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  • 101.
    Al-Hashimi, Shaymaa A.M.
    et al.
    Department of Civil Engineering, Al-Mustansiriayah University, Baghdad 1001, Iraq.
    Madhloom, Huda M.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi. Department of Civil Engineering, Al-Mustansiriayah University, Baghdad 1001, Iraq.
    Khalaf, Rasul M.
    Department of Civil Engineering, Al-Mustansiriayah University, Baghdad 1001, Iraq.
    Nahi, Thameen N.
    Department of Civil Engineering, Al-Mustansiriayah University, Baghdad 1001, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir A.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Flow over Broad Crested Weirs: Comparison of 2D and 3D Models2017Inngår i: Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, ISSN 1934-7359, E-ISSN 1934-7367, Vol. 11, nr 8, s. 769-779Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The flow over broad-crested weirs was simulated by computational fluid dynamic model. The water surface profile over broad crested weir was measured in a laboratory model and validated using two and three dimensional Fluent programs. The Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations coupled with the turbulent standard (k-ε) model and volume of fluid method were applied to estimate the water surface profile. The results of numerical model were compared with experimental results to evaluate the ability of model in describing the behaviour of water surface profile over the weir. The results indicated that the 3D required more time in comparison with 2D results and the flow over weir changed from subcritical flow at the upstream (U/S) face of weir to critical flow over the crest and to supercritical flow at downstream (D/S). A reasonable agreement was noticed between numerical results and experimental observations with mean error less than 2 %.

  • 102.
    Al-Hashimi, Shaymaa
    et al.
    Department of Civil Engineering, Al -Mustansiriayah University, Baghdad.
    Madhloom, Huda
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Nahi, Thameen N.
    Department of Civil Engineering, Al -Mustansiriayah University, Baghdad.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Channel Slope Effect on Energy Dissipation of Flow over Broad Crested Weirs: Channel Slope Effect on Energy Dissipation of Flow over Broad Crested Weirs2016Inngår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, Vol. 8, nr 12, s. 837-851Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of broad crested weir used in open channels is to raise and control upstream (U/S) water level. In this study a new performance was added to this weir, by making a step at downstream (D/S) of weir. The energy dissipation, the height of the weir/ the upstream water height ratio and Froude number relationships  (E% - P/h – Fr) for three range of flume slop S=0.0, 0.002 and 0.004 were simulated. The experiments were performed in a laboratory horizontal channel of 4.6 m length, 0.3 m width and   0.3 m depth for a wide range of discharge. The D/S step height of the weir was 7.5 cm. FLUENT software was used as numerical model which represent a type of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model in order to simulate flow over weirs. The Volume of Fluid (VOF) method with the Standard k–ε turbulence model was used to estimate the free surface profile and the structured mesh with high concentration near the wall regions. The experimental results of the water surface profile gave a high agreement with the results of the numerical models. The maximum value 28.78 of E % was obtained in single step broad crested weir in the experimental result and 27.35 in numerical result at S=0.004. Finally, the range of the relative error of the energy dissipation between experimental and numerical results was achieved and the maximum was 6.76 in all runs.

  • 103.
    Al-Hasnawi, Salwan
    et al.
    Chemistry Department, Collage of Science, Mustansirya University, Baghdad.
    Hussain, Hussain M.
    Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, University of Kufa.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    The Effect of the Industrial Activities on Air Pollution at Baiji and its surrounding areas, Iraq2016Inngår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 8, nr 1, s. 34-44Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The polluters of total suspended particles (TSP) and some heavy metals (Cd, Co, and Ni) concentrations were studied in the areas of Al-Fatha, Al-Alam and Baiji, Iraq. These concentrations were measured for selected 22 sample locations for two periods, January and July 2013. The analyzed values of (TSP) and (Cd) exceeded the limits of Iraqi National and the World Health Organization (WHO) for the two periods. Also, (Ni) values exceeded the limits for July only, while (Co) values were under the limits for the two periods. The difference between the two periods reflects the effect of the wind speed and direction, rainfall, and the intensity of the dust storms during the two months respectively. GIS technique makes optimal predictions possible by examining the relationships between all the sample points and producing a continuous surface of polluter’s concentration. Therefore, GIS was used to produce predictions and probabilities maps for the critical polluter values in the study area

