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  • 101.
    Blom, Åsa
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Schauerte, Tobias
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för maskinteknik (MT).
    Utomhuskonstruktioner i trä: Några erfarenheter från byggnation i trä av flerbostadshus2017Annet (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 102.
    Blomberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Träteknologi.
    Persson, Bengt
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Träteknologi.
    Plastic deformation in small clear pieces of Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) during densification with the Calignum® process2004Inngår i: Journal of Wood Science, ISSN 1435-0211, E-ISSN 1611-4663, Vol. 50, nr 4, s. 307-314Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 103.
    Blomberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Skog- och träteknik.
    Persson, Bengt
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Skog- och träteknik.
    Swelling pressure of semi-isostatically densified wood under different mechanical restraints2007Inngår i: Wood Science and Technology, ISSN 0043-7719, E-ISSN 1432-5225, Vol. 41, nr 5, s. 401-415Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Semi-isostatically densified and native wood samples of Scots pine and European birch were soaked in water. The swelling coefficients as well as the swelling pressure, that arose when the specimens were restrained in some way prior to the swelling, were measured using a universal testing machine equipped with a high resolution load-cell and an external extensometer. As densified wood swells, the native structure is almost restored and the swelling pressure became twice as high as for native wood in the most compressed directions (radial for pine and birch). That cell-shape recovery increases the swelling pressure can explain the problems with imbalance in laminated constructions where densified wood is used. The possibility to predict the swelling pressure from basic material properties was evaluated. The correlations between swelling pressure and material properties were strong enough to yield good predictive models.

  • 104.
    Blomqvist, Lars
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Laminated Veneer Products: Shape Stability and Effect of Enhanced Formability on Bond-Line Strength2016Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis concerns two aspects of the manufacture of laminated veneer products (LVPs). The first aspect is related to the possible improvement of the shape stability of LVPs, and the second has its starting point in the modification of the veneer for enhanced formability as well as the question of whether and how these modifications affect the bond-line strength.

    LVPs are veneers bonded with adhesive into predetermined shapes, mostly for the production of furniture and interior fittings. Since any deviation from the intended shape is a problem for both manufacturer and customer, various studies have sought to evaluate the influence of different materials and process parameters on shape stability. Parameters studied have included wood species (beech and birch), an adhesive system based on urea formaldehyde, the adhesive distribution on the veneer, climate, moisture content and fibre orientations of the veneers, as well as the orientation of the individual veneers in a multiply.

    Manufacturers of LVPs must consider some basic facts about wood in orders adequately to provide shape-stable LVPs to customers. Wood emits and absorbs moisture in relation to the surrounding climate, and this can lead to shrinkage and swelling. Such moisture induced movements differ in the wood’s different directions, and the magnitude is specific for the species. A thorough understanding of this is the basis for achieving shape-stable LVPs.

    Symmetry is defined in this thesis such that the veneer properties are balanced in the laminate. This means that opposite veneers on either side of the centre veneer have similar characteristic. An LVP will become distorted if the veneers are asymmetrically oriented before the press. Deviation from the desired shape can be small immediately after the pressing, but it may increase significantly with moisture content (MC) variations. Asymmetry may result when veneers with different fibre orientations are included in the laminate or when the veneers are placed asymmetrically. It may also occur if veneers with different MCs are bonded together asymmetrically. One aggravating factor is that the lathe checks that are introduced when the veneers are peeled or sliced from the log affect the shape stability. In 3-ply crosswise-oriented plywood, the veneer surfaces on which the lathe checks occur should be oriented in the same way for high shape stability.

    Based on existing knowledge, the production of shape-stable LVPs requires that the veneers are conditioned to a uniform MC and sorted with regard to fibre orientation and the side with lathe checks before bonding. End-user climates should govern the MC of the veneers and the moisture added with the adhesive during the process. Straight-grain veneers and symmetry should always be the goal.

    Moulding can cause stretching, i.e. strain, of the veneers depending on the curvature of the mould. To prevent the veneers from rupture, there are various ways to strengthen the veneers particularly in the transverse direction in which the veneer is weakest. However, tests have shown that these pre-treatments of veneers for enhanced formability can prevent the adhesive from penetrating the wood surface. It is therefore important to confirm that the pre-treatment does not affect the bond-line strength. 

  • 105.
    Blomqvist, Lars
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Shape stability of laminated veneer products: a review – defining and achieving shape stability2015Inngår i: International Wood Products Journal, ISSN 2042-6445, E-ISSN 2042-6453, Vol. 6, nr 2, s. 89-95Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Laminated veneer products (LVPs) consist of veneers bonded together with an adhesive into a predetermined shape. Deviation from the intended shape is a problem for both manufacturers and customers of the final products. The shape stability of LVP depends on a variety of material and process parameters, and this review identifies several important factors that influence shape stability, the purpose being to find ways of decreasing distortion and improving shape stability so that product quality can be improved.

    The review ends to the following statements:

    The fibre orientation of the veneer strongly influences the shape stability of LVP. The products can show considerable distortion (particularly twist) if the fibre orientation of the veneer is oriented in an unsuitable way in the assembly before moulding.

    The effect of fibre orientation on shape stability can be very small directly after moulding, but it can increase considerably when the moulded product is subjected to a change in moisture content (MC). In general, a change in moisture leads to distortion. Moisture changes alone, however, result in a controlled distortion.

    The orientation of the loose and tight sides of the veneers in LVP affects the shape stability.

    An asymmetrical construction, coupled with different levels of moisture in the different veneers in an assembly before moulding, will result in poor shape stability of the product.

    The choice of wood species affects shape stability. Beech shows more distortion and poorer shape stability than birch.

    Based on existing knowledge to produce shape-stable LVP, the veneers should be conditioned to uniform MC and sorted with regard to fibre orientation and loose or tight side of the veneer before bonding. End-user climates should govern the veneers’ MC and added moisture from the adhesive during the process. Straight grain veneers and symmetry should always be sought.

    This review reveals several areas that need to be further clarified in order to achieve shape-stable LVP, for example the influence of adhesive, the distribution of pressure, temperature, stresses and strains during moulding and the development of numerical methods to better predict the final shape.

