taking place in the current warm climate. Thereby, the birch treeline expands upslope as the alpine snow patches shrink, but continue to provide sufficient melt water throughout the summer. Treeline rise appears to have been based primarily on seed regeneration over the past few decades. This is a novelty, since prior (1915-2007) treeline advance was accomplished mainly by in situ shifts in growth form of relict krummholz birches, in some cases millennial-old, prevailing above the treeline. By the snow phenology mechanism, birch can benefit from climate warming in the maritime region, which contrasts with the situation in the continental region. This discrepancy should be accounted for in projective models. In a hypothetical case of sustained warming, the subalpine birch forest belt may expand less extensively than often assumed, although advance may continue for some time in snow rich maritime areas.

  • 1191524.
    Öberg, Lisa
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Kullman, Leif
    Umeå University, Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, SE 90187 Umeå.
    Recent Glacier Recession – a New Source of Postglacial Treeline and Climate History in the Swedish Scandes2012In: Landscape Online, ISSN 1865-1542, E-ISSN 1865-1542, Vol. 26, p. 1-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate warming during the past century has imposed recession of glaciers and perennial snow/ice patches along the entire Swedish Scandes. On the newly exposed forefields, subfossil wood remnants are being outwashed from beneath ice and snow bodies. In Scandinavia, this kind of detrital wood is a previously unused source of postglacial vegetation and climate history. The present study reports radiocarbon dates of a set of 78 wood samples, retrieved from three main sites, high above modern treelines and stretching along the Swedish Scandes. In accord with previous studies, pine (Pinus sylvestris) colonized early emerging nunataks already during the Late Glacial. Around 9600-9500 cal. yr BP a first massive wave of tree establishment, birch and pine, took place in "empty" glacier cirques. Both species grew 400-600 m above their present-ay treeline position and the summer temperatures may have been 3.5 °C warmer than present. In respons to Neoglacial cooling, treelines of both birch and pine descended until their final disappearance from the record 4400 and 5900 cal. yr BP, respectively. During the entire interval 9600 to 4400 cal. yr BP, birch prospered in a 100-150 broad belt above the uppermost pines. The recent emergence of tree remnants in the current habitats relates to the contemporary episode of climate warming, possibly unprecedented for several past millennia. It is inferred, by an anology with the past, that in a future scenario with summers 3.5 ° warmer than present, the birch treeline may rise by 600 m or so.

  • 1191525.
    Öberg, Lisa
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för tillämpad naturvetenskap och design.
    Kullman, Leif
    Umeå University, Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, SE 90187 Umeå.
    Recent Glacier Recession – a New Source of Postglacial Treeline and Climate History in the Swedish Scandes2012In: Landscape Online, ISSN 1865-1542, E-ISSN 1865-1542, Vol. 26, p. 1-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate warming during the past century has imposed recession of glaciers and perennial snow/ice patches along the entire Swedish Scandes. On the newly exposed forefields, subfossil wood remnants are being outwashed from beneath ice and snow bodies. In Scandinavia, this kind of detrital wood is a previously unused source of postglacial vegetation and climate history. The present study reports radiocarbon dates of a set of 78 wood samples, retrieved from three main sites, high above modern treelines and stretching along the Swedish Scandes. In accord with previous studies, pine (Pinus sylvestris) colonized early emerging nunataks already during the Late Glacial. Around 9600-9500 cal. yr BP a first massive wave of tree establishment, birch and pine, took place in "empty" glacier cirques. Both species grew 400-600 m above their present-ay treeline position and the summer temperatures may have been 3.5 °C warmer than present. In respons to Neoglacial cooling, treelines of both birch and pine descended until their final disappearance from the record 4400 and 5900 cal. yr BP, respectively. During the entire interval 9600 to 4400 cal. yr BP, birch prospered in a 100-150 broad belt above the uppermost pines. The recent emergence of tree remnants in the current habitats relates to the contemporary episode of climate warming, possibly unprecedented for several past millennia. It is inferred, by an anology with the past, that in a future scenario with summers 3.5 ° warmer than present, the birch treeline may rise by 600 m or so.

