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  • 101.
    Bevilacqua, Riccardo
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Pomp, Stephan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Jansson, Kaj
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Gustavsson, Cecilia
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Osterlund, M.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Simutkin, V.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Hayashi, M.
    Hirayama, S.
    Naitou, Y.
    Watanabe, Y.
    Hjalmarsson, A.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Prokofiev, A.
    Uppsala universitet, The Svedberg-laboratoriet.
    Tippawan, U.
    Lecolley, F.-R.
    Marie, N
    Leray, S
    David, J.-C.
    Mashnik, S
    Light-ion production from O, Si, Fe and Bi induced by 175 MeV quasi-monoenergetic neutron2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 102.
    Bevilacqua, Riccardo
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Pomp, Stephan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Jansson, Kaj
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Gustavsson, Cecilia
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Österlund, Michael
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Simutkin, V.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Hayashi, M.
    Hirayama, S.
    Naitou, Y.
    Watanabe, Y.
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Prokofiev, Alexander
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik. Uppsala universitet, The Svedberg-laboratoriet.
    Tippawan, U.
    Lecolley, F. -R
    Marie, N.
    Leray, S.
    David, J. -C
    Mashnik, S.
    Light-ion Production from O, Si, Fe and Bi Induced by 175 MeV Quasi-monoenergetic Neutrons2014Ingår i: Nuclear Data Sheets, ISSN 0090-3752, E-ISSN 1095-9904, Vol. 119, s. 190-193Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We have measured double-differential cross sections in the interaction of 175 MeV quasimonoenergetic neutrons with O, Si, Fe and Bi. We have compared these results with model calculations with INCL4.5-Abla07, MCNP6 and TALYS-1.2. We have also compared our data with PHITS calculations, where the pre-equilibrium stage of the reaction was accounted respectively using the JENDL/HE-2007 evaluated data library, the quantum molecular dynamics model (QMD) and a modified version of QMD (MQMD) to include a surface coalescence model. The most crucial aspect is the formation and emission of composite particles in the pre-equilibrium stage.

  • 103.
    Bevilacqua, Riccardo
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Pomp, Stephan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Simutkin, Vasily D.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Hayashi, Masateru
    Hirayama, Shusuke
    Naitou, Yuuki
    Watanabe, Yukinobu
    Tippawan, Udomrat
    Tesinsky, Milan
    Ban, Gilles
    Lecouey, Jean-Luc
    Lecolley, Francois-René
    Marie, Nathalie
    Hamel, Quentin
    Medley spectrometer for ligh ions in neutron induced reactions at 175 MeV2011Ingår i: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, Vol. 646, nr 1, s. 100-107Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We have upgraded the Medley spectrometer to measure neutron-induced double differential cross-sections for light-ion production, with neutron energies up to 175 MeV. Measurements were performed at the quasi-monoenergetic neutron beam line at the The Svedberg Laboratory, in Uppsala (Sweden). Medley is a spectrometer system composed of eight three-element telescope detectors; Delta E-E technique is used for particle identification and total kinetic energy measurement. We have improved particle separation and installed new detectors that fully stop ions with kinetic energy up to 170 MeV. To reduce the contribution of the low energy tail in the quasi-monoenergetic neutron spectrum, we have applied time-of-flight techniques and investigated the results for measurements with 175 MeV neutrons. We have investigated the response function of the CsI(Tl) scintillators and describe a method for efficiency correction. We have studied the signal-to-background ratio of the new configuration of the spectrometer and of the collimation system. A method to obtain absolute cross-section normalization, separating the peak neutrons from the low-energy tail, is proposed. Finally we have characterized the 175 MeV quasi-monoenergetic neutron spectrum with the Medley spectrometer. This upgraded configuration has been used in 2007 and 2009 for light-ion production measurements at 175 MeV from C, Si, O, Fe, Bi and U.

  • 104.
    Bevilacqua, Riccardo
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Pomp, Stephan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Simutkin, Vasily D.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Tippawan, U.
    Andersson, Pernilla
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Blomgren, Jan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Österlund, Michael
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Hayashi, M.
    Hirayama, S.
    Naito, Y.
    Watanabe, Y.
    Tesinsky, M.
    LeColley, F. -R
    Marie, N.
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    Uppsala universitet, The Svedberg-laboratoriet.
    Prokofiev, Alexander V.
    Uppsala universitet, The Svedberg-laboratoriet.
    Kolozhvari, A.
    Neutron induced light-ion production from iron and bismuth at 175 MeV2010Ingår i: Radiation Measurements, ISSN 1350-4487, E-ISSN 1879-0925, Vol. 45, nr 10, s. 1145-1150Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We have measured light-ion (p, d, t, He-3 and alpha) production in the interaction of 175 MeV neutrons with iron and bismuth with low-energy thresholds and for a wide angular range (from 20 degrees to 160 degrees, in steps of 20 degrees). Measurements have been performed with the Medley setup, semi-permanently installed at the The Svedberg Laboratory, Uppsala (Sweden), where a quasi-monoenergetic neutron beam is available and well characterized. Medley is a conventional spectrometer system and consists of eight telescopes, each of them composed of two silicon surface barrier detectors, to perform particle identification, and a CsI(Tl) scintillator to fully measure the kinetic energy of the produced light-ions. We report preliminary double-differential cross sections for production of protons, deuterons and tritons in comparison with model calculations using TALYS-1.0 code. These show better agreement for the production of protons, while the theoretical calculations seem to overestimate the experimental production of deuterons and tritons.

  • 105.
    Bevilacqua, Riccardo
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Pomp, Stephan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Simutkin, Vasily D.
    Tippawan, U.
    Hayashi, M.
    Hirayama, S.
    Naitou, Y.
    Watanabe, Y.
    Prokofiev, Alexander V.
    Uppsala universitet, The Svedberg-laboratoriet.
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    Uppsala universitet, The Svedberg-laboratoriet.
    Andersson, P.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Blomgren, Jan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Österlund, Michael
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Tesinsky, M.
    Lecolley, F. -R
    Marie, N.
    Kolozhvari, A.
    Light-Ion Production in the Interaction of 175 MeV Neutrons with Iron and Bismuth2011Ingår i: Journal of the Korean Physical Society, ISSN 0374-4884, E-ISSN 1976-8524, Vol. 59, nr 2, s. 1701-1704Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We have measured double-differential (angle and energy) cross sections for light-ion (p, d, t, (3)He, and a) production in the interaction of quasi-monoenergetic 175 MeV neutrons with iron and bismuth. Measurements have been performed at the The Svedberg Laboratory, Uppsala (Sweden), using the Medley setup which allows low-energy thresholds and wide energy and angular ranges. Medley is a spectrometer system consisting of eight three-element telescopes placed at angles from 20 degrees to 160 degrees, in steps of 20 degrees. Each telescope is composed of two silicon surface barrier detectors and a CsI(Tl) scintillator, to perform particle identification, fully stop the produced light-ions and measure their kinetic energy. The time-of-flight was used to reduce the contribution from the low energy tail in the accepted incident neutron spectrum. We report double-differential production cross sections for protons, deuterons, tritons, (3)He and alpha particles and compare them with model calculations with TALYS-1.2.

  • 106. Bevilacqua, Riccardo
    et al.
    Pomp, Stephan
    Simutkin, Vasily
    Tippawan, Udomrat
    Andersson, Pernilla
    Blomgren, Jan
    Osterlund, Michael
    Hayashi, Masateru
    Hirayama, Shusuke
    Naito, Yuuki
    Watanabe, Yukinobu
    Tesinsky, Milan
    LeColley, Francois-Rene
    Marie, Nathalie
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Prokofiev, Alexander V.
    Uppsala universitet, The Svedberg-laboratoriet.
    Kolozhvari, Anatoly
    Neutron induced light-ion production from Iron and Bismuth at 175 MeV2010Ingår i: CNR '09: SECOND INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON COMPOUND NUCLEAR REACTIONS AND RELATED TOPICS, 2010, artikel-id 05005Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We have measured light-ion (p, d, t, He-3 and alpha) production in the interaction of 175 MeV neutrons with iron and bismuth, using the MEDLEY setup. A large set of measurements at 96 MeV has been recently completed and published, and now higher energy region is under investigation. MEDLEY is a conventional spectrometer system that allows low-energy thresholds and offers measurements over a wide angular range. The system consists of eight telescopes, each of them composed of two silicon surface barrier detectors, to perform particle identification, and a Csl(Tl) scintillator to fully measure the kinetic energy of the produced light-ions. The telescopes are placed at angles from 20 degrees to 160 degrees, in steps of 20 degrees. Measurements have been performed at The Svedberg Laboratory, Uppsala (Sweden), where a quasi mono-energetic neutron beam is available and well characterized. Time of flight techniques are used to select light-ion events induced by neutrons in the main peak of the source neutron spectrum. We report preliminary double differential cross sections for production of protons, deuterons and tritons in comparison with model calculations using TALYS-1.0 code.

