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  • 101.
    Ljungwall, Christer
    et al.
    Copenhagen Business School.
    Gustavsson Tingvall, Patrik
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi. Ratio Institute, Stockholm.
    Is China Different? A Meta-Analysis of the Growth-enhancing Effect from R&D Spending in China2014Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we examine whether China has benefited more from spending on R&D than other countries by conducting a meta-analysis of the relevant literature on a large number of countries at different stages of economic development. The results suggest that the growth-enhancing effect of R&D spending in China has been significantly weaker than that of other countries. It is thus unlikely that R&D spending has been successful as a key contributing factor to economic growth in China.

  • 102.
    Ljungwall, Christer
    et al.
    Copenhagen Business School, Denmark.
    Gustavsson Tingvall, Patrik
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi. Ratio Institute, Stockholm.
    Is China Different? A Meta-Analysis of the Growth-enhancing Effect from R&D Spending in China2015Ingår i: China economic review, ISSN 1043-951X, E-ISSN 1873-7781, Vol. 36, s. 11s. 272-278Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we examine whether China has benefited more from spending on R&D than other countries by conducting a meta-analysis of the relevant literature on a large number of countries at different stages of economic development. The results suggest that the growth-enhancing effect of R&D spending in China has been significantly weaker than that of other countries. It is thus unlikely that R&D spending has been successful as a key contributing factor to economic growth in China.

  • 103.
    Lundberg, Nathalie
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi.
    An econometric analysis of the electricity price: And a further analysis on the deciding factors for increased renewable energy2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim with this thesis is to investigate various variables that are pre-assumed to be of importance of the electricity price. With econometric analysis estimation on their influence of the electricity price are made. This is important when consider the electricity market and its future challenges towards renewable energy that are intermittent energy. The market and supply primarily need to consider the competitiveness, the environmental impact from the production of the electricity and delivery. These three consideration depend on which energy that are evaluated which means that instruments to achieve different goals are needed. The results from the econometric analysis is that the included variables have a significant impact of the electricity price. Rainfall and nuclear power produce about 80 percent of the electricity. Temperature and fossil fuel are of importance as well, during periods with stricter weather conditions it is demanded more electricity for our households and the continuously match of supply and demand at the market sometimes requires coal as input good for production of electricity. The increased renewable energy, also give some explanation towards increased fossil fuel combustion when supply becomes insufficient. But increased wind and solar also increase the supply of electricity with a lower cost of production compared to coal and nuclear power. Earlier studies have estimated that a decreased electricity supply from nuclear power will affect the price negative which means that the price of electricity will increase. In this thesis that assumption is a strong assumption and the suggestion is that it depend on the development of new hydro, wind and solar power proceed. 

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  • 104.
    Lundberg, S.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Bergman, Mats A.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi.
    Tendering design when price and quality is uncertain2017Ingår i: International Journal of Public Sector Management, ISSN 0951-3558, E-ISSN 1758-6666, Vol. 30, nr 4, s. 310-327Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyze how local and central authorities choose between lowest price and more complex scoring rules when they design supplier-selection mechanisms for public procurements. Five hypotheses are tested: a high level of cost uncertainty and highly non-verifiable quality makes the use of the lowest-price supplier-selection method less likely. Organizational habits and transaction-cost considerations influence the choice of mechanism. Strong quality concerns make complex rules more likely. Design/methodology/approach: The analysis departures from normative theory (rational choice) and is based on the regression analysis and survey data comprising a gross sample of 40 contracting authorities and detailed information about 651 procurements. Findings: More complex scoring rules are used more often when the authority is uncertain about costs and about delivered quality. Authority effects are also found to directly and indirectly influence the choice of supplier-selection method, suggesting that tendering design is partly driven by local habits and institutional inertia. Practical implications: The authors argue that, from a normative point of view, lowest price is an adequate method when the degree of uncertainty is low, for example, because the procured products are standardized and since quality can be verified. When there is significant cost uncertainty, it is better to use the so-called economically most advantageous tender (EMAT) method. (Preferably this should be done by assigning monetary values to different quality levels.) If there is significant uncertainty concerning delivered quality, the contracting authority should retain a degree of discretion, so as to be able to reward good-quality performance in observable but non-verifiable quality dimensions; options to extend the contract and subjective assessments of quality are two possibilities. The main findings are that EMAT and more complex scoring rules are used more often when the contracting authorities report that they experience substantial uncertainty concerning delivered quality and actual costs and that these factors tend to decrease the weight given to price, in line with the predictions. However, the authors also find that this result is mainly driven by variations between authorities, rather than by between-products variation for the same authority. This is from a training of professionals and regulation perspective of policy relevance. Social implications: Contract allocation based on habits rather than rational ground could implicate the waste of resources (tax payers money) as it adventures the matching of the preferences of the public sector (the objective, subject matter, of the procurement) and what the potential supplier offers in its tender. Originality/value: Although the principles for supplier selection are regulated by law they give the contracting authority substantial freedom in designing the scoring rule and in choosing what quality criteria to use. The tension between different objectives and the more general question whether the choices made by authorities reflect rational decision making or institutional inertia together motivate the current study. While the design of the supplier-selection mechanism is an important consideration in procurement practice, it has attracted relatively little attention from the academic community.

  • 105.
    Lundqvist, Fredrik
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi.
    Unemployment and Crime2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the relationship between unemployment and crime by examining the large variation in unemployment in Sweden between 2007 and 2017. In this paper, I use a panel data set that consist of 3190 observations over 290 municipalities. The variation in unemployment serves as a proxy for macroeconomic events. The results suggest at best a weak effect from unemployment on violent crime and no effect from unemployment on property crime which goes against the established crime theory.

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  • 106.
    Maengando Angshed, Sara
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi.
    von Fluck, Vendela
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi.
    An analysis of the determinants of Foreign Direct Investments to OECD countries2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the determinants of inward foreign direct investment to OECD countries. The focus is on horizontal FDI. The purpose of the research is to contribute to the ongoing research, and adding value. This is done by using a dynamic perspective of time, and controlling for country-specific characteristics. The thesis uses panel data covering all 36 OECD countries over a 23 year long time period, 1995-2017. Three regressions have been done using a linear fixed effects model, as well as four addition regressions testing the robustness of the results. Earlier studies have received spread results, as have this study. It found market size, economic stability, trade openness, and currency value as significant determinants of the inward flow of FDI to OECD countries.