  • 1191526.
    Öberg, Louise
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Den stora utmaningen: Gymnasielärares uppfattning och upplevelse av arbetet med extra anpassning och särskilt stöd2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Trots de goda intentioner som finns i skolans styrdokument dras gymnasieskolan med en rad problemsom berör elever i behov av stöd. Problem som till exempel att eleven själv förväntas ta ansvar för sina studier, otydligheter i regelverket kring extra anpassningar och särskilt stöd samt lärarens inställning till elever i behov av stöd, gör att skolan har svårt att vara en skola för alla. Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka gymnasielärares uppfattning och upplevelse av att genomföra extra anpassningar och särskilt stöd. Genom semistrukturerade intervjuer med åtta gymnasielärare från sex olika skolor har datamaterial samlats in som sedan analyserats med hjälp av tematisk analys. I analysen synliggörs tre teman, identifiering av elever i behov av stöd, försvårande faktorer i arbetet med extra anpassningar och särskilt stöd samt främjande faktorer i arbetet med extra anpassningar och särskilt stöd. I resultatet framkommer att arbetet med extra anpassningar och särskilt stöd ses som komplext. Det är varje lärares uppdrag att anpassa sin undervisning så att den möter alla elevers olika behov men det är förknippat med svårigheter. De största hindren är enligt lärarna att det är för stora grupper och att tiden inte räcker till för att både planera och utföra extra anpassningar och särskilt stöd. Det blir tydligt att bland de lärare som anser att de inte får tillräckliga förutsättningar för arbetet med extra anpassningar och särskilt stöd så saknas ett nära samarbete med skolans ledning. Resultatet visar också på vilka faktorer som lärarna upplever som förutsättningar för att lyckas med uppdraget. Där framhålls samarbete med elevens mentor, kollegor och elevhälsa som den allra viktigaste framgångsfaktorn föratt lyckas med extra anpassningar och särskilt stöd. De resultat som framkommer får betydelse för det specialpedagogiska yrket då det belyser både hinder och förutsättningar från lärarens perspektiv. Resultatet tyder också på att ett systematiskt arbete kring extra anpassning och särskilt stöd motverkar den osäkerhet många oerfarna lärare känner och där har en specialpedagog en viktig roll att spela.

  • 1191527.
    Öberg, Lova
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    OMFÖRHANDLING AV MALLARNAS BETYDELSE: En analys av subjektspositionen tjej2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Mitt syfte är att undersöka de positioner som möjliggörs och utesluts för subjektspositionen tjej, genom beskrivningar av kön, kropp, genus och sexualitet. Med hjälp av diskursanalys och med en utgångspunkt i queerteori har jag analyserat mitt empiriska material, som består av semi-strukturerade intervjuer med fem tjejer som går på gymnasiet. Positionen tjej upplevs, beskrivs och omförhandlas på varierande sätt hos respondenterna. Jag har delat upp material i fyra teman; sexualitet, sammanhang och utrymme. I dessa kan man förstå omförhandlingar som sker utifrån makthierarkier såsom den heterosexuella matrisen, värdehierarkier inom heterosexualiteten och normalitet. Utifrån dessa makthierarkier kan man se hur respondenterna formar och ger innebörd till sina subjektspositioner, där de beskriver olika upplevelser av positions betydelse.

  • 1191528.
    Öberg, Lukas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Lindahl, Mikael
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Systemanalys av plattbroar: En jämförelse inom FE-modellering och balk-/platteori2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    When Eurocodes was introduced, there was a requirement where the calculations had to take into consideration whether it's a slab or beam bridge. This means that calculations had to be made with softwares including plate theory.

    The object of this study is a slab bridge with endshields. The bridge is 66.95 meters long with a 14.38-meter-wide deck made of concrete. The deck is mounted on abutments with bearings and intermediate supports where the columns are fixed to the deck.

    The purpose of this study is to investigate if bridges defined as plates can be calculated using beam theory, as well as examining different modeling techniques in an attempt to evaluate how this will affect the results.

    A model using shell elements is established in BRIGADE/Plus and compared to a model in Strip Step 3 made out of beam elements. A base-model is also created in BRIGADE/Plus and is compared to the following modeling changes:

    • Couplings between supports and the plate, “point to surface” or “point to point”.
    • The bridge is modeled without wings to study the impact of the wings.
    • The bridge is modeled without columns to study the impact of the columns.

    When comparing the values obtained from the two different software’s regarding deadweight, the results were almost identical. This indicates that Strip Step 3 is a suitable tool for verifying models made in BRIGADE/Plus. When studying the results from load-combination 6.10.b (the combination used for dimensioning) small differences can be seen between the softwares. This concludes that it may be reasonable to use Strip Step 3 for this type of bridges. However, there are major differences between the software at the traffic load which should be considered.