  • 107.
    Bevilacqua, Riccardo
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Pomp, Stephan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Simutkin, Vasily
    Tippawan, Udomrat
    Hayashi, Masateru
    Hirayama, Shusuke
    Naitou, Yuuki
    Watanabe, Yukinobu
    Prokofiev, Alexander
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    Andersson, Pernilla
    Blomgren, Jan
    Österlund, Michael
    Tesinsky, Milan
    Lecolley, Francois-Rene
    Marie, Nathalie
    Kolozhvari, Anatoly
    Light-ion production in the interaction of 175 MeV neutrons with iron and bismuth2011Ingår i: Journal of Korean Physical Society: Proceedings of the International Conference on Nuclear Data for Science and Technology / [ed] Korean Physical Society, 2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We have measured double-differential (angle and energy) cross sections for light-ion (p, d, t, 3He and α) production in the interaction of quasi-monoenergetic 175 MeV neutrons with iron and bismuth. Measurements have been performed at the The Svedberg Laboratory, Uppsala (Sweden), using the Medley setup which allows low-energy thresholds and wide energy and angular ranges. Medley is a spectrometer system consisting of eight three-element telescopes placed at angles from 20◦ to 160◦, in steps of 20◦. Each telescope is composed of two silicon surface barrier detectors and a CsI(Tl) scintillator, to perform particle identification,fully stop the produced light-ions and measure their kinetic energy. The time-of-flight was used to reduce the contribution from the low energy tail in the accepted incident neutron spectrum. We report double-differential production cross sections for protons, deuterons, tritons, 3He and α particles and compare them with model calculations with TALYS-1.2.

  • 108.
    Bevilacqua, Riccardo
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Watanabe, Yukinobu
    Kyushu University.
    Pomp, Stephan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Exciton model and quantum molecular dynamics in inclusive nucleon-induced reactions2011Ingår i: Proceedings of the 2010 Symposium on Nuclear Data (SND-2010) / [ed] Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 109. Bielewicz, M.
    et al.
    Kilim, S.
    Strugalska-Gola, E.
    Szuta, M.
    Wojciechowski, A.
    Tyutyunnikov, S.
    Prokofiev, Alexander
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Passoth, Elke
    Uppsala universitet, The Svedberg-laboratoriet.
    (n,xn) cross section measurements for Y-89 foils used as detectors for high energy neutron measurements in the deeply subcritical assembly “QUINTA”2017Ingår i: ND 2016: INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON NUCLEAR DATA FOR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY / [ed] Plompen, A.; Hambsch, FJ.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Mondelaers, W.; Heyse, J.; Kopecky, S.; Siegler, P.; Oberstedt, S., Les Ulis: EDP Sciences, 2017, Vol. 146, artikel-id 11032Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Study of the deep subcritical systems (QUINTA) using relativistic beams is performed within the project “Energy and Transmutation of Radioactive Wastes” (E&T – RAW). The experiment assembly was irradiated by deuteron/proton beam (Dubna NUCLOTRON). We calculated the neutron energy spectrum inside the whole assembly by using threshold energy (n,xn) reactions in yttrium (Y-89) foils. There are almost no experimental cross section data for those reactions. New Y-89(n,xn) cross section measurements were carried out at The Svedberg laboratory (TSL) in Uppsala, Sweden in 2015. In this paper we present preliminary results of those experiments.

  • 110.
    Binda, Federico
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Andersson Sundén, Erik
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Eriksson, Jacob
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Hellesen, Carl
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Ericsson, Göran
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Absolute calibration of the JET neutron profile monitorIngår i: Review of Scientific Instruments, ISSN 0034-6748, E-ISSN 1089-7623Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 111.
    Binda, Federico
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Characterization of a NE-213 liquid scintillator for neutron flux measurement at JET2011Övrigt (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The measurment of the total neutron rate from a nuclear fusion reactor is very important in order to calculate the power produced in a plasma. An improvement of a method currently in use at JET will involve the installation of an organic liquid scintillator NE-213 of 1 cm3 of volume combined with a digital acquisition card. 

    In this project a first stage of the characterization of the digitizer and of the detector has been performed.

  • 112.
    Binda, Federico
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    High Count Rate Neutron Detector Installation at JET2011Övrigt (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The measurement of fusion power is of paramount importance for the control of a fusion reactor's operation. The neutron yield from the reactor is strictly related to the energy production. One of the methods employed at JET to measure the yield involves the use of the MPRu spectrometer together with the neutron camera. However the MPRu has an intrinsically low efficiency (about 10-6), which results in a poor time resolution. An improvement involving the installation of a NE213 detectorfor high count rate has been proposed. The testing phase of the new instrumentation, conducted at Uppsala University, has shown that the acquisition system works properly and it is ready to be installed on site in view of the coming JET experimental campaign.

  • 113.
    Binda, Federico
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Liquid scintillators as neutron diagnostic tools for fusion plasmas: System characterization and data analysis2018Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The neutrons produced in fusion devices carry information about various properties of the ions that are reacting in the machine. Measurements of the neutron flux and energy distribution can therefore be used to study the behaviour of the plasma ions under different experimental conditions.

    Several neutron detection techniques are available, each having advantages and disadvantages compared to the others. In this thesis we study neutron measurements performed with NE213 liquid scintillators. One advantage of NE213s compared to other neutron detection techniques is that they are simple to use, small and cheap. On the other hand, their response to neutrons makes the extraction of information about the neutron energy less precise.

    In the thesis we present the development of methods for the characterization and the data analysis of NE213 detectors. The work was performed using two instruments installed at the Joint European Torus (JET) tokamak in the UK: the “Afterburner” detector, which is an NE213 installed on a tangential line of sight, and the neutron camera, which is a system composed of 19 NE213 detectors installed on different lines of sight (10 horizontal and 9 vertical).The analysis of data from the Afterburner detector was focused on resolving different features of the neutron energy spectra which are related to different properties of the ion velocity distribution.

    The analysis of data from the neutron camera was directed towards the investigation of the spatial distribution of ions in the plasma. However, the individual characterization of the camera detectors allowed the inclusion of information about the energy distribution of the ions in the analysis.

    The outcomes of the studies performed indicate that the methods developed give reliable results and can therefore be applied to extract information about the plasma ions. In particular, the possibility of performing neutron emission spectroscopy analysis in each line of sight of a neutron camera is of great value for future studies.

  • 114.
    Binda, Federico
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Neutron emission spectroscopy of fusion plasmas with a NE213 liquid scintillator at JET2015Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Neutron diagnostics will play a fundamental role in future fusion plasma machines,where the harsh environment will make the use of many other type of diagnos-tics practically impossible. Complex techniques to measure the neutron spectrumemitted from tokamk plasmas have been developed over the years, producing stateof the art neutron spectrometers. However, recently compact neutron spectrom-eters have been gaining the interest of the research community. They are muchsimpler to operate and maintain, have lower cost and they can be employed in thechannels of a neutron camera, providing profile measurements. The drawbacks arethat they have a worse resolution and a response to neutrons that is not optimalfor spectroscopy.The goal of the work presented in this thesis is to estimate to which extenta compact detector such as a NE213 liquid scintillator can be used to performneutron emission spectroscopy analysis.The detector used for this study was installed in the back of the MPRu spec-trometer at JET in 2012. The characterization of the response of the detector wasdone using a combination of MCNPX simulations and real measurements. Thedata analysis was performed using the forward fitting approach: a model of theneutron spectrum is produced, then folded with the response of the detector andfinally compared with the data. Two types of plasma scenarios were analyzed, onewith NBI heating only, and another with NBI and third harmonic radio-frequencyheating. In both cases the TOFOR spectrometer was used as a reference to esti-mate the parameters in the model of the neutron spectrum.The results are promising and suggest that neutron spectroscopy can be per-formed with NE213 scintillators although the quality of the results, as given byperformance indicators such as uncertainties, is much lower than the performanceof high resolution spectrometers.

