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  • 1167801.
    Östling, Per-Erik
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Teleinformatics.
    On Soft Handover in Cellular Systems: Downlink Considerations1993Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 1167802.
    Östling, Per-Erik
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Performance of Linear Equalizer and Decision Feedback Equalizer in Simulcast Environment1993Report (Other academic)
  • 1167803.
    Östling, Per-Erik
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Performance of MMSE Linear Equalizer and Decision Feedback Equalizer in Single-Frequency Simulcast Environment1993In: 43rd IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference, 1993, p. 629-632Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The performance of a minimum mean-squared error linear equalizer and a decision feedback equalizer operating in a single-frequency simulcast environment with two transmitters exposed to time-dispersive slowly fading channels is discussed. Comparisons are made with a multifrequency simulcast system. The performance is given in terms of an upper bound on the expected bit-error probability for a quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) system perturbed by additive white gaussian noise (AWGN). The performance for single-frequency simulcasting is found to improve with increased delay between the simulcast signals up to several symbol durations where no more gain is achieved. Results show that the performance is improved if the available power is distributed among signals from several transmitters by means of simulcasting.

  • 1167804.
    Östling, Per-Erik
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Soft handover with Simulcasting in Cellular Systems1992Report (Other academic)
  • 1167805.
    Östling, Per-Erik
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Signals, Sensors and Systems.
    Uplink Soft Handoff in Microcellular Systems1995Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1167806.
    Östling, Peter
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Management.
    Torkaman, Nima
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Management.
    Leadership education in Sweden 2010 and its connection to current values: an institutional approach2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study is a comparative study with the purpose of connecting the Swedish leadership education with the current social values. By utilizing a historical as well as a broad theoretical perspective we wish to create a clear understanding of the current market. The study made use of both the quantitative and the qualitative research methodologies through the use of interview. Ten of the most prominent leadership educators in the Swedish business sector were interviewed to gain credible insight as they account for over half of the Swedish leadership education market. Educators were asked questions about the content of their leadership courses, their assessment of social values in the Swedish workplace, connections between the concepts in their leadership courses and Swedish social values, and how these factors influenced their leadership education. The Swedish social values influencing leadership education within the researched companies were stability, justice and equality, participation, and individuality, in congruence with the secondary data collected from extensive research. The awareness of situational-based leadership was very high and the concept was used frequently. In relation to other discussed concepts such as value based leadership and transformational leadership, situational-based leadership is the dominating concept among leadership topics. The stated current values are also very well suited with situational-based leadership. It was noted however, that situational-based leadership and its supporting models and theories aim to create self-motivated people towards self-actualization at work; and such values were seldom expressed in the secondary data describing social values. The most empowering force behind this situation was the requirements directly made by the customer and requirements carrying values of society. The results were also analyzed within an institutional theory context based on the obvious homogeneity in the results. We concluded that there was a strong sense of isomorphism and with such strong patterns in behavior we can accurately state that the field of leadership education is an institutional field. Furthermore, the study depicted a gap within Swedish leadership education, between a pervasive focus on institutional maintenance, and a growing need for flexibility and innovation in the modern international marketplace. Business leaders are struggling to balance self-actualization in the business workplace with their own and subordinate Swedish social values. After three decades the Swedish interpretation of situational-based model is still the most prominent and dominant idea.

  • 1167807.
    Östling, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    A Bayesian model for joint word alignment and part-of-speech transfer2016In: Proceedings of COLING 2016, the 26th International Conference on Computational Linguistics: Technical Papers, Osaka, Japan: Association for Computational Linguistics, 2016, p. 620-629Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current methods for word alignment require considerable amounts of parallel text to deliver accurate results, a requirement which is met only for a small minority of the world’s approximately 7,000 languages. We show that by jointly performing word alignment and annotation transfer in a novel Bayesian model, alignment accuracy can be improved for language pairs where annotations are available for only one of the languages—a finding which could facilitate the study and processing of a vast number of low-resource languages. We also present an evaluation where our method is used to perform single-source and multi-source part-of-speech transfer with 22 translations of the same text in four different languages. This allows us to quantify the considerable variation in accuracy depending on the specific source text(s) used, even with different translations into the same language.