  • 104.
    Ali, Ammar
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Three Dimensional Hydro-Morphological Modeling of Tigris River2016Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The River Tigris is a major river in Iraq. It divides Baghdad, the capital of Iraq, in two parts. The reach of the river within Baghdad is about 60 km long. The climate change within the region and the construction of hydraulic structures upstream of Baghdad has reduced the water discharge of the river by 44%. Despite the fact that huge volumes of sediment have been trapped in the constructed headwater reservoirs, substantial changes have occurred in the topography of the Tigris River within Baghdad City and the number of depositions is increasing. The debris of the destroyed bridges from the wars of 1991 and 2003 and their subsequent reconstruction have contributed to the development of these depositions. As a consequence, the ability of the river to carry the peak flood waters has been reduced. This has led to a potential increase of flooding in parts of the city. To predict the maximum flood capacity for the river, the bathymetric survey that was conducted for 50 km of the Tigris River by the Ministry of Water Resources in 2008 has been used with the one-dimensional flow model “HEC-RAS”. Calibration of the model was carried out using field measurements for water levels along the last 15 km of the reach, and the water level observations at the Sarai Baghdad gauging station for the last 10 years were used to validate the model. The model showed a significant reduction in the river’s capacity compared with what the river had carried during the floods of 1971 and 1988. This result agrees with previous surveys conducted on the same reach indicating that the ability of the river to convey high water has decreased. To overcome this problem, dredging operations started along most of the Tigris River inside Baghdad City to remove many islands and side bars, as well as cleaning water intakes. An examination for the dredging plan currently in progress and two additional proposed plans was conducted using the ‘HEC-RAS’ model for the 50 km long river reach to investigate whether the designed flooding capacity of the river can be recovered and how much it can be improved. Comparing the historical records of water level and discharge for the last three decades, some improvement of flood capacity was achieved. Cautions about the water intakes should be considered to maintain their functionalities with the expected drop in water levels due to dredging operations. Bathymetric and land surveys were conducted for the northern Tigris River reach (18 km length) in Baghdad, producing 180 cross sections. A riverbed topography map was established from these cross sections. Sediment transport rates and bed composition were investigated by collecting three different types of sediment samples at the quartiles of 16 cross sections along this reach. The Helley-Smith sampler was used to collect 288 bedload samples, a suction pump was used to collect 212 suspended load samples from different depths. The Van Veen grab was used to collect 46 bed material samples. The velocity profiles and the water discharges were measured using ADCP at the sampling sections. Bed sediment compositions were investigated by analysing the collected bed material samples. It was noticed that fine sand dominated the riverbed (90.74%). The average median size within the reach was 2.49 phi (0.177mm) whilst the mean size was 2.58 phi (0.16mm). In addition, the sediments were moderately sorted, fine skewed and leptokurtic. The size of the bed sediment relatively decreased compared to older investigations due to the decrease of the competence of the river. The bed elevation had increased compared to previous surveys. It was noticed that dredging operations and obstacles (e.g. fallen bridges and islands) disturbed the flow of the river and the sediment characteristics in several sites. Bedload rates were computed using the weights of the collected bedload samples. The spatial distribution of sampling cross sections took into consideration the variance of river topography where 7 meanders, 2 islands and several bank depositions characterize the geometry of the river reach. Twenty bedload predictors were applied to the same reach. The annual transported quantities of the bedload were estimated to be 36 and 50 thousand tons in 2009 and 2013 respectively. The total load discharge rate in the northern reach of the Tigris River was computed using the sediment concentrations of the collected suspended load samples after adding the bedload rate at each of the sampling cross sections. The results indicated that the suspended load is the dominant mode in the total load with a minimum percentage of 93.5%. The total load ranged from 29.1 to 190.3 kg/s. A total load rating curve of the power function was established. The associated errors from using the proposed rating curve are within reassuring levels and less than the errors produced from most of the other twenty-two total load formulas, which were applied to the same reach. The scattering of the results from the other formulas can be attributed to the spatial variance in the topography of the riverbed. According to the final results obtained, it is recommended to use the proposed procedure for establishing a spatial total load rating curve to estimate sediment rates for morphologically complicated rivers. The annual transported quantities of the total load were estimated at 2.47 and 4.23 million tons for 2009 and 2013 respectively. The three-dimensional morphodynamic model (Simulation of Sediment movements In water Intakes with Multiblock option - SSIIM) was used to simulate the velocity field and the water surface profile along the northern reach of the Tigris River using the findings of the current bathymetric survey of the river. The model was calibrated for the water levels, the velocity profiles and the sediment concentration profiles using different combinations of parameters and algorithms, those available in the model. The set of parameters that gave a minimum root mean square error (RMSE) was used for the validation process using another set of field measurements. The calibration and the validation results showed good agreement with field measurements, and the model was used to predict the future changes in river hydro-morphology for a period of 14 months. The results of the future predictions showed increases in depositions on the shallow part of the cross section having lower velocity and, on the other hand, the river deepens the incised route to fit its current hydrologic condition leaving the former wide section as a floodplain for the newer river. The net deposition/erosion rate was 67.44 kg/s in average and the total deposition quantity was 2.12 million tons annually. The locations of depositions are compatible with those of the river in the real world. An expansion in the size of current islands was predicted. An indication of the potential threats of the river banks’ collapse and the bridge piers’ instability was given by high erosion along the thalweg line.Keywords: Flood capacity, Dredging, HEC-RAS, Bathymetric survey, Bed sediment, Bedload, Total load, Helley-Smith sampler, Sediment transport, ADCP, Prediction formulas, 3-D morphodynamic model, Bed changes, SSIIM, underfit river, regulated river, Tigris River, Baghdad.

