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  • 101.
    Ataei, Tahereh
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för kemi och biomedicin (KOB).
    Förekomst av penicillinkänslighet hos blododlingsisolat av Staphylococcus aureus2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Staphylococcus aureus is the most clinically important Staphylococcus species and is associated with high mortality in patients with positive blood cultures. S. aureus bacteria may cause a variety of disease manifestations ranging from minor skin infections to life-threatening conditions such as pneumonia, meningitis, osteomyelitis, endocarditis, toxic shock syndrome (TSS) and sepsis. This microorganism belonging to the gram positive cocci may also be part of the normal flora. In Sweden, penicillinase-stable penicillins are the primary alternatives to treat S. aureus infection. Mutations in genes encoding the penicillin binding proteins (PBP2) in the bacteria which lead to a lower affinity for the  beta-lactam antibiotics define  methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) which is a significant global health problem. Other resistance mechanisms of S. aureus are present, and one of these is penicillinase production which is associated with resistance to penicillin G. In order to detect penicillinase production in S. aureus, there are several methods but the European guidelines recommend disc diffusion and the clover-leaf test for follow-up if the zone diameter for benzylpenicillin (PcG) is 26 mm or more. There are no modern Swedish studies on the prevalence of S. aureus susceptible to PcG and this has recently attained interest from infectious disease physicans. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the frequency of S. aureus susceptible to PcG from blood cultures isolated during 2012 from the Kalmar county.    Disc diffusion testing showed that 32% of 90 unique isolates tested had an inhibition zone diameter of PcG that was ≥ 26 mm in diameter. All of these isolates were confirmed as PcG sensitive with clover-leaf test. Internal controls showed little variation and external control isolates showed full agreement with the results obtained from a Danish study, suggesting that PcG zone diameter of ≥ 26 mm in combination with cloverleaf test can be used to detect penicillin susceptibility of S. aureus.    In conclusion, this study shows that nearly 1 /3 of the blood culture isolates of S. aureus from Kalmar are sensitive to benzylpenicillin.

  • 102.
    Attevall, Janine
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa.
    Genetic investigation of rare microdeletions and microduplications with distinct clinical features2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Chromosomal microduplications and microdeletions represent the largest significant fraction of Copy Number Variants (CNV) and some can cause developmental delay and intellectual disability. The relatively common microdeletions and microduplications syndromes are well known but there are clinical cases with unique microduplications/-deletions that have not been studied sufficiently. The aim of this study was to verify positive SNP-microarray results during the genetic investigation of four patients with different unique microduplications or microduplications with metaphase-FISH. Since sodium heparin tubes contain the existing test material for these patients, a validation of RNA extraction was also made to verify if blood taken in these tubes can be used for further gene expression analysis.

    Blood samples and amniotic fluid were analyzed with SNP-microarray and verified with metaphase-FISH. RNA was extracted from blood taken in EDTA and sodium heparin tubes from five different individuals. Gene expression analysis with RT-qPCR were performed as a control for the RNA extraction using the genes ISPD and GUSB.

    FISH-analysis could detect the chromosomal rearrangements in all patients and investigation of the parents showed that these rearrangements were de novo. These results contribute to a better understanding of these unique aberrations and the patients´ phenotypes. There was no significant difference in RNA quality between sodium heparin and EDTA tubes. However RT-qPCR showed lower efficiency for both target gene (ISPD) and reference gene (GUSB) in RNA samples extracted from sodium heparin tubes. Blood samples in sodium heparin tubes should therefore not be used for RNA-analysis in further investigations.

  • 103.
    Augustsson Sjögren, Daniel
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Biomedicinsk laboratorievetenskap.
    Characterisation of aptamers selected for binding to Yersinia pestis virulence protein LcrV2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 104.
    Aulin, Cecilia
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för materialkemi.
    Extracellular Matrix Based Materials for Tissue Engineering2010Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The extracellular matrix is (ECM) is a network of large, structural proteins and polysaccharides, important for cellular behavior, tissue development and maintenance. Present thesis describes work exploring ECM as scaffolds for tissue engineering by manipulating cells cultured in vitro or by influencing ECM expression in vivo. By culturing cells on polymer meshes under dynamic culture conditions, deposition of a complex ECM could be achieved, but with low yields. Since the major part of synthesized ECM diffused into the medium the rate limiting step of deposition was investigated. This quantitative analysis showed that the real rate limiting factor is the low proportion of new proteins which are deposited as functional ECM. It is suggested that cells are pre-embedded in for example collagen gels to increase the steric retention and hence functional deposition.

    The possibility to induce endogenous ECM formation and tissue regeneration by implantation of growth factors in a carrier material was investigated. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) is a growth factor known to be involved in growth and differentiation of bone and cartilage tissue. The BMP-2 processing and secretion was examined in two cell systems representing endochondral (chondrocytes) and intramembranous (mesenchymal stem cells) bone formation. It was discovered that chondrocytes are more efficient in producing BMP-2 compared to MSC. The role of the antagonist noggin was also investigated and was found to affect the stability of BMP-2 and modulate its effect. Finally, an injectable gel of the ECM component hyaluronan has been evaluated as delivery vehicle in cartilage regeneration. The hyaluronan hydrogel system showed promising results as a versatile biomaterial for cartilage regeneration, could easily be placed intraarticulary and can be used for both cell based and cell free therapies.

  • 105.
    Awdalla, Mohamed
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap och medicin.
    Homology Models of Human Retinoic Acid Hydroxylase CYP26A1 and CYP26B1: Molecular Dynamics Refinement and Evaluation of Statins Docking2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 poäng / 45 hpOppgave
  • 106. Aymara, Tagyzade
    Molecular expression of receptive stage endometriumin healthy women and women with endometriosis2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Endometriosis affects about 10-15% of women in their reproductive age, which increases the risk for infertility. The molecular expression profile of receptive endometrium of women with endometriosis may differ from that of receptive endometrium of healthy women. Thus, the objective of this study was to examine the molecular expression in endometrium of women with endometriosis and compare it with the endometrium from healthy women collected during receptive phase.Endometrium was collected during receptive phase from women with endometriosis (n=4) and from healthy women with proven fertility (n=8). Paraformaldehyde fixed and paraffin embedded tissues were sectioned and the differential protein expression of SOX17, ezrin, WT1 and SLPI were studied by use of immunohistochemistry, and analysed under light microscopy for staining intensity and area. Mann-Whitney U-test was performed to find differences in protein staining.We found that protein expression of SOX17 was confined to endometrial glands. The expression of ezrin present in glands was significantly higher in endometrium from women with endometriosis (p<0.01). There were no differences between the two groups in the expression of SOX17 or WT1. We could not find any detectable levels of SLP1 in the endometrial sections. Thus, we conclude that the endometrium of women with endometriosis have differential expression of ezrin.