  • 106.
    Blomqvist, Lars
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Berg, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Chipless Machining: Challenges in Manufacture of Laminated Veneer Products2015Inngår i: Proceedings of the 22nd International Wood Machining Seminar, IWMS 22: Volume 1 - Oral Presentations / [ed] Roger Hernández and Claudia B. Cáceres, Quebec City, Canada: Université Laval , 2015, s. 155-164Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A laminated veneer product (LVP) consists of veneers bonded together with adhesive under pressure into a predetermined shape and, in general, under increased temperature to shorten the curing time of the adhesive. The process is commonly used in furniture design to manufacture complex forms such as thin shells. In the industrial production of LVP and when the ready-for-use components are exposed to climate variations, rejection due to distortion of the laminates is a major problem. The shape stability depends on a variety of material and process parameters, and this study has focused on the influence of fibre deviation in a single veneer. Recent research on the shape stability of LVP and how distortion is influenced by various material and production parameters is presented. A finite-element model for LVP is introduced and the use of this model is exemplified by predicting the shape of a LVP with fibre distortion in a single veneer. The results show that it is possible to improve the shape stability of LVP if knowledge of various material and process parameters is implemented in the manufacturing process, and that a simulation based on a model of the wood material can be helpful in estimating the risk of an undesired deformation of the product.

  • 107.
    Blomqvist, Lars
    et al.
    Trätek.
    Bronsek, Anders
    Trätek.
    Oscarsson, Jan
    Trätek.
    Svensson, Nils
    Trätek.
    Säkerhet och organisation vid CNC-maskiner i träindustrin2002Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 108.
    Blomqvist, Lars
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggteknik (BY).
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Landscheidt, Steffen
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Nilson, Henrietta
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för organisation och entreprenörskap (OE).
    Resource utilization in a production cell for laminated veneer products2017Inngår i: Pro Ligno, ISSN 1841-4737, E-ISSN 2069-7430, Vol. 13, nr 4, s. 142-147Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of productivity is often used to determine how well resources are used in an operation, and it is usually determined as the ratio of what is consumed in the production. Laminated veneer products are considered complicated products often taking complex shapes, using a raw material with high variation, and requiring machining processes that create scrap material that needs to be handled. Therefore, maintaining high productivity in industries producing such products may become challenging. This study reports on productivity measurements in a production cell consisting of an adhesive, pressing and a processing station. The study seeks to increase the understanding of production-related problems in this industry. This research has been based on productivity measurement as well as on interactive discussions between researchers and workers. Measurement of cycle times indicated bottlenecks in the processing cell. The discussion led via cycle times, processing residues and chatter marks to an examination of the foundation and rigidity of the CNC-machine in the processing cell. The study indicated that the performance of the CNC machine did not correspond to expectations. The machine was too weak to handle the required output in an efficient manner. Thus, there is a need to determine the performance expected before a machine or machine group is purchased. An update of the existing purchasing literature and its dissemination will support the crystallization of the purchasing process as a way forward to support the industry.

  • 109.
    Blomqvist, Lars
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Sandberg, Dick
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Basic knowledge of wood properties for improved performance of laminated Veneer products2013Inngår i: Pro Ligno, ISSN 1841-4737, E-ISSN 2069-7430, Vol. 9, nr 4, s. 549-556Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To ensure success in the production of laminated veneer products, it is necessary to acquire a sound basic understanding of the behaviour of the wood, and to understand the inherent reactions of wood to adhesive, heat, moisture, strain and stress. This can ensure an efficient wood utilization and promote the development of new processes and products that take advantage of the visco-elastic nature of wood.

     

    A shortcoming of the laminated bending process is that the products may become distorted after moulding and during use. In this study, we have examined how the performance of laminated veneer products can be improved through the implementation of basic knowledge of wood in the design and production process.

     

    The results show that the material and process parameters and storage in a changing relative humidity have a clear impact on distortion. Fibre orientation of the veneers in the moulded assembly was the most critical parameter to control. Fibre deviations mainly resulted in twist of the product. A moisture content in one veneer deviating from that of the rest of the veneers in the assembly before moulding resulted in distortion of the laminated veneer products both after moulding and during use. To decrease the negative effect of fibre orientation and moisture content on shape stability, the veneer should be straight-grained and well-conditioned to a moisture level adapted to the use of the final product. Special care should also be taken to orientate the veneers during assembly before moulding.

  • 110.
    Blomqvist, Lars
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för teknik, TEK.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för teknik, TEK.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för teknik, TEK.
    Contact free measurement of complex shapes in the wood industry2011Inngår i: Mechano-chemical transformations of wood during THM processing / [ed] Parviz Navi and Andreas Roth, Biel, Switzerland: Bern University of Applied Sciencs, Architecture, Wood and Civil Engineering , 2011, s. 143-144Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an increasing need to update and correct information about product geometry in the wood manufacturing industry. Changes in machinery or personnel can be the cause of that need. Manual measurement takes time and diff erent ways of digitizing the geometry of the products have therefore been developed.

    In this study, two methods (3D-coordinate measurement and optical scanning) have been tested together in order to determine the position of a product in relation to the processing machine, and to optically scan the product geometry. The aim was to identify and evaluate methods to digitize product geometry into a CAD-model for the wood industry. Th e seat shell measured was fitted in the CNC-machine where the processing later would be performed.

    The methodology used has made it possible to create a CAD-model from the physical model. Based on the experience from this methodology, it would be recommended to continue by creating of a tool that minimizes the need for after processing, i.e. the adjustment of certain coordinates manually.