  • 1167808.
    Östling, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    A Construction Grammar Method for Disambiguating Swedish Compounds2010In: SLTC 2010 Workshop on Compounds and Multiword Expressions, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study discusses the structure of Swedish compounds within the framework of Construction Grammar, and applies the result to Word Sense Disambiguation of compound components. A construction-based approach is shown to achieve significantly better results than a set of baselines.

  • 1167809.
    Östling, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Bayesian Models for Multilingual Word Alignment2015Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis I explore Bayesian models for word alignment, how they can be improved through joint annotation transfer, and how they can be extended to parallel texts in more than two languages. In addition to these general methodological developments, I apply the algorithms to problems from sign language research and linguistic typology.

    In the first part of the thesis, I show how Bayesian alignment models estimated with Gibbs sampling are more accurate than previous methods for a range of different languages, particularly for languages with few digital resources available—which is unfortunately the state of the vast majority of languages today. Furthermore, I explore how different variations to the models and learning algorithms affect alignment accuracy.

    Then, I show how part-of-speech annotation transfer can be performed jointly with word alignment to improve word alignment accuracy. I apply these models to help annotate the Swedish Sign Language Corpus (SSLC) with part-of-speech tags, and to investigate patterns of polysemy across the languages of the world.

    Finally, I present a model for multilingual word alignment which learns an intermediate representation of the text. This model is then used with a massively parallel corpus containing translations of the New Testament, to explore word order features in 1001 languages.

  • 1167810.
    Östling, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Bayesian Word Alignment for Massively Parallel Texts2014In: Proceedings of the 14th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics, volume 2: Short Papers, Association for Computational Linguistics, 2014, p. 123-127Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There has been a great amount of work done in the field of bitext alignment, but the problem of aligning words in massively parallel texts with hundreds or thousands of languages is largely unexplored. While the basic task is similar, there are also important differences in purpose, method and evaluation between the problems. In this work, I present a non-parametric Bayesian model that can be used for simultaneous word alignment in massively parallel corpora. This method is evaluated on a corpus containing 1144 translations of the New Testament.

  • 1167811.
    Östling, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Economic Influences on Moral Values2009In: The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, ISSN 1935-1682, Vol. 9, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper extends standard consumer theory to account for endogenous moral motivation. Building on cognitive dissonance theory, I show how moral values are affected by changes in prices and income. The key insight is that changes in prices and income that lead to higher consumption of an immoral good also affect the moral values held by the consumer so that the good is considered less immoral. A preliminary empirical analysis based on the World Values Survey is consistent with the model's predictions with respect to income.

  • 1167812.
    Östling, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Part of Speech Tagging: Shallow or Deep Learning?2018In: Northern European Journal of Language Technology (NEJLT), ISSN 2000-1533, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 1-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Deep neural networks have advanced the state of the art in numerous fields, but they generally suffer from low computational efficiency and the level of improvement compared to more efficient machine learning models is not always significant. We perform a thorough PoS tagging evaluation on the Universal Dependencies treebanks, pitting a state-of-the-art neural network approach against UDPipe and our sparse structured perceptron-based tagger, efselab. In terms of computational efficiency, efselab is three orders of magnitude faster than the neural network model, while being more accurate than either of the other systems on 47 of 65 treebanks.

  • 1167813.
    Östling, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Stagger: A modern POS tagger for Swedish2012In: / [ed] Pierre Nugues, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1167814.
    Östling, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Stagger: an Open-Source Part of Speech Tagger for Swedish2013In: Northern European Journal of Language Technology (NEJLT), ISSN 2000-1533, Vol. 3, p. 1-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work presents Stagger, a new open-source part of speech tagger for Swedish based on the Averaged Perceptron. By using the SALDO morphological lexicon and semi-supervised learning in the form of Collobert and Weston embeddings, it reaches an accuracy of 96.4% on the standard Stockholm-Umeå Corpus dataset, making it the best single part of speech tagging system reported for Swedish. Accuracy increases to 96.6% on the latest version of the corpus, where the annotation has been revised to increase consistency. Stagger is also evaluated on a new corpus of Swedish blog posts, investigating its out-of-domain performance.