  • 115.
    Binda, Federico
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Ericsson, Göran
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Conroy, Sean
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Andersson Sundén, Erik
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Calculation of the profile-dependent neutron backscatter matrix for the JET neutron camera system2017Ingår i: Fusion engineering and design, ISSN 0920-3796, E-ISSN 1873-7196, Vol. 123, s. 865-868Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated the dependence of the backscatter component of the neutron spectrum on the emissivity profile. We did so for the JET neutron camera system, by calculating a profile-dependent backscatter matrix for each of the 19 camera channels using a MCNP model of the JET tokamak. We found that, when using a low minimum energy for the summation of the counts in the neutron pulse height spectrum, the backscatter contribution can depend significantly on the emissivity profile. The maximum variation in the backscatter level was 24% (8.0% when compared to the total emission). This effect needs to be considered when a correction for the backscatter contribution is applied to the measured profile.

  • 116.
    Binda, Federico
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Ericsson, Göran
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Eriksson, Jacob
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Hellesen, Carl
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Conroy, Sean
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Sundén, Erik Andersson
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Forward fitting of experimental data from a NE213 neutron detector installed with the magnetic proton recoil upgraded spectrometer at JET2014Ingår i: Review of Scientific Instruments, ISSN 0034-6748, E-ISSN 1089-7623, Vol. 85, nr 11, s. 11E123-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present the results obtained from the data analysis of neutron spectra measured with a NE213 liquid scintillator at JET. We calculated the neutron response matrix of the instrument combining MCNPX simulations, a generic proton light output function measured with another detector and the fit of data from ohmic pulses. For the analysis, we selected a set of pulses with neutral beam injection heating (NBI) only and we applied a forward fitting procedure of modeled spectral components to extract the fraction of thermal neutron emission. The results showed the same trend of the ones obtained with the dedicated spectrometer TOFOR, even though the values from the NE213 analysis were systematically higher. This discrepancy is probably due to the different lines of sight of the two spectrometers (tangential for the NE213, vertical for TOFOR). The uncertainties on the thermal fraction estimates were from 4 to 7 times higher than the ones from the TOFOR analysis.

  • 117.
    Binda, Federico
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Ericsson, Göran
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Hellesen, Carl
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Eriksson, Jacob
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Skiba, Mateusz
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Conroy, Sean
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Weiszflog, Matthias
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Monte Carlo Simulation Of The Data Acquisition Chain Of Scintillation Detectors2014Ingår i: International Conference on Fusion Reactor Diagnostics, SEP 09-13, 2013, Varenna, ITALY, 2014, s. 101-104Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The good performance of a detector can be strongly affected by the instrumentation used to acquire the data. The possibility of anticipating how the acquisition chain will affect the signal can help in finding the best solution among different set-ups. In this work we developed a Monte Carlo code that aims to simulate the effect of the various components of a digital Data Acquisition system (DAQ) applied to scintillation detectors. The components included in the model are: the scintillator, the photomultiplier tube (PMT), the signal cable and the digitizer. We benchmarked the code against real data acquired with a NE213 scintillator, comparing simulated and real signal pulses induced by gamma-ray interaction. Then we studied the dependence of the energy resolution of a pulse height spectrum (PHS) on the sampling frequency and the bit resolution of the digitizer. We found that exceeding some values of the sampling frequency and the bit resolution improves only marginally the performance of the system. The method can be applied for the study of various detector systems relevant for nuclear techniques, such as in fusion diagnostics.

  • 118.
    Binda, Federico
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Eriksson, Jacob
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Ericsson, Göran
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Hellesen, Carl
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Cecconello, Marco
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Nocente, Massimo
    Cazzaniga, Carlo
    Andersson Sundén, Erik
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Analysis of the fast ion tails observed in the NE213pulse height specta measured during third harmonicradio-frequency heating experiments at JETManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we investigate the possibility of using a NE213 liquid scintillator as aneutron spectrometer to diagnose the fast ion tails produced in experiments with 3rd harmonicradio-frequency heating.We discuss mainly the instrumental effects that need to be considered and corrected for in orderto obtain a good agreement between measured data and models: gain drift, pile-up, impact of theassumption of a standard proton light yield function. We also address problems related to thepresence of triton burn-up events in the spectrum.The expected ion distribution is obtained from a simple 1D Fokker-Planck model. The parametersof the model are estimated using the data collected by the TOFOR neutron spectrometer.The agreement between the data and the model is good and it is possible to make a clear distinctionbetween discharges that had different electron densities and thus different cut-off energies. Wecan conclude that NE213 scintillators can provide useful spectroscopic information for this kind ofexperiments.

  • 119.
    Binda, Federico
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Eriksson, Jacob
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Ericsson, Göran
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Hellesen, Carl
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Conroy, Sean
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Nocente, M.
    Univ Milano Bicocca, Dipartimento Fis G Occhialini.;Ist Fis Plasma P Caldirola..
    Andersson Sundén, Erik
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Generation of the neutron response function of an NE213 scintillator for fusion applications2017Ingår i: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, Vol. 866, s. 222-229Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work we present a method to evaluate the neutron response function of an NE213 liquid scintillator. This method is particularly useful when the proton light yield function of the detector has not been measured, since it is based on a proton light yield function taken from literature, MCNPX simulations, measurements of gammarays from a calibration source and measurements of neutrons from fusion experiments with ohmic plasmas. The inclusion of the latter improves the description of the proton light yield function in the energy range of interest (around 2.46 MeV). We apply this method to an NE213 detector installed at JET, inside the radiation shielding of the magnetic proton recoil (MPRu) spectrometer, and present the results from the calibration along with some examples of application of the response function to perform neutron emission spectroscopy (NES) of fusion plasmas. We also investigate how the choice of the proton light yield function affects the NES analysis, finding that the result does not change significantly. This points to the fact that the method for the evaluation of the neutron response function is robust and gives reliable results.

  • 120.
    Binda, Federico
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Eriksson, Jacob
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Hellesen, Carl
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Ericsson, Göran
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Andersson Sundén, Erik
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Conroy, Sean
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Fabien, Jaulmes
    Study of the energy-dependent fast ion redistribution during sawtooth oscillations with the neutron camera at JETManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 121. Blanken, T. C.
    et al.
    Cecconello, Marco
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Klimek, Iwona
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Wodniak, I
    Yadykin, Dimitry
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi.
    Dori, V
    Real-time plasma state monitoring and supervisory control on TCV2019Ingår i: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 59, nr 2, artikel-id 026017Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In ITER and DEMO, various control objectives related to plasma control must be simultaneously achieved by the plasma control system (PCS), in both normal operation as well as off-normal conditions. The PCS must act on off-normal events and deviations from the target scenario, since certain sequences (chains) of events can precede disruptions. It is important that these decisions are made while maintaining a coherent prioritization between the real-time control tasks to ensure high-performance operation. In this paper, a generic architecture for task-based integrated plasma control is proposed. The architecture is characterized by the separation of state estimation, event detection, decisions and task execution among different algorithms, with standardized signal interfaces. Central to the architecture are a plasma state monitor and supervisory controller. In the plasma state monitor, discrete events in the continuous-valued plasma state arc modeled using finite state machines. This provides a high-level representation of the plasma state. The supervisory controller coordinates the execution of multiple plasma control tasks by assigning task priorities, based on the finite states of the plasma and the pulse schedule. These algorithms were implemented on the TCV digital control system and integrated with actuator resource management and existing state estimation algorithms and controllers. The plasma state monitor on TCV can track a multitude of plasma events, related to plasma current, rotating and locked neoclassical tearing modes, and position displacements. In TCV experiments on simultaneous control of plasma pressure, safety factor profile and NTMs using electron cyclotron heating (ECI I) and current drive (ECCD), the supervisory controller assigns priorities to the relevant control tasks. The tasks are then executed by feedback controllers and actuator allocation management. This work forms a significant step forward in the ongoing integration of control capabilities in experiments on TCV, in support of tokamak reactor operation.