  • 111.
    Blomqvist, Lars
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för teknik, TEK.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för teknik, TEK.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för teknik, TEK.
    Improving the performance of bended laminated veneer products2011Inngår i: Mechano-chemical transformations of wood during THM processing / [ed] Parviz Navi and Andreas Roth, Biel, Switzerland: Bern University of Applied Sciencs, Architecture, Wood and Civil Engineering , 2011, s. 147-148Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Laminated bending of veneers mean that dried, thin veneers or thin wood sheets are glued together under influence of pressure and eventually increased temperature. At the same time the product is given its desired shape, most often curved. This thermo hydro mechanical process offers several benefits. For example thick bends of small radiuses of any species of wood may be formed and poor quality wood containing knots, splits and other defects may be utilised. Laminated bends can usually be set more readily and made to conform better to the shape of the form than similar bends of solid wood. Further no softening treatment is generally required before the pieces are bent. However, there are also disadvantages e.g. more technical skill and better equipment are usually required than for solid wood bending. The presence of glue may be somewhat detrimental to the machines used for the final cleaning up of the bent pieces. Further the glue lines which are usually visible on the sides may be an aesthetical unappreciated effect [1],[2].The quality of the laminated bended veneer products are obtained as an interaction between the process, the veneers and the glue [3]. In industries designing and producing these products it is of interest to obtain better understanding of how processing- and material parameters affect the product quality. With an improved understanding of the material and processing parameters it may be possible to increase the efficiency of wood utilisation and promote the development of new processes and products that manipulate the viscoelastic nature of wood. In particular the possibilities to obtain narrower radius of curvature and better possibilities of bending in more than one plane would be advantageous.This study has focused on the moisture content (MC) and the grain angle orientation in the veneers. These two specific aspects were assumed to have a great influence on spring-back and distortions of the laminated bended veneer products. Spring-back and distortions were therefore studied in separate tests where MC and the grain angle orientation was varied separately in manufactured laminated bended wood products. After manufacturing the products were exposed to variations in humidity and temperature whereupon the spring-back and distortions were measuredThree tests were performed. For the first and the second test a seat shell was selected as test product, figure 1a. To the third test another product was selected, figure 1b. This product was a small bookshelf. The company producing this shelf had experienced large problems considering distortions of this product. Further the product was very simple in shape with only one bend and therefore suitable for measurements.In the first test the influence of MC of the veneers was investigated. In the second and third test the influence of grain angle of the veneers was studied.For the study veneers of birch and beech were selected in the production. For the first and third study only birch veneers were used. The veneers were initially conditioned to equilibrium moisture contents (EMC) according to setups in different test groups. For the first study a test group was also built up from veneers taken directly out of production to study the industrial conditions. The seat shells in this test group contained veneers conditioned to EMC 4 %, except for the surface veneers that had been stored in the production hall. The humidity and temperature conditions in this room corresponded to MC 7 %.The manufacturing of the products were performed in industrial conditions. In the tests the products were built up from a number of veneers and the studied factors were varied between the veneers in a controlled manner.The results from the first test showed that the MC of the veneers influenced the spring-back and the distortions. A large moisture gradient between veneers and especially unsymmetrical placements of these in the construction were especially critical. The results from the second and third tests showed that grain angle deviation has large effect on the distortions of the products. Even a small grain angle deviation as in study two (5°) resulted in large problems with distortions. The study also showed that when crossing two or more veneers with deviating grain angles there were cases when these faults interacted and multiplied the distortions. In production grain angle deviations can be a result of inaccurate placement of the veneers during pressing, incorrect cutting of the veneers, inherent from the growth of the tree or a combination of these factors. Deviations of the grain angle were, however, shown to have only small effects on spring-back.

  • 112.
    Blomqvist, Lars
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Modification of surface veneer to reduce damage in laminated veneer products during manufacturing2014Inngår i: Final Cost Action FP0904, Recent Advances in the Field of TH and THM Wood Treatment, May 19-21, Skellefteå, Sweden: Book of abstracts / [ed] Dick Sandberg and Mojgan Vaziri, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2014, s. 50-51Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 113.
    Blomqvist, Lars
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Sandberg, Dick
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Moisture-induced distortion of laminated veneer products2013Inngår i: Proceedings of the 9th meeting of the Northern European network for wood science and engineering (WSE): September 11-12, 2013, Hannover, Germany / [ed] Christian Brischke & Linda Meyer, Hannover, Germany, 2013, s. 178-183Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Laminated veneer products consist of veneers bonded together with adhesive into a predetermined shape. Since wood is a hygroscopic material and also anisotropic by nature, laminated veneer products are especially shape-sensitive to changes in moisture content. A deviation from the intended shape is a problem for both the manufacturers and users of the final products and annually such deviations cause great economic losses in the manufacturing industry.

     

    To illustrate the influence of moisture on distortion and shape stability, studies have been performed in industrial conditions and in a laboratory environment. Veneers of beech and birch and a seat shell moulded from these veneers were used in the study. Distortion, i.e. spring-back, position and twist, has been determined directly after moulding and during subsequent moisture and drying cycles.

     

    The distortion follows more or less slavishly the changes in relative humidity around the product. The distortion is generally small directly after moulding but, after the laminates have been exposed to a variation in relative humidity, the distortion increases. Some of the problems of poor shape stability that may arise later in the bending process can be reduced if attention is paid to moisture content and fibre orientation already in the production of the veneer.

     

    To achieve good shape stability of laminated veneer products in practice, the following should be followed by the manufacture industry:

    • develop      cooperation with suppliers of veneer and set requirements of veneer with regard      to deviation of the fibre orientation, and require that the veneer be dried      and conditioned to a moisture content consistent with production,
    • control      incoming veneers with respect to fibre orientation and moisture content,
    • plan warehousing      of veneers and ensure adequate conditioning, and
    • consider      the orientation of the veneers and the species.
  • 114.
    Blomqvist, Lars
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Luleå University of Technology.
    Moisture-induced distortion of laminated veneer products2014Inngår i: Forest Products Society (FPS)  68th International Convention, 2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 115.
    Blomqvist, Lars
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Sandberg, Dick
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Shape stability of laminated veneer products: How to decrease the negative effects of fibre deviation?2013Inngår i: Forest Products Society (FPS)  67th International Convention, Madison: Forest Products Society , 2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A shortcoming of the laminated bending process is that the products may become distorted after moulding and during use. Annually, significant financial losses have incurred in the furniture and interior design industries as a result of distorted products. In this study, we have examined the influence of deviation of fibre orientation of individual veneers on distortion of a moulded shell to find ways to improve shape stability of laminated veneer products.

    Ninety cross-laminated shells, consisting of 7 veneers of Birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) with a total thickness of 3.6 mm, were studied. The in-plane dimensions of the veneer were 400x660 mm. All the veneers were straight-grained, but to simulate deviation in fibre orientation some of the individual veneers were oriented 7 degrees relative to the main orientation of the other veneers in the laminate. Distortion was determined directly after moulding and after storage in a changing relative humidity.

    The results show the well-known fact that deviation of fibre orientation of the veneers in the laminate influences the shape stability of the product. The results from this study, however, also show how the placement of the abnormal veneers in the laminated veneer products influences the degree of distortions. From this basic knowledge some improvements for production of laminated veneer products were suggested.

  • 116.
    Blomqvist, Lars
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Sandberg, Dick
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Shape stability of THM-processed laminated veneer products glued with bio-based adhesive systems2013Inngår i: Evaluation, processing and predicting of THM treated wood behaviour by experimental and numerical methods / [ed] Carmen-Mihaela Popescu and Maria-Cristina Popescu, Iasi, Romania, 2013, s. 99-100Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 117.
    Blomqvist, Lars
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Luleå University of Technology.
    Veneer modification for improved formability when moulding laminated veneer products2014Inngår i: Forest Products Society (FPS)  68th International Convention, 2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 118.
    Blomqvist, Lars
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggteknik (BY).
    Nilson, Henrietta
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för organisation och entreprenörskap (OE).
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Landscheidt, Steffen
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Downtime causes in a production cell for laminated veneer products2017Inngår i: 23rd International Wood Machining Seminar Proceedings / [ed] Marcin Zbiec and Kazimierz Orlowski, Warsaw, Poland: The Polish Chamber of Commerce of Furniture Manufacturers , 2017, s. 28-35Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Productivity is often used to determine how well resources are used for an operation. Most often, the ratio of what is produced to what is required to produce it determines productivity. Laminated veneer products are considered complicated products often with complex shapes, a raw material with high variation, and machining processes that create scrap materials that need to be handled. Therefore, keeping a high productivity in the industries producing such products may become challenging. This study reports productivity measurements in a production cell consisting of an adhesive, pressing and processing station. The study seeks to increase understanding of production-related problems in this industry. The research has been using productivity measurement as well as interactive discussions between researchers and workers.