  • 107.
    Ayoglu, Burcu
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Proteomik och nanobioteknologi. KTH, Centra, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Affinity Arrays for Profiling Proteins and Autoantibody Repertoires2014Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 108. Ayres-de-Campos, D.
    et al.
    Ugwumadu, A.
    Banfield, P.
    Lynch, P.
    Amin, P.
    Horwell, D.
    Costa, A.
    Santos, C.
    Bernardes, J.
    Rosen, Karl Gustaf
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    A randomised clinical trial of intrapartum fetal monitoring with computer analysis and alerts versus previously available monitoring2010Inngår i: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, ISSN 1471-2393, E-ISSN 1471-2393, Vol. 10, nr 71Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Intrapartum fetal hypoxia remains an important cause of death and permanent handicap and in a significant proportion of cases there is evidence of suboptimal care related to fetal surveillance. Cardiotocographic (CTG) monitoring remains the basis of intrapartum surveillance, but its interpretation by healthcare professionals lacks reproducibility and the technology has not been shown to improve clinically important outcomes. The addition of fetal electrocardiogram analysis has increased the potential to avoid adverse outcomes, but CTG interpretation remains its main weakness. A program for computerised analysis of intrapartum fetal signals, incorporating real-time alerts for healthcare professionals, has recently been developed. There is a need to determine whether this technology can result in better perinatal outcomes. Methods/design: This is a multicentre randomised clinical trial. Inclusion criteria are: women aged ≥ 16 years, able to provide written informed consent, singleton pregnancies ≥ 36 weeks, cephalic presentation, no known major fetal malformations, in labour but excluding active second stage, planned for continuous CTG monitoring, and no known contra-indication for vaginal delivery. Eligible women will be randomised using a computer-generated randomisation sequence to one of the two arms: continuous computer analysis of fetal monitoring signals with real-time alerts (intervention arm) or continuous CTG monitoring as previously performed (control arm). Electrocardiographic monitoring and fetal scalp blood sampling will be available in both arms. The primary outcome measure is the incidence of fetal metabolic acidosis (umbilical artery pH < 7.05, BDecf > 12 mmol/L). Secondary outcome measures are: caesarean section and instrumental vaginal delivery rates, use of fetal blood sampling, 5-minute Apgar score < 7, neonatal intensive care unit admission, moderate and severe neonatal encephalopathy with a marker of hypoxia, perinatal death, rate of internal monitoring, tracing quality, and signal loss. Analysis will follow an intention to treat principle. Incidences of primary and secondary outcomes will be compared between groups. Assuming a reduction in metabolic acidosis from 2.8% to 1.8%, using a two-sided test with alpha = 0.05, power = 0.80, and 10% loss to follow-up, 8133 women need to be randomised. Discussion: This study will provide evidence of the impact of intrapartum monitoring with computer analysis and real-time alerts on the incidence of adverse perinatal outcomes, intrapartum interventions and signal quality. (Current controlled trials ISRCTN42314164)

  • 109. Aziz, Sheima
    Real-time PCR detection of MRSA on the CepheidGeneXpert®System2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Background: MRSA or "Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus" has become a healthcareissue around the world. Over the last few years, MRSA infections has increased in 520 casesand become more common in society, causing a life threating infection and healthcareproblem. In order to avoid spreading of MRSA between patients in hospitals, specific analysisare necessary to monitor the bacteria.Aim: The purpose of the project was to validate NxG-kit in GeneXpert-instruments toverify and compare this kit to the Nasal Complete kit and to SYBR-Green based on in-housereal-time PCR. This comparison was made to see if NxG-kits can detect the SCCmec carryingMRSA's mecA and mecC-gene to replace in-house PCR and Nasal Complete-kits with NxGkits.Material and methods: In this project, some analyses such as in-house real time PCR andGeneXpert systems were performed using patient’s samples from different locations includingsome strains to detect specific genes in MRSA at the microbiology laboratory (Unilabs) inStockholm.Result: The result of the analysis performed with NxG-kit in GeneXpert-instruments hasmore potential to detect of positive MRSA samples compared to Nasal Complete-kit and inhousePCR.Conclusion: NxG-kit could easily detect the presence of MRSA because the kit targetsSCCmec carrying mecA- or mecC-gene in the orfX-gene, which provides accurate and rapidMRSA detection.

  • 110.
    Azrakhshi, Shler
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Jämförelse mellan ACUSON SC2000 och General Electric Vivid E9 med pulsad vävnadsdoppler2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 111.
    Backlund, Ingrid
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa.
    Evaluation of a selective media for the detection of gram-positive bacteria in leg ulcers and pressure wounds2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Hard-to-heal ulcers are resource intensive due to the fact that they are difficult to treat and especially vulnerable to bacterial invasion. The bacterial culture contaminating these wounds often consist of several different bacterial organisms that originate from endogenous sources. Necrotic material in ischemic ulcers provide nutrition which support bacterial reproduction, increasing the risk of infection. Determining causative pathogen in infected ulcers proves to be difficult when culturing swab samples, however Staphylococcus aureus and hemolytic streptococci generally act as primary pathogens.

        The aim of the study was to investigate if the detection rate increased for S. aureus and hemolytic streptococci when culturing swab samples from ulcers on Columbia CNA; a media selective for gram-positive bacteria. In the experimental procedure the inhibitory action of CNA upon gram-negative bacterial growth was evaluated, using simulated ulcer samples (n=6) containing bacterial quality control strains in arbitrary concentrations. Additionally, patient samples (n=51) were cultured and screened for primary pathogens to investigate differences in the detection rate for CNA and the current culture media; Blood agar, Chocolate agar, Gentian violet blood agar and CLED agar.

       Results from simulated ulcer samples showed excellent inhibitory function regarding the antibiotic substances of the CNA agar. Culturing patient samples from lower leg- and pressure ulcers on CNA, provided indications of diverse circumstances yielding higher respectively lower detection rate concerning S. aureus and hemolytic streptococci. Samples containing mixed flora with gram-negative bacteria generated higher detection rate and samples containing S. aureus yielded a lower detection rate when culturing on CNA, compared with that of the routine method. 

  • 112.
    Backman, Sofia
    et al.
    Skane Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Rosen, Ingmar
    Skane Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Blennow, Mats
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Karolinska Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Andersson, Thomas
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Englund, Marita
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Flink, Roland
    Uppsala Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Hallberg, Boubou
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Karolinska Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Liedholm, Lars-Johan
    Umea Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Norman, Elisabeth
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Sailer, Alexandra
    Umea Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Thordstein, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Swedish consensus reached on recording, interpretation and reporting of neonatal continuous simplified electroencephalography that is supported by amplitude-integrated trend analysis2018Inngår i: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 107, nr 10, s. 1702-1709Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Continuous monitoring of electroencephalography (EEG), with a focus on amplitude-integrated EEG (aEEG), has been used in neonatal intensive care for decades. A number of systems have been suggested for describing and quantifying aEEG patterns. Extensive full-montage EEG monitoring is used in specialised intensive care units. The American Clinical Neurophysiology Society published recommendations for defining and reporting EEG findings in critically ill adults and infants. Swedish neonatologists and clinical neurophysiologists collaborated to optimise simplified neonatal continuous aEEG and EEG recordings based on these American documents. Conclusion: This paper describes the Swedish consensus document produced by those meetings.

  • 113. Bahabozorgi, Bahareh
    Optimization of Legionella diagnostics by developing a multiplex real-time PCR assay for simultaneous detection of Legionella pneumophila and Legionella species2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The genus Legionella are intracellular organisms causing infection in the lower respiratory tracts and are accountable for global outbreaks of Legionnaires' disease. Legionella exists in various aquatic environments i.e. water systems in hospital buildings. Immunosuppressed patients are particularly vulnerable, considering the relatively high mortality rate within hospital-acquired pneumonia (5-20 %). The aim of this study was to optimize the current Legionella diagnostics by comparing different extraction methods and three real-time PCR assays for detecting L. species and L. pneumophila. Material used in this study consisted of nine clinical specimens collected from the respiratory tract from inpatients at the Uppsala University Hospital and surrounding regions, ten clinical samples from Quality Control for Molecular Diagnostics and reference bacterial cultures from Culture Collection University of Gothenburg. Extraction methods were tested with different pretreatment procedures. Different concentrations of primers and probes were combined to optimize the sensitivity and specificity of the method. Phocine herpesvirus-1 served as an inhibition control within the multiplex PCR assay. The results demonstrated 90 % and 100 % agreement when comparing current method with the commercial kit and the multiplex PCR assay, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity were improved using primer concentrations above 0.5 μM with 0.2 μM probe. Using Phocine herpesvirus-1 as an inhibition control showed successful detection in the multiplex PCR assay, although it had an impact on the detection of L. pneumophila and L. species. This indicates competition of reagents within the reaction, thus further optimization is required to improve the multiplex PCR assay.