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  • 107.
    Mai, Anh
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi. Örebro universitet.
    Organizing for Efficiency: Essays on merger policies, independence of authorities, and technology diffusion2017Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Ladda ner (jpg)
    presentationsbild
  • 108.
    Mai, Anh
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi.
    The impact of regulation on broadband diffusion in EuropeManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 109.
    Mai Thi Van, Anh
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi.
    Is EU Merger Policy Less Stringent After Its 2004 Reform?2016Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper studies how the 2004 merger policy reform affected the probability of a merger being challenged by the European Commission. I use a probit model to assess how economic factors drive decisions and to isolate differences between policies before and after the reform. The net sample consists of 341 horizontal mergers from 1990 to 2012. Overall, I find robust evidence of policy shifts due to the reform. By some measures, the policy appears to have slightly softened. There is also an indication that mergers reviewed under the unilateral-effects theory are more likely to be challenged than are those reviewed under the coordinated-effects theory. Market shares and entry barriers are found to influence decisions before and after the reform. However, market shares appear to play a somewhat smaller role after the reform.

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    Is EU Merger Policy Less Stringent After Its 2004 Reform?
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  • 110.
    Malmberg, Charles
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi.
    Nyberg, John
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi.
    Taylorregeln och negativa styrräntor: En empirisk analys av Taylorregelns relevans i Danmark, Schweiz och Sverige åren 2000-20182018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Inflationen har i många länder varit låg sedan finanskrisen 2008. I försök öka inflationstakten har centralbanker sänkt sina räntor till rekordlåga nivåer. I Danmark, Schweiz och Sverige har styrräntorna varit negativa. John B Taylor föreslog 1993 en makroekonomisk regel med syfte att kunna ge en prognos för styrräntan. Enligt Taylorregeln kan styrräntan förklaras av tidigare perioders inflationstakt och bruttonationalprodukt. Denna uppsats syftar till att undersöka Taylorregelns empiriska relevans i Danmark, Schweiz och Sverige under perioden 2000 till 2018. Två tester genomförs. Det första är att, med en linjär regressionsmodell, undersöka sambandet mellan styrränta, inflationsgap och BNP-gap. Det andra är ett Granger-kausalitetstest för att se om den implicerade kausaliteten i Taylorregeln stämmer. Granger-testet bygger på resultaten från en vektor autoregression. Resultaten i denna uppsats visar att det finns ett samband mellan inflationstakt och styrränta, men inte mellan BNP-gap och styrränta i de valda länderna under undersökningsperioden. Vidare visar resultaten att kausaliteten går från inflationsgap och BNP-gap mot styrränta, som Taylorregeln föreslår. Resultatet lyckas inte påvisa att negativa styrräntor skulle påverka Taylorregelns relevans.

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  • 111.
    Marmefelt, Thomas
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi.
    A Sequence Analysis of Money, Savings, and Investments under Negative Interest Rates2017Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 112.
    Marmefelt, Thomas
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi.
    Emergence of the Gold Standard and the Unification of Monetary Functions: What Happened to the Functioning of the Cashless Payments Systems Using Bills of Exchange?2015Ingår i: EAEPE 2015 Online proceedings, 2015Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 113.
    Marmefelt, Thomas
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi.
    Hanseatic Monetary Arrangements and the Functional Separation of Money2013Ingår i: The 25th EAEPE annual Conference Website [online], 2013, s. -27Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to theoretically analyze, from the perspective of new monetary economics andsociallearning,theevolution of monetary arrangementswith functional separation of money,thispaperanalyzes the history of Hanseatic monetary arrangements and the functional separationof money in the Baltic and North Seas region, that is, the evolution of units of account andmedia of exchangealong the East-West trade routes of the Hanseatic League. Focusing on thecognitive aspect of money as social institution, the evolution of units of account and media ofexchange are studied as adaptive responses by human minds. The emphasis will be on theheuristics of long-distance traders in the Baltic and North Seas region, considering theexchange of commodities and of monies.Going beyond the emergence of money as mediumof exchange, this paper studies the emergence of unitsof account and of media of exchange,that is, the emergence of monetary arrangements as co-evolution of units of account, in theMiddle Ages called monies of account, and media of exchange, in which the value of moneyis given by its purchasing power, be it money of account or money as medium of exchange.This paper views institutions as having both a cognitive and a behavioral component. Associal institution, money has a cognitive dimension, which represents the way traders thinkabout money as unit of account and medium of exchange, respectively, in the form ofmonetary heuristics, translating the unit of account to a particular worth, using a social scriptto which market agents attribute a specific worth.When the value of the underlyingcommodity bundle changes from the original worth, market agents observe a script deviationof that bundle, attributing that to changes in the commodity space, and adjust the bundleaccordingly. As social institution, money also has a behavioral dimension, which is expressedin the purchasing power of money; what commodity bundle could be bought for a certainamount of one currency, a medium of account with its associated media of exchange, foranother currency, thus establishing exchange rates. Exchange rates between currencies wereestablished according to relative perceived purchasing power, some kind of classifier system.Along the cognitive dimension, long-distance tradersformed beliefs about the relativepurchasing power of their currencycompared with the foreign one; along the behavioral onethey exchanged money at the rates so specified.The Hanseatictrade was organized along theline Novgorod-Reval-Lübeck-Hamburg-Bruges-London, whereBruges is of particularinterest as meeting place between Italian and Hanseaticmerchants, an interface ofMediterranean and Baltic commerce.In Bruges,Italianmerchant-bankers operated, usingbillsof exchange to meet the requirements of trade by correspondence, while Hanseatic traderelied on the exchange contract adopted to traveling trade. Hanseatic merchants openedtransitory accounts with Flemish money-changers to be used as means of settlement.Amonetary market orderevolved through the exchange of money and of commodities.