    Measurement of downtime causes were made for 20 days, for a total of approximately 300 hours. The production cell had 1,299 minutes of stops. Of those, 450 minutes were one-time events. The rest were intermittent disturbances. Many of them could be explained by the dust-laden air and processing residues but were also related to veneer and adhesive. There is a need for determining material and processing parameters; however, the first priority is cleaning the factory.

    From a social perspective, some other issues must be added to the discussion of this paper. First and foremost, the business has gone through a transformation from a family business to a privately held firm. From the non-family employee’s view, this is a huge change. This has resulted in unclear roles and responsibilities within the company, which has also affected the productivity of the company.

  • 119.
    Blomqvist, Lars
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggteknik (BY).
    Pfriem, Alexander
    Eberswalde University for Sustainable Development, Germany.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Temporary buildings in reusable lightweight material design2016Inngår i: Proceedings of the 2016 World Conference on Timber Engineering (WCTE), Vienna, Austria: Vienna University of Technology , 2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a growing need and market for temporary buildings for various purposes, including largeconstruction projects in the tourism and events sectors or in civil protection. This paper gives an overview about the useof reusable lightweight materials in temporary buildings. Based on a project proposal submitted to the 7th framework, anew concept of temporary buildings is proposed. This concept combines the advantages of the premanufacturing of asmall number of parts and wooden components and a flexible and modular erection of the temporary building. Thefocus is on fast establishment with a maximum of three persons. A flexible and modular extension is possible.Assembling and disassembling the individual components with novel connect systems, adapted from the furnitureindustry, is proposed.This project aims to bring these concepts into new temporary buildings with new, reusable, and flexible lightweightdesign.

  • 120.
    Blomqvist, Lars
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för teknik, TEK.
    Rowell, Roger
    University of Wisconsin-Madison.
    Bio-based adhesives at laminated veneers2012Inngår i: Proceedings of the 8th meeting of the Northern European Network for Wood Science and Engineering (WSE) / [ed] Antanas Baltrušaitis and Kristina Ukvalbergiené, Kaunas, Lithuania, 2012, s. 221-225Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 121.
    Blomqvist, Lars
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Luleå University of Technology.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Influence of veneer orientation on shape stability of plane laminated veneer products2014Inngår i: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 9, nr 4, s. 224-232Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the most important quality aspects of a laminated veneer product is its shape stability under changing relative humidity (RH). This study aimed to establish an understanding of how the orientation of individual veneers in the laminate, i.e., orientation according to fibre orientation and orientation of the loose (the side with ‘lathe checks’) or tight side of the veneer, affects the shape stability. Three-ply laminates from peeled veneers of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) were studied. The four types of laminate were the following: loose sides of all veneers in the same direction (cross and parallel centre ply) and loose sides of the outer veneers facing inward (cross and parallel centre ply). Four replicates of each type yielded 16 samples. The samples were exposed to RH cycling at 20% and 85% RH at 20°C, and the shapes of the samples were determined. The shape stability was influenced by the veneer orientation. Laminations with the middle veneer perpendicular to the top and bottom veneer (cross-laminated) showed the best shape stability, especially when the loose sides of the veneers were oriented the same direction. In parallel-laminated veneers, the laminates with opposite directions of the loose sides in the two outermost veneers showed the best shape stability. The major explanation of the behaviour of the laminates is that the loose side expanded more than the tight side from the dry to the humid climate, which was shown by optical 3D deformation analysis (ARAMISTM). After RH cycling, the laminates with cross plies showed visible surface checks only when the tight side was facing outwards.

  • 122.
    Blomqvist, Lars
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Sterley, Magdalena
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    The effect of veneer modification on the bond-line strength in laminated veneer products2015Inngår i: Pro Ligno, ISSN 1841-4737, E-ISSN 2069-7430, Vol. 11, nr 4, s. 43-49Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A major problem in the manufacture of three-dimensional laminated veneer products (LVP) isdamage due to stretching and/or buckling of the veneer. To reduce or eliminate this problem, veneerdensification or adding a strengthening layer to the veneer can be an alternative. To study how veneermodification influences the veneer-to-adhesive bond strength, three methods of modification werestudied in relation to an unmodified reference veneer: (1) densified veneer, (2) veneer pre-bonded withpaper and hot melt adhesive (HMA), (3) veneer pre-bonded with non-woven polypropylene (NW)fabric glued to the veneer (a) with a urea formaldehyde (UF) adhesive, (b) with a mixture of UF andpolyvinyl acetate (PVAc) adhesive, and (c) with a PVAc adhesive. Densification, pre-bonding withpaper, and NW with UF/PVAc adhesive mixture resulted in no or only a slight decrease in strength ofthe bond-line compared to the reference. NW glued with UF or PVAc adhesive showed a considerablereduction in the strength of the bond-line. The climatic cycling had no significant influence on the bondstrength.

  • 123.
    Blomqvist, Lars
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Sterley, Magdalena
    SP Wood Technology.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Luleå University of Technology.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    The influence of veneer modification on adhesive bond strength2014Inngår i: Proceedings of the 10th meeting of the Northern European network for wood science and engineering (WSE) / [ed] Peter Wilson, Edinburg, Scotland, 2014, s. 150-155Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 124. Blumer, Samuel
    et al.
    Niemz, Peter
    Serrano, Erik
    Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för matematik/naturvetenskap/teknik, Institutionen för teknik och design.
    Gustafsson, Per Johan
    Moisture induced stresses and deformations in parquet floors: An experimental and numerical study2009Inngår i: Wood research, ISSN 1336-4561, Vol. 54, nr 1, s. 89-101Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The indoor climate in buildings has changed in the last decade due to more efficient climatic systems, floor heating systems and larger open floor areas with more natural light. All this has induced increasing ranges of relative humidity between different seasons. Also with decreasing relative humidity (in the winter 30-50% RH, in the summer 70-90% RH), floor-heating systems increase the temperature in wooden parquet planks for example. Such variations can result in troublesome deformations, delamination of the surface layer and development of cracks in the parquet flooring boards. Sometimes there is only deterioration of the appearance but the durability of the flooring system can also be reduced. Many laboratory tests have to be done before reaching an optimal design of the parquet elements. Due to high coasts and time constraints of experiments, other supplementary research methods should be tested and evaluated. The articles' main objective was to increase understanding of the behaviour of parquet floors exposed to different climatic conditions using numerical calculation. The use of the finite element models provides options for design purposes of wood flooring systems. Several finite element models for adequate design have been created, tested and applied. After calibration and validation of the calculation method, parameter studies on the influence of material properties, geometry of the parquet floors and the long-term behaviour of the wood and glue line were performed. The results show a strong relation between material and geometry choice on the deformation, for example the gap opening and on the stress distribution in glue line, which can induce delamination of the surface layer and distortional effects of the parquet boards