  • 1167815.
    Östling, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Studying colexification through massively parallell corpora2016In: The Lexical Typology of Semantic Shifts / [ed] Päivi Juvonen, Maria Koptjevskaja-Tamm, Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 2016, p. 157-176Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Large-sample studies in lexical typology are limited by whatever lexical information is available or can be obtained for all the languages in the study. Various types of word lists, from simple Swadesh lists to large dictionaries, can be used for this purpose. Unfortunately, these resources often present only a very fragmentary view of a given language’s vocabulary. As a complement, we propose an additional source of lexical information: parallel texts. Books such as the New Testament have been translated into thousands of languages, and it is possible to automatically extract word lists from their vocabulary, which can then be applied to lexical typological studies. In particular, we focus on studying colexification using a sample of 1 001 different languages, based on 1 142 translations of the New Testament. We find that although the automatically extracted word lists contain errors, their quality can be sufficiently good to find real areal patterns, such as the ‘tree’/’fire’ colexification that is widespread in the Sahul area.

  • 1167816.
    Östling, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Svenska dialektkartor på sekunden2015In: Språkbruk, ISSN 0358-9293, Vol. 3, p. 10-13Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 1167817.
    Östling, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Varför värna den personliga integriteten?2012In: Integritet i en digital värld: sju texter om individ och internet / [ed] Isobel Hadley-Kamptz [och sex andra], Stockholm: Fores , 2012Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 1167818.
    Östling, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Word order typology through multilingual word alignment2015In: The 53rd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 7th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing of the Asian Federation of Natural Language Processing: Proceedings of the Conference, Volume 2: Short Papers, 2015, p. 205-211Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With massively parallel corpora of hundreds or thousands of translations of the same text, it is possible to automatically perform typological studies of language structure using very large language samples. We investigate the domain of wordorder using multilingual word alignment and high-precision annotation transfer in a corpus with 1144 translations in 986 languages of the New Testament. Results are encouraging, with 86% to 96% agreementbetween our method and the manually created WALS database for a range of different word order features. Beyond reproducing the categorical data in WALS and extending it to hundreds of other languages, we also provide quantitative data for therelative frequencies of different word orders, and show the usefulness of this for language comparison. Our method has applications for basic research in linguistic typology, as well as for NLP tasks like transfer learning for dependency parsing, which has been shown to benefit from word order information.

  • 1167819.
    Östling, Robert
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Bjerva, Johannes
    SU-RUG at the CoNLL-SIGMORPHON 2017 shared task: Morphological inflection with attentional sequence-to-sequence models2017In: Proceedings of the CoNLL SIGMORPHON 2017 Shared Task: Universal Morphological Reinflection / [ed] Mans Hulden, Vancouver, Canada: Association for Computational Linguistics, 2017, p. 110-113Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the Stockholm University/University of Groningen (SU-RUG) system for the SIGMORPHON 2017 shared task on morphological inflection. Our system is based on an attentional sequence-to-sequence neural network model using Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) cells, with joint training of morphological inflection and the inverse transformation, i.e. lemmatization and morphological analysis. Our system outperforms the baseline with a large margin, and our submission ranks as the 4th best team for the track we participate in (task 1, high resource).

  • 1167820.
    Östling, Robert
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Börstell, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics. Radboud University, Netherlands.
    Courtaux, Servane
    Visual Iconicity Across Sign Languages: Large-Scale Automated Video Analysis of Iconic Articulators and Locations2018In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, article id 725Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We use automatic processing of 120,000 sign videos in 31 different sign languages to show a cross-linguistic pattern for two types of iconic form–meaning relationships in the visual modality. First, we demonstrate that the degree of inherent plurality of concepts, based on individual ratings by non-signers, strongly correlates with the number of hands used in the sign forms encoding the same concepts across sign languages. Second, we show that certain concepts are iconically articulated around specific parts of the body, as predicted by the associational intuitions by non-signers. The implications of our results are both theoretical and methodological. With regard to theoretical implications, we corroborate previous research by demonstrating and quantifying, using a much larger material than previously available, the iconic nature of languages in the visual modality. As for the methodological implications, we show how automatic methods are, in fact, useful for performing large-scale analysis of sign language data, to a high level of accuracy, as indicated by our manual error analysis.