  • 105.
    Ali, Ammar A.
    et al.
    Water Resources, College of Engineering, University of Baghdad.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Suhail, Qusay
    Earth Sciences, College of Science, University of Baghdad, Iraq.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Spatial Measurement of Bed Load Transport in Tigris River2017Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 7, nr 4, s. 55-75Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Using Helley-Smith sampler, 288 bed load samples were collected from 16 cross sections along 18 km reach length of Tigris River within Baghdad. The spatial distribution of sampling along the reach took into consideration the variance of river topography where 7 meanders, 2 islands and several bank depositions characterize the geometry of the river. The implemented regulation schemes on Tigris River have reduced 44% of water discharges compared to previous period. The spatial variance in topography was effectively scattering the results of the applied twenty bed load formulas. The study results indicated that the complicated geometry of the river reach makes finding a unique representative bed load formula along the study reach rather difficult, and there is no grantee to have good agreement with measurements in the irregular cross sections (meanders, sand bars, etc.). The closest bed load prediction formulas were van Rijn1984. The annual transported quantities of bed load were estimated to be 30 thousand tons (minimum) in 2009 and 50 thousand tons (maximum) in 2013.

  • 106.
    Ali, Ammar Adel
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Morphology of Tigris River inside Baghdad City2013Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Tigris and Euphrates rivers represent the artery of life in Iraq. Tigris River rises from Turkey and flows toward the southeast to enter Iraq. It drains a catchment area of 473 100 km² of which about 58% lies in Iraq. In this study the reach, about 50 km long, of the river inside Baghdad was been studied. It starts at Al-Muthana Bridge and ends at Tigris-Diyala River confluence. Generally, the river reach is part of an alluvial plain, single channel and meandering. The bed material of the river is composed mainly of fine sand and small portion of silt and clay. Other significant features of the reach are the growing islands and bank depositions. Recently water resources of Iraq are negatively affected by climatic changes and the huge water projects in the riparian countries. As a result, the flow of Tigris River at Baghdad city has significantly decreased where the average monthly flow is 520 m³/s for the period 2000-2012 which represents about 50% reduction compared to previous periods. The estimated trend for the average monthly discharges is a reduction of 5.4 % during the last 23 years. Low flow and low water levels have enhanced the water to erode the banks below its protected part. This might affect the future stability of the banks. The drop of the river discharge together with debris from the last wars in 1991 and 2003 enhanced the growing of islands in the river. In this research, changes in the morphology of Tigris River within Baghdad are to be investigated and the causes will be highlighted in order to take the right measures to restore the river system. This is a first step toward studying the hydrological characteristics of the reach. One-dimensional gradually varied flow model, using HEC-RAS, was applied to examine the flood capacity and the possibilities of inundation of the banks. The geometry of the river was represented by the findings from the river survey of 2008. Additional data about the locations and dimensions of the bridges were supplied to the model. The average monthly discharge at Sarai Baghdad for the years 2000-2012 was assumed as the base flow. A range of different scenarios were examined