  • 125.
    Blyberg, Louise
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för teknik, TEK.
    Timber/Glass Adhesive Bonds for Structural Applications2011Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Timber with its natural appearance and glass with its transparency may be appealing material for architects and users of modern buildings. Glass is a brittle material, but it is about six times stiffer than timber. Combined appropriately, the materials could form different types of composite products, e.g. beams or shear walls, that can be included in the load-carrying structure of buildings. e knowledge on load- carrying timber/glass components is limited. e intention of this research has been to contribute to the knowledge required for the industry to be willing to produce timber/glass components for the market.

    The thesis includes experimental testing accompanied with complementary nite element simulations, which provide more details and information about the test results. Tests were performed on small-scale specimens with a bond area of 800 mm2 as well as on I-beam and shear wall prototypes. For the small-scale specimens tested in standard climate, three different adhesives were used for the bond line between timber and glass. ese specimens were tested in both tension and shear. In addition, one of the adhesives was used for small-scale shear specimens which were exposed to different humidity levels before the tests were performed. e 4 m long I-beam prototypes designed with a web of glass and wooden anges were tested in four- point bending. e shear wall prototypes were tested by applying either a vertical load, a horizontal load or a combination of these, all being applied in the plane of the shear wall.

    Of the three adhesives used in the small-scale testing, an acrylate adhesive had the largest strength, both in tension and in shear. e study on the effect of humidity was performed with this adhesive. is study indicates that the adhesive properties do not change dramatically in indoor climate. is adhesive was also used for twelve of the fourteen tested I-beams. e results from the beams show that a signi cant redundancy is obtained; the load at the nal failure was around 240 % of the load when the rst crack in the glass web appeared. e shear walls were glued using the acrylate adhesive and for a few cases a 2-component silicone based adhesive. e results from the shear wall tests showed the shear wall to behave in a much more brittle manner, without any noticeable redundancy.

  • 126.
    Bonarski, Jan T.
    et al.
    Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland.
    Kifetew, Girma
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Olek, Wieslaw
    Poznań University of Life Sciences, Poland.
    Effects of cell wall ultrastructure on the transverseshrinkage anisotropy of Scots pine wood2015Inngår i: Holzforschung, ISSN 0018-3830, E-ISSN 1437-434X, Vol. 69, nr 4, s. 501-507Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A hypothesis for explaining the differential anisotropicshrinkage behavior of wood has been proposed,and it was based on the differences in the cell wall ultrastructure.The starting point of the consideration is thatwood shrinkage is governed by its chemical composition,ultrastructure, and gross anatomy. It is also well knownthat the transverse shrinkage anisotropy of earlywood(EW) is more pronounced than that of the latewood (LW).In the paper, the cell wall ultrastructure and shrinkageanisotropy has been related to each other, and to thispurpose, a set of crystallographic texture descriptorswas applied. The descriptors are based on X-ray diffraction(XRD) experiments conducted on matched EW samplesfrom different growth rings of Scots pine. The rangeof the microfibril angle (MFA) was identified. The ratio ofthe maxima of inverse pole figures (IPFs) of both the tangential(T) and radial (R) directions was determined. Theratios quantify the inhomogeneity of the spatial arrangementof the ordered areas. The results of the study clearlyindicate that the transverse shrinkage of wood is governedmostly by a specific ultrastructural organization of moderatelyorganized cell wall compounds.

  • 127. Boonstra, M. J.
    et al.
    Blomberg, Jonas
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Skog- och träteknik.
    Semi-isostatic densification of heat-treated radiata pine2007Inngår i: Wood Science and Technology, ISSN 0043-7719, E-ISSN 1432-5225, Vol. 41, nr 7, s. 607-617Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Semi-isostatic densification is a useful method to increase the density and to improve the mechanical properties of fast-grown softwood species like radiata pine. A major disadvantage of this method is the almost complete recovery of the original dimensions when densified wood is exposed to moisture. Heat treatment improves the dimensional stability of wood and might be a useful method to prevent this shape-recovery after densification. However, no or only a limited effect on the shape-recovery was found when densified radiata pine was exposed to moisture.

  • 128. Borodulina, Svetlana
    et al.
    Wernersson, Erik L. G.
    Kulachenko, Artem
    Luengo Hendriks, Cris L.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Avdelningen för visuell information och interaktion. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Bildanalys och människa-datorinteraktion.
    Extracting fiber and network connectivity data using microtomography images of paper2016Inngår i: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 31, nr 3, s. 469-478Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 129. Braovac, Susan
    et al.
    Fackler, Karin
    Bader, Thomas K.
    Ters, Thomas
    Chemical Composition of the Archaeological Oak Wood from the Oseberg Ship2011Inngår i: Cultural Heritage Preservation.EWCHP - 2011: Proceedings of the European Workshop on Cultural Heritage Preservation. Berlin, Germany, September 26 to 28, 2011, Fraunhofer IRB Verlag, 2011, s. 156-163Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 130.
    Brege, Staffan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Nord, Tomas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Nordigården, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Design of value chains in volume-intensive market segments - exploiting economies of sclae, scope and integration2012Inngår i: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Scandinavian Society of Forest Economics: Hyytiälä, Finland, 23–26 May 2012, 2012Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 131.
    Briggert, Andreas
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggteknik (BY).
    Hu, Min
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggteknik (BY).
    Olsson, Anders
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggteknik (BY). Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Oscarsson, Jan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggteknik (BY).
    Evaluation of in-plane and out-of-plane fibre direction in Norway spruce using a laboratory scanner utilising the tracheid effectManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 132.
    Briggert, Andreas
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggteknik (BY).
    Olsson, Anders
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggteknik (BY).
    Oscarsson, Jan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggteknik (BY).
    Three-dimensional modelling of knots and pith location in Norway spruce boards using tracheid-effect scanning2016Inngår i: European Journal of Wood and Wood Products, ISSN 0018-3768, E-ISSN 1436-736X, Vol. 74, nr 5, s. 725-739Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Knots and the orientation of fibres in timber are decisive for the stiffness and strength of boards. Due to large property variations between members, strength grading is necessary. High resolution information of the orientation of fibres, both on surfaces and within members, would enable development of more accurate grading methods than those available today. A step towards three-dimensional (3D) models of the fibre orientation of the entire board volume is the establishment of 3D knot models based on scanning. The light from a dot laser illuminating the surface of a softwood board will, due to the tracheid effect, spread more along the fibres than across resulting in the dot entering an elliptical shape. In this investigation both the shape of the ellipse and the direction of its major axis were used to estimate the 3D fibre orientation on board surfaces. Knot surfaces were identified where the angle between the estimated 3D fibre direction and an approximated direction of the board’s pith exceeded a threshold value. By means of algorithms based on polar coordinates, knot surfaces which belonged to the same physical knot visible on different sides of the board were identified and as a result the position, orientation and volume of each knot were determined. Based on this information, a more accurate position of the board’s pith along the board was calculated. The established models showed good agreement with physical boards. The models constitute a promising starting point for further development of strength grading methods based on tracheid-effect scanning.