  • 114.
    Marmefelt, Thomas
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi.
    Heuristics in the Evolution of Units of Account and Media of Exchange2016Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 115.
    Marmefelt, Thomas
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi.
    Interwar Monetary Fragmentation and the Gold Standard Restored: The Crisis of 1929 Compared with the Crisis of 20082015Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 116.
    Marmefelt, Thomas
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi.
    Money and Capital2017Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 117.
    Marmefelt, Thomas
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi.
    On the Pathology of Money and Credit: Policy Responses to the Large-Scale Crises of 1929 and of 20082018Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 118.
    Marmefelt, Thomas
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi.
    Seventeenth Century Banking: Amsterdamsche Wisselbank, Stockholms Banco, and Their Consequences for Monetary Evolution2015Ingår i: On conference website, 2015Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 119.
    Marmefelt, Thomas
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi.
    Social Dynamics, Evolution, and the Unity of Social Sciences: Kenneth Boulding in the Light of Friedrich von Hayek and John Searle2013Ingår i: Interdisciplinary Economics: Kenneth E. Boulding's Engagement in the Sciences / [ed] Wilfred Dolfsma & Stefan Kesting, London & New York: Routledge, 2013, s. 88-109Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 120.
    Marmefelt, Thomas
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi. Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    The History of Money and Monetary Arrangements: Insights from the Baltic and North Seas Region2018Bok (Refereegranskat)
  • 121.
    Mekidiche, Lina
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi.
    Löneskillnader mellan män och kvinnor -objektiv eller diskriminerande?: En empirisk studie av löneskillnader mellan kvinnor och män i kvinno- och mansdominerad verksamhet2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Many researchers have empirically and theoretically tried to model and explain the difference in wages that exists between males and female. Recurring justifications for wage differences between males and female is an obsolete view of females, discrimination and female’s choice of occupation. Females have begun to enter previous male-dominated businesses and female have entered previous male-dominated educations. Previous research has focused on wage differences between males and female as a whole in the labor market, hence it is of interest in this thesis to study how the wage difference looks in different labor market segments. The segments chosen for this study are female- and male-dominated activities.

    The purpose of this study is to contribute with an increased understanding of the wage distribution between males and females in female and male-dominated activities and to investigate how large a proportion of the pay gap that can be viewed as objective. Below, the study's questions are presented:

    ●How large is the wage difference on average between females and males in female- and male-dominated activities?

    ●How much of the pay gap between men and women in female- and male-dominated activities can be explained by the variables included in this study?

    The method used in this study was a regression between the dependent variable “wage differences between men and women” and "male-dominated activity", "education level", "average salary" and "estimated work experience (age)". The study consisted of 330 observations.

    The result of the study is that male on average have 11.3 % higher pay than females, and in male-dominated businesses males have an average salary of 5.18 % higher than females and finally in female-dominated activities males have 1.16 % higher pay than females. Furthermore, the control variables indicated that approximately 26 % of the pay gap between male and female in female and male-dominated activities is objective with a level of significance of at least 5 %.

  • 122.
    Mensah, Justice Tei
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Persson, Jens
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Kjellander, Petter
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Elofsson, Katarina
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi.
    Effects of Carnivore Presence on Hunting Lease Pricing in South Sweden2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Carnivore conservation is considered essential because the species offer significant benefits to biodiversity. However, their predation on ungulates reduces ungulate populations with subsequent effects on hunters’ harvests and welfare. In this paper, we use the hedonic price method to estimate the effects of large carnivores on hunting lease prices. We divide the impact of carnivores into two effects: one effect affects game harvests, and the other effect affects the hunters’ direct preferences for the presence of carnivores on hunting land. Results reveal that lynx impose a significant economic cost to owners of hunting rights due to the predation of game. On average, the implicit cost of an additional lynx family is SEK 1.51 million (EUR 0.162 million) per year, and with 95% certainty, the cost per lynx family is at least SEK 340 thousand (EUR 36.6 thousand) per year.

  • 123.
    Mensah, Justice Tei
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Persson, Jens
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Kjellander, Petter
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Elofsson, Katarina
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Effects of carnivore presence on hunting lease pricing in South Sweden2019Ingår i: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 106, artikel-id 101942Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Carnivore conservation is considered essential because the species offer significant benefits to biodiversity. However, their predation on ungulates reduces ungulate populations with subsequent effects on hunters' harvests and welfare. In this paper, we use the hedonic price method to estimate the effects of large carnivores on hunting lease prices. We disentangle the impact of carnivores through their effect on game harvest from their effect on hunters' preferences. Results reveal that lynx impose a significant economic cost to owners of hunting rights due to the predation of game. On average, the implicit cost of an additional lynx family is SEK 1.51 million (EUR 0.162 million) per year, and with 95% certainty, the cost per lynx family is at least SEK 340 thousand (EUR 36.6 thousand) per year.

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  • 124.
    Nahtman, Evelina
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi.
    Possible effects of introducing market rents on rental housing in Sweden2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Housing shortage and its impact on the society has been one of the most discussed topics during the past decade. The aim of this thesis was to explore the possible effects the introduction of market rents could have on rental housing. We observe an existing free market which can be seen as a close substitute to the rental market today, namely the market of tenant owned apartments and estimate the possible market rents based on that. Three Swedish cities have been studied. The results showed that there are possible increases and decreases in rents, variation between and within cities as well as variation between the time periods.

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  • 125.
    Norén Wallin, Christopher
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi.
    Katsanos, Alexandros
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi.
    Konkurrensen i den svenska banksektorn: En tillämpning av Panzar-Rosse modellen2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats behandlar konkurrensen på den svenska bankmarknaden och vilka faktorer som påverkar den. Syftet med uppsatsen ligger i att undersöka vilken marknadsform bankmarknaden karaktäriseras av. Detta görs genom att applicera Panzar-Rosse modellen mellan perioden 2011–2018. Resultatet i studien visar på att Sveriges bankmarknad opererar under förutsättningarna för monopolistisk konkurrens, samt att den befinner sig i långsiktig jämvikt. Utifrån resultatet kan perfekt konkurrens uteslutas men inte att marknaden karaktäriseras av ett monopol. Hittills har de fyra storbankerna SEB, Handelsbanken, Nordea och Swedbank haft majoriteten av marknadsandelarna men på senare tid har nya aktörer etablerat sig. Trots detta, är konkurrensläget idag sämre än i början på 2000-talet vilket tyder på att det finns brister i bankmarknadens konkurrens.