  • 1167821.
    Östling, Robert
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Börstell, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Gärdenfors, Moa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Wirén, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Universal Dependencies for Swedish Sign Language2017In: Proceedings of the 21st Nordic Conference on Computational Linguistics, NoDaLiDa / [ed] Jörg Tiedemann, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2017, p. 303-308Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe the first effort to annotate a signed language with syntactic dependency structure: the Swedish Sign Language portion of the Universal Dependencies treebanks. The visual modality presents some unique challenges in analysis and annotation, such as the possibility of both hands articulating separate signs simultaneously, which has implications for the concept of projectivity in dependency grammars. Our data is sourced from the Swedish Sign Language Corpus, and if used in conjunction these resources contain very richly annotated data: dependency structure and parts of speech, video recordings, signer metadata, and since the whole material is also translated into Swedish the corpus is also a parallel text.

  • 1167822.
    Östling, Robert
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Börstell, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Wallin, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Enriching the Swedish Sign Language Corpus with Part of Speech Tags Using Joint Bayesian Word Alignment and Annotation Transfer2015In: Proceedings of the 20th Nordic Conference of Computational Linguistics: NODALIDA 2015, May 11-13, 2015, Vilnius, Lithuania / [ed] Beáta Megyesi, Linköping University Electronic Press, 2015, p. 263-268Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have used a novel Bayesian model of joint word alignment and part of speech (PoS) annotation transfer to enrich the Swedish Sign Language Corpus with PoS tags. The annotations were then hand-corrected in order to both improve annotation quality for the corpus, and allow the empirical evaluation presented herein.

  • 1167823.
    Östling, Robert
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Grigonyte, Gintare
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Transparent text quality assessment with convolutional neural networks2017In: The Twelfth Workshop on Innovative Use of NLP for Building Educational Applications: Proceedings of the Workshop, Association for Computational Linguistics, 2017, p. 282-286Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a very simple model for text quality assessment based on a deep convolutional neural network, where the only supervision required is one corpus of user-generated text of varying quality, and one contrasting text corpus of consistently high quality. Our model is able to provide local quality assessments in different parts of a text, which allows visual feedback about where potentially problematic parts of the text are located, as well as a way to evaluate which textual features are captured by our model. We evaluate our method on two corpora: a large corpus of manually graded student essays and a longitudinal corpus of language learner written production, and find that the text quality metric learned by our model is a fairly strong predictor of both essay grade and learner proficiency level.

  • 1167824.
    Östling, Robert
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Martin, Flodén
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Från nationalekonomi till ekonomik?2009In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 37, no 3, p. 3-4Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 1167825.
    Östling, Robert
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Scherrer, Yves
    Tiedemann, Jörg
    Tang, Gongbo
    Nieminen, Tommi
    The Helsinki Neural Machine Translation System2017In: Proceedings of the Conference on Machine Translation (WMT): Shared Task Papers, Association for Computational Linguistics, 2017, Vol. 2, p. 338-347Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We introduce the Helsinki Neural Machine Translation system (HNMT) and how it is applied in the news translation task at WMT 2017, where it ranked first in both the human and automatic evaluations for English–Finnish. We discuss the successof English–Finnish translations and the overall advantage of NMT over a strong SMT baseline. We also discuss our sub-missions for English–Latvian, English–Chinese and Chinese–English.

  • 1167826.
    Östling, Robert
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Smolentzov, André
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Tyrefors Hinnerich, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Höglin, Erik
    Automated Essay Scoring for Swedish2013In: Proceedings of the Eighth Workshop on Innovative Use of NLP for Building Educational Applications, Association for Computational Linguistics, 2013, p. 42-47Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the first system developed for automated grading of high school essays written in Swedish. The system uses standard text quality indicators and is able to compare vocabulary and grammar to large reference corpora of blog posts and newspaper articles. The system is evaluated on a corpus of 1 702 essays, each graded independently by the student’s own teacher and also in a blind re-grading process by another teacher. We show that our system’s performance is fair, given the low agreementbetween the two human graders, and furthermore show how it could improve efficiency in a practical setting where one seeks to identify incorrectly graded essays.