  • 133.
    Brodin, Ida
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Gellerstedt, Göran L. F.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Sjöholm, E.
    Membrane separated Kraft lignin as feedstock for chemical products2008Inngår i: 2008 Nordic Wood Biorefinery Conference, NWBC 2008 - Proceedings, 2008, s. 194-Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 134. Brännström, Mattias
    et al.
    Westin, Jerker
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Datateknik.
    Classification of structural timber by decision trees: a comparison to the certified method2009Inngår i: Forest products journal, ISSN 0015-7473, Vol. 59, nr 3, s. 53-61Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This work is an example of how to adapt a classification method, in this case a classification tree, to the present standardized method for the development of settings for strength grading machines. Data from commercially available industrial strength grading equipment were used on a large sample (approximately 1440 pieces) of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L. Karsten)) in various sawn dimensions. The equipment is a multisensor scanning device combining planar X-ray and resonance frequency measurement. Destructive testing was done according to European standard EN408. The goal was to make the classification, based on machine data, as close as possible to the optimum grading, which was done according to standard. Two different approaches for classification by cost-sensitive decision trees were applied to the data and compared to classification accredited according to EN14081. Classification accuracy increased from 64% correctly classified to 73%, and a reduction from 33% False Negative to 23% was achieved. False Positive increased from 3% to 4%. The outcome was an increase in value for the producer by 0.9%–2.1% at 2007 average price level. The improvement came mainly from an in-yield increase in C30 by 10%.

  • 135.
    Cammoun, Leila
    et al.
    Signal Processing Institute Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de, Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Castaño-Moraga, Carlos Alberto
    Department of Signals and Communciations, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain.
    Muñoz-Moreno, Emma
    Univ. de Valladolid, Spain.
    Sosa-Cabrera, Dario
    Canary Islands Institute of Technology, Spain.
    Acar, Burak
    Electrical-Electronics Eng. Dept, Bogazici University, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Brun, Anders
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Centrum för bildanalys. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Datoriserad bildanalys.
    Knutsson, Hans
    Dept. of medical engineering, Linköpings universitet.
    Thiran, Jean-Philippe
    Signal Processing Institute Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de, Lausanne, Switzerland.
    A Review of Tensors and Tensor Signal Processing2009Inngår i: Tensors in Image Processing and Computer Vision / [ed] Santiago Aja-Fernandez, Rodrigo de Luis Garcia, Dacheng Tao, Xuelong Li, London: Springer , 2009, 1, s. 1-32Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Tensors have been broadly used in mathematics and physics, since they are a generalization of scalars or vectors and allow to represent more complex properties. In this chapter we present an overview of some tensor applications, especially those focused on the image processing field. From a mathematical point of view, a lot of work has been developed about tensor calculus, which obviously is more complex than scalar or vectorial calculus. Moreover, tensors can represent the metric of a vector space, which is very useful in the field of differential geometry. In physics, tensors have been used to describe several magnitudes, such as the strain or stress of materials. In solid mechanics, tensors are used to define the generalized Hooke’s law, where a fourth order tensor relates the strain and stress tensors. In fluid dynamics, the velocity gradient tensor provides information about the vorticity and the strain of the fluids. Also an electromagnetic tensor is defined, that simplifies the notation of the Maxwell equations. But tensors are not constrained to physics and mathematics. They have been used, for instance, in medical imaging, where we can highlight two applications: the diffusion tensor image, which represents how molecules diffuse inside the tissues and is broadly used for brain imaging; and the tensorial elastography, which computes the strain and vorticity tensor to analyze the tissues properties. Tensors have also been used in computer vision to provide information about the local structure or to define anisotropic image filters.

  • 136.
    Carlsson, Peter
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University.
    Esping, Björn
    Mid Sweden University.
    Dahlblom, Ola
    Lund University.
    Ormarsson, Sigurdur
    Lund University.
    Söderström, Ove
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Optimization, a tool with which to create an effective drying schedule1998Inngår i: Holzforschung, ISSN 0018-3830, E-ISSN 1437-434X, Vol. 52, nr 5, s. 530-540Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A method for defining effective schedules for kiln drying of wood is presented. The method is designed in such a way that it proposes an optimized variation of temperature and humidity which yields the minimum total drying time , with the condition that the moisture content and the deformation not exceed specified limits after the drying and that the stress not exceeds a specified level at any time during the drying process in order to avoid crack development. To demonstrate the capability of the optimization method numerical results are presented. It should be noted that ill this first approach, drying starts from moisture content corresponding to the fibre-saturation point, i.e. approximate to 30%).

  • 137.
    Carlsson, Staffan
    et al.
    KTH Träteknologi.
    Eskilander, Stephan
    KTH Träteknologi.
    Sandberg, Dick
    KTH, Träteknologi.
    Utvärdering av deplacementmetod med vatten för bestämning av träets torrdensitet.1996Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Evaluation of the deplacement method with water for determination of dry wood density.

    by Staffan Carlsson, Stephan Eskilander and Dick Sandberg

    Abstract

    A new method (SP-method) for determination of wood density at 12 % moisture content has been developted at the Swedish National testing and Research Institute (SP). The method is a futher development of the deplacement method with water as. The volume of the specimens is determined with use of Archimeds principle. The specimen is immersed in water and a computer program compensate for errors in the measurement as a result of wateruptake in the specimen.