  • 114.
    Bahrmann, Philipp
    et al.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ, Inst Biomed Aging.
    Bertsch, Thomas
    Paracelsus Med Univ, Gen Hosp Nuremberg, Inst Clin Chem Lab Med & Transfus Med.
    Giannitsis, Evangelos
    Univ Hosp Heidelberg, Dept Cardiol.
    Christ, Michael
    Luzerner Kantonsspital, Emergency Dept.
    Hofner, Benjamin
    Friedrich Alexander Univ, Dept Med Informat Biometry & Epidemiol.
    Christenson, Robert
    Univ Maryland, Sch Med, Dept Pathol.
    Lindahl, Bertil
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Kardiologi. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Uppsala kliniska forskningscentrum (UCR).
    Mueller, Christian
    Univ Hosp Basel, Dept Cardio.;Univ Hosp Basel, Cardiovasc Res Inst Basel.
    Quantification of Renal Function and Cardiovascular Mortality in Patients Admitted to the Emergency Department with Suspected Acute Coronary Syndromes: Results from the TRAPID-AMI Study2017Inngår i: Clinical Laboratory, ISSN 1433-6510, Vol. 63, nr 9, s. 1457-1466Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Increases in the novel serum marker cystatin C are detectable much earlier in the course of chronic kidney disease (CKD) even when levels of serum creatinine are still in the normal range. A major factor causing a decrease in serum creatinine is increasing age. Patients with CKD are more likely to develop cardiovascular disease (CVD) than a healthy population and to suffer premature deaths from CVD related to CKD. The aim of this study was to investigate whether cystatin C, serum creatinine, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) predict cardiovascular mortality in patients admitted to the emergency department (ED) with suspected acute coronary syndromes (ACS).

    Methods: In 1,282 patients (mean age 62 15 years, 477 women, 805 men) with suspected ACS, baseline cystatin C concentrations, serum creatinine, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were measured at the ED. Clinical assessment and serial high sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) measurements were used for the diagnosis of ACS. Seventeen cardiovascular deaths were registered during a median follow-up of 365 days.

    Results: HRs from univariate Cox regression models for each of the potential biomarkers were 12.02 (95% CI 5.10 - 28.34) for cystatin C, 4.53 (1.75 - 11.70) for serum creatinine, and 0.97 (0.96 - 0.99) for eGFR. All three biomarkers showed a significant association with cardiovascular mortality in univariate analyses. The HRs from a model with all three potential biomarkers were 59.21 (95% CI 9.69 - 361.76) for cystatin C, 0.08 (0.01 - 0.58) for serum creatinine, and 0.98 (0.96 - 1.01) for eGFR. The risk association was significant for ln (cystatin C) and ln (serum creatinine).

    Conclusions: Results of this prospective study show that the quantification of renal function using cystatin C is useful for predicting cardiovascular mortality in patients with suspected ACS at the ED.

  • 115.
    Bai, Yunpeng
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Proteomik och nanobioteknologi. KTH, Centra, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Weibull, Emilie
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Proteomik och nanobioteknologi. KTH, Centra, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Jönsson, Håkan
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Proteomik och nanobioteknologi. KTH, Centra, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Andersson Svahn, Helene
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Proteomik och nanobioteknologi. KTH, Centra, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Interfacing picoliter droplet microfluidics with addressable microliter compartments using fluorescence activated cell sorting2014Inngår i: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 194, s. 249-254Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Droplet microfluidic platforms have, while enabling high-throughput manipulations and the assaying of single cell scale compartments, been lacking interfacing to allow macro scale access to the output from droplet microfluidic operations. Here, we present a simple and high-throughput method for individually directing cell containing droplets to an addressable and macro scale accessible microwell slide for downstream analysis. Picoliter aqueous droplets containing low gelling point agarose and eGFP expressing Escherichia coli (E. coli) are created in a microfluidic device, solidified to agarose beads and transferred into an aqueous buffer. A Fluorescence activated cell sorter (FACS) is used to sort agarose beads containing cells into microwells in which the growth and expansion of cell colonies is monitored. We demonstrate fast sorting and high accuracy positioning of sorted 15 μm gelled droplet agarose beads into microwells (14 × 48) on a 25 mm × 75 mm microscope slide format using a FACS with a 100 μm nozzle and an xy-stage. The interfacing method presented here enables the products of high-throughput or single cell scale droplet microfluidics assays to be output to a wide range of microtiter plate formats familiar to biological researchers lowering the barriers for utilization of these microfluidic platforms.

  • 116. Ball, Frank
    et al.
    Britton, Tom
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Matematiska institutionen.
    Sirl, David
    Household epidemic models with varying infection response2011Inngår i: Journal of Mathematical Biology, ISSN 0303-6812, E-ISSN 1432-1416, Vol. 63, nr 2, s. 309-337Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is concerned with SIR (susceptible -> infected -> removed) household epidemic models in which the infection response may be either mild or severe, with the type of response also affecting the infectiousness of an individual. Two different models are analysed. In the first model, the infection status of an individual is predetermined, perhaps due to partial immunity, and in the second, the infection status of an individual depends on the infection status of its infector and on whether the individual was infected by a within- or between-household contact. The first scenario may be modelled using a multitype household epidemic model, and the second scenario by a model we denote by the infector-dependent-severity household epidemic model. Large population results of the two models are derived, with the focus being on the distribution of the total numbers of mild and severe cases in a typical household, of any given size, in the event that the epidemic becomes established. The aim of the paper is to investigate whether it is possible to determine which of the two underlying explanations is causing the varying response when given final size household outbreak data containing mild and severe cases. We conduct numerical studies which show that, given data on sufficiently many households, it is generally possible to discriminate between the two models by comparing the Kullback-Leibler divergence for the two fitted models to these data.

  • 117. Bao, D.
    et al.
    Zou, Zhuo
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Industriell och Medicinsk Elektronik. KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Huan, Y.
    Zhai, Chuanying
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Industriell och Medicinsk Elektronik. KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Bagaian, T.
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Industriell och Medicinsk Elektronik. KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Källbäck, B.
    Zheng, Lirong
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Industriell och Medicinsk Elektronik. KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. State Key Laboratory of ASIC and System, Fudan University, Shanghai, China .
    A smart catheter system for minimally invasive brain monitoring2015Inngår i: Proceedings of the International Conference on Biomedical Electronics and Devices, SciTePress, 2015, s. 198-203Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper demonstrates a smart catheter system with intracranial pressure (ICP) and temperature sensing capability which is designed for real-time monitoring in traumatic brain injury (TBI) therapy. It uses a single flexible catheter with a 1 mm (3 Fr) diameter that integrates electrodes and sophisticated silicon chip on flexible substrates, enabling multimodality monitoring of physiological signals. A micro-electromechanical-system (MEMS) catheter pressure sensor is mounted on the distal end. It can be used for detecting both pressure and temperature by different switch configurations, which minimizes the size of catheter and reduces the cost. The interconnects (signalling conductors) are printed on a bio-compatible flexible substrate, and the sensor is interfaced with an embedded electronic system at the far-end. The electronic system consists of analog front end with analog-to-digital converter (ADC), a microcontroller, and data interface to the hospital infrastructure with a graphical user interface (GUI). The overall smart catheter system achieves a pressure sensing root mean square error (RMSE) of ±1.5 mmHg measured from 20 mmHg to 300 mmHg above 1 atm and a temperature sensing RMSE of ±0.08°C measured from 32°C to 42°C. The sampling rate can be up to 10S/s. The in vivo performance is demonstrated in laboratory animals.