  • 122.
    Blom, Erik
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Characterization of γ-rays at MAST2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The γ-ray characterizing possibility of the neutron collimated flux monitor (in short, Neutron Camera) at the Mega Ampere Spherical Tokamak (MAST) is explored. Typically used to monitor neutron emission, the Neutron Camera has excellent neutron/γ-ray discrimination properties and thus presents the opportunity to measure spatially and temporally resolved γ-ray emission - a possibility of an additional fusion diagnostics method with already existing equipment. An Online Data Analysis (ODA) code was used to analyze the data on γ-rays from several plasma discharges with similar plasma parameters. A high statistics temporal distribution of the γ-ray emission and a lower statistics spatial distribution were analyzed. However, the low energy resolution and range for the Neutron Camera γ-ray measurements revealed few conclusive results on the origin of the higher energy γ-rays. Detection systems with higher energy resolution and range are suggested for an extensive analysis of γ-ray emission at MAST Upgrade.

  • 123.
    Blomberg, Joel
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Sensitivity study of control rod depletion coefficients2015Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This report investigates the sensitivity of the control rod depletion coefficients, Sg, to different input parameters and how this affects the accumulated 10B depletion, β. Currently the coefficients are generated with PHOENIX4, but the geometries can be more accurately simulated in McScram. McScram is used to calculate Control Rod Worth, which in turn is used to calculate Nuclear End Of Life, and Sg cannot be generated in the current version of McScram. Therefore, it is also analyzed whether the coefficients can be related to CRW and thus be studied indirectly through it. Simulations of the coefficients were done in PHOENIX4, simulations of CRW were done in both PHOENIX4 and McScram and simulations of β were done in POLCA7. All simulations were performed for a CR99 in a BWR reactor.

    The control rod coefficients were found to be sensitive to the enrichment of the fuel, void fraction of the water and the width of the gap, and these effects were also seen in the results of β. As a result, one of three steps could be taken. First, the parameter values should not be set arbitrarily, instead default values could be chosen such that Sg is calculated more accurately. Second, a set of tables of Sg could be generated for different parameter values so that β can be calculated with Sg from the current conditions, although this would mean that PHOENIX4 needs to be updated. Third, McScram can be updated to be able to calculate Sg directly.

    It has been concluded that Sg cannot be studied indirectly through CRW since the trends and the sensitivity to the different parameters were not consistent between Sg, CRW calculated with PHOENIX4 and CRW calculated with McScram, where PHOENIX4 was more sensitive than McScram. The results can instead be used to bench-mark the PHOENIX4 results.

  • 124.
    Bläckberg, Lisa
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Materialteori. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Surface coatings as xenon diffusion barriers on plastic scintillators: Improving Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty verification2011Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates the ability of transparent surface coatings to reduce xenon diffusion into plastic scintillators. The motivation for the work is improved radioxenon monitoring equipment, used with in the framework of the verification regime of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty.

    A large part of the equipment used in this context incorporates plastic scintillators which are in direct contact with the radioactive gas to be detected. One problem with such setup is that radioxenon diffuses into the plastic scintillator material during the measurement, resulting in an unwanted memory effect consisting of residual activity left in the detector.

    In this work coatings of Al2O3 and SiO2, with thicknesses between 20 and 400 nm have been deposited onto flat plastic scintillator samples, and tested with respect to their Xe diffusion barrier capabilities. All tested coatings were found to reduce the memory effect, and 425 nm of Al2O3 showed the most promise.

    This coating was deposited onto a complete detector. Compared to uncoated detectors, the coated one presented a memory effect reduction of a factor of 1000. Simulations and measurements of the expected light collection efficiency of a coated detector were also performed, since it is important that this property is not degraded by the coating. It was shown that a smooth coating, with a similar refractive index as the one of the plastic, should not significantly affect the light collection and resolution. The resolution of the complete coated detector was also measured, showing a resolution comparable to uncoated detectors. The work conducted in this thesis proved that this coating approach is a viable solution to the memory effect problem, given that the results are reproducible, and that the quality of the coating is maintained over time.

  • 125.
    Bläckberg, Lisa
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik. Massachusetts General Hospital & Harvard Medical School.
    El Fakhri, Georges
    Massachusetts General Hospital & Harvard Medical School.
    Sabet, Hamid
    Massachusetts General Hospital & Harvard Medical School.
    Simulation study of light transport in laser-processed LYSO:Ce detectors with single-side readout2017Ingår i: Physics in Medicine and Biology, ISSN 0031-9155, E-ISSN 1361-6560, Vol. 62, nr 21, s. 8419-8440Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A tightly focused pulsed laser beam can locally modify the crystal structure inside the bulk of a scintillator. The result is incorporation of so-called optical barriers with a refractive index different from that of the crystal bulk, that can be used to redirect the scintillation light and control the light spread in the detector. We here systematically study the scintillation light transport in detectors fabricated using the laser induced optical barrier technique, and objectively compare their potential performance characteristics with those of the two mainstream detector types: monolithic and mechanically pixelated arrays. Among countless optical barrier patterns, we explore barriers arranged in a pixel-like pattern extending all-the-way or half-way through a 20 mm thick LYSO:Ce crystal. We analyze the performance of the detectors coupled to MPPC arrays, in terms of light response functions, flood maps, line profiles, and light collection efficiency. Our results show that laser-processed detectors with both barrier patterns constitute a new detector category with a behavior between that of the two standard detector types. Results show that when the barrier-crystal interface is smooth, no DOI information can be obtained regardless of barrier refractive index (RI). However, with a rough barrier-crystal interface we can extract multiple levels of DOI. Lower barrier RI results in larger light confinement, leading to better transverse resolution. Furthermore we see that the laser-processed crystals have the potential to increase the light collection efficiency, which could lead to improved energy resolution and potentially better timing resolution due to higher signals. For a laser-processed detector with smooth barrier-crystal interfaces the light collection efficiency is simulated to  >42%, and for rough interfaces  >73%. The corresponding numbers for a monolithic crystal is 39% with polished surfaces, and 71% with rough surfaces, and for a mechanically pixelated array 35% with polished pixel surfaces and 59% with rough surfaces.

  • 126.
    Bläckberg, Lisa
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik. Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Dept Radiol, Gordon Ctr Med Imaging, Boston, MA 02114 USA;Harvard Med Sch, Boston, MA 02115 USA.
    El Fakhri, Georges
    Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Dept Radiol, Gordon Ctr Med Imaging, Boston, MA 02114 USA;Harvard Med Sch, Boston, MA 02115 USA.
    Sabet, Hamid
    Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Dept Radiol, Gordon Ctr Med Imaging, Boston, MA 02114 USA;Harvard Med Sch, Boston, MA 02115 USA.
    Simulation Study of Partially Laser-Processed LYSO:Ce with Single-Side Readout2017Ingår i: 2017 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium And Medical Imaging Conference (NSS/MIC), 2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Laser Induced Optical Barriers (LIOB) can be used to locally engineer the refractive index of a scintillator crystal, leading to the incorporation of so-called optical barriers. Given that the optical barriers may be placed in virtually any pattern inside the scintillator, light transport simulations are important tools for pattern optimization for a given end-application. In this work we simulate the light spread in a 20 mm thick LYSO:Ce detector with optical barriers in a pixel-like pattern half way through its thickness, read out by a photodetector array on one side. We compare the detector performance in terms of DOI and transversal resolution, depending on which side of the detector is chosen for light extraction. Our results show that reading the detector from the laser-processed side yields higher DOI resolution, at the expense of XY resolution, compared to the opposite configuration.

