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  • 101.
    Behere, Sagar
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Inbyggda styrsystem.
    A Functional Reference Architecture for Autonomous Driving2016Inngår i: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 73, s. 136-150Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Context

    As autonomous driving technology matures towards series production, it is necessary to take a deeper look at various aspects of electrical/electronic (E/E) architectures for autonomous driving.

    Objective

    This paper describes a functional architecture for autonomous driving, along with various considerations that influence such an architecture. The functionality is described at the logical level, without dependence on specific implementation technologies.

    Method

    Engineering design has been used as the research method, which focuses on creating solutions intended for practical application. The architecture has been refined and applied over a five year period to the construction of protoype autonomous vehicles in three different categories, with both academic and industrial stakeholders.

    Results

    The architectural components are divided into categories pertaining to (i) perception, (ii) decision and control, and (iii) vehicle platform manipulation. The architecture itself is divided into two layers comprising the vehicle platform and a cognitive driving intelligence. The distribution of components among the architectural layers considers two extremes: one where the vehicle platform is as "dumb" as possible, and the other, where the vehicle platform can be treated as an autonomous system with limited intelligence. We recommend a clean split between the driving intelligence and the vehicle platform. The architecture description includes identification of stakeholder concerns, which are grouped under the business and engineering categories. A comparison with similar architectures is also made, wherein we claim that the presence of explicit components for world modeling, semantic understanding, and vehicle platform abstraction seem unique to our architecture.

    Conclusion

    The concluding discussion examines the influences of implementation technologies on functional architectures and how an architecture is affected when a human driver is replaced by a computer. The discussion also proposes that reduction and acceleration of testing, verification, and validation processes is the key to incorporating continuous deployment processes.

  • 102.
    Behere, Sagar
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Inbyggda styrsystem.
    Architecting Autonomous Automotive Systems: With an emphasis on Cooperative Driving2013Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing usage of electronics and software in a modern automobile enables realization of many advanced features. One such feature is autonomous driving. Autonomous driving means that a human driver’s intervention is not required to drive the automobile; rather, theautomobile is capable of driving itself. Achieving automobile autonomyrequires research in several areas, one of which is the area of automotive electrical/electronics (E/E) architectures. These architectures deal with the design of the computer hardware and software present inside various subsystems of the vehicle, with particular attention to their interaction and modularization. The aim of this thesis is to investigate how automotive E/E architectures should be designed so that 1) it ispossible to realize autonomous features and 2) a smooth transition canbe made from existing E/E architectures, which have no explicit support for autonomy, to future E/E architectures that are explicitly designed for autonomy.The thesis begins its investigation by considering the specific problem of creating autonomous behavior under cooperative driving condi-tions. Cooperative driving conditions are those where continuous wireless communication exists between a vehicle and its surroundings, which consist of the local road infrastructure as well as the other vehicles in the vicinity. In this work, we define an original reference architecture for cooperative driving. The reference architecture demonstrates how a subsystem with specific autonomy features can be plugged into an existing E/E architecture, in order to realize autonomous driving capabilities. Two salient features of the reference architecture are that it isminimally invasive and that it does not dictate specific implementation technologies. The reference architecture has been instantiated on two separate occasions and is the main contribution of this thesis. Another contribution of this thesis is a novel approach to the design of general, autonomous, embedded systems architectures. The approach introduces an artificial consciousness within the architecture, that understands the overall purpose of the system and also how the different existing subsystems should work together in order to meet that purpose.This approach can enable progressive autonomy in existing embedded systems architectures, over successive design iterations.

  • 103.
    Behere, Sagar
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Inbyggda styrsystem.
    Architecture support for automobile autonomy:A state of the art survey2012Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 104.
    Behere, Sagar
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Inbyggda styrsystem.
    Reference Architectures for Highly Automated Driving2016Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Highly automated driving systems promise increased road traffic safety, as well as positive impacts on sustainable transportation by means of increased traffic efficiency and environmental friendliness. The design and development of such systems require scientific advances in a number of areas. One area is the vehicle's electrical/electronic (E/E) architecture. The E/E architecture can be presented using a number of views, of which an important one is the functional view. The functional view describes the decomposition of the system into its main logical components, along with the hierarchical structure, the component inter-connections, and requirements. When this view captures the principal ideas and patterns that constitute the foundation of a variety of specific architectures, it may be termed as a reference architecture. Two reference architectures for highly automated driving form the principal contribution of this thesis. The first reference architecture is for cooperative driving. In a cooperative driving situation, vehicles and road infrastructure in the vicinity of a vehicle continuously exchange wireless information and this information is then used to control the motion of the vehicle. The second reference architecture is for autonomous driving, wherein the vehicle is capable of driver-less operation even without direct communication with external entities. The description of both reference architectures includes their main components and the rationale for how these components should be distributed across the architecture and its layers. These architectures have been validated via multiple real-world instantiations, and the guidelines for instantiation also form part of the architecture description. A comparison with similar architectures is also provided, in order to highlight the similarities and differences. The comparisons show that in the context of automated driving, the explicit recognition of components for semantic understanding, world modeling, and vehicle platform abstraction are unique to the proposed architecture. These components are not unusual in architectures within the Artificial Intelligence/robotics domains; the proposed architecture shows how they can be applied within the automotive domain. A secondary contribution of this thesis is a description of a lightweight, four step approach for model based systems engineering of highly automated driving systems, along with supporting model classes. The model classes cover the concept of operations, logical architecture, application software components, and the implementation platforms. The thesis also provides an overview of current implementation technologies for cognitive driving intelligence and vehicle platform control, and recommends a specific setup for development and accelerated testing of highly automated driving systems, that includes model- and hardware-in-the-loop techniques in conjunction with a publish/subscribe bus. Beyond the more "traditional" engineering concepts, the thesis also investigates the domain of machine consciousness and computational self-awareness. The exploration indicates that current engineering methods are likely to hit a complexity ceiling, breaking through which may require advances in how safety-critical systems can self-organize, construct, and evaluate internal models to reflect their perception of the world. Finally, the thesis also presents a functional architecture for the brake system of an autonomous truck. This architecture proposes a reconfiguration of the existing brake systems of the truck in a way that provides dynamic, diversified redundancy, and an increase in the system reliability and availability, while meeting safety requirements.

  • 105.
    Behere, Sagar
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Inbyggda styrsystem.
    Scoop Technical Report: Year 20112011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This report deals with the technical solution that was implemented for the Grand Cooperative Driving Challenge (GCDC) 2011. The GCDC involved developing a system to drive a vehicle autonomously in specific situations. Some reflections on the design process are also included. The goal of the report is to make the user understand the technical solution and the motivations behind the design choices made.

  • 106.
    Behere, Sagar
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Inbyggda styrsystem.
    Systems Engineering and Architecting for Intelligent Autonomous Systems2016Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter provides insights into architecture and systems engineering for autonomous driving systems, through a set of complementary perspectives. For practitioners, a short term perspective uses the state of the art to define a three layered functional architecture for autonomous driving, consisting of a vehicle platform, a cognitive driving intelligence, and off-board supervisory and monitoring services. The architecture is placed within a broader context of model based systems engineering (MBSE), for which we define four classes of models: Concept of Operations, Logical Architecture, Application Software Components, and Platform Components. These classes aid an immediate or subsequent MBSE methodology for concrete projects. Also for concrete projects, we propose an implementation setup and technologies that combine simulation and implementation for rapid testing of autonomous driving functionality in physical and virtual environments. Future evolution of autonomous driving systems is explored with a long term perspective looking at stronger concepts of autonomy like machine consciousness and self-awareness. Contrasting these concepts with current engineering practices shows that scaling to more complex systems may require incorporating elements of so-called \emph{constructivist} architectures. The impact of autonomy on systems engineering is expected to be mainly around testing and verification, while implementations shall continue experiencing an influx of technologies from non-automotive domains.