  • 118.
    Baroshki, Rojan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Biomedicinsk laboratorievetenskap.
    Mykofenolsyra och AUC-beräkning för organtransplanterade patienter2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 119.
    Baudin, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Biomedicinsk laboratorievetenskap.
    Ökad trombopoes och perifer trombocytaktivering i Hantavirus-infekterade patienter2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 120.
    Benderix, Ylva
    et al.
    Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap, Institutionen för pedagogik.
    Almqvist, Ann-Mari
    Andersson, Åsa
    Bengtsson, Elisabeth
    Björk, Maria
    Birgersson, Petra
    Bramhagen, Ann-Cathrin
    Bredlöv, Britt
    Broberg, Malin
    Danielsson, Pernilla
    Drevenhorn, Eva
    Edwinsson-Månsson, Marie
    Ervander Grandinsson, Inger
    Falk, Ann-Charlotte
    Forsner, Maria
    Gelander, RS
    Gothefors, Leif
    Gånemo, Agneta
    Barn med neuropsykiatriskt funktionshinder2009Inngår i: PEDIATRISK OMVÅRDNAD / [ed] Inger Hallström & Tom Lindberg, Stockholm: LIBER , 2009, s. 309-315Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 121.
    Bengtsson, Rebecca
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö.
    Jämförelse av automatiskt beräknade ejektionsfraktion (EF) ochmaximal volym vid diastole i vänster kammare (EDV) vid myokardscintigrafi och ultraljud.2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Hjärtats storlek och funktion är avgörande för att ställa diagnos och prognos vid kardiella sjukdomar. För bestämning av dessa parametrar finns olika metoder att använda sig av. I denna studie har vi försökt visa korrelation och överensstämmelse mellan 3-dimensionell ekokardiografi (RT3DE) och myokardscintigrafi (SPECT). Då 25 patienter var remitterade för arbetsdelen av myokardscintigrafin undersöktes de även med RT3DE. Av dessa exkluderades 7 patienter antingen för att bildkvaliteten var för dålig för automatiska beräkningar, eller för att programvaran inte klarade av att göra trovärdiga beräkningar även då bildkvaliteten var god. De återstående 18 patienter (ålder 62 ± 11 år, 9 kvinnor) ingick i jämförelserna. Vänsterkammarens ejektionsfraktion (EF) och end diastoliska volym (EDV) beräknades automatiskt utan manuell justering av konturerna med RT3DE och jämfördes med erhållna värden från SPECT. Resultaten för EDV mätt med SPECT och RT3DE blev 83 ± 59 ml (37-291 ml) respektive 118 ± 32 ml (75-186 ml). Pearsons korrelationskoefficient mellan SPECT och RT3DE var r = 0,78 (P < 0,002). Beräkning av överensstämmelsen mellan metoderna ger bias som är medelvärdet av skillnaden vilket blev 35 ± 40 ml (P < 0,001). Motsvarande resultat för EF beräknat med SPECT och RT3DE blev 62 ± 13 % (36-83 %) respektive 54 ± 8 % (36-71 %). Pearsons korrelationskoefficient mellan metoderna var r = 0,59 (P = 0,009). Biasvärdet blev -7 ± 11 % (P = 0,004) för EF. Spridningen mellan metoderna var stor och några tydliga trender kunde inte ses. Med en trendlinje i differensdiagrammet visualiserades att felet växte med storleken på värdena för EF. De stora variationerna mellan metoderna ökar vikten av utbildning och erfarenhet vid bedömning av enskilda resultat oavsett undersökning.

  • 122.
    Bentley, Katie
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi, Vaskulärbiologi. Harvard Med Sch, Beth Israel Deaconess Med Ctr, Computat Biol Lab, Boston, MA USA..
    Chakravartula, Shilpa
    Harvard Med Sch, Beth Israel Deaconess Med Ctr, Computat Biol Lab, Boston, MA USA..
    The temporal basis of angiogenesis2017Inngår i: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8436, E-ISSN 1471-2970, Vol. 372, nr 1720, s. 1-11, artikkel-id 20150522Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The process of new blood vessel growth (angiogenesis) is highly dynamic, involving complex coordination of multiple cell types. Though the process must carefully unfold over time to generate functional, well-adapted branching networks, we seldom hear about the time-based properties of angiogenesis, despite timing being central to other areas of biology. Here, we present a novel, time-based formulation of endothelial cell behaviour during angiogenesis and discuss a flurry of our recent, integrated in silico/in vivo studies, put in context to the wider literature, which demonstrate that tissue conditions can locally adapt the timing of collective cell behaviours/decisions to grow different vascular network architectures. A growing array of seemingly unrelated 'temporal regulators' have recently been uncovered, including tissue derived factors (e.g. semaphorins or the high levels of VEGF found in cancer) and cellular processes (e.g. asymmetric cell division or filopodia extension) that act to alter the speed of cellular decisions to migrate. We will argue that 'temporal adaptation' provides a novel account of organ/disease-specific vascular morphology and reveals 'timing' as a new target for therapeutics. We therefore propose and explain a conceptual shift towards a 'temporal adaptation' perspective in vascular biology, and indeed other areas of biology where timing remains elusive. This article is part of the themed issue 'Systems morphodynamics: understanding the development of tissue hardware'.

  • 123.
    Berg, Johanna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Biomedicinsk laboratorievetenskap.
    Visualisering av mikroorganismer i hårfolliklar från patienter med follikulit2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 124.
    Bergfors, Monica
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa.
    Evaluation of Microsatellite Instability Analysis as a Diagnostic Tool to Identify Lynch Syndrome in Endometrial Cancer Patients2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Hereditary endometrial cancer (EC) is a Lynch syndrome (LS) related cancer variant and 2-10% of all EC are hereditary. The aim of this study was to develop a method for analysis of microsatellite instability (MSI) as such analysis would assist in identifying potential LS patients with EC at an early state of their disease, before a possible second cancer is developed in another organ.

    Twenty-six patients with adenocarcinoma in the endometrium, diagnosed at Uppsala University Hospital in Sweden between 1993 and 2012, were included in the study. Seven of these patients were also diagnosed with LS and the rest were sporadic EC. DNA was extracted from the patients’ formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues. The extracted DNA was subjected to a multiplex PCR with fluorescently labelled primers and then analysed by using capillary electrophoresis.

    Of the sporadic EC, 26% was MSI-High, which correlates well with published data. Of the LS patients, 83% was MSI-High. The outcome of this project resulted in that MSI analysis is now a validated and established method used in the process of identifying potential LS among patients with EC.

  • 125.
    Berglin, Lena
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Textilhögskolan.
    Interactive Textile Structures: Creating Multifunctional Textiles based on Smart Materials2008Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Textiles of today are materials with applications in almost all our activities. We wear clothes all the time and we are surrounded with textiles in almost all our environments. The integration of multifunctional values in such a common material has become a special area of interest in recent years. Smart Textile represents the next generation of textiles anticipated for use in several fashion, furnishing and technical textile applications. The term smart is used to refer to materials that sense and respond in a pre-defined manner to environmental stimuli. The degree of smartness varies and it is possible to enhance the intelligence further by combining these materials with a controlling unit, for example a microprocessor. As an interdisciplinary area Smart Textile includes design spaces from several areas; the textile design space, the information technology design space and the design space of material science. This thesis addresses how Smart Textiles affect the textile design space; how the introduction of smart materials and information technology affects the creation of future textile products. The aim is to explore the convergence between textiles, smart materials and information technology and to contribute to providing a basis for future research in this area. The research method is based on a series of interlinked experiments designed through the research questions and the research objects. The experiments are separated into two different sections: interactive textile structures and health monitoring. The result is a series of basic methods for how interactive textile structures are created and a general system for health monitoring. Furthermore the result consists of a new design space, advanced textile design. In advanced textile design the focus is set on the relation between the different natures of a textile object: its physical structure and its structure in the context of design and use.

  • 126. Berglund, Elias
    The effects of probiotics on sleep and fatty acids2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Probiotics are dietary supplements that contain bacteria that are potentially beneficial for the intestinal flora. The positive effects of probiotics are however not limited to the intestine. The use of probiotics is becoming more and more common and therefore needs to be studied more closely.The purpose of this study is to see how healthy individuals, in the age between 18 and 28 years old and with a BMI between 20 and 25, respond to the probiotic LactiPlus (also called FF8).Blood samples were collected before and after the subjects have eaten a standardized meal. The subject´s glucometabolic responses to food, sleep patterns and their fatty acid profile was analyzed in relation to the probiotic composition.Due to difficulties including study subjects, three subject completed the participation in the study. The three study subjects had similar sleeping habits, one had slightly higher fruit intake, the word and number memory were similar, but it was not possible to relate any data to the use of probiotics. It can be summarized that inclusion additional study subjects is needed.