  • 127.
    Bläckberg, Lisa
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Materialteori. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Fay, A.
    Jõgi, Indrek
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för materialkemi, Oorganisk kemi.
    Biegalski, S.
    Boman, Mats
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för materialkemi, Oorganisk kemi.
    Elmgren, K.
    Fritioff, T.
    Johansson, A.
    Martensson, L.
    Nielsen, F.
    Ringbom, A.
    Rooth, Mårten
    Sjöstrand, Henrik
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Klintenberg, Mattias
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Materialteori.
    Investigations of surface coatings to reduce memory effect in plastic scintillator detectors used for radioxenon detection2011Ingår i: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, Vol. 656, nr 1, s. 84-91Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work Al(2)O(3) and SiO(2) coatings are tested as Xe diffusion barriers on plastic scintillator substrates. The motivation is improved beta-gamma coincidence detection systems, used to measure atmospheric radioxenon within the verification regime of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. One major drawback with the current setup of these systems is that the radioxenon tends to diffuse into the plastic scintillator material responsible for the beta detection, resulting in an unwanted memory effect. Here, coatings with thicknesses between 20 and 900 nm have been deposited onto plastic scintillators, and investigated using two different experimental techniques. The results show that all tested coatings reduce the Xe diffusion into the plastic. The reduction is observed to increase with coating thickness for both coating materials. The 425 nm Al(2)O(3) coating is the most successful one, presenting a diffusion reduction of a factor 100, compared to uncoated plastic. In terms of memory effect reduction this coating is thus a viable solution to the problem in question.

  • 128.
    Bläckberg, Lisa
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Materialteori.
    Fritioff, T.
    Martensson, L.
    Nielsen, F.
    Ringbom, A.
    Sjöstrand, Henrik
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Klintenberg, Mattias
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Materialteori.
    Memory effect, resolution, and efficiency measurements of an Al2O3 coated plastic scintillator used for radioxenon detection2013Ingår i: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, Vol. 714, s. 128-135Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A cylindrical plastic scintillator cell, used for radioxenon monitoring within the verification regime of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, has been coated with 425 nm Al2O3 using low temperature Atomic Layer Deposition, and its performance has been evaluated. The motivation is to reduce the memory effect caused by radioxenon diffusing into the plastic scintillator material during measurements, resulting in an elevated detection limit. Measurements with the coated detector show both energy resolution and efficiency comparable to uncoated detectors, and a memory effect reduction of a factor of 1000. Provided that the quality of the detector is maintained for a longer period of time, Al2O3 coatings are believed to be a viable solution to the memory effect problem in question.

  • 129.
    Bläckberg, Lisa
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Materialteori. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Fritioff, Tomas
    Mårtensson, Lars
    Nielsen, Fredrik
    Ringbom, Anders
    Sjöstrand, Henrik
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Klintenberg, Mattias
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Materialteori.
    Measurements of memory effect and resolution for an Al2O3 coated plastic scintillator used for radioxenon detectionManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    A cylindrical plastic scintillator cell, used for radioxenon monitoring within the verification regime of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, has been coated with 425 nm Al2O3 using low temperature Atomic Layer Deposition, and its performance has been evaluated. The motivation is to reduce the memory effect caused by radioxenon diffusing into the plastic scintillator material during measurements, resulting in an elevated detection limit. Measurements of the coated detector show a resolution comparable to uncoated detectors, and a memory effect reduction of a factor of 1000. If these results are reproducible, and the quality of the detector is maintained for a longer period of time, the Al2O3 coating method is believed to be viable solution to the memory effect problem in question.

  • 130.
    Bläckberg, Lisa
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Materialteori. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Klintenberg, Mattias
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Materialteori.
    Ringbom, Anders
    Sjöstrand, Henrik
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Effects of surface coatings on the light collection in plastic scintillators used for radioxenon detection2012Ingår i: Physica Scripta, ISSN 0031-8949, E-ISSN 1402-4896, Vol. T150, s. 014007-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Atomic Layer Deposition coatings are under investigation to reduce diffusion of radioxenon into plastic scintillators. This paper investigates the impact of such surface coating on the light collection efficiency in a cylindrical geometry. A high and uniform light collection efficiency is important to preserve detector resolution. Monte Carlo simulations and measurements have been performed to study the influence of coating thickness, refractive index, and surface quality. It was found important to achieve a smooth coating, and a good optical match between the refractive indices of the coating and the plastic scintillator. Taking these considerations into account, the detector under study could be coated without significant degradation of its resolution.

  • 131.
    Bläckberg, Lisa
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik. Dept. of Radiolgy at Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, USA.
    Moebius, Michael
    El Fakhri, Georges
    Mazur, Eric
    Sabet, Hamid
    Light spread manipulation in scintillators using laser induced optical barriers2018Ingår i: IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, ISSN 0018-9499, E-ISSN 1558-1578, Vol. 65, nr 8, s. 2208-2215Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We are using the Laser Induced Optical Barriers (LIOB) technique to fabricate scintillator detectors with combined performance characteristics of the two standard detector types, mechanically pixelated arrays and monolithic crystals. This is done by incorporation of so-called optical barriers that have a refractive index lower than that of the crystal bulk. Such barriers can redirect the scintillation light and allow for control of the light spread in the detector. Previous work has shown that the LIOB technique has the potential to achieve detectors with high transversal and depth of interaction (DOI) resolution simultaneously in a single-side readout configuration, suitable for high resolution PET imaging. However, all designs studied thus far present edge effect issues similarly as in the standard detector categories. In this work we take advantage of the inherent flexibility of the LIOB technique and investigate alternative barrier patterns with the aim to address this problem. Light transport simulations of barrier patterns in LYSO:Ce, with deeper barrier walls moving towards the detector edge show great promise in reducing the edge effect, however there is a trade-off in terms of achievable DOI information. Furthermore, fabrication and characterization of a 20 mm thick LYSO:Ce detector with optical barriers forming a pattern of 1×1×20mm3 pixel like structures show that light channeling in laser-processed detectors in agreement with optical barriers with refractive index between 1.2 and 1.4 is achievable.

  • 132.
    Bläckberg, Lisa
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Materialteori. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Ringbom, A.
    Sjöstrand, Henrik
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Klintenberg, Mattias K.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Materialteori.
    Assisted self-healing in ripped graphene2010Ingår i: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 82, nr 19, s. 195434-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A monolayer of sp(2)-bonded carbon (graphene) is a material with great technological promise because of, for example, its transport, electrical, optical, and mechanical properties. In this work noble gas diffusion through ripped graphene sheets is explored. The motivation is improved detection systems used worldwide to verify compliance of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. It is demonstrated that even ripped graphene sheets and/or nonoverlapping graphene flakes inhibit noble gas diffusion. The latter has been shown for He and Xe where an infinitely long rip was constructed to have Stone-Wales edges. It is also shown that the ripped graphene layer self-heal in an alternating pentagon, hexagon, heptagon (5-6-7) and 7-6-5 pattern perpendicular to the rip. Moreover, the noble gas (He and Xe) assists in the healing process of wider rips.

  • 133.
    Boafo, E.K.
    et al.
    National Nuclear Research Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission.
    Alhassan, Erwin
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Akaho, E.H.K.
    National Nuclear Research Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission.
    Utilizing the burnup capability in MCNPX to perform depletion analysisof an MNSR fuel2014Ingår i: Annals of Nuclear Energy, ISSN 0306-4549, E-ISSN 1873-2100, Vol. 73, s. 478-483Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, we present results of fuel depletion analyses performed for a potential LEU core of Ghana’s Miniature Neutron Source Reactor (GHARR-1) using the Monte Carlo N-particle extended (MCNPX) neutron transport code. Depletion calculation was carried out for the reactor core from the Beginning of Life (BOL) to the End of Life (EOL) which corresponds to 10 years of reactor operation. The amounts of uranium and plutonium actinides were estimated at BOL and EOL of the core. Decay heat removal rate for the MNSR after reactor shut down was investigated due to its significance to reactor safety. Inventory of fission products produced as a result of burnup was also calculated. The results show that a maximum discharge burnup equivalent to 0.568% of U-235 was consumed at EOL equivalent to operating the reactor for 200 Effective Full Power Days (EFPD), while the amount of Pu-239 produced was not significant.Also, the decay heat decreased exponentially after reactor shutdown confirming that decay heat will be removed in the system by natural circulation after shutdown and thus guaranteeing the safety of the reactor.