    This investigation describes the correlation between the dry density of wood, determined by the SP-method and a "traditional" method. Traditional method means that the dimensions of the specimen are measured with a slide-calliper in order to calculate the volume of the specimen. The test materials were taken from Scots pine and Norway spruce with dimension 40 x 60 x 120 mm.

    The results show a difference less than 3 % between dry density determined by the two methods. The correlation coefficient (R2) was 0.99 when linear regression was used. Repetition test showed mean deviation of 0.2 % when dry density for same specimens were determined two times with the SP-method.

  • 138.
    Cavka, Adnan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Wallenius, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Alriksson, Björn
    Nilvebrant, Nils-Olof
    Jönsson, Leif J
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Ozone detoxification of steam-pretreated Norway spruce2015Inngår i: Biotechnology for Biofuels, ISSN 1754-6834, E-ISSN 1754-6834, Vol. 8, artikkel-id 196Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Pretreatment of lignocellulose for biochemical conversion commonly results in formation of by-products that inhibit microorganisms and cellulolytic enzymes. To make bioconversion processes more efficient, inhibition problems can be alleviated through conditioning. Ozone is currently commercially employed in pulp and paper production for bleaching, as it offers the desirable capability to disrupt unsaturated bonds in lignin through an ionic reaction known as ozonolysis. Ozonolysis is more selective towards lignin than cellulose, for instance, when compared to other oxidative treatment methods, such as Fenton's reagent. Ozone may thus have desirable properties for conditioning of pretreated lignocellulose without concomitant degradation of cellulose or sugars. Ozone treatment of SO2- impregnated steam-pretreated Norway spruce was explored as a potential approach to decrease inhibition of yeast and cellulolytic enzymes. This novel approach was furthermore compared to some of the most effective methods for conditioning of pretreated lignocellulose, i.e., treatment with alkali and sodium dithionite. Results: Low dosages of ozone decreased the total contents of phenolics to about half of the initial value and improved the fermentability. Increasing ozone dosages led to almost proportional increase in the contents of total acids, including formic acid, which ultimately led to poor fermentability at higher ozone dosages. The decrease of the contents of furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural was inversely proportional (R-2 > 0.99) to the duration of the ozone treatment, but exhibited no connection with the fermentability. Ozone detoxification was compared with other detoxification methods and was superior to treatment with Fenton's reagent, which exhibited no positive effect on fermentability. However, ozone detoxification was less efficient than treatment with alkali or sodium dithionite. High ozone dosages decreased the inhibition of cellulolytic enzymes as the glucose yield was improved with 13 % compared to that of an untreated control. Conclusions: Low dosages of ozone were beneficial for the fermentation of steam-pretreated Norway spruce, while high dosages decreased the inhibition of cellulolytic enzymes by soluble components in the pretreatment liquid. While clearly of interest for conditioning of lignocellulosic hydrolysates, future challenges include finding conditions that provide beneficial effects both with regard to enzymatic saccharification and microbial fermentation.

  • 139. Chacha, N.
    et al.
    Toven, K
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Mtui, G
    Katima, J
    Mrema, G
    Steam Pretreatment of Pine (Pinus patula) wood residue for the production of reducing sugars2011Inngår i: Cellulose Chemistry and Technology, ISSN 0576-9787, Vol. 45, s. 495-501Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 140. Chang, Shan-Shan
    et al.
    Salmén, Lennart
    RISE., Innventia.
    Olsson, Anne-Mari
    RISE., Innventia.
    Clair, Bruno
    Deposition and organisation of cell wall polymers during maturation of poplar tension wood by FTIR microspectroscopy2014Inngår i: Planta, ISSN 0032-0935, E-ISSN 1432-2048, Vol. 239, nr 1, s. 243-254Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 141. Chang, S.-S.
    et al.
    Salmen, L.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Olsson, A.-M.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Clair, B.
    Deposition and organisation of cell wall polymers during maturation of poplar tension wood by FTIR microspectroscopy2014Inngår i: Planta, ISSN 0032-0935, E-ISSN 1432-2048, Vol. 239, nr 1, s. 243-254Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 142. Chen, Z. -Q
    et al.
    Abramowicz, K.
    Raczkowski, R.
    Ganea, S.
    Wu, H. X.
    Lundqvist, Sven-Olof
    RISE, Innventia.
    Mörling, T.
    De Luna, S. S.
    Garci­a Gil, M. R.
    Mellerowicz, E. J.
    Method for accurate fiber length determination from increment cores for large-scale population analyses in Norway spruce2016Inngår i: Holzforschung, ISSN 0018-3830, E-ISSN 1437-434X, Vol. 70, nr 9, s. 829-838Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Fiber (tracheid) length is an important trait targeted for genetic and silvicultural improvement. Such studies require large-scale non-destructive sampling, and accurate length determination. The standard procedure for non-destructive sampling is to collect increment cores, singularize their cells by maceration, measure them with optical analyzer and apply various corrections to suppress influence of non-fiber particles and cut fibers, as fibers are cut by the corer. The recently developed expectation-maximization method (EM) not only addresses the problem of non-fibers and cut fibers, but also corrects for the sampling bias. Here, the performance of the EM method has been evaluated by comparing it with length-weighing and squared length-weighing, both implemented in fiber analyzers, and with microscopy data for intact fibers, corrected for sampling bias, as the reference. This was done for 12-mm increment cores from 16 Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) trees on fibers from rings 8-11 (counted from pith), representing juvenile wood of interest in breeding programs. The EM-estimates provided mean-fiber-lengths with bias of only +2.7% and low scatter. Length-weighing and length2-weighing gave biases of-7.3% and +9.3%, respectively, and larger scatter. The suggested EM approach constitutes a more accurate non-destructive method for fiber length (FL) determination, expected to be applicable also to other conifers.