    In order to simplify the modeling process ties between points (nodes) should be used. However, the results obtained over the supports must be ignored due to unrealistic values. When studying the impact of wings/columns it was confirmed that a difference of 10 % appeared. Modeling without wings/columns is not more time efficient either, with that in mind wings and columns should be used when modeling.

     

    Keywords: Plate theory, Beam theory, Strip Step 3, BRIGADE/Plus, FE-modeling

  • 1191529.
    Öberg Löfstrand, Leonard
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Lagerstam, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Optimering av stämprivningstider: - En kvantitativ undersökning om stämprivningstider avbostadsbjälklag2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When casting a residential floor, formwork and shore removal is an important element. There aresome doubts in the industry about when and how to remove the shores. There are instructionsavailable but they are often outdated and difficult to interpret. As a result, they are often notfollowed. Appliances such as measuring equipment and simulation software are available but areused sparingly. To avoid accidents and to ensure that the strength of the concrete is sufficientwithout appliances, excessive time margins are used. This will most likely result in unnecessarily longshoring times.During the course of the work, the subject will be studied in detail to create a clear picture of howthe many different factors of the casted floor influence each other. The purpose is to propose asuitable time to remove the shores. This is done in order to determine if there is improvementpotential, partly to improve the working environment, but also to review the instructions of theapproach.The methods used to reach the result are:• Study of the documents describing the procedure of shoring and reshoring• Calculate the compressive strength of the concrete with the device “BI Distant”• Simulate the compressive strength of the concrete in the program Hett 11.• Interviews by experts in the industry.The results show that the shores could theoretically be removed earlier compared to when they areusually removed in practice. One reason for this is that drying times are governing during theproduction. This means that increased concrete qualities and faster curing times than those thatwere planned, were used in construction, particularly at low temperatures. The conclusion is thatthere is an improvement potential in this area. Reshoring can be done only a few days after castingunder good conditions. The advantages of this are that the number of shores can be reduced. Thisleads to reduced rents, and the accessibility for the subsequent professionals and operations can beimproved.

  • 1191530. Öberg, M
    et al.
    Andersson, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Johansson, N
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Hâkansson, H
    Multivariate modelling of polychlorinated biphenyl-induced CYP1A activity in the MH1C1 rat hepatoma cell line2001In: ATLA Alternatives to Laboratory Animals, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 291-5Article, review/survey (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 1191531. Öberg, M
    et al.
    Norén, L
    Wiberg, B
    Geoteknisk sektorsportal - nationell datainfrastruktur för tillgång till geotekniska undersökningar. Förstudie2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    (1) Behov och nytta av en geoteknisk sektorsportal; (2) Geoteknisk sektorsportal; (3) Geotekniska undersökningsresultat; (4) Redovisning av geotekniska undersökningsområden - data på översiktlig nivå; (5) Redovisning av geotekniska undersökningar - data på detaljerad nivå; (6) Slutsatser och förslag till etablering av geoteknisk sektorsportal; (7) Ordlista

  • 1191532.
    Öberg, M
    et al.
    Uppsala University, National Centre for Knowledge on Men.
    Skalkidou, Alkistis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Heimer, Gun
    Uppsala University, National Centre for Knowledge on Men.
    Family Planning Units: suitable settings for disclosure of experience of sexual violence2015In: BMC Women's Health, ISSN 1472-6874, E-ISSN 1472-6874Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1191533.
    Öberg, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Challenges to State Authority. An empirical test of a costly signaling model of ethnic conflict.2001Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 1191534.
    Öberg, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Challenges to State Authority. An empirical test of a costly signaling model of ethnic conflict.2002In: Paper presented at the 43rd Annual International Studies Association Convention, New Orleans, March 24-27, 2002, 2002Conference paper (Other scientific)
  • 1191535.
    Öberg, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Distributed stream ciphers2003Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Cryptographic operations are normally carried out by a single machine. Sometimes, however, this machine cannot be trusted completely. Threshold cryptography offers an alternative where the cryptographic operation is distributed to a group of machines in such a way that the key used in the cryptographic operation is not revealed to anyone. The tool used to achieve this is threshold secret sharing, by which a secret can be distributed among a group so that subsets (of the members of the group) that are larger than some threshold can cooperate to recover the secret, while subsets smaller than this threshold cannot.

    This thesis concerns distributed stream ciphers which is a generalisation of threshold cryptography in the sence that the suggested scheme is not restricted to the use of threshold secret sharing schemes. We describe how to do distributed decryption of a ciphertext encrypted by an additive stream cipher. The system works for any secret sharing scheme that is linear under addition.