  • 107.
    Behere, Sagar
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Inbyggda styrsystem.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Inbyggda styrsystem.
    Söderberg, Andreas
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.). The SP Technical Research Institute, Sweden.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Inbyggda styrsystem.
    Architecture challenges for intelligent autonomous machines: An industrial perspective2016Inngår i: 13th International conference on Intelligent Autonomous Systems (IAS-13), Springer, 2016, Vol. 302, s. 1669-1681Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Machines are displaying a trend of increasing autonomy. This has a far reaching impact on the architectures of the embedded systems within the machine. The impact needs to be clearly understood and the main obstacles to autonomy need to be identified. The obstacles, especially from an industrial perspective, are not just technological butalso relate to system aspects like certification, development processes and product safety. In this paper, we identify and discuss some of the main obstacles to autonomy from the viewpoint of technical specialists working on advanced industrial product development. The identified obstacles cover topics like world modeling, user interaction, complexity and system safety.

  • 108.
    Behere, Sagar
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Inbyggda styrsystem.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Inbyggda styrsystem.
    Chen, DeJiu
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Inbyggda styrsystem.
    A reference architecture for cooperative driving2013Inngår i: Journal of systems architecture, ISSN 1383-7621, E-ISSN 1873-6165, Vol. 59, nr 10: Part C, s. 1095-1112Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cooperative driving systems enable vehicles to adapt their motion to the surrounding traffic situation by utilizing information communicated by other vehicles and infrastructure in the vicinity. How should these systems be designed and integrated into the modern automobile? What are the needed functions, key architectural elements and their relationships? We created a reference architecture that systematically answers these questions and validated it in real world usage scenarios. Key findings concern required services and enabling them via the architecture. We present the reference architecture and discuss how it can influence the design and implementation of such features in automotive systems.

  • 109.
    Behnam, Moris
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Inam, Rafia
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Multi-core Composability in the Face of Memory Bus Contention2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we describe the problem of achieving composability of independently developed real-time subsystems to be executed on a multicore platform.We evaluate existing work for achieving real-time performance on multicores and illustrate their lack with respect to composability. To better address composability we present a multi-resource server-based scheduling technique to provide predictable performance when composing multiple subsystems on a multicore platform. To achieve composability also on multicore platforms, we propose to add memory-bandwidth as an additional server resource. Tasks within our multi-resource servers are guaranteed both CPU- and memory-bandwidth; thus the performance of a server will become independent of resource usage by tasks in other servers. We are currently implementing multi-resource servers for the Enea’s OSE operating system for a P4080 8-core processor to be tested with software for a 3G-basestation.

  • 110.
    Bejugam, Santosh
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för informationsteknologi och medier.
    Tremor quantification and parameter extraction2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 poäng / 120 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Tremor is a neuro degenerative disease causing involuntary musclemovements in human limbs. There are many types of tremor that arecaused due to the damage of nerve cells that surrounds thalamus of thefront brain chamber. It is hard to distinguish or classify the tremors asthere are many reasons behind the formation of specific category, soevery tremor type is named behind its frequency type. Propermedication for the cure by physician is possible only when the disease isidentified.Because of the argument given in the above paragraph, there is a needof a device or a technique to analyze the tremor and for extracting theparameters associated with the signal. These extracted parameters canbe used to classify the tremor for onward identification of the disease.There are various diagnostic and treatment monitoring equipment areavailable for many neuromuscular diseases. This thesis is concernedwith the tremor analysis for the purpose of recognizing certain otherneurological disorders. A recording and analysis system for human’stremor is developed.The analysis was performed based on frequency and amplitudeparameters of the tremor. The Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) and higherorderspectra were used to extract frequency parameters (e.g., peakamplitude, fundamental frequency of tremor, etc). In order to diagnosesubjects’ condition, classification was implemented by statisticalsignificant tests (t‐test).

  • 111.
    Belogiannis, Theodoros
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Individual Stress Diagnosis from Skin Conductance sensor signals2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 112.
    Bengtsson, Tomas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Testing and Logic Optimization Techniques for Systems on Chip2012Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Today it is possible to integrate more than one billion transistors onto a single chip. This has enabled implementation of complex functionality in hand held gadgets, but handling such complexity is far from trivial. The challenges of handling this complexity are mostly related to the design and testing of the digital components of these chips.

    A number of well-researched disciplines must be employed in the efficient design of large and complex chips. These include utilization of several abstraction levels, design of appropriate architectures, several different classes of optimization methods, and development of testing techniques. This thesis contributes mainly to the areas of design optimization and testing methods.

    In the area of testing this thesis contributes methods for testing of on-chip links connecting different clock domains. This includes testing for defects that introduce unacceptable delay, lead to excessive crosstalk and cause glitches, which can produce errors. We show how pure digital components can be used to detect such defects and how the tests can be scheduled efficiently.

    To manage increasing test complexity, another contribution proposes to raise theabstraction level of fault models from logic level to system level. A set of system level faultmodels for a NoC-switch is proposed and evaluated to demonstrate their potential.

    In the area of design optimization, this thesis focuses primarily on logic optimization. Two contributions for Boolean decomposition are presented. The first one is a fast heuristic algorithm that finds non-disjoint decompositions for Boolean functions. This algorithm operates on a Binary Decision Diagram. The other contribution is a fast algorithm for detecting whether a function is likely to benefit from optimization for architectures with a gate depth of three with an XOR-gate as the third gate.

  • 113.
    Bengtz, Gustaf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Analysis of new and alternative encryption algorithms and scrambling methods for digital-tv and implementation of a new scrambling algorithm (AES128) on FPGA.2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 300 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This report adresses why the currently used scrambling standard CSA needs a replacement. Proposed replacements to CSA are analyzed to some extent, and an alternative replacement (AES128) is analyzed.

    One alternative being the CSA3, and the other being the CISSA algorithm. Both of the proposed algorithms use the AES algorithm as a base. The CSA3 combines AES128 with a secret cipher, the XRC, while CISSA uses the AES cipher in a feedback mode. The different utilizations makes CSA3 hardware friendly and CISSA software friendly.

    The implementation of the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) is analyzed for a 128 bit key length based design, and a specific implementation is presented.

  • 114.
    Berg, Tobias
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Karlström, Lars
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    The construction of a Pan-Tilt unit with two digitalcameras and a PC interface2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
  • 115.
    Berggren, Emil
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Tekniska Högskolan, JTH, Datateknik och informatik. Högskolan i Jönköping, Tekniska Högskolan, JTH, Data- och elektroteknik.
    Gustafson, Tobias
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Tekniska Högskolan, JTH, Datateknik och informatik.
    Jämförelse av GPGPU-ramverk och AES-metoder: Jämförelse av GPGPU-ramverk och AES-metoder för att besvara vilka GPGPU-ramverk och vilken AES-metod som bör rekommenderas för AES-kryptering med GPGPU2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning Bakgrund - Dagens processorer börjar närma sig gränsen för hur höga klockfrekvenser de kan köras i. Detta har lett till att processorer har fått fler kärnor för att kunna exekvera flera processer parallellt med flertrådade applikationer. Det finns dock ofta en stor mängd oanvänd beräkningskraft under långa perioder då datorn är igång som ligger i grafikprocessorn, GPU. Då en GPU kan köra tusentals många fler trådar på samma gång än en CPU har ramverk för att göra mer generella beräkningar på GPU utvecklats, dessa kallas för GPGPU-ramverk. Då varje kärna på en GPU inte är lika stark som på en CPU ligger vinsten i att använda algoritmer som går bra att parallellisera. En sådan algoritm är krypteringsalgoritmen AES som är en av de säkraste och vanligaste krypteringsalgoritmerna som används idag.

    Syfte – Med hjälp av GPU-accelerering kan man kryptera med AES snabbare än med en traditionell CPU-lösning. För att göra GPU-accelereringen så effektiv som möjligt undersöker detta examensarbete vilken AES-metod samt vilket GPGPU-ramverk man bör välja.