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    Konkurrensen i den svenska banksektorn: En tillämpning av Panzar-Rosse modellen
  • 126.
    Nsabimana, Aimable
    et al.
    University of Rwanda, Kigali, Rwanda.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi. Stockholm School of Economics.
    Surry, Yves
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Ngabitsinze, Jean C.
    University of Rwanda, Kigali, Rwanda.
    Income and food Engel curves in Rwanda: A household microdata analysis2020Ingår i: Agricultural and Food Economics, ISSN 2193-7532, Vol. 8, nr 1, artikel-id 11Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Food insecurity and malnutrition are still major challenges for large proportions of households in Sab-Saharan Africa. The empirical literature on food demand, however, suggest mixed evidence on the roles of income and other socio-economic attributes on food demand. This study analyses the food demand amongst households in Rwanda, based on nationally representative household expenditure and demographic (EICV4, 2013/14) survey data. The results show that poor households consume food containing higher carbohydrates and starches. Further, the study finds that majority of rural households spend sparingly on micronutrients from animal products, suggesting that effective targeted food policy interventions for poor and rural households may play important role in reducing incidence of malnutrition through improving food diets.… Read more

  • 127.
    Ominijei, Esther
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi.
    The Role Of Institutions In Promoting Entrepreneurship In The Nigerian Fashion Industry2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    As the oil sources continue to become depleted and global oil prices continue to drop, there are concerns that the current pattern of growth and development in Nigeria, a country that is heavily dependent on natural resources such as oil as drivers of economic growth, is neither inclusive nor sustainable. In order to shift its focus from the natural resource dependency dynamic, create employment and most importantly, stimulate sustainable economic growth; there is an urgent need for the Nigerian economy to begin harnessing and cultivate their underutilized resources and industries such as the fashion industry. In economics, entrepreneurship is considered as one of the key drivers of economic growth and development. However, the existing empirical and theoretical evidence show the institutional asymmetry and lack of alignment between formal and the informal institutions hinders the social and economic development of productive entrepreneurship. This study aims at exploring the role of institutions in promoting entrepreneurship in the Nigerian fashion industry by identifying the uncertainties and obstacles that existing and emerging entrepreneurs face while trying to start or run a viable business within the Nigerian fashion industry and then analysing how the existing institutions can be used to foster entrepreneurship in the industry. The findings show that there is high potential and diversity in the entrepreneurs’ experiences within the Nigerian fashion industry, which is in line with neoclassical economists that argue that the main challenge in developing countries is not the lack of skills, technology or knowledge, but rather, the lack of proper institutions. The overview of the current status of institutions within the Nigerian fashion industry identifies various regulatory, financial, social, cultural and educational institutions which are both encouraging and discouraging entrepreneurship in the industry, which is in line with the institutional theory. Thus, this study recommends an alignment in the formal and informal institutions in the economy as a way of solving the existing institutional asymmetries that are causing the poor performance of entrepreneurship in the country.

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  • 128.
    Pädam, Sirje
    et al.
    Tallinn University of Technology, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi. Stockholm School of Economics.
    Attitudes Towards Paying for Environmental Protection in the Baltic Sea Region2017Ingår i: Environmental Challenges in the Baltic Region: A Perspective from Economics / [ed] Bali Swain, Ranjula, London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2017, 1, s. 201-220Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter compares public attitudes to environmental protection in Estonia with those in neighbouring Baltic states. Data from the Estonian Environmental Survey (The Chair of Environmental Economics. Tallinn University of Technology, Tallinn, 2010) and ISSP Environment III are compared and analysed using an ordered logit. Support for environmental protection is measured in the form of willingness of individuals to make financial sacrifices through higher prices and higher taxes or accepting a cut in their standard of living, in order to protect the environment. Results show that the demand for the protection of the environment tends to increase with income. There are some differences between public attitudes in terms of willingness to accept cuts in the standard of living and willingness to pay higher taxes and prices. Higher education is another determinant of support for environmental protection, particularly in Estonia.

  • 129.
    Pärsdotter, Julia
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi.
    Backteman, Carl-Otto
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi.
    Korruption och tillväxt: Ett globalt perspektiv på samband mellan korruption och ekonomisk tillväxt2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Världens länder skiljer sig åt i många avseenden. Exempelvis i geografi, population, kultur, religion, levnadsstandard, vilka kan förklara varför länder har olika ekonomiska förhållanden. Denna studie fördjupar sig inom ekonomisk tillväxt, vilket är ett mått på länders produktivitet. För att kunna kontrollera länders ekonomiska tillväxt analyseras faktorerna kapital, populationstillväxt, utbildningsnivå samt hur effektiva ländernas institutioner är. Korruption är den centrala, oberoende variabeln som undersökts med hjälp av ett korruptionsindex. Under senare tid har det förts omfattande diskussioner i media angående Sveriges korruption, främst gällande upphandlingar i den offentliga sektorn, vilket väckte intresse för en studie inom ämnet korruption. 

    Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka huruvida det finns ett samband mellan korruption och ett lands ekonomiska tillväxt. 

    Syftet studeras genom en ekonometrisk multipel regressionsanalys med hjälp av paneldata. Denna studie omfattar 121 länder i världen, vilket omfattar 88% av världens befolkning. 70% av utvalda länder definieras som fattiga och resterande som rika. Nollypotesen är att det inte finns ett samband mellan korruption och ekonomisk tillväxt och alternativhypotesen är att samband föreligger. Vid närmare analys av resultaten kan denna studie påvisa att rika länders ekonomiska tillväxt har ett negativt samband med en ökad korruptionsnivå medan fattiga länders ekonomiska tillväxt, har ett positivt samband med en ökad korruptionsnivå. 