by increasing the discharges in order to determine the critical discharge that may cause inundation. Model calibration was achieved by adjusting the Manning’s roughness coefficient for an observed water surface profile along the lowest part of the reach. The associated error with the computed water surface profiles was in order 0.026m. Additional water level observations at Sarai Baghdad were used for verification purposes. It was found that the discharges higher than 2700 m3/s could cause partial inundation in some areas in the northern part of the reach and these areas extend to approximately 9 km for discharges greater than 3500 m3/s. The southern part of the reach is still safe from inundation for discharges below 3500 m3/s. The slope of water surface profile varies from 6.03 to 10 cm/km for discharges between 400 and 4000 m3/s respectively. In this study, a field survey was conducted between May, 2012 and January, 2013. It involved the installation of 25 bench marks, surveying the upper river banks (from the crest of the stony protection to the water surface) and 250 cross sections. Three kinds of samples were collected at this stage work: (i) river bed material, (ii) suspended load samples and (iii) bed loads samples. Hydraulic measurements were conducted and included water surface elevations, water depths at sampling points, water discharges and transversal velocities. Water temperature and other environmental measurements were also conducted. Particle size distribution, specific gravity and concentration of suspended sediment were executed in the laboratory for the collected samples.

  • 107.
    Ali, Ammar
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi. College of Engineering, Unive rsity of Baghdad.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Suhail, Qusay
    College of Science, University of Baghdad.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Three-Dimensional Morphodynamic Modelling of TigrisRiver in Baghdad2017Inngår i: Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, ISSN 1934-7359, E-ISSN 1934-7367, Vol. 11, nr 6, s. 571-594Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Bathymetric and land surveys were conducted for the northern Tigris River reach (18 km length) in Baghdad, producing 180cross sections. A river bed topography map was constructed from these cross sections. The velocity profiles and the water discharges were measured using ADCP (Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler) at 16 cross sections, where intensive number of sediment samples was collected to determine riverbed characteristics and sediment transport rate. The three-dimensional morphodynamic model (SSIIM (simulation of sediment movements in water intakes with multiblock option)) was used to simulate the velocity field and the water surface profile along the river reach. The model was calibrated for the water levels, the velocity profiles and the sediment concentration profiles using different combinations of parameters and algorithms. The calibration and the validation results showed good agreement with field measurements, and the model was used to predict the future changes in river hydro-morphology for a period of 14 months. The results of the future predictions showed the Tigris River which behaved like an under-fit river, increases in depositions on the shallow part of the cross section having lower velocity, and the river deepens the incised route to fit its current hydrologic condition leaving the former wide section as a floodplain for the newer river. The net deposition/erosion rate was 67.44 kg/s in average and the total deposition quantity was 2.12 million ton annually. An expansion in the size of current islands was predicted. An indication of thepotential threats of the river banks’ collapse and the bridge piers’ instability was given by high erosion along the thalweg line.