    Metod – För att undersöka vilken/vilka AES-metoder samt vilka GPGPU-ramverk som var lämpliga att använda för denna undersökning gjordes två litteraturstudier. Utifrån data som litteraturstudierna gav genomfördes experiment för att jämföra de valda GPGPU-ramverken med den valda AES-metoden som ansågs vara mest lämpliga.

    Resultat – Från litteraturstudierna kom det fram att OpenCL och CUDA blir de rekommenderade GPGPU-ramverken och att CTR blir den rekommenderade AES-metoden för AES-kryptering med GPGPU-programmering. Utifrån experimenten som genomförts kunde det konstateras att CUDA är ett effektivare GPGPU-ramverk än OpenCL för AES-CTR på det testade grafikkortet, GTX 560.

    Implikationer – CUDA är snabbare vid större filer för att OpenCL begränsas mer av dataöverföringshastigheten än CUDA på ett GTX 560.

    Begränsningar – Experimenten genomfördes endast på ett grafikkort från Nvidia. Eftersom Nvidia inte har något intresse i att optimera för andra GPGPU-ramverk så kunde inte testresultaten från OpenCL verifieras med externa verktyg. Detta p.g.a. att Nvidias verktyg inte längre stödjer debugging eller profiling för OpenCL.

    Nyckelord – Processorer, GPGPU, AES, CTR, OpenCL, CUDA, GPGPU-ramverk

  • 116.
    Berglund, Joel
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Signaler och System.
    Measurements and analysis of UDP transmissions over wireless networks2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The growth and expansion of modern society rely heavily upon well-functioning data communication over the internet. This phenomenon is seen at the company Net Insight where the need for transferring a large amount of data in the form of media over the internet in an effective manner is a high priority. At the moment most internet traffic in the modern world is done by the use of the internet protocol TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) instead of the simpler protocol UDP (User Datagram Protocol). Although TCP works in an excellent manner for most kinds of data communication it seems that this might not always be the case, so the use of UDP might be the better option in some occurrences. It is therefore of high interest at Net Insight to see how different types of wireless networks behave under different network circumstances when data is sent in different ways through the use of UDP. Thereby this report focuses on the measurement and analysis of how different wireless networks, specifically 4G, 5.0 GHz and 2.4 GHz WLAN networks, behaves when exposed to varied network environments where data is transmitted by the use of UDP in different ways. To perform a network-analysis data is collected, processed, and then analyzed. This network-analysis resulted in many conclusions regarding network behavior and performance for the different wireless networks.

  • 117.
    Bergman, Johannes
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Torsson, Markus
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Migrering till Linux för inbyggda system: En förstudie gjord på företag Low VisionInternational2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Användningen av Linux i inbyggda system fortsätter att öka för varje år.

    Öppen källkod och nya verktyg för utvecklandet av Linux för inbyggda

    system har inte bara gjort Linux till ett kostnadseffektivt val, utan även ett

    tidseffektivt val. Målet med den här undersökningen har varit att åt LVI

    undersöka en möjlig migration av operativsystem i deras inbäddade system

    från Windows XP Embedded till ett inbyggt Linuxbaserat operativsystem för

    ARM-processorer med stöd för OCR-behandling. Linux och öppen källkod

    till inbyggda system för med sig en hel del fördelar. Några av dessa

    inkluderar låg kostnad, full kontroll över ditt inbyggda system samt

    möjligheten att testa och utvärdera mjukvara helt gratis. För att komma fram

    till ett resultat har vi undersökt vilka alternativ som finns och om det finns

    stöd för de funktioner som LVI använder sig av. Resultatet av den här

    undersökningen är en redovisning av de val man står inför och vad som kan

    lämpa sig bäst för LVI. Vi har främst undersökt Yocto Project och Buildroot i

    denna undersökning och anser att Yocto Project är ett bra val för LVI. Två

    enklare applikationer har även skrivits där bildhantering och maskinläsning

    uppvisas. Applikationerna har utvecklats i C++ med hjälp av OpenCV och

    Tesseract-ocr.

  • 118.
    Bergström, Henning
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    A Study on Timed Base Choice Criteria for Testing Embedded Software2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Programs for Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) are often written in graphical or textual languages. Control engineers design and use them in systems where safety is vital, such as avionics, nuclear power plants or transportation systems. Malfunction of such a computer could have severe consequences, therefore thorough testing of PLCs are important. The Base Choice (BC) combination strategy was proposed as a suitable technique for testing software. Test cases are created based on BC strategy by varying the values of one parameter at a time while keeping the values of the other parameters fixed on the values in the base choice. However, this strategy might not be as effective when used on embedded software where parameters need to be set for a certain amount of time in order to trigger a certain interesting behavior. By incorporating time as another parameter when generating the tests, the goal is to create a better strategy that will increase not only code coverage but also fault detection compared to base choice strategy. Timed Base Choice (TBC) coverage criteria is an improvement upon the regular Base Choice criteria with the inclusion of time. We define TBC as follows: The base test case in timed base choice criteria is determined by the tester of the program. A criterion suggested by Ammann and Offutt is the “most likely value” from the point of view of the user. In addition, a time choice T is determined by the tester as the most likely time for keeping the base test case to the same values. From the base test case, new test cases are created by varying the interesting values of one parameter at a time, keeping the values of the other parameters fixed on the base test case. Each new test case is executed with the input values set for a certain amount of time determined by the time choice T. The time choice is given in time units. The research questions stated in this thesis are as follows: Research Question 1 (RQ1) How does Timed Base Choice tests compare to Base Choice tests in terms of decision coverage? Research Question 2 (RQ2) How does Timed Base Choice tests compare to Base Choice tests in terms of fault detection? In order to answer these questions, an empirical study was made in which 11 programs was tested along with respective test cases generated by BC and TBC. Each program was executed on a PLC along with the belonging test cases and several faulty programs (mutants). From this testing we got the corresponding decision coverage for each program achieved by BC and TBC respectively as well as a mutation score measuring how many of the mutated programs was detected and killed. We found that TBC outperformed BC testing both in terms of decision coverage and fault detection. Using TBC testing we managed to achieve full decision coverage on several programs that we were unable to achieve using regular BC. This shows that TBC is an improvement upon the regular BC in both ways, thus answering our previously stated research questions.