  • 1167827.
    Östling, Robert
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Tiedemann, Jörg
    Continuous multilinguality with language vectors2017In: Proceedings of the 15th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Short Papers / [ed] Mirella Lapata, Phil Blunsom, Alexander Koller, Association for Computational Linguistics, 2017, Vol. 2, p. 644-649Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most existing models for multilingual natural language processing (NLP) treat language as a discrete category, and make predictions for either one language or the other. In contrast, we propose using continuous vector representations of language. We show that these can be learned efficiently with a character-based neural language model, and used to improve inference about language varieties not seen during training. In experiments with 1303 Bible translations into 990 different languages, we empirically explore the capacity of multilingual language models, and also show that the language vectors capture genetic relationships between languages.

  • 1167828.
    Östling, Robert
    et al.
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Tiedemann, Jörg
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Efficient word alignment with Markov Chain Monte Carlo2016In: Prague Bulletin of Mathematical Linguistics, ISSN 0032-6585, E-ISSN 1804-0462, no 106, p. 125-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present efmaral, a new system for efficient and accurate word alignment using a Bayesian model with Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) inference. Through careful selection of data structures and model architecture we are able to surpass the fast_align system, commonly used for performance-critical word alignment, both in computational efficiency and alignment accuracy. Our evaluation shows that a phrase-based statistical machine translation (SMT) system produces translations of higher quality when using word alignments from efmaral than from fast_align, and that translation quality is on par with what is obtained using giza++, a tool requiring orders of magnitude more processing time. More generally we hope to convince the reader that Monte Carlo sampling, rather than being viewed as a slow method of last resort, should actually be the method of choice for the SMT practitioner and others interested in word alignment.

  • 1167829.
    Östling, Robert
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Wirén, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Compounding in a Swedish Blog Corpus2013In: Computer mediated discourse across languages / [ed] Laura Álvarez López, Charlotta Seiler Brylla & Philip Shaw, Stockholm: Acta Universitatis Stockholmiensis, 2013, p. 45-63Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 1167830.
    Östling, S Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine.
    Permeability of human red cells during hypotonic fractional mass hemolysis in dextran 1970Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 1167831.
    Östling, Sabina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Begränsningar av uppehållstillstånd i Sverige - en utredning av den nya lagen, dess syfte och proportionalitet.2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 1167832.
    Östling, Sofia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Grama, Nusin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Barn i behov av särskilt stöd: - ADHD/DAMP utifrån ett medicinskt kontra pedagogiskt och psykosocialt perspektiv2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta är en studie som tagit sin utgångspunkt i begreppet ”barn i behov av särskilt stöd” med fokus på barn och elever med ADHD/DAMP utifrån ett medicinskt kontra pedagogiskt/psykosocialt perspektiv. Inom dessa perspektiv har det varit många kritiska röster och skilda åsikter för vilka insatser som är bäst för barnen. Fokus har även riktats mot huruvida diagnosen kan hjälpa barn eller inte. Konstitueringen av barn i behov av särskilt stöd har förändrats. Därför har även en jämförelse av läroplanerna (Lgr69, Lgr80, Lgr11 samt Läroplan för grundsärskolan 2011) utförts och därmed kunnat ge en historisk överblick av utvecklingen som skett inom skolväsendet. I arbetet används ofta ordet barn, men detta innefattar självklart även elever.

    Med textanalys som metod har materialet bearbetats och analyserats kritiskt. Det material som legat till grund för studien har varit styrdokument, vetenskapliga artiklar, pedagogisk litteratur samt medicinska publikationer. Resultatens bakgrund har uppkommit och varit styrda utifrån ett antal syftesfrågeställningar. Dessa grundar sig i specialpedagogikens framväxt i samhället och diskussionen kring det stöd som ges till barn i förskola och skola. Slutsatser av det analyserade materialet har därmed belysts från olika synvinklar och aktörer som spelat stor roll i debatten om barn i behov av särskilt stöd.