    Denna studie bekräftar tidigare studier utförda i närtid. Till detta påvisar denna studie att det föreligger skillnader mellan rika och fattiga länder, vilket bedöms göra denna studie unik. 

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  • 130.
    Rampal, Priya
    et al.
    M.S. Swaminathan Research Foundation, India.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi. Stockholm School of Economics / Uppsala University.
    Food Security, agriculture and malnutrition in India2019Ingår i: Hunger and Malnutrition as major challenges of the 21st Century / [ed] R. Jha, Singapore: World Scientific, 2019, s. 241-265Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    It is widely recognized that combating malnutrition for women is central not only for their own health but also for the attainment of nutritional adequacy for future generations, including infants, children and adolescents. Attaining adequate nutrition for women is necessary throughout their life, but particularly so before, during and after pregnancy, if intergenerational nutritional adequacy is to be attained. Adequacy of nutrition also helps an individual become more productive and saves medical treatment costs that may otherwise have occurred. However, India’s less than satisfactory record of female, infant and child nutrition underscores the need to take urgent steps, particularly if the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are to be attained. With this as the background the present chapter focuses on the role of agriculture in providing adequate nutrition for women and the methods through which women in the rural sector can leverage existing institutions and programs to ameliorate nutritional inadequacy. This would require the design of informative indices of nutritional attainment and close cooperation in policy between governments, civil society organizations and international advisory groups. The chapter reviews some ways in which these can be attained.

  • 131.
    Ranganathan, S.
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi. Stockholm School of Economics.
    Sumpter, D. J. T.
    Uppsala University.
    The demographic transition and economic growth: Implications for development policy2015Ingår i: Palgrave Communications, ISSN 2055-1045, Vol. 1, artikel-id 15033Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An important transition in the economic history of countries occurs when they move from a regime of low prosperity, high child mortality and high fertility to a state of high prosperity, low child mortality and low fertility. Researchers have proposed various theories to explain this demographic transition and its relation to economic growth. In this article, we test the validity of some of these theories by fitting a non-linear dynamic model for the available cross-country data. Our approach fills the gap between the micro-level models that discuss causative mechanisms but do not consider if alternative models may fit the data well, and models from growth econometrics that show the impact of different factors on economic growth but do not include non-linearities and complex interactions. In our model, mortality and fertility decline and economic growth are endogenized by considering a simultaneous system of equations in the change variables. The model shows that the transition is best described in terms of a development cycle involving child mortality, fertility and GDP per capita. Fertility rate decreases when child mortality is low, and is weakly dependent on GDP. As fertility rates fall, GDP increases, and as GDP increases, child mortality falls. We further test the hypothesis that female education drives down fertility rates rather than child mortality, but find only weak evidence for it. The Bayesian methodology we use ensures robust models and we identify non-linear interactions between indicators to capture real-world non-linearities. Hence, our models can be used in policymaking to predict short-term evolutions in the indicator variables. We also discuss how our approach can be used to evaluate policy initiatives such as the Millennium Development Goals or the Sustainable Development Goals and set more accurate, country-specific development targets. 

  • 132.
    Ranganathan, Shyam
    et al.
    Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Virginia, USA.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi. Stockholm School of Economics.
    Sustainable Development and global emission targets: A dynamical systems approach to aid evidence-based policy making2018Ingår i: Sustainable Development, ISSN 0968-0802, E-ISSN 1099-1719, Vol. 26, nr 6, s. 812-821Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There is broad scientific consensus that increasing global emissions at current rates will result irreversible climate change. The global commitment to the Sustainable Development Goals and the Paris agreement tries to address this concern with policy changes. But top-down approaches including voluntary emission cuts do not seem politically feasible in all countries. In this paper, we show that moderate voluntary emission cuts (policy) supplemented by technological developments and changes in consumption tastes and preferences induced by educating individuals (stakeholder engagement) could help achieve emission targets. We use a novel dynamical systems modeling approach based on economic theory to show the quantitative tradeoffs between these different approaches. Using this model, we also show how economic development may be balanced by global emissions reductions so that, initially, developing economies can continue along their current growth trajectories and eliminate poverty, and eventually bear more of the emissions reduction burden.

  • 133.
    Ranganathan, Shyam
    et al.
    Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, USA .
    Nicolis, Stamatios C
    Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi. Stockholm School of Economics.
    Sumpter, David J T
    Uppsala University.
    Setting development goals using stochastic dynamical system models2017Ingår i: PLoS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, nr 2, artikel-id e0171560Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDG) programme was an ambitious attempt to encourage a globalised solution to important but often-overlooked development problems. The programme led to wide-ranging development but it has also been criticised for unrealistic and arbitrary targets. In this paper, we show how country-specific development targets can be set using stochastic, dynamical system models built from historical data. In particular, we show that the MDG target of two-thirds reduction of child mortality from 1990 levels was infeasible for most countries, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. At the same time, the MDG targets were not ambitious enough for fast-developing countries such as Brazil and China. We suggest that model-based setting of country-specific targets is essential for the success of global development programmes such as the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG). This approach should provide clear, quantifiable targets for policymakers.

  • 134.
    Rojas, Carlos
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi.
    The Impact of Migration on Natives’ Unemployment Rates: A study on the municipal level in Sweden2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The following is a study of the impact of migration on unemployment rates for natives in Sweden, on municipal level. A cross sectional data set has been analyzed using multiple linear regressions. The regression analysis has searched for the impact on the unemployment rates among natives of the size of the share of migrants in the municipalities as well as of the change in the size of the share of migrants during a time span of 13 years.

    The results show that migration has small or non-existent impact on the unemployment rates of natives. The results vary depending on the period being investigated and also depending on the characteristics of the municipality that is investigated.

    When dividing the municipalities into three categories (city, urban and rural municipalities) significant impact of migration on native’s unemployment rates is to be found in city and urban municipalities, but not in rural. The results also indicate that the most significant impact is to be found in the present period of time, while in the long term the impact diminishes to become less significant or not significant at all. 10% migrants in a city municipality in 2015 increased natives’ unemployment level that same year by 0.4 percentage units. More rapid increases of the share of migrants in the labor force have more impact as well. A municipality were the share of migrants grew with 1 percentage unit between 2003 and 2015, had 0.1 percentage unit higher unemployment rate for natives in 2015.