  • 108.
    Ali, Ammar
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Impact of Growing Islands on the Flood Capacity of Tigris River in Baghdad City2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Growing islands became noticeable phenomena in the channel of River Tigris within Baghdad City during recent years.Despite the fact that large amount of sediments are trapped in reservoirs on the River Tigris and its tributaries thenumber of islands are increasing with time. This is due to the debris of destroyed bridges in the wars of 1991 and 2003.As a consequence the ability of the river had been reduced to pass ood waves. This fact caused ooding parts of majorcities like Baghdad. Cross sections of the River Tigris were surveyed in dierent occasions (1976, 1991 and 2008). In1977 the survey was conducted by Geohydraulique and in 1991 by University of Technology - Baghdad (extended forthe previous study). The last survey was conducted in 2008 by Ministry of Water Resources extending 48 kilometersfrom Al-Muthana Bridge till the conuence with Diyala River at intervals having horizontal spacing of 250m. The datawas used to predict the maximum ood capacity for the river using HEC-RAS through performed a one- dimensionalhydraulic model for the ow. The average discharge of the river in Baghdad had been calculated for the past ten years.This value was introduced in the model. Then dierent scenarios were applied by increasing the discharge in orderto nd out the critical discharge that can cause inundation. The procedure continued to detect the areas that had beeninundated and the water level was recorded. The primary runs for the model showed a signicant reduction in thecurrent river capacity in comparison with what the river had used to hold during oods of 1971 and 1988. The threesurveys that had been conducted on the same reach of the River Tigris indicated that the capacity of the river to passwater had been decreased. In addition the changes in the morphology of the river cross sections were very clear.

  • 109.
    Ali, Ammar
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Morphology of Tigris river within Baghdad city2012Inngår i: Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, ISSN 1027-5606, E-ISSN 1607-7938, Vol. 16, nr 10, s. 3783-3790Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Changes in the morphology of the River Tigris within Baghdad City are very noticeablein recent years. The number of islands is increasing with time despite the fact that hugeamount of sediments are trapped in reservoirs upstream Baghdad City. The debris of5 destroyed bridges in the wars of 1991 and 2003 had enhanced the development ofthese islands. As a consequence the ability of the river had been reduced to pass floodwaves. This fact caused partial flooding of parts of Baghdad City.Cross sections of the River Tigris were surveyed in three occasions (1976, 1991and 2008). The last survey conducted in 2008 by Ministry of Water Resources covered10 49 km of the river from Al-Muthana Bridge to its confluence with Diyala River at 250mintervals. The data was used to predict the maximum flood capacity for the river usingone-dimensional hydraulic model for steady flow “HEC-RAS”. Calibration was carriedout for the model using field measurements for water levels along the last 15 km fromits reach and the last 10 yr observations at Sarai Baghdad station.15 The average discharge of the river in Baghdad had been calculated for the past tenyears. This value was introduced in the model. Then different scenarios were appliedby increasing the discharge in order to find out the critical discharge that can causeinundation. The procedure continued to detect the areas that had been inundated andthe water level was recorded.20 The model showed a significant reduction in the current river capacity in comparisonwith what the river had used to hold during floods of 1971 and 1988. The three surveysconducted on the same reach of the River Tigris indicated that the capacity of the riverto pass water had been decreased. In addition the changes in the morphology of theriver cross sections were very clear.

  • 110.
    Ali, Ammar
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Suhail, Qusay
    Baghdad University.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Evaluation of dredging operations for Tigris river within Baghdad, Iraq2014Inngår i: Journal of Water Resource and Protection, ISSN 1945-3094, E-ISSN 1945-3108, Vol. 6, nr 4, s. 202-213Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    River Tigris divides Baghdad, capital of Iraq, in two parts. The reach of the river within Baghdad is about 60 km long. Many islands and bars are obstructing the flow of the river within Baghdad. To overcome this problem, dredging operations started along most of Tigris River inside Baghdad City to remove many islands and side bars, which reduced the flooding capacity and the efficiency of water intakes. An examination for the dredging plan under process and two proposed additional plans were performed using HEC-RAS program for a 50km long river reach to investigate whether they can recover the designed flooding capacity of the river or just improving it. Calibration and verification processes were implemented in the model using observed water levels at Sarai Baghdad gauging station and along the last 15 km of the river reach. Comparisons of computed water levels were conducted with those of previous studies and historical data. Some improvement of flood capacity was achieved based on the recorded data of the last three decades. Cautions about the water intakes should be considered to maintain their function with the expected drop in water level due to dredging operations.