  • 119.
    Bernardi, S.
    et al.
    Centro Universitario de la Defensa Academia General Militar, Spain.
    Flammini, Francesco
    AnsaldoSTS, Business Innovation Unit, Italy.
    Marrone, S.
    Seconda Università di Napoli, Italy.
    Mazzocca, N.
    Università di Napoli “Federico II”, Italy.
    Merseguer, J.
    Universidad de Zaragoza, Spain.
    Nardone, R.
    Università di Napoli “Federico II”, Italy.
    Vittorini, V.
    Università di Napoli “Federico II”, Italy.
    Enabling the usage of UML in the verification of railway systems: The DAM-rail approach2013Inngår i: Reliability Engineering & System Safety, ISSN 0951-8320, E-ISSN 1879-0836, Vol. 120, s. 112-126Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The need for integration of model-based verification into industrial processes has produced several attempts to define Model-Driven solutions implementing a unifying approach to system development. A recent trend is to implement tool chains supporting the developer both in the design phase and V&V activities. In this Model-Driven context, specific domains require proper modelling approaches, especially for what concerns RAM (Reliability, Availability, Maintainability) analysis and fulfillment of international standards. This paper specifically addresses the definition of a Model-Driven approach for the evaluation of RAM attributes in railway applications to automatically generate formal models. For this aim we extend the MARTE-DAM UML profile with concepts related to maintenance aspects and service degradation, and show that the MARTE-DAM framework can be successfully specialized for the railway domain. Model transformations are then defined to generate Repairable Fault Tree and Bayesian Network models from MARTE-DAM specifications. The whole process is applied to the railway domain in two different availability studies. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 120.
    Bernardi, Simona
    et al.
    Academia General Militar, Spain.
    Flammini, Francesco
    AnsaldoSTS, Italy.
    Marrone, Stefano
    Seconda Università di Napoli, Italy.
    Merseguer, José
    Universidad de Zaragoza, Spain.
    Papa, Camilla
    Università di Napoli “Federico II”, Italy.
    Vittorini, Valeria
    Università di Napoli “Federico II”, Italy.
    Model-driven availability evaluation of railway control systems2011Inngår i: Computer Safety, Reliability, and Security. SAFECOMP 2011, Springer, 2011, s. 15-28Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Maintenance of real-world systems is a complex task involving several actors, procedures and technologies. Proper approaches are needed in order to evaluate the impact of different maintenance policies considering cost/benefit factors. To that aim, maintenance models may be used within availability, performability or safety models, the latter developed using formal languages according to the requirements of international standards. In this paper, a model-driven approach is described for the development of formal maintenance and reliability models for the availability evaluation of repairable systems. The approach facilitates the use of formal models which would be otherwise difficult to manage, and provides the basis for automated models construction. Starting from an extension to maintenance aspects of the MARTE-DAM profile for dependability analysis, an automated process based on model-to-model transformations is described. The process is applied to generate a Repairable Fault Trees model from the MARTE-DAM specification of the Radio Block Centre - a modern railway controller. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  • 121.
    Berntsson, Lars-Olof
    et al.
    Volvo Technology AB.
    Blom, Hans
    Volvo Technology AB.
    Chen, DeJiu
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Inbyggda styrsystem.
    Cuenot, Philippe
    Siemens VDO.
    Donandt, Jörg
    Daimler AG.
    Eklund, Ulrich
    Volvo Cars.
    Freund, Ulrich
    ETAS GmbH.
    Frey, Patrick
    ETAS GmbH.
    Gérard, Sébastien
    CEA List , Commissariat à l'Énergie Atomique Saclay.
    Jansson, Pontus
    Mecel AB.
    Johansson, Rolf
    Mentor Graphics Corp..
    Lönn, Henrik
    Volvo Technology AB.
    Reiser, Mark-Oliver
    Technical University of Berlin.
    Selin, Dennis
    Volvo Cars.
    Servat, David
    CEA List , Commissariat à l'Énergie Atomique Saclay.
    Sjöstedt, Carl-Johan
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Inbyggda styrsystem.
    Tessier, Patrick
    CEA List , Commissariat à l'Énergie Atomique Saclay.
    Reiser, Mark-Oliver
    Technical University of Berlin.
    Törner, Fredrik
    Volvo Car Corp..
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Inbyggda styrsystem.
    Weber, Matthias
    Carmeq GmbH.
    EAST-ADL 2.0 Specification2008Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This specification of the EAST ADL 2.0 is based on the EAST-ADL developed in the EAST EEA projectand has been further refined and harmonized with on-going modelling appraches in the automotiveindustry. It presents the modeling infrastructure, i.e. how the modeling elements should be represented inthe language and the UML representation. For each package a usage example is provided.The EAST-ADL 2.0 is harmonized with AUTOSAR.The metamodel and UML profile of EAST ADL 2.0 is defined in two steps: A domain (automotive)metamodel is defined, capturing only the domain specific needs of the language, without adding the UML2details. The basic concepts of UML are used for this purpose, such as classes, compositions andassociations. Based on the domain metamodel, a UML2 profile for the domain metamodel is defined,specifying stereotypes with properties and constraints.Comments on the content of this document are welcomed, and should be directed to <coordinator@atesst.org>.Please download the latest available specification and the XMI file ready for use in UML2 tools from the <atesst.org> website.

  • 122.
    Beserra, G. S.
    et al.
    University of Brasilia.
    Attarzadeh Niaki, Seyed Hosein
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem.
    Sander, Ingo
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem.
    Integrating virtual platforms into a heterogeneous MoC-based modeling framework2012Inngår i: Proceedings of Forum on Specification and Design Languages (FDL) 2012, IEEE conference proceedings, 2012, s. 143-150Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to handle the increasing complexity of embedded systems, design methodologies must take into account important aspects, such as abstraction, IP-reuse and heterogeneity. System design often starts in a high abstraction level, by developing a virtual platform (VP), which is typically composed of TLM models. TLM has become very popular in the modeling of bus-based systems and currently there is an increasing availability of libraries that provide TLM IPs. Heterogeneity can be naturally captured in a framework supporting different Models of Computation (MoCs). We introduce a novel approach for integrating TLM IPs/VPs into a MoC-based modeling framework, allowing them to co-simulate heterogeneous systems. This approach allows to raise the abstraction level, enabling a more careful design space exploration before selecting a proper VP. We exemplify the potential of our approach with a case study in which a VP with a processor generated by ArchC communicates with a continuous-time model.

  • 123. Bharadwaj, Bharadwaj
    et al.
    Mehta, Nandish
    Dwivedi, Satyam
    ECE Department, Indian Institute of Science/Bangalore.
    Gupte, Ajit
    Adaptative Techniques to Reduce Power in Digital Circuits2011Inngår i: Journal of Low Power Electronics and Applications, ISSN 2079-9268, Vol. 1, nr 2, s. 261-276Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    CMOS chips are engineered with sufficient performance margins to ensure that they meet the target performance under worst case operating conditions. Consequently, excess power is consumed for most cases when the operating conditions are more benign. This article will review a suite of dynamic power minimization techniques, which have been recently developed to reduce power consumption based on actual operating conditions. We will discuss commonly used techniques like Dynamic Power Switching (DPS), Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Scaling (DVS and DVFS) and Adaptive Voltage Scaling (AVS). Recent efforts to extend these to cover threshold voltage adaptation via Dynamic Voltage and Threshold Scaling (DVTS) will also be presented. Computation rate is also adapted to actual work load requirements via dynamically changing the hardware parallelism or by controlling the number of operations performed. These will be explained with some examples from the application domains of media and wireless signal processing.

  • 124.
    Bhuiyan, Raisul Haque Masud
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för tillämpad signalbehandling. Ericsson AB. Åbo Akademi University..
    LOW DELAY VIDEO TRANSCODING SERVICES ON DISTRUBUTED COMPUTING PLATFORM.2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The demand of digital video with higher resolution is increasing everyday and in amodern world the videos are consumed in all kinds of multimedia devices. The transmissionof higher quality videos over the internet require higher bandwidth, which isnot an acceptable option. So, it is necessary to compress the video to a compact file byremoving redundancies and detail information.

    The process of compressing a video file requires a lot of complex calculations,which is a time consuming process, specially for live telecasting or real-time videoconferencing. In addition videos with higher quality such as higher number of Frameper Second (FPS) or higher resolution like HD and 4k video requires huge redundantdata processing. Hence, this operation causes delays during the video playback. Tominimize the time delay for the video coding, there are coding methods such as losslessand lossy coding which has been around for a long time. However, the idea to increasethe number of processing unit like CPUs and memory for video coding software is anarea that require further research to improve coding techniques.

    Distributed system uses available resources in the network to achieve a commongoal. It explores the available infrastructure so that the task can be done in parallel. Cloud computing is a great example of distributed system which has fully dedicatedresources for such complex jobs.

    This thesis deals with these areas in real-time to lower the video coding delaythrough investigating distributed resources as well as the parallelization in video codingstandards such as AVC and HEVC. It has been carried out with a collaborationwith Ericsson Research in Stockholm.