  • 127.
    Berglund, Sara
    Karlstads universitet.
    AB0-blodgruppens betydelse i trombocyttransfusionssammanhäng.2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 128.
    Bergner, Helén
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Virologi.
    Screening för virus i myggor insamlade sommaren 2017 i Västerbotten2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 129.
    Bergsten, Niklas
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för vård och natur.
    PDIA3 and Prostate Cancer: Do changes in nucleotidesequence correspond tomalignancy?2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    PDIA3 interacts with the lectin chaperons; calnexin and calreticulin to surveythe folding of newly synthesized glycoproteins by the addition of N-linkedglycans. PDIA3 is also involved in transcaltachia signaling cascades andimmunogenicity. The purpose was to determine if there were any changespresent in the nucleotide sequence of the Pdia3 gene. To study this, fourprostate cell lines were examined by Sanger sequencing, two malignant(LNCaP, PC3) and two normal (PNT1A, PNT2). These were to be compared tothe nucleotide sequence from nine formalin fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE)samples of different Gleason score and the sequence from three FFPE samplesof normal prostate tissue chosen from the Örebro Radical Cohort. The obtainedsequences were then analysed with several bioinformatics tools to determine ifthere were any changes present. The nucleotide sequence obtained from thesequencing indicated that none of the cell lines expressed the most redundantisofrom; CRA_c, but instead CRA_a and CRA_b. Surprisingly, the two normalcell lines (PNT1A and PNT2) produced similar scores in BLAST search forboth the CRA_a and the CRA_b isoforms. Software analysis of the translatedsequences predicted that LNCaP expressed a membrane bound form PDIA3while PC3 expressed a cytoplasmic variant of the protein. To confirm this,another sequencing reaction was performed. The second results indicated thatall cell lines expressed the same isoform, but that the isoforms were localizedto different intracellular compartments.

  • 130.
    Bergström, Valentina
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Effekt av extrakt från kråkbär, grönt te, Rooibos te och kakao på prostaglandin E2-bildning i humana monocyter och makrofager2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 131.
    Berkeby Banérsson, Emilia
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för kemi och biomedicin (KOB).
    Hållbarhetsstudier och granskning av automatvalidering av analysresultat vid analys av prostataspecifikt antigen Hållbarhetsstudier och granskning av automatvalidering av analysresultat vid analys av prostataspecifikt antigen2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Prostatacancer är den vanligaste orsaken till cancerdöd hos män i Sverige. Cirka 9500 patienter får diagnosen prostatacancer varje år. Prostatacancer diagnostiseras med hjälp av analys av tumörmarkören prostataspecifikt antigen (PSA) i plasma.

    Syftet med den aktuella studien var att undersöka den preanalytiska stabiliteten av PSA i plasma och att undersöka hur förändrade provtagningsanvisningar och provtagningsrutiner påverkade analysresultat, arbetsförhållanden och patientsäkerhet.

    Analysmetoden som användes vid studien var electrochemiluminiscence immunoassay (ECLIA), vilken nyttjar ljus för detektion av antigen-/antikroppskomplex.

    I en första studie visades att centrifugerade PSA-prover med icke avhälld plasma, förvarade i 6o C, kan analyseras upp till 5 dagar efter provtagning. Detta till skillnad från nuvarande metodbeskrivning som kräver avhälld plasma vid analys 24 timmar efter provtagning. En andra studie visade att PSA-prov, förvarat i 6o C, centrifugerat och analyserat 24 timmar efter provtagning gav oförändrade PSA-värden jämfört med PSA-prov som centrifugerats och analyserats direkt efter provtagning. Detta till skillnad från nuvarande metodbeskrivning där prov skall centrifugeras inom 2 timmar och att ocentrifugerat prov skall förvaras i rumstemperatur.

    Nya automatvalideringsgränser och införandet av laboratoriedataprogrammet Delta-check gav en halvering av antalet analysresultat som ej automatvalideras.

    Studien visar att PSA var mer stabilt än tidigare förmodats och att förändrade rutiner vid analys av PSA och införande av automatvalidering med Delta-check kan leda till ett förbättrat och mer effektivt arbete för personalen på laboratoriet och ge ökad patientsäkerhet.

  • 132.
    Biberfeld, G
    et al.
    National bacteriological laboratory.
    Thorstensson, R
    National bacteriological laboratory.
    Bergström, M
    National bacteriological laboratory.
    Naucler, A
    National bacteriological laboratory.
    Costa, C M
    National bacteriological laboratory.
    Enzyme immunoassays for the demonstration of antibodies to HIV-2SBL-6669 and HTLV-IV (SIVmac).1988Inngår i: AIDS (London), ISSN 0269-9370, E-ISSN 1473-5571, Vol. 2, nr 3, s. 195-9Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were developed for the demonstration of antibodies to HIV-2 using disrupted virions of the SBL-6669 isolate of HIV-2 and the so-called human T-lymphotropic virus type IV (HTLV-IV), recently found to be identical with the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVmac), as antigens. Three hundred sera from West African subjects, attending an outward clinic in Bissau for examination of suspected tuberculosis, were tested by these two assays as well as by a commercially available anti-HIV-2 ELISA (ELAVIA II). Fifty of these sera were positive in all three ELISAs as well as in Western blot tests against HTLV-IV. Thirty-eight of these positive sera were also tested by an anti-HIV-2 Western blot kit (LAV-Blot II) with positive results. The ELISAs based on SBL-6669 and HTLV-IV antigens had a specificity of 99.6% (one false positive among 250 negative sera) whereas the specificity of ELAVIA II was 94.6% using the recommended cut-off value and 98.4% using a higher cut-off value. Another 58 sera from West African patients, clinically suspected of having AIDS or HIV-related disease, were tested for HIV-2/HTLV-IV antibodies by Western blot and by ELISA against SBL-6669 and HTLV-IV antigens; all of the 30 sera which were positive by Western blot were found to be positive in both ELISAs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  • 133.
    Bild, Filippa
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för kemi och biomedicin (KOB).
    Utvärdering av BD Vacutainer® Rapid Serum Tube vid analys av S-Paracetamol och S-Etanol2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Avdelningen för klinisk kemi vid Länssjukhuset i Kalmar analyserar läkemedel och alkoholer med BD Vacutainer® Plus Plastic Serum Tube (Serum Tube), som kräver en koagulationstid i upp till 60 minuter. BD Vacutainer® Rapid Serum Tube (RST™) innehåller trombin och kräver en koagulationstid på endast 5 minuter. Syftet med studien var att undersöka möjligheten att förkorta den preanalytiska väntetiden före centrifugering vid intoxikationsanalyser i serumrör från akutmottagningen. Studien utfördes genom att jämföra RST™ med Serum Tube vid analys av S-Paracetamol och S-Etanol. Totalt analyserades 70 prover för S-Paracetamol, varav 35 RST™ och 35 Serum Tube från 35 patienter. Analys av S-Etanol utfördes på 60 prover, varav 30 RST™ och 30 Serum Tube från 30 patienter. RST™ centrifugerades efter 5 minuter och Serum Tube efter 50 minuter, före kolorimetrisk analys på analysinstrumentet VITROS® 5,1 FS. Resultaten för S-Paracetamol var inom intervallet 74,9 – 198,7 µmol/L för RST™ och inom 76,6 – 195,3 µmol/L för Serum Tube. Resultaten för S-Etanol var inom intervallet 7,5 – 74,5 mmol/L för RST™ och inom 7,5 – 74,8 mmol/L för Serum Tube. Pearsons korrelationskoefficient var 0,9977 för S-Paracetamol och 0,9980 för S-Etanol och det fanns en liten positiv bias vid analys med RST™ för båda analyterna, men ingen signifikant skillnad (p>0,05) mellan provrören påvisades. Användning av RST™ på akutmottagningen medför en förkortad preanalytisk väntetid och en snabbare turnaround time (TAT). Hypotesen att S-Paracetamol och S-Etanol kan analyseras med RST™ på VITROS® 5,1 FS stämmer, med undantag för höga koncentrationer av S-Paracetamol som inte kunde utvärderas. För att RST™ ska kunna användas rutinmässigt bör därför ytterligare studier utföras.