  • 134.
    Boirot, Milo
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Implementation of low-energy PIXE at the new scattering chamber of the 350 kV implanter2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, a new setup for low-energy Particles Induced X-Ray emission (LE-PIXE) was developed at the third beamline of the 350 kV implanter.  First, we implemented a new X-Ray detector in the chamber. Then, we compared the method with other X-ray based techniques such as, X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDX) and high-energy PIXE . An analysis of the strengths and weakness of each technique will be given. To complete the experimental work, an important theory part is provided to introduce the main phenomena taking place during the experiments, covering from the main theory of the ionization of atoms to the cross section and attenuation principle for PIXE and RBS.  Likewise an analysis of the limitation and of the possibility of low-energy PIXE through the detection limits measured on Fluorine and Oxygen samples will be carried out. The major goal is to be able to make a new statements on low-energy PIXE method following new theoretical models and better equipment.

  • 135.
    Bourva, Ludovic
    et al.
    International Atomic Energy Agenca (IAEA).
    Jansson, PeterUppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    International Workshop on Numerical Modelling of NDA Instrumentation and Methods for Nuclear Safeguards: (NM-NDA-IMNS18)2018Proceedings (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 136.
    Branger, Erik
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Enhanced verification of irradiated nuclear fuel using Cherenkov light2019Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The Digital Cherenkov Viewing Device (DCVD) is one instrument available to authority inspectors to verify spent nuclear fuel assemblies in wet storage. Verification with the DCVD relies on a comparison between the measured Cherenkov light intensity to a predicted one. This work describes the development of an improved the prediction model, to further enhance the DCVD performance. By considering more fuel parameters in the predictions, predictions that are more accurate can be provided for fuel assemblies with a greater range of burnups, cooling times and irradiation histories. Furthermore, by considering the effect of the storage situation, the accuracy of the predictions can be further enhanced. By using the improved prediction model, the DCVD can be put into regular use to reliably verify fuel assemblies with a wider range of burnups and cooling times than before. The improved prediction model will be available to authority inspectors shortly.

  • 137.
    Branger, Erik
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Enhancing the performance of the Digital Cherenkov Viewing Device: Detecting partial defects in irradiated nuclear fuel assemblies using Cherenkov light2018Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The Digital Cherenkov Viewing Device (DCVD) is an instrument used by authority safeguards inspectors to verify irradiated nuclear fuel assemblies in wet storage based on Cherenkov light emission. It is frequently used to verify that parts of an assembly have not been diverted, which is done by comparing the measured Cherenkov light intensity to a predicted one.

    This thesis presents work done to further enhance the verification capability of the DCVD, and has focused on developing a second-generation prediction model (2GM), used to predict the Cherenkov light intensity of an assembly. The 2GM was developed to take into account the irradiation history, assembly type and beta decays, while still being usable to an inspector in-field. The 2GM also introduces a method to correct for the Cherenkov light intensity emanating from neighbouring assemblies. Additionally, a method to simulate DCVD images has been seamlessly incorporated into the 2GM.

    The capabilities of the 2GM has been demonstrated on experimental data. In one verification campaign on fuel assemblies with short cooling time, the first-generation model showed a Root Mean Square error of 15.2% when comparing predictions and measurements. This was reduced by the 2GM to 7.8% and 8.1%, for predictions with and without near-neighbour corrections. A simplified version of the 2GM for single assemblies will be included in the next version of the official DCVD software, which will be available to inspectors shortly. The inclusion of the 2GM allows the DCVD to be used to verify short-cooled assemblies and assemblies with unusual irradiation history, with increased accuracy.

    Experimental measurements show that there are situations when the intensity contribution due to neighbours is significant, and should be included in the intensity predictions. The image simulation method has been demonstrated to also allow the effect of structural differences in the assemblies to be considered in the predictions, allowing assemblies of different designs to be compared with enhanced accuracy.

  • 138.
    Branger, Erik
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Studies of Cherenkov light production in irradiated nuclear fuel assemblies2016Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The Digital Cherenkov Viewing Device (DCVD) is an instrument used by authority inspectors to assess irradiated nuclear fuel assemblies in wet storage for the purpose of nuclear safeguards. Originally developed to verify the presence of fuel assemblies with long cooling times and low burnup, the DCVD accuracy is sufficient for partial defect verification, where one verifies that part of an assembly has not been diverted. Much of the recent research regarding the DCVD has been focused on improving its partial defect detection capabilities.

    The partial-defect analysis procedure currently used relies on comparisons between a predicted Cherenkov light intensity and the intensity measured with the DCVD. Enhanced prediction capabilities may thus lead to enhanced verification capabilities. Since the currently used prediction model is based on rudimentary correlations between the Cherenkov light intensity and the burnup and cooling time of the fuel assembly, there are reasons to develop alternative models taking more details into account to more accurately predict the Cherenkov light intensity.

    This work aims at increasing our understanding of the physical processes leading to the Cherenkov light production in irradiated nuclear fuel assemblies in water. This has been investigated through simulations, which in the future are planned to be complemented with measurements.

    The simulations performed reveal that the Cherenkov light production depends on fuel rod dimensions, source distribution in the rod and initial decay energy in a complex way, and that all these factors should be modelled to accurately predict the light intensity. The simulations also reveal that for long-cooled fuel, Y-90 beta-decays may contribute noticeably to the Cherenkov light intensity, a contribution which has not been considered before.

    A prediction model has been developed in this work taking fuel irradiation history, fuel geometry and Y-90 beta-decay into account. These predictions are more detailed than the predictions based on the currently used prediction model. The predictions with the new model can be done quickly enough that the method can be used in the field. The new model has been used during one verification campaign, and showed superior performance to the currently used prediction model. Using the currently used model for this verification, the difference between measured and predicted intensity had a standard deviation of 15.4% of the measured value, and using the new model this was reduced to 8.4%.

  • 139.
    Branger, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Grape, Sophie
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Jacobsson, Staffan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Jansson, Peter
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Andersson Sundén, Erik
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Comparison of prediction models for Cherenkov light emissions from nuclear fuel assemblies2017Ingår i: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 12, artikel-id P06007Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Digital Cherenkov Viewing Device (DCVD) is a tool used by nuclear safeguards inspectors to verify irradiated nuclear fuel assemblies in wet storage based on the Cherenkov light produced by the assembly. Verification that no rods have been substituted in the fuel, so-called partial-defect verification, is made by comparing the intensity measured with a DCVD with a predicted intensity, based on operator fuel declaration. The prediction model currently used by inspectors is based on simulations of Cherenkov light production in a BWR 8x8 geometry. This work investigates prediction models based on simulated Cherenkov light production in a BWR 8x8 and a PWR 17x17 assembly, as well as a simplified model based on a single rod in water. Cherenkov light caused by both fission product gamma and beta decays were considered.The simulations reveal that there are systematic differences between the models, most noticeably with respect to the fuel assembly cooling time. Consequently, a prediction model that is based on another fuel assembly configuration than the fuel type being measured, will result in systematic over or underestimation of short-cooled fuel as opposed to long-cooled fuel. While a simplified model may be accurate enough for fuel assemblies with fairly homogeneous cooling times, the prediction models may differ by up to 18 \,\% for more heterogeneous fuel. Accordingly, these investigations indicate that the currently used model may need to be exchanged with a set of more detailed, fuel-type specific models, in order minimize the model dependant systematic deviations.

  • 140.
    Branger, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Grape, Sophie
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Jacobsson, Staffan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Jansson, Peter
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Andersson Sundén, Erik
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    On Cherenkov light production by irradiated nuclear fuel rods2017Ingår i: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 12, artikel-id T06001Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Safeguards verification of irradiated nuclear fuel assemblies in wet storage is frequently done by measuring the Cherenkov light in the surrounding water produced due to radioactive decays of fission products in the fuel. This paper accounts for the physical processes behind the Cherenkov light production caused by a single fuel rod in wet storage, and simulations are presented that investigate to what extent various properties of the rod affect the Cherenkov light production. The results show that the fuel properties has a noticeable effect on the Cherenkov light production, and thus that the prediction models for Cherenkov light production which are used in the safeguards verifications could potentially be improved by considering these properties.It is concluded that the dominating source of the Cherenkov light is gamma-ray interactions with electrons in the surrounding water. Electrons created from beta decay may also exit the fuel and produce Cherenkov light, and e.g. Y-90 was identified as a possible contributor to significant levels of the measurable Cherenkov light in long-cooled fuel. The results also show that the cylindrical, elongated fuel rod geometry results in a non-isotropic Cherenkov light production, and the light component parallel to the rod's axis exhibits a dependence on gamma-ray energy that differs from the total intensity, which is of importance since the typical safeguards measurement situation observes the vertical light component. It is also concluded that the radial distributions of the radiation sources in a fuel rod will affect the Cherenkov light production.