  • 125. Bi, Yin
    et al.
    Lv, Mingsong
    Song, Chen
    Xu, Wenyao
    Guan, Nan
    Yi, Wang
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Datorteknik.
    AutoDietary: A wearable acoustic sensor system for food intake recognition in daily life2016Inngår i: IEEE Sensors Journal, ISSN 1530-437X, E-ISSN 1558-1748, Vol. 16, nr 3, s. 806-816Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 126.
    Bildtmark, Kim
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi.
    Jädersand, Robin
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi.
    Security Awareness for Mobility: En studie om företagsmobilitet och de säkerhetsrisker som följer2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 127.
    Binotto, Alécio Pedro Delazari
    et al.
    Informatics Institute, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil.
    Pignaton de Freitas, Edison
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centrum för forskning om inbyggda system (CERES). Informatics Institute, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil.
    Pereira, Carlos Eduardo
    Electrical Engineering Department, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil.
    Larsson, Tony
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centrum för forskning om inbyggda system (CERES).
    Towards Dynamic Task Scheduling and Reconfiguration using an Aspect Oriented Approach applied on Real-time concerns of Industrial Systems2009Inngår i: Elsevier IFAC Publications / IFAC Proceedings series, ISSN 1474-6670, Vol. 13, nr PART 1, s. 1423-1428Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    High performance computational platforms are required by industries that make use of automatic methods to manage modern machines, which are mostly controlled by high-performance specific hardware with processing capabilities. It usually works together with CPUs, forming a powerful execution platform. On an industrial production line, distinct tasks can be assigned to be processed by different machines depending on certain conditions and production parameters. However, these conditions can change at run-time influenced mainly by machine failure and maintenance, priorities changes, and possible new better task distribution. Therefore, self-adaptive computing is a potential paradigm as it can provide flexibility to explore the machine resources and improve performance on different execution scenarios of the production line. One approach is to explore scheduling and run-time task migration among machines’ hardware towards a balancing of tasks, aiming performance and production gain. This way, the monitoring of time requirements and its crosscutting behaviour play an important role for task (re)allocation decisions. This paper introduces the use of software aspect-oriented paradigms to perform machines’ monitoring and a self-rescheduling strategy of tasks to address nonfunctional timing constraints. As case study, tasks for a production line of aluminium ingots are designed. © 2009 IFAC.

  • 128.
    Birk, Wolfgang
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Signaler och system.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Lindgren, Per
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Osipov, Evgeny
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Riliskis, Laurynas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Road surface networks technology enablers for enhanced ITS2010Inngår i: 2010 IEEE Vehicular Networking Conference, VNC 2010: Jersey City, NJ ; 13-15 Dec 2010, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2010, s. 152-159Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The increased need for mobility has led to transportation problems like congestion, accidents and pollution. In order to provide safe and efficient transport systems great efforts are currently being put into developing Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) and cooperative systems. In this paper we extend proposed solutions with autonomous on-road sensors and actuators forming a wireless Road Surface Network (RSN). We present the RSN architecture and design methodology and demonstrate its applicability to queue-end detection. For the use case we discuss the requirements and technological solutions to sensor technology, data processing and communication. In particular the MAC protocol is detailed and its performance assessed through theoretical verification. The RSN architecture is shown to offer a scalable solution, where increased node density offers more precise sensing as well as increased redundancy for safety critical applications. The use-case demonstrates that RSN solutions may be deployed as standalone systems potentially integrated into current and future ITS. RSN may provide both easily deployable and cost effective alternatives to traditional ITS (with a direct impact independent of penetration rate of other ITS infrastructures - i.e., smart vehicles, safe spots etc.) as well as provide fine grain sensory information directly from the road surface to back-end and cooperative systems, thus enabling a wide range of ITS applications beyond current state of the art.

  • 129.
    Björkelund de Faire, Elias
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Elektricitetslära.
    Implementering av mjukvarubaserat PLC-system för reglering av magnetiseringen av en synkrongenerator2011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In order to reduce the price for, and improve the performance of automatic control systems for magnetization of synchronus generators, the possibilities of using a PC based software PLC system, Programmable Logic Controller, has been investigated. The result is a system based on the CoDeSys software PLC with runtime environment from 3S-Software, communicating with external units via Modbus fieldbus. System price is reduced from €5000 to €2000 and system processing speed is reduced from 10 ms for a Siemens S7 PLC to 4 ms with the CoDeSys PLC system though unsolved problems with runtime seizure caused by improper settings in the PC BIOS.

  • 130.
    Blaschke, D.
    et al.
    University of Wroclaw.
    Klähn, T.
    University of Wroclaw.
    Łastowiecki, R.
    University of Wroclaw.
    Sandin, Fredrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    How strange are compact star interiors?2010Inngår i: Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics, ISSN 0954-3899, E-ISSN 1361-6471, Vol. 37, nr 9Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We discuss a Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL)-type quantum field theoretical approach to the quark matter equation of state with color superconductivity and construct hybrid star models on this basis. It has recently been demonstrated that with increasing baryon density, the different quark flavors may occur sequentially, starting with down-quarks only, before the second light quark flavor and at highest densities the strange quark flavor also appears. We find that color superconducting phases are favorable over non-superconducting ones, which entails consequences for thermodynamic and transport properties of hybrid star matter. In particular, for NJL-type models no strange quark matter phases can occur in compact star interiors due to mechanical instability against gravitational collapse, unless a sufficiently strong flavor mixing as provided by the Kobayashi-Maskawa-'t Hooft determinant interaction is present in the model. We discuss observational data on mass-radius relationships of compact stars which can put constraints on the properties of the dense matter equation of state.

  • 131.
    Blech, Jan Olaf
    et al.
    RMIT University, Melbourne.
    Lindgren, Per
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Pereira, David
    ISEP, Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Porto.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Zoitl, Alois
    fortiss GmbH, Munich.
    A Comparison of Formal Verification Approaches for IEC 614992016Inngår i: 2016 IEEE 21st International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation (ETFA): Berlin, 6-9 Sept. 2016, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE conference proceedings, 2016, artikkel-id 7733636Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Engineering and computer science have come up with a variety of techniques to increase the confidence in systems, increase reliability, facilitate certification, improve reuse and maintainability, improve interoperability and portability. Among them are various techniques based on formal models to enhance testing, validation and verification. In this paper, we are concentrating on formal verification both at runtime and design time of a system. Formal verification of a system property at design time is the process of mathematically proving that the property indeed holds. At runtime, one can check the validity of the property and report deviations by monitoring the system execution. Formal verification relies on semantic models, descriptions of the system and its properties. We report on ongoing verification work and present two different approaches for formal verification of IEC 61499-based programs. We provide two examples of ongoing work to exemplify the design and the runtime verification approaches

  • 132.
    Blixt, Daniel
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Nilsson, Daniel
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Control systems on inexpensive hardware: Supporting Raspberry Pi in an existingdevelopment environment2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This report aims to describe our bachelor degree projectin computer engineeringat Linnaeus university in Växjö. The project has been carried out on behalf of Danfoss whoapproached us with an interest in making it possible to use Raspberry Pi as an internal and external research platform, compatiblewith their development environment PLUS+1 GUIDE.We were therefore given the task to develop support for Raspberry Pi in PLUS+1 GUIDE. This would enable use of PLUS+1 GUIDE software without the use of Danfoss hardware. This report describes theimplementation of a Raspberry Pi support librarywhich had to be designed to be compatible with the PLUS+1 GUIDE software. It also describes the creation of acustomLinux distributionusing the YoctoProject, a comparison between existing solutionsand a usability test on thePLUS+1 GUIDEsoftware using the developedRaspberry Pi support library.The resultof this workis fully functioning support forRaspberry Pi packaged as a plugin that when installed in PLUS+1 GUIDE allows creation of applications for this platform in the same manner as fortheirother control systems.