  • 134.
    Bin Kaderi, Mohamed Arifin
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik och patologi, Hematologi och immunologi.
    Assessment of Novel Molecular Prognostic Markers in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia2010Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The clinical course of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is highly heterogeneous, which has prompted the search for biomarkers that can predict prognosis in this disease. The IGHV gene mutation status and certain genomic aberrations have been identified as reliable prognostic markers of clinical outcome for this disorder. However, the search for more feasible prognostic markers in CLL is still being pursued. Recently, certain single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the GNAS1, BCL2 and MDM2 genes and the RNA expression levels of the LPL, ZAP70, TCL1, CLLU1 and MCL1 genes were suggested as novel prognostic markers in CLL.

    In papers I-III, we performed genotyping analyses of the GNAS1 T393C, BCL2 -938C>A and MDM2 SNP309 polymorphisms in 268-418 CLL patients and related the genotypes with clinical data. Association studies between the polymorphisms and established prognostic markers (i.e. IGHV mutation status, genomic aberrations, CD38 expression) were also performed. Our studies did not find any significant relationship between these SNPs with either clinical outcome or other known prognostic markers in CLL.

    In paper IV, we measured the RNA expression levels of LPL, ZAP70, TCL1, CLLU1 and MCL1 in 252 CLL cases and correlated these levels with clinical outcome. Here, we verified that high expression of all these RNA-based markers, except MCL1, were associated with an unfavourable prognosis. We also confirmed a close relationship between IGHV mutation status and the RNA-based markers, especially for LPL and CLLU1 expression. Among the RNA-based markers, multivariate analysis revealed LPL expression as the strongest independent prognostic marker for overall survival and time to treatment. Furthermore, the RNA-based markers could add further prognostic information to established markers in subgroups of patients, with LPL expression status giving the most significant results.

    In summary, data from papers I-III could not verify the GNAS1 T393C, BCL2 -938C>A and MDM2 SNP309 polymorphisms as prognostic markers in CLL. Future SNP markers must hence be confirmed in large, independent cohorts before being proposed as prognostic marker in CLL. In paper IV, we conclude that LPL expression appears to be the strongest among the RNA-based markers for CLL prognostication. Further efforts to standardize LPL quantification are required before it can be applied in the clinical laboratory to predict clinical outcome in this disease.

  • 135.
    Bisevac, Maida
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö.
    Jämförelse av Vibrio parahaemolyticus överlevnad i marint och artificiellt saltvatten samt jämförelse av fyra kit för RNA-extrahering från V. parahaemolyticus 2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus är en marin bakterie som människan kan få i sig via fisk och skaldjur eller genom att bada i vattnet med höga koncentrationer av denna bakterie och som kan orsaka mag- och tarminfektioner, öroninfektioner, sårinfektioner och till och med blodförgiftningar. Bakterien är patogen även för marina organismer. Eftersom ökad koldioxidhalt leder till havsförsurningen som kommer att försvaga immunsystem hos marina organismer är det viktigt att studera genuttrycket hos V. parahaemolyticus vid lägre pH för att få kunskap om den blir lika virulent. Syftet med denna studie är att jämföra bakteriens överlevnad i marint vatten och artificiellt vatten (ASW) eftersom det senare ofta används i laborativa studier av marina bakteriers egenskaper och funktion, samt att jämföra fyra kommersiella kit (TRIzol Max Bacterial RNA Isolation Kit Life Technologies), RNeasy Mini Kit (Qiagen), NucleoSpin RNA Plus (Macherey-Nagel) och SV Total RNA Isolation Kit (Promega)) för RNA extrahering både från bakterier i log-fasen vid rekommenderat bakterieantal och marint vatten vid lågt bakterieantal. Bakterierna överlevde lika bra i båda sorters vatten. När det gäller RNA extrahering gav TRIzol högst RNA-mängd, men sämre kvalitet, speciellt i extraherat från marint vatten. NucleoSpin gav lite högre RNA-mängd än Qiagen, men kvalitet hos RNA extraherat med Qiagen uppskattades som lite bättre när provet kördes ut på gel. Detta och mycket kort extraheringstid, samt bättre säkerhet och enklare steg kan göra att man föredrar NucleoSpin och Qiagen framför TRIzol.

  • 136.
    Bjällmark, Anna
    KTH, Medicinsk teknik.
    New ultrasonographic approaches to monitoring cardiac and vascular function2009Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. To decrease mortality and morbidity in cardiovascular disease, the development of accurate, non-invasive methods for early diagnosis of atherosclerotic cardiac and vascular engagement is of considerable clinical interest. Cardiovascular ultrasound imaging is today the cornerstone in the routine evaluation of cardiovascular function and recent development has resulted in two new techniques, tissue velocity imaging (TVI) and speckle tracking, which allow objective quantification of cardiovascular function. TVI and speckle tracking are the basis for three new approaches to cardiac and vascular monitoring presented in this thesis: wave intensity wall analysis (WIWA), two-dimensional strain imaging in the common carotid artery, and the state diagram of the heart.

     

    WIWA uses longitudinal and radial strain rate as input for calculations of wave intensity in the arterial wall. In this thesis, WIWA was validated against a commercially available wave intensity system, showing that speckle tracking-derived strain variables can be useful in wave intensity analysis. WIWA was further tested in patients with end stage renal disease and documented high mortality in cardiovascular disease. The latter study evaluated the effects of a single session of hemodialysis using WIWA and TVI variables and showed improved systolic function after hemodialysis. The results also indicated that preload-adjusted early systolic wave intensity obtained by the WIWA system may contribute in the assessment of left ventricular contractility in this patient category. Two-dimensional strain imaging in the common carotid artery is a new approach showing great potential to detect age-dependent differences in mechanical properties of the common carotid artery. Among the measured strain variables, global circumferential strain had the best discriminating performance and appeared to be superior to conventional measures of arterial stiffness such as elastic modulus and β stiffness index. The state diagram is a visualisation tool that provides a quantitative overview of the temporal interrelationship of mechanical events in the left and right ventricles. Case examples and a small clinical study showed that state diagrams clearly visualize cardiac function and can be useful in the detection of non ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI).

     

    Even though WIWA, two-dimensional strain imaging in the common carotid artery and the state diagram show potential to be useful in the evaluation of cardiovascular function, there still remains a considerable amount of work to be done before they can be used in the daily clinical practice.

  • 137.
    Bjällmark, Anna
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Medicinsk teknik.
    New ultrasonographic approaches to monitoring cardiac and vascular function2009Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. To decrease mortality and morbidity in cardiovascular disease, the development of accurate, non-invasive methods for early diagnosis of atherosclerotic cardiac and vascular engagement is of considerable clinical interest. Cardiovascular ultrasound imaging is today the cornerstone in the routine evaluation of cardiovascular function and recent development has resulted in two new techniques, tissue velocity imaging (TVI) and speckle tracking, which allow objective quantification of cardiovascular function. TVI and speckle tracking are the basis for three new approaches to cardiac and vascular monitoring presented in this thesis: wave intensity wall analysis (WIWA), two-dimensional strain imaging in the common carotid artery, and the state diagram of the heart.