    This study’s results follow the pattern from earlier studies in the field, that since the 1990’s have shown similar effects when measuring different countries on different continents – sometimes the effect has been significant, sometimes not, and when significant the impact has been rather small, often clustering around zero.

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  • 135.
    Roumeliotis, Maria
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi.
    Sjöberg, Evelyn
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi.
    Leder ökad ekonomisk tillväxt till minskade koldioxidutsläpp?: En undersökning utifrån teorin om the Environmental Kuznets Curve2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    I och med industrialiseringens start i mitten på 1850-talet ökade den ekonomiska tillväxten i Sverige. Den snabbt växande produktionen och befolkningen klarade sig inte längre på den energi som var tillgänglig vilket ledde till en ökad efterfrågan av nya och bättre energikällor. Detta medförde höga koldioxidutsläpp och stor miljöförstöring.

    Syftet med denna undersökning är att studera förhållandet mellan den ekonomiska tillväxten och koldioxidutsläpp i Sverige mellan år 1850-2016 och därefter testa tillämpningen av the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC). Den applicerade teorin om EKC, är ett hypotetiskt samband mellan miljökvalitet och ekonomisk utveckling. Olika indikatorer på miljöförstöring tenderar att bli värre när modern ekonomisk tillväxt inträffar, tills genomsnittsinkomsten når en viss nivå under utvecklingen.

    En Ordinary Least Squares-regression (OLS-regression) har använts för att analysera makroekonomiska tidsserier. Vidare har en tidsserieanalys använts för att studera om tidsserierna är stationära.

    Studien resulterade i att det finns stöd för EKC-kurvan för Sverige med tydlig positiv uppgång i form av positiva β-värden från OLS-regressionen samt en negativ trend vid höga inkomstnivåer. 

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  • 136.
    Salame, David
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi.
    Klerck, Harley
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi.
    The Impact of House Price Changes on Household Savings: A panel data study of the impact of the changes in house prices and interest rates on household savings in Europe2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Real estate remains to be a major component of wealth for households as the market value of houses continues to rise noticeably again, as before the global recession 2007. Understanding households’ responses to changes of house prices and interest rates is important as fluctuations of these kind affect their preferences of saving. This thesis examines the impact of house price- and interest rate changes on household savings with the usage of secondary panel data from seven European countries. Providing a definite estimation of the interest elasticity of saving for households is not conceivable with any confidence considering the difficulties in estimating differential behavior. In accordance to previous studies the result of house prices is significant negative regarding household savings. However, the repo rate contradicts earlier results with a significant negative correlation toward household savings indicating an increased confidence due to a behavioral shift. In conclusion, this study shows that internal effects are of great importance as several factors suffer from high internal impact.

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  • 137.
    Santana, Diana
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi.
    Is the Economic Growth in Developing Countries affected by Free Trade?2016Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis examines the relationship between free trade and the economic growth in developing countries. The developments of a more integrated and globalized world challenges countries in new ways by easier access to information and technology, intensified competition and larger requirements on economic efficiency and increased productivity. It is important to examine if trade can induce economic growth, since long-run economic growth determine how living standards change, and provides an opportunity to improve the welfare and reduce the worlds poverty rates. Trade affects countries in different ways and developing countries have diverse growth experiences, where some countries have managed to increase their economic growth compared to others. The thesis presents trade policies and theories, and a brief overview of the controversies regarding trade. The relationship between economic growth and trade is dynamic and complex and trade can be used as a mean to benefit from technological transfers and knowledge spillovers, factors that have a substantial influence on economic growth, along with investments. A cross-section regression analysis is conducted to examine the relationship between trade openness and economic growth. The empirical results show a positive correlation between trade openness and economic growth in developing countries. High initial GDP and population growth are negatively correlated with GDP per Capita growth, while Rule of Law has a positive impact on GDP per Capita growth.

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  • 138.
    Semmanda, Faith
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi.
    Factors affecting economic growth in sub-Saharan Africa: A panel data analysis of the factors that affect economic growth and the development of sub-Saharan African countries2020Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Economic growth rate differs largely between different countries. There are many opinions on which factors really affect the rate of growth in different economies and this causes debates. The factors that affect economic growth include political systems, social settings, economic freedom, human capital and institutional organization. These factors affect not only productivity, but also efficiency.

    This thesis’ purpose is to investigate and explain the factors that affect economic growth in sub-Saharan Africa. Through use of a fixed effects regression model, a panel data investigation will be conducted, and an analysis will be presented in this thesis. By using secondary data for sub-Saharan African countries from reliable sources, the factors that affect economic growth on an annual basis from year 2006 to 2017 are examined. Growth in gross domestic product per individual (GDP per capita growth) is the dependent variable and represents economic growth. The independent variables which are believed to affect this growth are also given, and these include: population growth, foreign direct investment, level of corruption, democracy, life expectancy at birth, expected years of schooling and economic freedom.

    The findings estimate that some of the chosen variables, for example population growth and life expectancy at birth significantly affect economic growth and development in these countries. The rest of the independent variables have an impact on economic growth but are not statistically significant according to this study.

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  • 139.
    Sjölin, Carin
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi.
    The impact of governance on inequality: An empirical study2016Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the effect of governance on inequality, specifically if improvements in the World Bank’s Worldwide Governance Indicators affect inequality as measured by two Gini coefficients: Market Gini, before taxes and redistribution, and Net Gini, after taxes and redistribution.

    The data for the Gini measurements was taken from the Standardized World Income Inequality Database (SWIID) and the data for the Worldwide Governance Indicators was taken from the World Bank. Data for fifteen (15) years, from the start of the Worldwide Governance Indicators until 2013, was combined with data from SWIID for the same years. In all, data from one hundred fifty-six (156) countries with a full set of six (6) indicators for the years that had at least one corresponding Gini measurements were used in this study: in total one thousand seven hundred and forty-seven (1747) observations.