  • 133.
    Blom, Hans
    et al.
    Volvo Technology AB.
    Lönn, Henrik
    Volvo Technology AB.
    Hagl, Frank
    Continental Automotive DE.
    Papadopoulos, Yiannis
    University of Hull.
    Reiser, Mark-Oliver
    Technical University of Berlin.
    Sjöstedt, Carl-Johan
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Inbyggda styrsystem.
    Chen, DeJiu
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Inbyggda styrsystem.
    Tagliabo, Fulvio
    Centro Ricerche Fiat S.C.p.A..
    Torchiaro, Sandra
    Centro Ricerche Fiat S.C.p.A..
    Tucci-Piergiovanni, Sara
    CEA List , Commissariat à l'Énergie Atomique Saclay.
    Tavakoli Kolagari, Ramin
    Nuremberg Institute of Technology.
    EAST-ADL: An Architecture Description Language for Automotive Software-Intensive Systems2013Inngår i: Embedded Computing Systems: Applications, Optimization, and Advanced Design / [ed] M. Khalgui, O. Mosbahi, & A. Valentini, Hershey: Information Science Reference, 2013Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    EAST-ADL is an Architecture Description Language (ADL) initially defined in several European-funded research projects and subsequently refined and aligned with the more recent AUTOSAR automotive standard. It provides a comprehensive approach for defining automotive electronic systems through an information model that captures engineering information in a standardized form. Aspects covered include vehicle features, requirements, analysis functions, software and hardware components, and communication. The representation of the system’s implementation is not defined in EAST-ADL itself but by AUTOSAR. However, traceability is supported from EAST-ADL’s lower abstraction levels to the implementation level elements in AUTOSAR. In this chapter, the authors describe EAST-ADL in detail, show how it relates to AUTOSAR as well as other significant automotive standards, and present current research work on using EAST-ADL in the context of fully-electric vehicles, the functional safety standard ISO 26262, and for multi-objective optimization.

  • 134.
    Bocchetti, Giovanni
    et al.
    Ansaldo STS, Italy.
    Flammini, Francesco
    Ansaldo STS, Italy.
    Pragliola, Concetta
    Ansaldo STS, Italy.
    Pappalardo, Alfio
    CeRICT - Centro Regionale Information Communication Technology, Italy.
    Dependable integrated surveillance systems for the physical security of metro railways2009Inngår i: 3rd ACM/IEEE International Conference on Distributed Smart Cameras, ICDSC 2009, IEEE, 2009Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Rail-based mass transit systems are vulnerable to many criminal acts, ranging from vandalism to terrorism. In this paper, we present the architecture, the main functionalities and the dependability related issues of a security system specifically tailored to metro railways. Heterogeneous intrusion detection, access control, intelligent video-surveillance and sound detection devices are integrated in a cohesive Security Management System (SMS). In case of emergencies, the procedural actions required to the operators involved are orchestrated by the SMS. Redundancy both in sensor dislocation and hardware apparels (e.g. by local or geographical clustering) improve detection reliability, through alarm correlation, and overall system resiliency against both random and malicious threats. Video-analytics is essential, since a small number of operators would be unable to visually control a large number of cameras. Therefore, the visualization of video streams is activated automatically when an alarm is generated by smart-cameras or other sensors, according to an event-driven approach. The system is able to protect stations (accesses, technical rooms, platforms, etc.), tunnels (portals, ventilation shafts, etc.), trains and depots. Presently, the system is being installed in the Metrocampania underground regional railway. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first subway security system featuring artificial intelligence algorithms both for video and audio surveillance. The security system is highly heterogeneous in terms not only of detection technologies but also of embedded computing power and communication facilities. In fact, sensors can differ in their inner hardware-software architecture and thus in the capacity of providing information security and dependability. The focus of this paper is on the development of novel solutions to achieve a measurable level of dependability for the security system in order to fulfill the requirements of the specific application. © 2009 IEEE.

  • 135.
    Bodin, Emanuel
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Fasta tillståndets elektronik.
    Frisberg, Olle
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Fasta tillståndets elektronik.
    Ström, Matilda
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Fasta tillståndets elektronik.
    Sensormolnet: Trådlös övervakning av växter.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Målsättningen med projektet var att utforma ett smart system förjordfuktsmätning innehållandes sensorer, datalagring samt visuellpresentation av mätdata i en applikation. Lagringen sker på enwebbserver i en databas och presentationen i form av en applikationför Android samt en webbsida. Resultatet blev en lyckad slutprodukt iform av en kapacitiv sensor tillverkad av laminerat kopparfolie sommed en mikrodator av typ ESP8266 skickar data via WiFi tillwebbservern. Databasen som lagrar datan är skapad i MySQL ochdatabaskommunikationen har skrivits i PHP. Förutom att visualiseramätdata kan applikationen och webbsidan kommunicera med ESPn samtskicka notiser till användaren i form av push-notifikationer då växten behöver vattnas.

    En slutsats från projektet är att sensorer för jordfuktsmätningrelativt enkelt kan skapas från lättillgängligt material och att ettsmart system kan utvecklas med få och billiga komponenter. En annanslutsats är att vid utveckling av en produkt som består av fleraprocesser som ska samverka tillsammans finns stor risk att oväntadefel uppstår. Ska en produkt vara kommersiellt gångbar krävs en långtid av betatestning för att vara säker på att produkten inteinnehåller brister.

  • 136.
    Bogati, Rajendra
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT).
    Performance Evaluation of Non-commercial LTE Network For Smart Grid Application: Modification of IEC 61850-90-5 Protocol stack and its Testing over Non-commercial LTE2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The introduction of smart grid technology has changed the way traditional power grid network function. It made the grid structure more dynamic by enhancing electrical usage management capability. Also, it has increased the scope to enhance communication infrastructure in a smart grid structure. The current smart grid solution is based on IEC 61850 architecture where the exchange of information between the electrical utilities is over the fast Ethernet LAN connection. This communication mechanism is fast, efficient but lacks scalability, flexibility and less susceptible to failure. Also, earlier technical paper from IEC 61850 standard was for communication within a substation.

    Wide Area Monitoring Protection and Control implementation which utilizes coherent real time synchrophasor information would play a vital role in realizing the utility physical status. IEC 61850-90-5, a new technical report from International Electrotechnical Commission provides the mechanism to transmit and receive the synchrophasor information using the advance IP protocol over a wireless communication infrastructure for WAMPAC application. IEC 61850-90-5 provide a way to exchange routable synchrophasor information over public IP network such as LTE, WiMax, WLAN, etc. Out of all the available wireless solution, LTE provides high flexibility, distance coverage, data rate with low latency and hence can play an important role in replacing the existing communication structure in a smart grid.

    The thesis work evaluates the performance and applicability of LTE for smart grid communication. An IEC 61850-90-5 communication model utilizing UDP/IP protocol to transmit and receive data over the LTE network was developed from the open source project. The modified model was used to benchmark the performance of LTE. Different communication metrics such as reliability, availability, latency, and throughput was evaluated to benchmark the performance of LTE for time critical smart grid application. The metrics were measured for different packet sizes and transmission rates combination.

    The result shares some interesting findings on the readiness of LTE for smart grid solution. It is concluded that cellular network can play an important role in realizing communication infrastructure in a smart grid application.

  • 137.
    Bondesson, Carl
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Signaler och System.
    Modelling of Safety Concepts for Autonomous Vehicles using Semi-Markov Models2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Autonomous vehicles is soon a reality in the every-day life. Though before it is used commercially the vehicles need to be proven safe. The current standard for functional safety on roads, ISO 26262, does not include autonomous vehicles at the moment, which is why in this project an approach using semi-Markov models is used to assess safety. A semi-Markov process is a stochastic process modelled by a state space model where the transitions between the states of the model can be arbitrarily distributed. The approach is realized as a MATLAB tool where the user can use a steady-state based analysis called a Loss and Risk based measure of safety to assess safety. The tool works and can assess safety of semi-Markov systems as long as they are irreducible and positive recurrent. For systems that fulfill these properties, it is possible to draw conclusions about the safety of the system through a risk analysis and also about which autonomous driving level the system is in through a sensitivity analysis. The developed tool, or the approach with the semi-Markov model, might be a good complement to ISO 26262.