     

    WIWA uses longitudinal and radial strain rate as input for calculations of wave intensity in the arterial wall. In this thesis, WIWA was validated against a commercially available wave intensity system, showing that speckle tracking-derived strain variables can be useful in wave intensity analysis. WIWA was further tested in patients with end stage renal disease and documented high mortality in cardiovascular disease. The latter study evaluated the effects of a single session of hemodialysis using WIWA and TVI variables and showed improved systolic function after hemodialysis. The results also indicated that preload-adjusted early systolic wave intensity obtained by the WIWA system may contribute in the assessment of left ventricular contractility in this patient category. Two-dimensional strain imaging in the common carotid artery is a new approach showing great potential to detect age-dependent differences in mechanical properties of the common carotid artery. Among the measured strain variables, global circumferential strain had the best discriminating performance and appeared to be superior to conventional measures of arterial stiffness such as elastic modulus and β stiffness index. The state diagram is a visualisation tool that provides a quantitative overview of the temporal interrelationship of mechanical events in the left and right ventricles. Case examples and a small clinical study showed that state diagrams clearly visualize cardiac function and can be useful in the detection of non ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI).

     

    Even though WIWA, two-dimensional strain imaging in the common carotid artery and the state diagram show potential to be useful in the evaluation of cardiovascular function, there still remains a considerable amount of work to be done before they can be used in the daily clinical practice.

  • 138.
    Björk, Josefin
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för kemi och biomedicin (KOB).
    Erytrocytinnehåll i plasmakomponenter: En jämförelse mellan teststickan Multistix, hematologiinstrumentet Advia 2120 och manuell räkning i mikroskop med Bürkers räknekammare2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Efter tappning av 450 mL helblod från frivilliga blodgivare separeras blodet till plasma, erytrocyter och trombocyter. Kontroller tas för att undersöka komponentframställningens resultat. I plasmaenheterna kontrolleras bland annat att antalet erytrocyter är under 6x109 per liter. Helblod innehåller normalt 4-6x1012 erytrocyter per liter. Massiv blödning är den främsta indikationen för plasmatransfusion. En transfusion är förknippad med risker såsom transfusion related acute lung injury (TRALI) och transfusion associated circulatory overload (TACO). Syftet med examensarbetet var att hitta en beslutsgräns för bestämning av erytrocytinnehållet i plasmakomponenter som framställs vid beredning av blodkomponenter inför transfusion. Gränsen skulle fastställas genom en jämförelse mellan teststickan Multistix 8 SG, Body fluid-programmet i hematologiinstrumentet Advia 2120 samt manuell räkning i Bürkers räknekammare. Analys skedde av 38 prover varav 18 prover fick tillsats av extra erytrocyter för att antingen överstiga kontrollgränsen eller finna övergången till stickans högsta nivå. Medelvärdet och medianen för de kvantitativa resultaten från Bürkers räknekammare för 20 godkända kontrollerna, fördelade efter teststickans kategorier, beräknades. Samtliga resultaten låg mellan 0,063x109/L och 2,08x109/L. Av de 38 prover som analyserades erhöll 37 ett resultat i form <10x109/L på Advia 2120. Utifrån de erhållna resultaten fastslogs gränsen vid vilken en komponentkontroll garanteras ett godkänt resultat till ≤2+ på teststickan. Vid resultat 3+ ska en konfirmerande kvantitativ analys utföras. Den slutsats som kunde dras var att teststickan Multistix 8 SG kan användas som en screeningmetod vid analys av erytrocytinnehållet i de tillverkade plasmakomponenterna. Slutsatsen blev även att det Adviaprogram som användes inte är lämpligt för analys av erytrocytinnehållet i plasma.

  • 139.
    Björklund, Kristofer
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Evaluation and optimization of four real-time PCRs, using TaqMan-probes, for detection of and discrimination between barley, oat, rye and wheat2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Coeliac disease is a chronic inflammatory disease treated with a gluten-free diet, excluding barley, rye and wheat. Hence, there is a demand for methods able to detect gluten in foods in order to ensure correct labeling of products. According to the Codex Alimentarius Commission, 20ppm gluten is the maximum amount allowed in food labeled gluten-free.

    PCR can detect DNA from cereals in food. Four real-time PCR-systems,

    using TaqMan®-probes for detection of barley, oat, rye and wheat were optimized and evaluated. Evaluations were carried out using seeds. Primers were targeted to genes coding for prolamines, seed storage proteins. PCR-systems targeted to barley, oat and wheat were shown to be specific for the cereals corresponding to each system. The system targeted to rye showed cross-reactions with durum wheat and spelt wheat. Detection limits were 50pg, corresponding to <10 haploid genome copies for each cereal. All systems were able to detect 250ppm amounts of DNA, most likely even smaller amounts are detectable. All systems showed an amplification efficiency of ≥95%.

    Systems for detection of barley, oat and wheat are ready for further evaluation, using food products as samples. The rye system however, needs to be re-designed before further evaluation can take place.

  • 140.
    Blaad, Emilia
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Tolkning av neurografisvar vid frågeställningen karpaltunnelsyndrom – en jämförelse mellan erfaren och oerfaren tolkare2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 141. Blad, Sofia
    et al.
    Welin, Anna-Karin
    Kjellmer, Ingemar
    Rosén, Karl-Gustaf
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Mallard, Carina
    ECG and heart rate variability changes in preterm and near-term fetal lamb following LPS exposure2008Inngår i: Reproductive Sciences, ISSN 1933-7191, E-ISSN 1933-7205, Vol. 15, nr 6, s. 572-583Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the myocardial response in the preterm and near-term fetal lamb with infection. Chronically instrumented fetal lambs were exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and the fetal electrocardiogram (FECG) ST waveform was examined using STAN. Fetal heart rate variability (FHRV) was automatically analyzed by adapting a polynomial function to the RR sequence in the FECG. Preterm fetuses exposed to >90 ng/kg LPS died within 8 hours of LPS administration, a response not seen in near-term fetuses. In both surviving and nonsurviving preterm fetuses, cardiovascular responses were characterized by decreased arterial pressure, negative T waves, and tachycardia accompanied by an increase in FHRV. Similar changes were not observed in the near-term fetuses after LPS. The study shows that preterm lambs are more sensitive to LPS in terms of myocardial/cardiovascular response than the more mature fetuses are. High FHRV and negative ST waveform seem to characterize the LPS-induced stress response in preterm fetuses.

  • 142.
    Blana, Roxana
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö.
    Utprovning och validering av nya dehydreringsprogram2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor of Fine Arts), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Dehydration process is an important histotechnical method of tissue samples undergoing histopathological analysis. Using different alcohols and intermedium, the samples are processed for diffusing the water out of the tissue. Impregnation with paraffin of the tissue in the later stagesis crucial for tissue stability in the remaining histotechnical methods. Sakura Tissue-Tek VIP 6 is atraditional dehydration instrument that realizes dehydrations during longer times with xylene asthe intermedium. However, LOGOS is another dehydration instrument operating with shorter times using Histolab Clear, a more environmental and cheaper intermedium.In the current study tissue samples were used from three different patient cases of each tissue:cutis, breast, intestine and prostate. Two different, new LOGOS- dehydration programs with Histolab Clear as intermedium were tested and validated in accordance with specific qualitycriteria. Parallel were tissue samples dehydrated from the same tissues in the traditional routineprogram, in order to evaluate by comparison, sections and staining quality of the new programs.Immunohistochemistry and routine staining were used for evaluation. The pathologist approved allroutine stains and disapproved some immunohistochemical analyses, depending on poorer staining and the quality of the sections.Because the amounts of the samples were insufficient in some cases, the number of the samples were determined to be expanded in order to investigate if the error occurs systematically or onlyto individual cases. Insufficient dehydration seemed to be fundamental as a cause of inferior results. Therefore, even the time of dehydration in Histolab Clear will increase by one hour, in the further validation. Optimization of dehydration time is required for approval of immunohistochemical analyzes. These analyzes are very important and definitive for the treatment of the patient, and therefore the new dehydration programs must give at least as good results as the conventional.