    In a pooled OLS regression, controlling for growth with the variable GDP per Capita expressed as a per cent (%) change on an annual basis, the individual indicators gave the following results, where a positive sign indicates increased inequality and vice versa: Control of Corruption and Regulatory Quality showed a positive sign for both Gini measurements. Rule of Law, Government Effectiveness, Political Stability and the Absence of Violence/Terrorism, gave a negative sign for both Gini measurements. Voice and Accountability showed a positive sign for Market Gini and a negative sign for Net Gini.

    The fact that an improvement in Control of Corruption increased inequality both before and after taxes and redistribution was unexpected and should be further researched.

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  • 140.
    Skjäl, Henric
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi.
    Yaman, Erim
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi.
    Innovationer och dess inverkan av Humankapital, Handel och FoU: Till vilken grad påverkas innovationer i EU av Humankapital, Handel med IKT och FoU?2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats har som mål att undersöka och analysera vilka effekter humankapital, forskning och utveckling och IKT-varor har på innovation. Positiva följder av innovation är en ökad produktivitetsnivå, vilket ökar incitamenten för att fortsätta med innovationer. I denna uppsats kommer patentansökningar att användas som en proxy för innovation. Detta är även något som tidigare studier har gjort. För att undersöka och identifiera de faktorer som har en påverkan på innovationer kommer en panelregression med fixed effects att genomföras. De länder som ingår i studien är 27 EU-medlemsländer. Vår databas saknar en stor mängd värden vilket försvårar analysen vid en panelregression. För att komma runt detta problem kommer en multipel imputation av värden att genomföras. Resultatet visar att statliga investeringar i forskning och utveckling har störst påverkan på innovationer.

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  • 141.
    Skogqvist, Jackline Mwende
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi.
    The effect of mobile money on savings behaviors of the financially excluded2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates whether the use of mobile money affects the savings patterns of individuals that are vulnerable to financial exclusion, that is, the low-income earners, low-educated, women and rural habitants. Studying the case of Kenya, this study uses data from the 2016 FinAccess Household Survey (N=8,665) that was designed to track and measure the drivers, growth and impact of mobile money use in Kenya. Logistic model and the 2SLS IV regression are used as the empirical estimation method for testing the statistical significance of the correlation between mobile money usage and the savings behaviors of the individuals. The results show that users of mobile money are 1.96 more likely to have a savings product than those that do not use mobile money, and that the propensity for users of mobile money to save for emergencies and for future events is 1.44 and 1.27 times higher, respectively, as compared to the non-users. These findings suggest that individuals that use mobile money perceive it as a trustworthy, efficient and reliable store of value especially making savings for future use. This analysis also finds statistically significant evidence suggesting that mobile money use significantly increases the propensity to save for individuals in demographic groups that are more susceptible to the unique challenges that lower accessibility to formal financial services. Therefore, by increasing the probability of individuals in the female, low income, low education and rural groups to save, mobile money fosters financial inclusion which is essential in the realization of the Sustainable Development Goals such as reducing poverty, increasing equality and sustained economic growth among others. In general, this study has specific policy implications for using mobile money as a device for increasing financial inclusion among the ‘unbanked’ population.

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  • 142.
    Spaiser, V.
    et al.
    University of Leeds, Leeds, UK.
    Ranganathan, S.
    Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA, USA.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi. Stockholm School of Economics.
    Sumpter, D. J. T.
    Uppsala University.
    The sustainable development oxymoron: quantifying and modelling the incompatibility of sustainable development goals2017Ingår i: International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology, ISSN 1350-4509, E-ISSN 1745-2627, Vol. 24, nr 6, s. 457-470Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2015, the UN adopted a new set of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) to eradicate poverty, establish socioeconomic inclusion and protect the environment. Critical voices such as the International Council for Science (ICSU), however, have expressed concerns about the potential incompatibility of the SDGs, specifically the incompatibility of socio-economic development and environmental sustainability. In this paper, we test, quantify and model the alleged inconsistency of SDGs. Our analyses show which SDGs are consistent and which are conflicting. We measure the extent of inconsistency and conclude that the SDG agenda will fail as a whole if we continue with business as usual. We further explore the nature of the inconsistencies using dynamical systems models, which reveal that the focus on economic growth and consumption as a means for development underlies the inconsistency. Our models also show that there are factors which can contribute to development (health programmes, government investment) on the one hand and ecological sustainability (renewable energy) on the other, without triggering the conflict between incompatible SDGs. © 2016 The Author(s).

  • 143.
    Spinova, Hanna
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi.
    R&D tax incentives: Do R&D tax incentives stimulate innovations and economic growth? Evidence of OECD countries2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the impact of tax incentives on the firms’ innovative activity and economic growth by using sample of 28 OECD countries. The study using panel data analysis and applies fixed effect OLS models. The results of the econometric investigation indicate that tax incentives have significant and positive effect on the R&D expenditure. Regression analysis also shows a positive significant impact of R&D tax incentives in combination with direct funding for business R&D. The paper finds no evidence of significant relationship between tax incentives and economic growth. The research also finds a positive significant impact of direct R&D support, R&D expenditure and tax incentives on registered patents. We suggest to apply public support policy including both types of support since previous studies showed that tax incentives and direct funding are not perfect substitutes.

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    R&D tax incentives
  • 144.
    Stake, Johan Y.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi.
    Causes of litigation in public procurementManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 145.
    Stake, Johan Y.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi. Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Essays on quality evaluation and bidding behavior in public procurement auctions2015Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In this dissertation, I investigate how different aspects of the procurement process and evaluation affect bidding behavior.

    In essay 1, we attempt to map public procurements in Sweden by gathering a representative sample of procurements. We find that framework agreements and multiple-contract procurements represent a very large share of total government spending. The total value procured by government authorities, municipalities and counties accounts to 215 BSEK yearly, which we believe is an underestimate due to data issues.

    Essay 2 suggests a simple method for of estimating bidding costs in public procurement, and are empirically estimated to be approximately 2 percent of the procurement value using a comprehensive dataset and approximately 0.5 percent for a more homogeneous road re-pavement dataset. Our method provides reasonable estimates with, compared to other methods, relatively low data requirements.