  • 111.
    Ali, Salahalddin
    et al.
    Department of Geology, School of Science, Faculty of Science and Science Education, University of Sulaimaniyah.
    Al-Umary, Foad A.
    Department of Geography, College of Education, University of Tikrit.
    Salar, Sarkawt G.
    Department of Geography, Faculty of Education/Kalar, University of Garmian.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    GIS Based Soil Erosion Estimation Using EPM Method, Garmiyan Area, Kurdistan Region, Iraq2016Inngår i: Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, ISSN 1934-7359, E-ISSN 1934-7367, Vol. 10, s. 291-308Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Using empirical model is one of the approaches of evaluating sediment yield. This research is aimed at predicting erosion and sedimentation in Garmiyan area at Kurdistan Region, Iraq used EPM (erosion potential model) incorporating into GIS (geographic information system) software. This basin area is about 1,620 km2. It has a range of vegetation, slope, geological, soil texture and land use types. The spatial distribution of gully erosion shows three main zones in the studied area (slight to moderate gully, high gully and sever fluvial erosion). They form about 10%, 89% and 1% of gully erosion in the studied area respectively. The results of the EPM model show that the values of the coefficient of erosion Z are classified as moderate to high erosion intensity. They increase northward due to increasing of slope, elevation and rate of precipitation that generate Hortonian overland flow, which is due to high discharge and huge fluvial erosion power that cause ground surface erosion to produce large quantity of sediment. The results of GSP (spatial sediment rate) are increasing northward similar to Z due the same reasons, while the value of total sediment rate, shows different values for each watershed because they are mainly affected by the total watershed area.

  • 112.
    Ali, Salahalddin
    et al.
    Department of Geology, School of Science, Faculty of Science and Science Education, University of Sulaimaniyah.
    Al-Umary, Foad
    Department of Geography, College of Education, University of Tikrit.
    Sarkawt, Salar
    Department of Geography, Faculty of Education/Kalar, University of Garmian.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Geomorphology of Garmiyan Area Using GIS Technique, Kurdistan Region, Iraq2016Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 6, nr 1, s. 63-87Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The goals of the present study are to investigate, explore and assess the geomorphologic characteristics of a part of Garmiyan area through highlighting the forming and controlling factors of the geomorphology, mapping the landforms and reveal the geomorphologic processes that created them in Garmiyan area. Geographic information systems (GIS) and remote sensing through satellite images and Digital Elevation Model (DEM) have facilitated the investigation in this large area with more accuracy.The Garmiyan area is a part of Garmiyan area located about (62 Km) south of Sulaimani City and (104 km) east of Kirkuk city. It lies between longitudes (45o10- - 45o32-) E and latitude (34o40-- 35o02-) N. It is within unstable shelf where 3.9% of it lie within the High Folded Zone and 96.1 % within the Foothill Zone. The geologic formations are forming 57.93% and the Quaternary deposits are forming 42.07%. Clastic sedimentary rocks are forming nearly 99% of the total area, while non clastic sedimentary rocks are forming nearly 1%. The topography of the studied area is greatly influenced by lithologic characteristics of the geologic units. The factors, which influence the geomorphology of the studied area, are tectonics, lithology, climate, vegetation and humans. Hence the geomorphologic evolution is controlled by many geomorphologic processes. The main endogenic process is uplifting of the western and north western sides of the studied area which was the final stage of Zagros Fold Thrust Belt formation during the Arabia–Eurasia collision. The main exogenic processes include weathering, erosion, fluvial, hillslope processes, karstification and anthropogenic processes. The main geomorphologic landforms recognized in the studied area are structural, denudational, fluvial, solutional and anthropogenic landforms. Anthropogenic landforms produced by excavation by road cuttings, quarrying and farming. The geomorphic landforms indicate that deformation is propagating from northeast to southwest.