  • 141.
    Branger, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Grape, Sophie
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Jacobsson Svärd, Staffan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Wernersson, Erik L. G.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Bildanalys och människa-datorinteraktion.
    Improved DCVD assessments of irradiated nuclear fuel using image analysis techniques2014Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The Digital Cherenkov Viewing Device (DCVD) is a tool for measuring the Cherenkov light intensity emitted from irradiated nuclear fuel in wet storage. It is currently used in nuclear facilities where authority inspectors perform attended gross defect verification to ensure the presence of irradiated fuel material, as well as partial defect verification to ensure that a fraction of the fuel material has not been diverted. In 2013, Uppsala University (UU), supported by the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, initiated a PhD project aimed at gaining a better understanding of the underlying physics process of the Cherenkov light emission and its detection, in order to improve and enhance the capabilities of the DCVD. The scope of this research is broad and includes modelling, simulations and experiments. As a first step, expertise on image analysis was brought into the project with the purpose to identify image analysis related opportunities and challenges relevant to the DCVD. The investigations performed so far cover general aspects of image analysis as well as aspects specific for verification of PWR fuels, where the fuel geometry may be extra challenging. Resulting from the investigation are suggestions on how to improve the measurement procedure and consequently the image quality obtained with the DCVD. This presentation describes these results and expected outcomes of their implementation.

  • 142.
    Branger, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Grape, Sophie
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Jansson, Peter
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Verifying PWR assemblies with rod cluster control assembly inserts using a DCVDManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the instruments available to authority inspectors to measure and characterize the Cherenkov light emissions from irradiated nuclear fuel assemblies in wet storage is the Digital Cherenkov Viewing Device (DCVD). Based on the presence, characteristics and intensity of the Cherenkov light, the inspectors can verify that an assembly under study is not a dummy object, as well as perform partial defect verification of the assembly.

     

    PWR assemblies are sometimes stored with a rod cluster control assembly (RCCA) inserted, which affects the Cherenkov light production and transport in the assembly. Such an insert will also block light from exiting the top of the fuel assembly, which will affect the light distribution and intensity of the Cherenkov light emissions. Whether or not this constitutes a problem when verifying the assemblies for gross or partial defects with a DCVD has not previously been investigated thoroughly.

     

    In this work, the Cherenkov light intensity of a PWR 17x17 assembly with two different RCCA inserts were simulated and analysed, and compared to the Cherenkov light intensity from an assembly without an insert. For the studied assembly and insert types, the DCVD was found to be able to detect partial defects on the level of 50% in all three cases with similar sensitivity, though with a higher measurement uncertainty due to the reduced intensity when an RCCA insert is present. Consequently, for the studied assembly and insert types, assemblies with inserts can be verified with the same methodology and using the same requirements as for assemblies without inserts, with similar partial defect detection performance.

     

    The approach used also made it possible to investigate the minimum sensitivity of the DCVD required to detect partial defects of other levels than 50% in the PWR 17x17 fuel assembly without and with RCCA inserts. These studies gave results that were in agreement with previous results, despite differences in substitution patterns, substitution materials, modeling software and analysis approach.

  • 143.
    Branger, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Grape, Sophie
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Jansson, Peter
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Verifying PWR assemblies with rod cluster control assembly inserts using a DCVD2019Ingår i: ESARDA Bulletin, ISSN 1977-5296, nr 58, s. 35-40Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the instruments available to authority inspectors to measure and characterize the Cherenkov light emissions from irradiated nuclear fuel assemblies in wet storage is the Digital Cherenkov Viewing Device (DCVD). Based on the presence, characteristics and intensity of the Cherenkov light, the inspectors can verify that an assembly under study is not a dummy object, as well as perform partial defect verification of the assembly.

    PWR assemblies are sometimes stored with a rod cluster control assembly (RCCA) inserted, which affects the Cherenkov light production and transport in the assembly. Such an insert will also block light from exiting the top of the fuel assembly, which will affect the light distribution and intensity of the Cherenkov light emissions. Whether or not this constitutes a problem when verifying the assemblies for gross or partial defects with a DCVD has not previously been investigated thoroughly.

    In this work, the Cherenkov light intensity of a PWR 17x17 assembly with two different RCCA inserts were simulated and analysed, and compared to the Cherenkov light intensity from an assembly without an insert. For the studied assembly and insert types, the DCVD was found to be able to detect partial defects on the level of 50% in all studied cases with similar performance, though with a higher measurement uncertainty due to the reduced intensity when an RCCA insert is present. Consequently, for the studied assembly and insert types, assemblies with inserts can be verified with the same methodology as used for assemblies without inserts, with similar partial defect detection performance.

    The simulation approach used also made it possible to investigate the minimum Cherenkov light intensity reduction resulting from partial defects of other levels than 50%, in the PWR 17x17 fuel assembly with and without RCCA inserts. The results for the simulations without an insert were in agreement with previous results, despite differences in substitution patterns, substitution materials, modeling software and analysis approach.

  • 144.
    Branger, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Grape, Sophie
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Jansson, Peter
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Andersson Sundén, Erik
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Jacobsson Svärd, Staffan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Investigating the Cherenkov light production due to cross-talk in closely stored nuclear fuel assemblies in wet storage2018Ingår i: ESARDA Bulletin, ISSN 1977-5296, nr 57Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The Digital Cherenkov Viewing Device (DCVD) is one of the tools available to a safeguards inspector performing verifications of irradiated nuclear fuel assemblies in wet storage. One of the main advantages of safeguards verification using Cherenkov light is that it can be performed without moving the fuel assemblies to an isolated measurement position, allowing for quick measurements. One disadvantage of this procedure is that irradiated nuclear fuel assemblies are often stored close to each other, and consequently gamma radiation from one assembly can enter a neighbouring assembly, and produce Cherenkov light in the neighbour. As a result, the measured Cherenkov light intensity of one assembly will include contributions from its neighbours, which may affect the safeguards conclusions drawn.

    In this paper, this so-called near-neighbour effect, is investigated and quantified through simulation. The simulations show that for two fuel assemblies with similar properties stored closely, the near-neighbour effect can cause a Cherenkov light intensity increase of up to 3% in a measurement. For one fuel assembly surrounded by identical neighbour assemblies, a total of up to 14% of the measured intensity may emanate from the neighbours. The relative contribution from the near-neighbour effect also depends on the fuel properties; for a long-cooled, low-burnup assembly, with low gamma and Cherenkov light emission, surrounded by short-cooled, high-burnup assemblies with high emission, the measured Cherenkov light intensity may be dominated by the contributions from its neighbours.

    When the DCVD is used for partial-defect verification, a 50% defect must be confidently detected. Previous studies have shown that a 50% defect will reduce the measured Cherenkov light intensity by 30% or more, and thus a threshold has been defined, where a ≥30% decrease in Cherenkov light indicates a partial defect. However, this work shows that the near-neighbour effect may also influence the measured intensity, calling either for a lowering of this threshold or for the intensity contributions from neighbouring assemblies to be corrected for. In this work, a method is proposed for assessing the near-neighbour effect based on declared fuel parameters, enabling the latter type of corrections.

  • 145.
    Branger, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Grape, Sophie
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Jansson, Peter
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Jacobsson, Staffan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Improved Cherenkov Light Prediction Model for Enhanced DCVD Performance2018Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The Digital Cherenkov Viewing Device (DCVD) is an instrument used to verify irradiated nuclear fuel assemblies in wet storage based on the fuel’s Cherenkov light emissions. The DCVD is frequently used for partial defect verification, verifying that 50% or more of an assembly has not been diverted. The verification methodology is based on comparison of the measured Cherenkov light intensity to a predicted intensity, based on operator declarations.