  • 1167833. Östling, Susanne
    Konsten att samverka: en kvalitativ studie om samverkan mellan kommuners krisberedskapsgrupper2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 1167834. Östling, Susanne
    Säkerhetsklimatet inom Norrbottens läns landsting2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose with this thesis was to describe the safety climate in the Norrbotten County Council and provide information about actions called for to achieve a good safety climate. The questions to be answered in relation to the purpose were: How is the general safety climate in the Norrbotten County Council? How do the employees perceive management´s commitment to safety issues in the Norrbotten County Council? How do the employees perceive the work group they belong to relate to safety in the Norrbotten County Council? Is there any difference in the perception of safety work in Norrbotten County Council between managers and employees? The study included a survey involving 127 employees. The survey instrument used was Nordic Safety Climate Questionnaire (NOSACQ-50). The results indicate that the safety climate level was relatively high in the Norrbotten County Council. Safety was a high priority for managers as well as for employees. The safety commitment and the responsibility within the working group were high, which is a good precondition for achieving an even better safety behavior (Törner, 2008).

  • 1167835.
    Östlin-Gustafsson, Anethe
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences.
    Bildkommunikation med barn som har autism: En kvalitativ studie kring hur och varför bilder används som ett alternativ till verbal kommunikation2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 1167836. Östlund, A.
    et al.
    Idström, A.
    Olsson, C.
    Larsson, P.T.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Nordstierna, L.
    Modification of crystallinity and pore size distribution in coagulated cellulose films2013In: Cellulose (London), ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882X, no 4, p. 1657-1667Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1167837.
    Östlund, Agneta
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Eriksson, Anna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Utbildningens betydelse för hälsan: En studie i skillnad på ohälsa mellan akademiker och icke-akademiker2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The main focus with this study was to investigate if there was a difference in level ofeducation and self-rated health and if it could be explained by the amount of control,demands and social support at work. Theories used in this essay are education, health,and the job strain-model (control, demands and social support at work). We used analready done study by Folkhälsoinstitutet (2004) to examine these questions. Theanalysed sample consists of respondents 12 166 aged 18-84 years. The decline was39, 2 %. The data was analyzed in SPSS 17.0 using a logistic regression with selfrated.The results show that there is a significant difference between the educationsgroups and health. The high educations group has better self-rated health. When itcomes to working conditions the high education groups have more control over workand they feel more social support from colleagues and management. But when itcomes to demands they experience more demands at work.

  • 1167838.
    Östlund, Amanda
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Hillberg, Cecilia
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Anhörigas upplevelser av att leva med närstående som drabbats av Alzheimers sjukdom: -En beskrivande litteraturstudie-2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract The aim of the study was to describe relative’s experiences of living with or near a person that has Alzheimer’s disease. The study builds on social, physical and psychic perspectives. The studies were based on 18 scientific articles that were quality checked with the aid of a review model. Articles were applied for through the databases Academic Search Elite, Cinahl and Vård I Norden Online. The selection criteria’s were that the articles replied on the study's aim, were written on Swedish or English and published between the years 2000 to 2008. The result showed that relatives were set to a dramatic change that were requiring, challenging and the relatives experienced dread, sorrow, stress and debt. The social network decreased and the result was often decreased loneliness and isolation. The result also showed that the relatives were in need of aid from family and friends, and from the healthcare. To summary the majority experienced that the burden increased of being relatives to a person with Alzheimer’s disease.

    Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease, family, relatives, experience.

  • 1167839.
    Östlund, Anders
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Suneson, Tor
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Implementering av styrgränssnitt mellan leksaksstridsvagn och digital signalprocessor2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report consists of a 15 points (22.5 ECTS) Exam Degree project at Karlstad University. The work was done on location at BAE Systems Bofors AB in Karlskoga. The company wanted to control a radio controlled toy tank from a digital signal processor (DSP). A camera connected to the DSP locates the laser point and steers the toy tank towards it.

    An interface using a programmable logic device was constructed that connects the DSP to the toy tank. The internal signals in the toy tank was analyzed and a Manchester coded signal in form of a 32-bit serial code word was detected. The code word originated from the radio controller. The control interface was built around a CPLD (Complex Programmable Logic Device) which was programmed in VHDL (Very high speed integrated Hardware Description Language). The control interface recreates the signal controlling the toy tank.

    The interface connects the toy tank to the DSP which controls the toy tank and it’s functions to the full extent. Communication between the interface and the DSP is done via a 16 bit parallel connection. 13 of the bits are data bits and the remaining 3 are control bits that are used to set up the interface. An application was integrated in the project where the DSP is detecting a laser point. Corresponding signals to the laser points position where sent to the control interface to demonstrate the function of the interface.