  • 143.
    Blanz, Martha
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Effects of Green Tea, Crowberries and Flavonoids on the Growth of the Colon Cancer Cell Lines HT29 and CACO22014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 144.
    Blom, Amanda
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Biomedicinsk laboratorievetenskap.
    HSP90- och IAP-inhibitor motverkar cisplatinresistens i lungcancerceller2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 145.
    Blom, Kristin
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper.
    Nygren, Peter
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi, Experimentell och klinisk onkologi.
    Larsson, Rolf
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Cancerfarmakologi och beräkningsmedicin.
    Andersson, Claes R.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Cancerfarmakologi och beräkningsmedicin.
    Predictive Value of Ex Vivo Chemosensitivity Assays for Individualized Cancer Chemotherapy: A Meta-Analysis2017Inngår i: SLAS TECHNOLOGY, ISSN 2472-6303, Vol. 22, nr 3, s. 306-314Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Current treatment strategies for chemotherapy of cancer patients were developed to benefit groups of patients with similar clinical characteristics. In practice, response is very heterogeneous between individual patients within these groups. Precision medicine can be viewed as the development toward a more fine-grained treatment stratification than what is currently in use. Cell-based drug sensitivity testing is one of several options for individualized cancer treatment available today, although it has not yet reached widespread clinical use. We present an up-to-date literature meta-analysis on the predictive value of ex vivo chemosensitivity assays for individualized cancer chemotherapy and discuss their current clinical value and possible future developments.

  • 146.
    Blomdahl, Karin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Biomedicinsk laboratorievetenskap.
    Könsskillnader i progress av hjärtengagemang hos patienter med ärftlig transthyretinamyloidos: En studie över tid2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 180 hpOppgave
  • 147.
    Bodén, Ida
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Kirurgi. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för medicinsk teknik och fysik (CMTF).
    Larsson, William
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Nilsson, David
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Forssell, Erik
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Naredi, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Kirurgi.
    Lindholm-Sethson, Britta
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för medicinsk teknik och fysik (CMTF).
    In vivo skin measurements with a novel probe head for simultaneous skin impedance and near-infrared spectroscopy2011Inngår i: Skin research and technology, ISSN 0909-752X, E-ISSN 1600-0846, Vol. 17, nr 4, s. 494-504Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background/purpose: Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and skin impedance (IMP) measurements are useful techniques for objective diagnostics of various skin diseases. Here, we present a combined probe head for simultaneous, time-saving NIR spectroscopy and skin impedance measurements. The probe also ensures that both measurements are performed under equal conditions and at the same skin location.

    Methods: Finite element method simulations were performed for evaluation of the impedance. In vivo skin measurements were performed and combined NIR and impedance spectra were analysed by means of multivariate methods with respect to body location, age and gender. The classification rate was determined by a planar discriminant analysis. Reproducibility was investigated by calculation of scatter values and statistical significance between overlapping groups was assessed by the calculation of intra-model distances, q.

    Results: The novel probe yielded rapid reproducible results and was easy to manage. Significant differences between skin locations and to a lesser extent age groups and gender were demonstrated.

    Conclusion: With the novel probe, statistically significant differences between overlapping classes in score plots can be confirmed by calculating intra-model distances. The influence of molecular differences in the skin at different body locations is larger than the influence of gender or age and therefore relevant reference measurements are discussed.

  • 148.
    Boiso, Samuel
    et al.
    Swedish National Forensic Centre, Linköping, Sweden.
    Dalin, Erik
    Swedish National Forensic Centre, Linköping, Sweden.
    Seidlitz, Heidi
    Swedish National Forensic Centre, Linköping, Sweden.
    Sidstedt, Maja
    Swedish National Forensic Centre, Linköping, Sweden / Applied Microbiology, Department of Chemistry, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Trygg, Elias
    Swedish National Forensic Centre, Linköping, Sweden.
    Hedman, Johannes
    Swedish National Forensic Centre, Linköping, Sweden / Applied Microbiology, Department of Chemistry, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Ansell, Ricky
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Swedish National Forensic Centre, Linköping, Sweden.
    RapidHIT for the purpose of stain analyses – An interrupted implementation2017Inngår i: Forensic Science International: Genetics Supplement Series, ISSN 1875-1768, E-ISSN 1875-175X, Vol. 6, nr Supplement C, s. e589-e590Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Rapid DNA instruments have in recent years been developed, enabling analysis of forensic samples with a minimum of human intervention. Initially intended for fast handling of reference samples, such as samples from suspects in booking suites, attention shifted to include crime scene samples. The aim of this study was to determine whether or not the RapidHIT System (IntegenX) is fit for crime scene samples. The first runs gave very poor results, which was found to be due to an incorrect firmware setting leading to no or just minute amounts of amplicons being injected for electrophoresis. After solving this problem, 28 full runs (seven samples each) applying NGM SElect Express were performed comprising various amounts of blood on cotton swabs. Six of the runs failed completely, four due to cartridge leakage and in two runs the PCR mix was not injected. For 155 samples with 1–5ÎŒL blood (volumes for which complete DNA profiles are expected), 119 samples (77%) gave complete DNA profiles. Among the most serious failures were incorrect allele calling and leakage of DNA extract or PCR product. Other general issues were failure to export results, anode motor breakdown and broken capillary array. Due to the encountered problems with software, hardware and cartridges, together with the low success rate, it was decided not to continue towards implementation of the RapidHIT System in casework.

  • 149.
    Boklund, Kajsa
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Biomedicinsk laboratorievetenskap. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Klinisk kemi.
    Jämförelse av citratkoncentration i koagulationsprovtagningsrör: Jämförelse av citratkoncentrationerna 3,8 % och 3,2 % i koagulationsprovtagningsrör och dess effekter på analysresultat i samband med rörposttransport2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 150.
    Bollen, Lise Svendsen
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för försöksdjursvetenskap.
    Production of polyclonal antibodies in rabbits and chickens immunised with human immunoglobulin G: A study of the utility of egg yolk antibody production as a substitute for rabbit serum antibody production1997Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The utility of chicken egg yolk antibodies as an alternative to rabbit antisera was studied by comparing antibody and avidity development in immunised animals (15 rabbits and 30 chickens) during a one-year immunisation scheme. Human IgG was used as the model antigen and the efficacy of three adjuvants, Freund's Complete Adjuvant, Freund's Incomplete Adjuvant and Hunter's TiterMax, was compared. Purification procedures for egg yolk antibodies were developed, rendering the harvest and processing time for yolk and serum antibodies comparable. A majoradvantage of producing egg yolk antibodies instead of rabbit antisera is an increased productivity.Although the antibody response was found to be higher in rabbit serum than in egg yolk of chickensimmunised using identical schemes, the volumes of obtainable antibody source were ten timeshigher with egg yolk than with rabbit sera. Depending on the immunisation scheme and, inparticular, the choice of adjuvant, approximately five times more antibody can be produced per yearby a chicken than by a rabbit. Considering the cost of purchase and maintenance, rabbit antibodiesare ten times more expensive to produce. Serum antibody response in young and old chickens werecompared and no significant difference was found. The avidity of the egg yolk antibodies was foundto be similar to rabbit serum antibodies, but the qualitative properties of the immunoglobulinsdiffer. Different immunochemical and immunoelectrophoretic assays (different ELISAs, liquidphase immunosorbent assay, rocket-immunoelectrophoresis, fused-rocket-immunoelectrophoresis,line-immunoelectrophoresis, crossed-immunoelectro-phoresis, crossed-tandem-immunoelectro-phoresis, crossed-affino-immunoelectrophoresis, charge-shift-crossed-immunoelectrophoresis) weredeveloped for measuring antibody response, and analysing specificity and binding properties. TheIgG levels in developing oozytes (6 - 37 mm) were similar, and there was a significant linearcorrelation between antibody response in serum and corresponding egg yolk. From an animalwelfare point of view there are improvements associated with producing egg yolk antibodies insteadof rabbit serum antibodies.

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