  • 138. Borg, Johan
    et al.
    Hyyppä, Kalevi
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Lindgren, Per
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Projekt: ESIS2010Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Samlingsprojekt för alla ESIS-projekt

  • 139.
    Borgström, Fredrik
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Medicinsk teknik, Data- och elektroteknik.
    Acceleration of FreeRTOS withSierra RTOS accelerator: Implementation of a FreeRTOS software layer onSierra RTOS accelerator2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Today, the effect of the most common ways to improve the performance of embedded systems and real-time operating systems is stagnating. Therefore it is interesting to examine new ways to push the performance boundaries of embedded systems and real-time operating systems even further. It has previously been demonstrated that the hardware-based real-time operating system, Sierra, has better performance than the software-based real-time operating system, FreeRTOS. These real-time operating systems have also been shown to be similar in many aspects, which mean that it is possible for Sierra to accelerate FreeRTOS. In this thesis an implementation of such acceleration has been carried out. Because existing real-time operating systems are constantly in development combined with that it was several years since an earlier comparison between the two real-time operating systems was per-formed, FreeRTOS and Sierra were compared in terms of functionality and architecture also in this thesis. This comparison showed that FreeRTOS and Sierra share the most fundamental functions of a real-time operating system, and thus can be accelerated by Sierra, but that FreeRTOS also has a number of exclusive functions to facilitate the use of that real-time operating system. The infor-mation obtained by this comparison was the very essence of how the acceleration would be imple-mented. After a number of performance tests it could be concluded that all of the implemented functions, with the exception of a few, had shorter execution time than the corresponding functions in the original version of FreeRTOS.

  • 140.
    Borgviken, Jonathan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi.
    Johansson, Carl
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi.
    Industrial Wireless IPv6 Sensor device2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 141.
    Boudjadar, Abdeldjalil
    et al.
    Computer Science, Aalborg University, Denmark.
    David, Alexandre
    Computer Science, Aalborg University, Denmark.
    Hyun Kim, Jin
    Computer Science, Aalborg University, Denmark.
    Larsen, Kim G.
    Computer Science, Aalborg University, Denmark.
    Mikučionis, Marius
    Computer Science, Aalborg University, Denmark.
    Nyman, Ulrik
    Computer Science, Aalborg University, Denmark.
    Skou, Arne
    Computer Science, Aalborg University, Denmark.
    Statistical and exact schedulability analysis of hierarchical scheduling systems2016Inngår i: Science of Computer Programming, ISSN 0167-6423, E-ISSN 1872-7964, Vol. 127, s. 103-130Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper contains two contributions: 1) A development methodology involving two techniques to enhance the resource utilization and 2) a new generic multi-core resource model for hierarchical scheduling systems.

    As the first contribution, we propose a two-stage development methodology relying on the adjustment of timing attributes in the detailed models during the design stage. We use a lightweight method (statistical model checking) for design exploration, easily assuring high confidence in the correctness of the models. Once a satisfactory design has been found, it can be proved schedulable using the computation costly method (symbolic model checking). In order to analyze a hierarchical scheduling system compositionally, we introduce the notion of a stochastic supplier modeling the supply of resources from each component to its child components in the hierarchy. We specifically investigate two different techniques to widen the set of provably schedulable systems: 1) a new supplier model; 2) restricting the potential task offsets.

    We also provide a way to estimate the minimum resource supply (budget) that a component is required to provide. In contrast to analytical methods, we prove non-schedulable cases via concrete counterexamples. By having richer and more detailed scheduling models this framework, has the potential to prove the schedulability of more systems.

    As the second contribution, we introduce a generic resource model for multi-core hierarchical scheduling systems, and show how it can be instantiated for classical resource models: Periodic Resource Models (PRM) and Explicit Deadline Periodic (EDP) resource models. The generic multi-core resource model is presented in the context of a compositional model-based approach for schedulability analysis of hierarchical scheduling systems.

    The multi-core framework presented in this paper is an extension of the single-core framework used for the analysis in the rest of the paper.

  • 142.
    Bouguerra, Abdelbaki
    et al.
    Örebro University, Sweden.
    Andreasson, Henrik
    Örebro University, Sweden.
    Lilienthal, Achim J.
    Örebro University, Sweden.
    Åstrand, Björn
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR Centrum för tillämpade intelligenta system (IS-lab).
    Rögnvaldsson, Thorsteinn
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR Centrum för tillämpade intelligenta system (IS-lab).
    An Autonomous Robotic System for Load Transportation2009Inngår i: 2009 IEEE CONFERENCE ON EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES & FACTORY AUTOMATION (EFTA 2009), Piscataway, N.J.: IEEE, 2009Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an overview of an autonomous robotic system for material handling. The system is being developed by extending the functionalities of traditional AGVs to be able to operate reliably and safely in highly dynamic environments. Traditionally, the reliable functioning of AGVs relies on the availability of adequate infrastructure to support navigation. In the target environments of our system, such infrastructure is difficult to setup in an efficient way. Additionally, the location of objects to handle are unknown, which requires runtime object detection and tracking. Another requirement to be fulfilled by the system is the ability to generate trajectories dynamically, which is uncommon in industrial AGV systems.

  • 143.
    Bournias-Varotsis, A.
    et al.
    Wolfson School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom.
    Friel, R. J.
    Wolfson School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom.
    Harris, R. A.
    Mechanical Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom.
    Engstrom, D. S.
    Wolfson School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom.
    Selectively anodised aluminium foils as an insulating layer for embedding electronic circuitry in a metal matrix via ultrasonic additive manufacturing2016Inngår i: Solid Freeform Fabrication 2016: Proceedings of the 27th Annual International Solid Freeform Fabrication (SFF) Symposium – An Additive Manufacturing Conference / [ed] Bourell, D.L., Laboratory for Freeform Fabrication , 2016, s. 2260-2270Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing (UAM) is a hybrid Additive Manufacturing (AM) process that involves layer-by-layer ultrasonic welding of metal foils and periodic machining to achieve the desired shape. Prior investigative research has demonstrated the potential of UAM for the embedding of electronic circuits inside a metal matrix. In this paper, a new approach for the fabrication of an insulating layer between an aluminium (Al) matrix and embedded electronic interconnections is presented. First, an Anodic Aluminium Oxide (AAO) layer is selectively grown onto the surface of Al foils prior to bonding. The pre-treated foils are then welded onto a UAM fabricated aluminium substrate. The bonding step can be repeated for the full encapsulation of the electronic interconnections or components. This ceramic AAO insulating layer provides several advantages over the alternative organic materials used in previous works.

  • 144.
    Bournias-Varotsis, Alkaios
    et al.
    Wolfson School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, United Kingdom.
    Harris, Russell A.
    Wolfson School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, United Kingdom.
    Friel, Ross J.
    Wolfson School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, United Kingdom.
    The effect of ultrasonic excitation on the electrical properties and microstructure of printed electronic conductive inks2015Inngår i: 2015 38th International Spring Seminar on Electronics Technology (ISSE), 2015, s. 140-145Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing (UAM) is an advanced manufacturing technique, which enables the embedding of electronic components and interconnections within solid aluminium structures, due to the low temperature encountered during material bonding. In this study, the effects of ultrasonic excitation, caused by the UAM process, on the electrical properties and the microstructure of thermally cured screen printed silver conductive inks were investigated. The electrical resistance and the dimensions of the samples were measured and compared before and after the ultrasonic excitation. The microstructure of excited and unexcited samples was examined using combined Focused Ion Beam and Scanning Electron Microscopy (FIB/SEM) and optical microscopy. The results showed an increase in the resistivity of the silver tracks after the ultrasonic excitation, which was correlated with a change in the microstructure: the size of the silver particles increased after the excitation, suggesting that inter-particle bonding has occurred. The study also highlighted issues with short circuiting between the conductive tracks and the aluminium substrate, which were attributed to the properties of the insulating layer and the inherent roughness of the UAM substrate. However, the reduction in conductivity and observed short circuiting were sufficiently small and rare, which leads to the conclusion that printed conductive tracks can function as interconnects in conjunction with UAM, for the fabrication of novel smart metal components.