    We present a modification of how secret sharing of sequences is done. Due to this modification we can generate shares locally using linear feedback shift registers instead of transmitting shares of each symbol in a sequence. A distributed decryption scheme where the keystream is distributed in this modified way is constructed.

  • 1191536.
    Öberg, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Ethnic Challenges to State Authority 1990-19982001In: Paper presented at the ECPR Standing Group on International Relations 4th Pan-European International Relations Conference, University of Kent, 6-10th September 2001, 2001Conference paper (Other scientific)
  • 1191537.
    Öberg, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Explaining Interethnic Cooperation1998Conference paper (Other scientific)
  • 1191538.
    Öberg, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    La cooperación y el manejo del conflicto en las sociedades masivas: El rol de las asociaciones civiles2001In: Democracia, Administración de Justicia y Resolución de Conflictos, Caracas: Tribunal de Supremo Justicia , 2001Chapter in book (Other scientific)
  • 1191539.
    Öberg, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Modeling Interethnic Relations: Sketching an Alternative to Fearon and Laitin’s Model of Interethnic Cooperation1998Conference paper (Other scientific)
  • 1191540.
    Öberg, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Non-Strategic Explanations for the Onset of Ethnopolitical Rebellion: An Analysis and Critique2000Report (Other scientific)
  • 1191541.
    Öberg, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Signaling and Self-Selection. The Escalation of Ethnic Conflict to War2003In: Paper presented at the 44th Annual International Studies Association Convention, Portland OR, February 25 to March 1, 2003., 2003Conference paper (Other scientific)
  • 1191542. Öberg, Magnus
    Simuleringsstudie av tillverkningen RBS 2000 Ericsson Radio Systems AB1996Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det här examensarbetet har haft som syfte att utvärdera den nya layouten för tillverkningen av radiobasstationen RBS 2000 (Aladdin). Den ökande tillverkningsvolymen som förväntas hos RBS 2000, har medfört ett alldeles nytt tillverkningssätt vilket i hög grad är automatiserat. En sådan grad av automatisering innebär betydande investeringar och risker, det har därför funnits extra stora krav på att systemet skall fungera problemfritt och optimalt redan från produktionsstart.

    Produktionssimulering är ett verktyg för att konstruera en logisk modell av ett verkligt tillverkningssystem och utföra experiment på denna modell. Allteftersom förståelsen för systemet ökar kan mode11ens validitet förbättras, experiment utföras och systemet optimeras.

    Studien har avgränsats till att analysera två viktiga delar av RBS 2000 produktionen: (1) bantransportören vid transceivertillverkningen samt (2) flödeslinjen för stativmonteringen. För respektive tillverkningsavsnitt har en simuleringsmodell tagits fram. Studien av de bägge systemen har därefter följt en försöksplan där kritiska parametrar identifierats och optimerats. Arbetet har haft som målsättning att uppskatta tillverkningskapacitet, identifiera problem och begränsningar samt slutligen ge rekommendationer för optimalt utnyttjande av systemen.

    1. Bantransportören vid transceivertillverkningen De empiriska resultaten från studien har identifierat det optimala antalet paletter för bantransportören samt givit förslag på åtgärder för att möjliggöra den förväntade tillverkningsvolymen på 300 transceiverenheter per arbetsdag. Simuleringsresultaten har dessutom kompletterats med ett teoretiskt avsnitt om styralgoritmer för den specifika typen av bantransportör som studerats.

    2. Flödeslinjen för stativmonteringen Eftersom stativlinjen är avsedd för produktion av flera olika modeller har två olika tillverkningsmetoder utvärderats, mixad respektive batchtillverkning. Metoderna beskrivs i ett teoriavsnitt samt empiriskt i simuleringsmodellen, där simulerings- studien styrker det teoretiska resonemanget. Empiriskt har det även kunnat konstateras att kapacitetsbegränsningen förflyttas beroende på modell samt tillverkningsstrategi. Den teoretiska referensramen såväl som den empiriska studien redovisar olika metoder för att optimera respektive tillverkningsstrategi .

    Förhoppningsvis kan arbetet ge värdefulla rekommendationer och synpunkter inför det fortsatta förbättringsarbetet samt fungera som erfararenhetsbas vid såväl företag som högskola.

  • 1191543.
    Öberg, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    The Onset of Ethnic War as a Bargaining Process: Testing a Signaling Model2002Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Most theories of ethnic conflict explain ethnic war by reference to the factors that motivate and enable ethnic groups to rebel. To rebel is to rise up against or challenge government authority; but for war to be the outcome of a challenge the government must attempt to forcefully reassert its authority.