  • 113. Ali, Salahaldin
    et al.
    Al-Umary, Foad
    Salar, Sarkawt
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Evaluation of selected site location for subsurface dam construction within Isayi watershed using GIS and RS Garmiyan area, Kurdistan region2014Inngår i: Journal of Water Resource and Protection, ISSN 1945-3094, E-ISSN 1945-3108, Vol. 6, nr 11, s. 972-987Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Garmiyan area suffers from many water problems such as poor rainfall rate, water shortage, aridity and absence of groundwater in many places. Hence the subsurface dam is the best solution due to many advantages such as; low cost of construction, least maintenance, low evaporation, no con-tamination, utilization of the land over the dam and better storage. The objective of this study is to evaluate the suitability of the selected site location for subsurface dam construction, to serve as strategic water supply storage, to solute the aridity and water shortage in this area of arid to semi arid climate in Isayi watershed within the stream deposits.Geographic information systems (GIS) and remote sensing through satellite images and Digital El-evation Model (DEM) interpretation and analysis have facilitated the investigation with more ac-curacy. ArcGIS helped in construction of thematic maps of the studied area.The geologic, structural, geomorphologic, hydrologic, hydrogeologic, characteristics with GPR survey show the suitability of the selected site location for construction of subsurface dam. According to the standard water quality for domestic, irrigation and livestock the water quality of all water samples are within the recommended range and the best time to be chosen, for construction of the subsurface dam, is during the autumn season from September to November.

  • 114.
    Alizadeh Khameneh, Mohammad Amin
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geodesi och satellitpositionering. WSP Civils, Department of Geographic Information and Asset Management, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Optimal Design in Geodetic GNSS-based Networks2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    An optimal design of a geodetic network helps the surveying engineers maximise the efficiency of the network. A number of pre-defined quality requirements, i.e. precision, reliability, and cost, of the network are fulfilled by performing an optimisation procedure. Today, this is almost accomplished by implementing analytical solutions, where the human intervention in the process cycle is limited to defining the requirements. Nevertheless, a trial and error method can be beneficial to some applications. In order to analytically solve an optimisation problem, it can be classified to different orders, where an optimal datum, configuration, and optimal observation weights can be sought such that the precision, reliability and cost criteria are satisfied.

    In Paper I, a precision criterion was defined to enable a GNSS-based monitoring network to detect 5 mm displacements at each network point. Developing an optimisation model by considering this precision criterion, reliability and cost yielded a decrease of 17% in total baseline numbers. Paper II concerned a case, where the precision of observations could be improved in forthcoming measurements. Thus a new precision criterion was developed to consider this assumption. A significant change was seen in the optimised design of the network for subsequent measurements. In Paper III, the effect of mathematical correlations between GNSS baselines was considered in the optimisation. Hence, the sessions of observations, including more than two receivers, were optimised. Four out of ten sessions with three simultaneous operating receivers were eliminated in a monitoring network. In Paper VI, the area of interest was divided into a number of three-dimensional elements and the precision of deformation parameters was used in developing a precision criterion.

    A real-time updated free station method uses RTK-GNSS to determine the coordinates and orientation of a total station. The efficiency of this method in height determination was investigated in Paper IV. The research produced promising results suggesting using the method as an alternative to traditional levelling under some conditions. Moreover, an optimal location for the total station in free station establishment was studied in Paper V. It was numerically shown that the height component has no significant effect on the optimal localisation.