    Essay 3 investigates the effect of quality evaluation on small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Contrary to common belief, SMEs’ participation does not increase when evaluating quality, and their probability to win procurements decreases compared with that of large firms.

    In essay 4, the bidders’ decision to apply for a procurement review “appeal” is investigated. Contrary to procurers’ beliefs, evaluating quality is found not to have any statistically significant effect on the probability of appeals. Instead, I empirically confirm theoretical prediction of the 1st runner-up’s decision to claim the evaluation to be redone, as well as free-riding in appealing.

    In essay 5, we test whether spatial econometrics can be used to test for collusion in procurement data. We apply this method on a known cartel and test during and after the period the cartel was active. Our estimates support the proposition that spatial econometrics can be used to test for collusive behavior.

  • 146.
    Stake, Johan Y.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi.
    Evaluating quality or lowest price: Consequences for small and medium-sized enterprises in public procurement2017Ingår i: Journal of Technology Transfer, ISSN 0892-9912, E-ISSN 1573-7047, Vol. 42, nr 5, s. 1143-1169Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the effect of evaluating the most economically advantageous tender (MEAT) in public procurement rather than lowest price. According to the European Union (EU), evaluations based on MEAT, rather than lowest price, give an advantage to small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in winning public procurement contracts because such firms are viewed as sources of innovation. Thus, MEAT as an evaluation criterion is recommended throughout the EU. Using procurement data from Sweden, I find no significant effect on SME participation in procurement calls for tender as a result of the use of MEAT in firm evaluations. However, large firms significantly increase their participation when MEAT is evaluated. Even more importantly, micro, small and medium-sized firms' probability of winning procurement contracts significantly decreases when MEAT rather than lowest price is used as an evaluative criterion. Thus, evaluation in terms of MEAT increases large firms' bids and success rates; hence, this policy is counterproductive. The reasons SMEs are disadvantaged as a result of evaluations based on MEAT are, however, not examined in this paper and require further research.

  • 147.
    Sternehäll, Tove
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi.
    Donor Motives: An Empirical Study of the Motives Behind Foreign Aid Allocation for Ten OECD Countries2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The foreign aid sector is expanding each year, distributing hundreds of billions of USD per year to the least developed countries of the world. Meanwhile, extensive research has found that aid is not an efficient way to stimulate economic growth in the recipients. Neither is it an effective way to increase long-term sustainable development. While a major debate is going on regarding what actions can be taken to increase the efficiency of foreign aid, a parallel discussion is going on regarding whether the motives of the donor countries are complicit in making the aid inefficient. This thesis examines the contemporary discourse on motives behind foreign aid allocation and puts together an analytical framework for distinguishing between humanitarian, developmental and strategical motives. This framework is used to interpret the results of an empirical study covering two groups of donors; five donors that have previously been found to prioritize their own interests over those of the recipients, and five donors with a more altruistic profile within the literature on the topic. The results of this study corroborate those findings, while emphasizing the impact of colonial- and regional ties for both groups of donors.

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  • 148.
    Stringberg, Frida
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi.
    Does financial sector development have an effect on economic growth?: A study of sub-saharan africa2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of the financial sector in helping an economy grow has been the subject of debate for a long time. Recently, however, consensus has been reached, through empirical evidence, showing the importance of financial sector development in achieving economic growth (ADB, 2009). Using the Global Financial Development Database (GFDD) model, the study done here will provide an analysis of financial sector development in Sub-Saharan Africa and its effect on economic growth, using data for 40 countries, in the years from 2000-2014. This analysis was done using a cross-sectional regression analysis of countries in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) with data provided from the World Bank. The regression shows significantly positive results between economic growth and firms using banks to finance investments, bank cost to income ratio and bank credit to bank deposits, while significantly negative results are shown in financial system deposits and stock market total value traded. However, seeing as financial sector development is diverse and dynamic, these measurements and the regression done here will not provide a comprehensive picture of the state of financial sector development in SSA.

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  • 149.
    Söderlund, B.
    et al.
    Stockholm School of Economics.
    Gustavsson Tingvall, Patrik
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi. Ratio.
    Capital Freedom, Financial Development and Provincial Economic Growth in China2017Ingår i: The World Economy, ISSN 0378-5920, E-ISSN 1467-9701, Vol. 40, nr 4, s. 764-787Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    For more than three decades, China has managed to combine rapid economic growth with a strictly regulated financial sector. The discrepancy between economic and financial development has raised the question of whether China might be an exception to the so-called finance-growth nexus. This study examines the relationship between finance and growth at the provincial level in China using a new set of measures of capital freedom and financial development. The results indicate that capital freedom and financial development are associated with both higher income and growth rates. In particular, we find that the marketisation of financial institutions and strengthening of legal and government institutions have a particularly strong impact on income and growth in low-income provinces.

  • 150.
    Tasnim, Sadia
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi.
    Faraj-Falie, Ronak
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi.
    Remitteringars påverkan på fattigdom i utvecklingsländer: En kvantitativ studie om remitteringsflödet i U-länder2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Överföringar av pengar har blivit en inkomstkälla för människor som bor i utvecklingsländer. Dock är det inte känt om överföringar påverkar fattigdomen i de länder som enligt Världsbanken klassificerar som utvecklingsländer. Syftet med denna studie är att analysera om det finns ett samband mellan överföringar och fattigdom i de länder som enligt Världsbanken klassas som utvecklingsländer. Studiens databas består av 23 länder vars data var tillgänglig för perioden 2008–2017.

    Studien använder en kvantitativ forskningsmetod och data samlades in från Världsbanken och PovcalNet. Totalt användes fem variabler för att uppnå målet med denna studie. Två av dessa är fattigdomsmått och de tre resterande variablerna (BNP per capita, remittering,ginikoefficient) bestod av relevant information i syfte att kunna undersöka om det fanns ett samband mellan remitteringar och minskad fattigdom. De teorier som har valts i denna studie är två olika migrationsteorier och den institutionella teorin. Med hjälp av ett paneldataset konstaterades att överföringar minskar fattigdomen i utvecklingsländerna.

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