    In this dissertation I use a signaling model to explain both why ethnic groups challenge government authority, and under what circumstances this leads to war. The model is tested on a new data set covering 653 ethnic groups and 67 challenges to government authority, 1990-1998. The data includes all ethnic groups in the Minorities at Risk data set, plus an additional 370 groups to control for potential sampling bias.

    The signaling model depicts escalation as a bargaining process. The intuition is that through a process of self-selection less resolute actors tend to drop out earlier in the game, while more resolute actors stay in. The consequences are sometimes counterintuitive.

    The findings show that smaller ethnic groups are less likely to challenge their governments than are larger groups, but when smaller groups do challenge they are more likely to end up in war. The results also show that groups scoring higher on indicators of discontent are more likely to challenge, but surprisingly these groups are not more likely to end up in war when they challenge. These and similar findings which hold across a range of specifications clearly demonstrate the selection effects implied by the signaling model.

  • 1191544.
    Öberg, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Why Rebel? Exploring some theoretical and empirical implications of a signaling model of rebellion, with data from Sub-Saharan Africa 1989-19982000In: Paper presented at the 41st Annual International Studies Convention, Los Angeles, CA, 14-18 March, 2000., 2000Conference paper (Other scientific)
  • 1191545.
    Öberg, Magnus
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Electronics.
    Kjebon, Olle
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Electronics.
    Lourdudoss, Sebastian
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Electronics.
    Nilsson, Stefan
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Electronics.
    Bäckbom, Lena
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Electronics.
    Streubel, Klaus
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Electronics.
    Wallin, Johan
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Electronics.
    Increased modulation bandwidth up to 20 GHz of a detuned-loaded DBR laser1994In: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, ISSN 1041-1135, E-ISSN 1941-0174, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 161-163Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A small signal amplitude modulation bandwidth of 20 GHz has been obtained with a three-section tunable DBR laser fabricated with semi-insulating current blocking layers grown by hydride VPE. The modulation bandwidth and laser linewidth are strongly dependent on the position of the lasing mode relative to the Bragg reflection peak.

  • 1191546.
    Öberg, Magnus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Melander, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Quality of Government and Civil War2005Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 1191547.
    Öberg, Magnus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Melander, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Quality of Government and Civil War2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 1191548.
    Öberg, Magnus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Möller, Frida
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Wallensteen, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Early conflict prevention in ethnic conflicts, 1990-1998: a New Data Set2009In: Conflict Management and Peace Science, ISSN 0738-8942, E-ISSN 1549-9219, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 69-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    n this article we present a new dataset: the Early Conflict Prevention in Ethnic Crises dataset (ECPEC). It contains data on operational conflict prevention in 67 ethnic crises in the period 1990—98 that vary in terms of both preventive action and crisis outcomes. The new dataset thus allows for the evaluation of the effects of different types of preventive measures and also gives an overview of who takes what measures and in what conflicts. The global overview shows some interesting patterns. Preventive activity in the escalatory phase of ethnic conflict is dominated by verbal attention and facilitation. Coercive measures are rarely employed prior to the outbreak of war. Preventive action is most common in Europe and the Middle East, while crises in Asia tend to receive comparatively little attention. Most of the preventive action is focused on a relatively small number of high profile cases like those in Northern Ireland, the Balkans, Afghanistan, and Iraq. Major Powers (with the exception of China), neighboring states, the UN, and regional organizations are the most active interveners. To illustrate the usefulness of a large-N dataset on preventive measures, we also present a first analysis of the effects of different types of measures. The findings suggest that diplomatic measures and relief efforts both have conflict dampening effects, while carrots (inducements) increase the likelihood of escalation to war. Other measures show no significant effects in this sample. The findings also show that third parties are more likely to intervene in conflicts that are more prone to escalate to war. This implies that unless we account for the propensity of third parties to intervene in the more difficult cases, we risk underestimating the effects of preventive measures.

  • 1191549.
    Öberg, Magnus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Möller, Frida
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Wallensteen, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
     Early Conflict Prevention in Ethnic Crises, 1990-98: A New Dataset2009In: Conflict Management and Peace Science, ISSN 0738-8942, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 67-91Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1191550.
    Öberg, Magnus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Sollenberg, Margareta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Gathering conflict information using news resources2011In: Understanding peace research: Methods and challenges / [ed] Kristine Höglund and Magnus Öberg, London: Routledge , 2011, p. 47-73Chapter in book (Refereed)
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