    For the last five years, a dedicated PhD project at Uppsala University has been aiming at enhancing and improving the verification capabilities when using the DCVD. The project is now approaching its end, and this paper summarizes the comprehensive work performed regarding improving the prediction capabilities.

    A new prediction model has been developed, considering more fuel assembly details to ensure more accurate predictions. With the new model, the irradiation history of an assembly, the assembly design and the contributions from gamma and beta decays are taken into account. The model has also been extended to account for the radiation from neighbouring fuel assemblies, which can enter the assembly being measured and contribute to the measured Cherenkov light. The performance of the prediction model and the neighbour intensity prediction model has been validated against fuel measurements by the IAEA at a PWR facility with short-cooled fuel. The results show that the new model offers an improved prediction capability, allowing the fuel inventory to be verified with no fuel assemblies being identified as outliers requiring additional investigation. A simplified version of the prediction model will be implemented in the next DCVD software version, making it available to IAEA inspectors.

    This development of the DCVD capabilities are in line with the fourth theme of the IAEA safeguards symposium, “Shaping the future of safeguards implementation”, by resolving challenges related to the DCVD and by extending the capabilities of the instrument.

  • 146.
    Branger, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Grape, Sophie
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Jansson, Peter
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Jacobsson Svärd, Staffan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Experimental evaluation of models for predicting Cherenkov light intensities from short-cooled nuclear fuel assemblies2018Ingår i: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 13, artikel-id P02022Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Digital Cherenkov Viewing Device (DCVD) is a tool used by nuclear safeguards inspectors to verify irradiated nuclear fuel assemblies in wet storage based on the recording of Cherenkov light produced by the assemblies. One type of verification involves comparing the measured light intensity from an assembly with a predicted intensity, based on assembly declarations. Crucial for such analyses is the performance of the prediction model used, and recently new modelling methods have been introduced to allow for enhanced prediction capabilities by taking the irradiation history into account, and by including the cross-talk radiation from neighbouring assemblies in the predictions.

    In this work, the performance of three models for Cherenkov-light intensity prediction is evaluated by applying them to a set of short-cooled PWR 17x17 assemblies for which experimental DCVD measurements and operator-declared irradiation data was available; (1) a two-parameter model, based on total burnup and cooling time, previously used by the safeguards inspectors, (2) a newly introduced gamma-spectrum-based model, which incorporates cycle-wise burnup histories, and (3) the latter gamma-spectrum-based model with the addition to account for contributions from neighbouring assemblies.

    The results show that the two gamma-spectrum-based models provide significantly higher precision for the measured inventory compared to the two-parameter model, lowering the standard deviation between relative measured and predicted intensities from 15.2% to 8.1% respectively 7.8%.

    The results show some systematic differences between assemblies of different designs (produced by different manufacturers) in spite of their similar PWR 17x17 geometries, and possible ways are discussed to address such differences, which may allow for even higher prediction capabilities. Still, it is concluded that the gamma-spectrum-based models enable confident verification of the fuel assembly inventory at the currently used detection limit for partial defects, being a 30% discrepancy between measured and predicted intensities, while some false detection occurs with the two-parameter model. The results also indicate that the gamma-spectrum-based prediction methods are accurate enough that the 30% discrepancy limit could potentially be lowered.

  • 147.
    Branger, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Grape, Sophie
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Jansson, Peter
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Jacobsson Svärd, Staffan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Experimental study of background subtraction in Digital Cherenkov Viewing Device measurements2018Ingår i: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 13, nr 8, artikel-id T08008Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Digital Cherenkov Viewing Device (DCVD) is an imaging tool used by authority inspectors for partial defect verification of nuclear fuel assemblies in wet storage, i.e. to verify that part of an assembly has not been diverted. One of the currently adopted verification procedures is based on quantitative measurements of the assembly's Cherenkov light emissions, and comparisons to an expected intensity, calculated based on operator declarations. A background subtraction of the intensity data in the recorded images is necessary for accurate quantitative measurements. The currently used background subtraction is aimed at removing an electronics-induced image-wide offset, but it is argued here that the currently adopted procedure may be insufficient.

    It is recommended that a standard dark-frame subtraction should be used, to remove systematic pixel-wise background due to the electronics, replacing the currently used offset procedure. Experimental analyses show that a dark-frame subtraction would further enhance the accuracy and reliability of DCVD measurements. Furthermore, should ageing of the CCD chip result in larger systematic pixel-wise deviations over time, a dark-frame subtraction can ensure reliable measurements regardless of the age of the CCD chip. It can also help in eliminating any adverse effects of malfunctioning pixels. In addition to the background from electronic noise, ways to compensate for background from neighbouring fuel assemblies and ambient light are also discussed.

    Publikationen är tillgänglig i fulltext från 2019-09-01 09:27
  • 148.
    Branger, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Grape, Sophie
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Jansson, Peter
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Jacobsson Svärd, Staffan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Improving the prediction model for Cherenkov light generation by irradiated nuclear fuel assemblies in wet storage for enhanced partial-defect verification capability2015Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 149.
    Branger, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Grape, Sophie
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Jansson, Peter
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Jacobsson Svärd, Staffan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    On the inclusion of light transport in prediction tools for Cherenkov light intensity assessment of irradiated nuclear fuel assemblies2019Ingår i: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 14, artikel-id T01010Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Digital Cherenkov Viewing Device (DCVD) is a tool used to verify irradiated nuclear fuel assemblies in wet storage by imaging the Cherenkov light produced by the radiation emitted from the assemblies. It is frequently used for partial defect verification, verifying that part of an assembly has not been removed and/or replaced. In one of the verification procedures used, the detected total Cherenkov light intensities from a set of assemblies are compared to predicted intensities, which are calculated using operator declarations for the assemblies.

    This work presents a new, time-efficient method to simulate DCVD images of fuel assemblies, allowing for estimations of the Cherenkov light production, transport and detection. Qualitatively, good agreement between simulated and measured images is demonstrated. Quantitatively, it is shown that relative intensity predictions based on simulated images are within 0.5% of corresponding predictions based solely on the production of Cherenkov light, neglecting light transport and detection. Consequently, in most cases it is sufficient to use predictions based on produced Cherenkov light, neglecting transport and detection, thus substantially reducing the time needed for simulations.

    In a verification campaign, assemblies are grouped according to their type, and the relative measured and predicted intensities are compared in a group. By determining transparency factors, describing the fraction of Cherenkov light that is blocked by the top plate of an assembly, it is possible to adjust predictions based on the production of Cherenkov light to take the effect of the top plate into account. This procedure allows assemblies of the same type bit with different top plates to be compared with increased accuracy. The effect of using predictions adjusted with transparency factors were assessed experimentally on a set of Pressurized Water Reactor 17x17 assemblies having five different top plate designs. As a result of the adjustment, the agreement between measured and predicted relative intensities for the whole data set was enhanced, resulting in a reduction of an RMSE from 14.1% to 10.7%. It is expected that further enhancements may be achieved by introducing more detailed top-plate and spacer descriptions.

    Publikationen är tillgänglig i fulltext från 2020-02-01 00:00
  • 150.
    Branger, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Jacobsson Svärd, Staffan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Grape, Sophie
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Wernersson, Erik L. G.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Bildanalys och människa-datorinteraktion.
    Towards unattended partial-defect verification of irradiated nuclear fuel assemblies using the DCVD2014Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The Digital Cherenkov Viewing Device (DCVD) is a tool used by authority inspectors to verify irradiated nuclear fuel assemblies in wet storage by measuring the Cherenkov light emitted. The DCVD is approved by the IAEA for gross defect verification, and is one of the few inspection tools approved for partial defect verification.

    There is interest in adapting the DCVD to work in unattended mode, so that it can be used to verify large quantities of irradiated fuel assemblies prior to moving them to difficult-to-access storage locations. This work presents methods based on image analysis that can be used to reduce the effects of different types of distortions encountered when performing measurements with the DCVD. Implementing these methods will ensure that data of high quality is obtained. Verification prior to moving fuels to difficult-to-access storage may also require a dedicated measurement station to be built, and it is argued that by constructing these stations with the DCVD in mind, many distortions can be reduced or eliminated. Thus, by implementing safeguards-by-design, it is possible to ensure that the DCVD is used in near optimal conditions.

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