  • 143. Chen, Z. -Q
    et al.
    Karlsson, B.
    Lundqvist, Sven-Olof
    RISE, Innventia.
    Garci­a Gil, M. R.
    Olsson, Lars
    RISE, Innventia.
    Wu, H. X.
    Estimating solid wood properties using Pilodyn and acoustic velocity on standing trees of Norway spruce2015Inngår i: Annals of Forest Science, Vol. 72, nr 4, s. 499-508Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 144. Chen, Zhi-Qiang
    et al.
    Abramowicz, Konrad
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för matematik och matematisk statistik.
    Raczkowski, Rafal
    Ganea, Stefana
    Wu, Harry X.
    Lundqvist, Sven-Olof
    Mörling, Tommy
    Sjöstedt de Luna, Sara
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för matematik och matematisk statistik.
    Gil, Maria Rosario Garcia
    Mellerowicz, Ewa J.
    Method for accurate fiber length determination from increment cores for large-scale population analyses in Norway spruce2016Inngår i: Holzforschung, ISSN 0018-3830, E-ISSN 1437-434X, Vol. 70, nr 9, s. 829-838Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Fiber (tracheid) length is an important trait targeted for genetic and silvicultural improvement. Such studies require large-scale non-destructive sampling, and accurate length determination. The standard procedure for non-destructive sampling is to collect increment cores, singularize their cells by maceration, measure them with optical analyzer and apply various corrections to suppress influence of non-fiber particles and cut fibers, as fibers are cut by the corer. The recently developed expectation-maximization method (EM) not only addresses the problem of non-fibers and cut fibers, but also corrects for the sampling bias. Here, the performance of the EM method has been evaluated by comparing it with length-weighing and squared length-weighing, both implemented in fiber analyzers, and with microscopy data for intact fibers, corrected for sampling bias, as the reference. This was done for 12-mm increment cores from 16 Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) trees on fibers from rings 8-11 (counted from pith), representing juvenile wood of interest in breeding programs. The EM-estimates provided mean-fiber-lengths with bias of only +2.7% and low scatter. Length-weighing and length2-weighing gave biases of -7.3% and +9.3%, respectively, and larger scatter. The suggested EM approach constitutes a more accurate non-destructive method for fiber length (FL) determination, expected to be applicable also to other conifers.

  • 145. Chen, Z.-Q.
    et al.
    Gil, M.R.G.
    Karlsson, B.
    Lundqvist, S.-O.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Olsson, L.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Wu, H.X.
    Inheritance of growth and solid wood quality traits in a large Norway spruce population tested at two locations in southern Sweden: Relation to barrier and mechanical properties2014Inngår i: Tree Genetics & Genomes, ISSN 1614-2942, E-ISSN 1614-2950, nr 5, s. 1291-1303Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 146. Chen, Z.-Q.
    et al.
    Karlsson, B.
    Mörling, T
    Olsson, Lars
    RISE, Innventia.
    Mellerowicz, E.J
    Wu, H.X.
    Lundqvist, Sven-Olof
    RISE, Innventia.
    Gil, M.R.G.
    Genetic analysis of fiber dimensions and their correlation with stem diameter and solid-wood properties in Norway spruce2016Inngår i: Tree Genetics & Genomes, ISSN 1614-2942, E-ISSN 1614-2950, Vol. 12, nr 6Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Adverse genetic correlations between growth traits and solid-wood, as well as fiber traits are a concern in conifer breeding programs. To evaluate the impact of selection for growth and solid-wood properties on fiber dimensions, we investigated the inheritance and efficiency of early selection for different wood-fiber traits and their correlations with stem diameter, wood density, modulus of elasticity (MOE), and microfibril angle (MFA) in Norway spruce (Picea abies L). The study was based on two large open-pollinated progeny trials established in southern Sweden in 1990 with material from 524 families comprising 5618 trees. Two increment cores were sampled from each tree. Radial variations from pith to bark were determined for rings 3–15 with SilviScan for fiber widths in the radial (RFW) and tangential (TFW) direction, fiber wall thickness (FWT), and fiber coarseness (FC). Fiber length (FL) was determined for rings 8–11. Heritabilities based on rings 8–11 using joint-site data were moderate to high (0.24–0.51) for all fiber-dimension traits. Heritabilities based on stem cross-sectional averages varied from 0.34 to 0.48 and reached a plateau at rings 6–9. The “age-age” genetic correlations for RFW, TFW, FWT, and FC cross-sectional averages at a particular age with cross-sectional averages at ring 15 reached 0.9 at rings 4–7. Our results indicated a moderate to high positive genetic correlation for density and MOE with FC and FWT, moderate and negative with RFW, and low with TFW and FL. Comparison of several selection scenarios indicated that the highest profitability is reached when diameter and MOE are considered jointly, in which case, the effect on any fiber dimension is negligible. Early selection was highly efficient from ring 5 for RFW and from rings 8–10 for TFW, FWT, and FC.

  • 147.
    Cool, Julie
    et al.
    University of British Columbia.
    Fredriksson, Magnus
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Avramidis, Stavros
    University of British Columbia.
    Automatic knot detection in coarse resolution cone-beam CT images of softwood logs2017Inngår i: Holzforschung, ISSN 0018-3830, E-ISSN 1437-434XArtikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 148.
    Cool, Julie
    et al.
    University of British Columbia.
    Fredriksson, Magnus
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Avramidis, Stavros
    University of British Columbia.
    Knot detection in coarse resolution CT images of logs2017Inngår i: International Wood Machining Seminar (IWMS-23), 2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of X-ray computed tomography (CT) scanning of logs in sawmill is becoming a reality in the last few years, usually with rather costly and complex machines resembling medical scanners. However, a scanning solution has been developed that is less costly and more robust, and therefore more suited for sawmill needs. The rather coarse data from this machine has not been fully evaluated regarding possibilities to detect internal features such as knots. In this study, a knot detection algorithm developed for medical scanners was applied to images from a coarse resolution scanner, from four different logs of various species, and with different image resolution. The objective was to see if it was possible to detect knots automatically in the images. If so, the aim was to calculate the knot detection rate and the accuracy of detected knot size and position. These numbers were calculated compared to manually measured reference knots. This resulted in a knot detection rate of about 53 % overall, and a well detected knot position, but poorly detected knot size. It is possible to observe a certain difference between species and reconstruction resolution, however the material is too small to draw any definite conclusions. As a preliminary study, it provides input for further investigation on knot detection in coarse resolution X-ray CT images. Future work involves scanning more logs to get more data, and to pinpoint the resolution needed for accurate knot detection using the current algorithm.

  • 149.
    Cool, Julie
    et al.
    University of British Columbia.
    Fredriksson, Magnus
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknologi.
    Stephen, James D
    Queen’s University.
    Mabee, Warren E
    Queen’s University.
    Avramidis, Stavros
    University of British Columbia.
    Bull, Gary Q
    University of British Columbia.
    An Integrated Forest Products Cluster for Off-Grid Lumber Production Using Biomass CHP in Remote Indigenous Communities2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 150.
    Couceiro, José
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknologi.
    Lindgren, Owe
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknologi.
    Estimation of miosture content in wood using dual x-ray energies in a medical CT-scanner2016Inngår i: Process Technologies for the Forest & Biobased Products Industries: PTF BPI 2016, 2016, s. 22-Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
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