  • 145.
    Boyang, M.
    et al.
    China.
    Maoyue, L.
    China.
    Xianli, L.
    China.
    Wang, Lihui
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion, Produktionssystem.
    Liang, S. Y.
    United States.
    Open architecture CNC system based on soft-integrated communication2018Inngår i: Procedia CIRP, Elsevier, 2018, s. 671-676Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The open architecture computer numerical control (OACNC) system meets the individualized demand of modern industry for its characteristics of flexibility, adaptability, versatility, and expansibility. Existing OACNC systems depend on specialized software which reduces the openness of the OACNC system. This paper introduces a new OACNC system based on a soft-integrated communication module. The module improves the data exchange principle in communication shared memory and is built by open API. Therefore the OACNC system can be compatible with different communication protocols between periodic and aperiodic. Then a case is proposed to test the compatibility and extensibility of the system. Finally, the prospect of the OACNC system and future research is discussed.

  • 146.
    Briat, Corentin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Matematik (Inst.), Optimeringslära och systemteori. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Jönsson, Ulf T.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Matematik (Inst.), Optimeringslära och systemteori. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Dynamic equations on time-scale: Application to stability analysis and stabilization of aperiodic sampled-data systems2011Inngår i: IFAC Proc. Vol. (IFAC-PapersOnline), 2011, nr PART 1, s. 11374-11379Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The stability analysis of systems with aperiodic sampling is analyzed in the framework of dynamic equations on time-scales. Lyapunov theory is used, with sample-period-dependent and independent Lyapunov functions, to obtain stability conditions expressed in terms of parameter dependent matrix inequalities. The examples illustrate the efficiency of the approach which is able to recover, for some systems, the theoretical results for the periodic sampling case even in the aperiodic case. It is also shown that some systems may have admissible varying sampling periods located in disjoint sets. Finally, stabilization results via switching statefeedback are provided; both robust and sampling-period-dependent controllers are considered. It is shown that the latter ones, using the information on the sampling period, can improve stability properties. Stabilization examples illustrate the effectiveness of the approach.

  • 147.
    Brischetto, Mathias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Fordonssystem.
    Improved Functionality for Driveability During Gear-Shift: A Predictive Model for Boost Pressure Drop2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Automated gear-shifts are critical procedures for the driveline as they are demanded to work as fast and accurate as possible. The torque control of a driveline is especially important for the driver’s feeling of driveability. In the case of gear-shifts and torque control in general, the boost pressure is key to achieve good response and thereby a fast gear-shift.

    An experimental study is carried out to investigate the phenomena of boost pressure drop during gear-shift and gather data for the modelling work. Results confirm the stated fact on the influence of boost pressure drop on gear-shift completion time and also indicate a clear linear dependence between initial boost pressure and the following pressure drop.

    A dynamic predictive model of the engine is developed with focus on implementation in a heavy duty truck, considering limitations computational complexity and calibration need between truck configurations. The resulting approach is based on a mean value modelling scheme that uses engine control system parameters and functions when possible. To be able to be predictive, a model for demanded torque and engine speed during the gear-shift is developed as reference inputs to the simulation. The simulation is based on a filling and emptying process throughout the engine dynamics, and yields final values of several engine variables such as boost pressure.

    The model is validated and later evaluated in comparison to measurements gathered in test vehicle experiments and in terms of robustness to input and model deviations. Computer simulations yield estimations of the boost pressure drop within acceptable limits. Consid- ering estimations used prior to this thesis the performance is good. Input deviations and modelling inaccuracies are found to inflict significant but not devastating deviations to the model output, possibly more over time with ageing of hardware taken into account.

    Final implementation in a heavy duty truck ecu is carried out with results indicating that the current implementation of the module is relatively computationally heavy. At the time of ending the thesis it is not possible to analyse its performance further, and it is suggested that the module is optimized in terms of computational efficiency. 

  • 148.
    Broman, David
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Programvaruteknik och datorsystem, SCS.
    Siek, J. G.
    United States.
    Gradually typed symbolic expressions2017Inngår i: PEPM 2018 - Proceedings of the ACM SIGPLAN Workshop on Partial Evaluation and Program Manipulation, Co-located with POPL 2018, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2017, s. 15-29Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Embedding a domain-specific language (DSL) in a general purpose host language is an efficient way to develop a new DSL. Various kinds of languages and paradigms can be used as host languages, including object-oriented, functional, statically typed, and dynamically typed variants, all having their pros and cons. For deep embedding, statically typed languages enable early checking and potentially good DSL error messages, instead of reporting runtime errors. Dynamically typed languages, on the other hand, enable flexible transformations, thus avoiding extensive boilerplate code. In this paper, we introduce the concept of gradually typed symbolic expressions that mix static and dynamic typing for symbolic data. The key idea is to combine the strengths of dynamic and static typing in the context of deep embedding of DSLs. We define a gradually typed calculus &lt;*&gt;, formalize its type system and dynamic semantics, and prove type safety. We introduce a host language called Modelyze that is based on &lt;*&gt;, and evaluate the approach by embedding a series of equation-based domain-specific modeling languages, all within the domain of physical modeling and simulation.

  • 149.
    Bucaioni, Alessio
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    A Model-driven Development Approach with Temporal Awareness for Vehicular Embedded Systems2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Considering the ubiquitousness of software in modern vehicles, its increased value and development cost, an efficient software development became of paramount importance for the vehicular domain. It has been identified that early verification of non functional properties of  vehicular embedded software such as, timing, reliability and safety, is crucial to efficiency. However, early verification of non functional properties is hard to achieve with traditional software development approaches due to the abstraction and the lack of automation of these methodologies.

     

    This doctoral thesis aims at improving efficiency in vehicular embedded software development by minimising the need for late, expensive and time consuming software modifications with early design changes, identified through timing verification, which usually are cheaper and faster. To this end, we introduce a novel model-driven approach which exploits the interplay of two automotive-specific modelling languages for the representation of functional and execution models and defines a suite of model transformations for their automatic integration.

     

    Starting from a functional model (expressed by means of EAST-ADL), all the execution models (expressed by means of the Rubus Component Model) entailing unique timing configurations are derived. Schedulability analysis selects the set of the feasible execution models with respect to specified timing requirements. Eventually, a reference to the selected execution models along with their analysis results is automatically created in the related functional model to allow the engineer to investigate them.

     

    The main scientific contributions of this doctoral thesis are i) a metamodel definition for the Rubus Component Model, ii) an automatic mechanism for the generation of Rubus models from EAST-ADL, iii) an automatic mechanism for the selection and back-propagation of the analysis results and related Rubus models to design level and iv) a compact notation for visualising the selected Rubus models by means of a single execution model.

  • 150.
    Bucaioni, Alessio
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. Arcticus Systems AB, Jarfalla, Sweden.
    Mubeen, Saad
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. Arcticus Systems AB, Jarfalla, Sweden.
    Cicchetti, Antonio
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Exploring Timing Model Extractions at EAST-ADL Design-level Using Model Transformations2015Inngår i: Proceedings - 12th International Conference on Information Technology: New Generations, ITNG 2015, 2015, Vol. Article number 7113538, s. 596-600Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We discuss the problem of extracting control and data flows from vehicular distributed embedded systems at higher abstraction levels during their development. Unambiguous extraction of control and data flows is vital part of the end-to-end timing model which is used as input by the end-to end timinganalysis engines. The goal is to support end-to-end timing analysis at higher abstraction levels. In order to address the problem, we propose a two-phase methodology that exploits the principles of ModelDriven Engineering and Component Based Software Engineering. Using this methodology, the software architecture at a higher level is automatically transformed to all legal implementation-level models. The end-to-end timing analysis is performed on each generated implementation-level model and the analysis results are fed back to the design-level model. This activity supports design space exploration, modelrefinement and/or remodeling at higher abstraction levels for tuning the timing behavior of the system.

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