  • 1167840. Östlund, Andreas
    Enhancement of the sensitivity of chytrid infection detection in large algae cultures2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Large-scale culturing of algae with the aim of production of economically valuable substances is a growing industrial sector. A common problem of such industrial algae cultures is that they are prone to suffer from fungal infections causing growth inhibition of the algae and reduced production of the target substances.

    Having sensitive and target specific methods for the early detection of these infections are of great economic importance since in later stages infections may be very hard to treat. There are several potential methods that can be used for infection detection such as visual detection through microscopy or DNA amplification based methods like PCR.

    This report presents a novel protocol for the early detection of the parasitic fungi Paraphysoderma sedebokerense infecting the green micro algae Haematococcus pluvialis. DNA from infected frozen algae cultures collected from the Gustavsberg production plant of Astareal AB was extracted using ZR Fungal /Bacterial DNA MiniPrep kit. Conventional PCR and SYBR Green quantitative PCR were further compared to each other and optimized to be more sensitive in detecting parasitic DNA. The annealing temperature and primer concentration were optimized. In addition, two different SYBR Green PCR kits and the use of fresh versus frozen algae cultures were compared.

    The quantitative PCR method was able to detect as low as 300 DNA copies accurately but occasionally was capable to give a signal corresponding to as little as 4 DNA copies in a reaction. Meanwhile the conventional PCR method could accurately detect as low as 600 DNA copies and occasionally 60 DNA copies.

    This report shows the possibility of improving the detection of P. sedebokerense infection in industrial H. pluvialis cultures by PCR technique, emphasizes the differences between conventional PCR and quantitative PCR and presents a working protocol for the quantitative PCR based monitoring of P. sedebokerense infections.

  • 1167841.
    Östlund, Andreas
    Swedish National Defence College.
    Erhåller svenska förband en relevant utbildning?: en studie av FS 15 utbildning inför Afghanistan 20082009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden has a long tradition in training soldiers and units for the defense of their ownterritory. This has been the main effort of the Swedish units during the cold war. TheSwedish units of today have to deal with tasks and environments other than thetraditional ones. Moreover, the Swedish units face a belligerent force that has differentmotives, ways and means than the enemy during the cold war.The aim of the thesis is to discuss whether the Swedish soldier and unit training aresuited for this new enemy. Do the Swedish units receive a relevant and proper training?The thesis is accomplished in the form of a case study. The thesis is implementedthrough questions which are the base for the analytical tool. This tool will be used foranalyzing the training of soldiers and units.The thesis shows that the Swedish units receive a relevant training concerningcounterinsurgency with a direct and indirect approach. The analysis also shows apotential for development concerning lessons learned and training in the phenomenainsurgency.

  • 1167842.
    Östlund, Andreas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Biology Education Centre.
    Andersson, Christoffer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Biology Education Centre.
    Öman, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Biology Education Centre.
    Perman, Ebba
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Biology Education Centre.
    Eriksson, Hanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Biology Education Centre.
    Lindström, John
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Biology Education Centre.
    Possnert, Oliver
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Biology Education Centre.
    Strategier för minskad glykosylering vid proteinproduktion i Pichia pastoris: Förbättrad kvalitet på rekombinanta allergener2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 1167843.
    Östlund, Andreas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business.
    Hyleen, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business.
    The relationship between Credit Ratings and Beta: -A quantitative study on the Nordic market2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to investigate the relationship between systematic risk and credit ratings. The systematic risk, frequently measured by beta, is an important consideration for both investors and corporations. Therefore it is interesting to examine if indications about the systematic risk could be gained by looking at credit ratings, especially on the Nordic market, where credit ratings are seemingly growing in importance. Consequently, the following research hypothesis is posed; We intend to establish a relationship between market risk (Beta) and credit ratings for firms in the Nordic countries.

    In order to confirm or deny the research hypothesis, theories from peer reviewed databases were collected. These were divided into three sections; background theories, hypotheses about credit ratings and a literature review. The background theories consisted of two classical financial theories, the Capital Asset Pricing Model and the Efficient Market Hypothesis, which are the foundation upon which the research field have progressed. The hypotheses is specifically designed to explain the relationship between credit ratings and either systematic risk or stock price. The literature review contains information about studies which did not contribute to theory building, but produced results interesting in the research area.

     

    The actual sample in the thesis consisted of the 58 credit rated companies on the Nordic stock market. These companies were rated by Moody’s and/or Standard & Poor’s, the two largest credit rating agencies in the world. As a measure of the systematic risk, betas for each of the companies were calculated. To investigate the relationship between these variables a regression analysis was performed, as well as one sample T-test using the software SPSS.

     

    The result revealed a moderate relationship between beta and credit risk, a relationship which was not statistically significant on the five percent level. Our results suggest that credit ratings contain some information about companies’ systematic risk, a finding that might be useful for market participants.

     

  • 1167844.
    Östlund, Andreas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business.
    Lindblad, Pernilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business.
    Cross-border mergers and acquisitions in the banking sector: A Swedish perspective2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 1167845. Östlund, Anna
    Utrymningsförsök från en skola med döva och hörselskadade barn och ungdomar: En fallstudie2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 1167846.
    Östlund, Anna
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Vad säger cylindern?: Om utformningen av en vandringsutställning.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det här examensarbetet är en studie i hur en vandringsutställning på gallerior och köpcentrum kan utformas. Utställningen ska tillfälligt fylla tomma ytor i gallerior och köpcentrum. Målsättningen har varit att det ska bidra till en mer attraktiv och aktiv miljö.

    Arbetet har utgått från organisationen Protect our Winters, vilka arbetar med att informera och engagera människor i kampen om klimatet och vinterns framtid. De har efterfrågat en rumslig installation för att på så sätt nå utanför skidvärldens befintliga kanaler.

    Studien och gestaltningsförslaget har baserats på teorier om utställningsmediet, former, designprinciper och gestaltlagar samt metoderna intervju, formalanalys och behavioral mapping.

  • 1167847.
    Östlund, Annelie
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Östman, Annika
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Turbulenta omgivningar, affärsrelationer och icke-monetära mått: – En kvantitativ analys2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 1167848.
    Östlund, Annika
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences.
    Teknik i bruksmiljö2008Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 1167849.
    Östlund, Ann-Sofi
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Distriktssköterskors upplevelser av och tillvägagångssätt vid ett motiverande samtal2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
  • 1167850.
    Östlund, Ann-Sofi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Caring Sciences. Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Högskolan i Gävle.
    Motivational Interviewing in Primary Care: Nurses´ experiences and actual use of the method2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The overall aim of the present thesis was to describe and examine primary care nurses´ self-reports on training, use and performance as well as experiences and actual performance of MI.

    Method: One qualitative and three quantitative studies were conducted among primary care nurses. A study-specific questionnaire was sent to 980 primary care nurses and 673 (69%) responded (Study I). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 MI trained primary care nurses (Study II). MI sessions between 12 (Study III) respective 23 (Study IV) primary care nurses and patients (total 32 respective 50 sessions) were audio-recorded. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis, Motivational Interviewing Integrity Code, Motivational Interviewing Sequential Code for Observing Process Exchanges and statistical analysis.

    Results: The findings showed that primary care nurses reported and experienced lack of training in MI and lack of prerequisites for using MI (Study I-II), while training, knowledge, prerequisites and time were associated with use of MI. They also reported and experienced that MI facilitated their work with patients (Study I-II) as well as elicited their own ability to motivate and be empathetic (Study II). About half of the primary care nurses reported that they used MI (Study I), and none of the nurses (Study III) achieved the approved skill levels in MI in their recorded sessions. They overestimated their performance on six of eight aspects of MI (Study III). The most frequently used nurse talk in the recorded sessions was neutral, which is not consistent with MI. Questions and reflections directed toward change were most likely to be followed by change talk among patients (Study IV).

    Conclusions: Self-reported knowledge about MI and personal as well as workplace prerequisites for using it were associated with self-reported use of MI. Participating nurses´ experienced that MI requires openness, practice, support, feedback and willingness. The participating primary care nurses did not achieve approved levels of MI skills in their recorded MI sessions. Patients´ change talk is more likely to occur after open questions, complex reflections as well as after questions and reflections directed toward change.

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