  • 115.
    Alizadeh Khameneh, Mohammad Amin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geodesi och satellitpositionering. WSP Civils, Department of Geographic Information and Asset Management.
    Eshagh, Mehdi
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Jensen, Anna B. O.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geodesi och satellitpositionering.
    Optimization of Deformation Monitoring Networks using Finite Element Strain Analysis2017Inngår i: Journal of Applied Geodesy, ISSN 1862-9016, E-ISSN 1862-9024Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    An optimal design of a geodetic network can fulfill the requested precision and reliability of the network, and decrease the expenses of its execution by removing unnecessary observations. The role of an optimal design is highlighted in deformation monitoring network due to the repeatability of these networks. The core design problem is how to define precision and reliability criteria. This paper proposes a solution, where the precision criterion is defined based on the precision of deformation parameters, i.e. precision of strain and differential rotations. A strain analysis can be performed to obtain some information about the possible deformation of a deformable object. In this study, we split an area into a number of three-dimensional finite elements with the help of the Delaunay triangulation and performed the strain analysis on each element. According to the obtained precision of deformation parameters in each element, the precision criterion of displacement detection at each network point is then determined. The developed criterion is implemented to optimize the observations from the Global Positioning System (GPS) in Skåne monitoring network in Sweden. The network was established in 1989 and straddled the Tornquist zone, which is one of the most active faults in southern Sweden. The numerical results show that 17 out of all 21 possible GPS baseline observations are sufficient to detect minimum 3 mm displacement at each network point.

  • 116.
    Alizadeh Khameneh, Mohammad Amin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geodesi och satellitpositionering. WSP Civils, Department of Geographic Information and Asset Management.
    Horemuž, Milan
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geodesi och satellitpositionering.
    Jensen, Anna B. O.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geodesi och satellitpositionering.
    Johan Vium, Andersson
    WSP Civils, Department of Geographic Information and Asset Management.
    Optimal Vertical Placement of Total Station2018Inngår i: Journal of Surveying Engineering, ISSN 0733-9453, E-ISSN 1943-5428Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    When using the free station method, a Total Station (TS) is established by performing distance and angle observations toward a number of Control Points (CPs). The quality of the establishment is crucial for the quality of subsequent measurements. The optimal horizontal location of the TS has been investigated in previous studies. Even the vertical precision is important in many applications, especially with significant height variations. Therefore in this paper, we focus on the optimality of vertical location of the TS. As an optimality criterion, the sum of TS coordinates and orientation variances is used. To investigate the optimization problem, an analytical as well as a trial and error method is developed. Both methods showed that the height component has no significant influence on the optimal vertical placement of the TS. Inspection of results from the trial and error method, where the CPs are moved in different height layers, indicates differences in the height uncertainty of the establishment in micrometer range, which is negligible for most engineering applications.

  • 117.
    Alizadeh Khameneh, Mohammad Amin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geodesi och satellitpositionering. WSP Civils, Department of Geographic Information and Asset Management.
    Jensen, Anna B. O.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geodesi och satellitpositionering.
    Horemuž, Milan
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geodesi och satellitpositionering.
    Andersson, Johan Vium
    WSP Civils, Department of Geographic Information and Asset Management.
    Investigation of the RUFRIS Method with GNSS and Total Station for Leveling2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The establishment of leveling benchmarks for performing geodetic measurements, for instance in construction works, is usually costly and laborious due to a mass of field works in transferring the height from nearby known benchmarks. In this study, a real-time updated free station (RUFRIS) method is investigated to be used as an alternative approach for the traditional leveling. The coordinates of a RUFRIS station are determined by establishing a total station on the point, and performing a free-station by observing some points with both Real-Time Kinematic (RTK) GNSS and total station distance and direction observations. The study is conducted based on data from the East Link project in Sweden, where a 150 km long high-speed railway is to be constructed. The results show a standard deviation of 7 mm between the RUFRIS and leveling heights in this project and imply the feasibility of replacing the traditional leveling methods with RUFRIS in projects with low accessibility to benchmarks.

  • 118.
    Alizadeh Khameneh, Mohammad Amin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geodesi och satellitpositionering. WSP Civils, Department of Geographic Information and Asset Management.
    Sjöberg, Lars E.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geodesi och satellitpositionering.
    Jensen, Anna B. O.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geodesi och satellitpositionering.
    Optimisation of GNSS Networks - Considering Baseline Correlations2017Inngår i: Survey review - Directorate of Overseas Surveys, ISSN 0039-6265, E-ISSN 1752-2706, s. 1-8Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    By considering GNSS observations one can perform optimisation according to some pre-defined criteria and come up with the best location of receivers and optimum number of baselines. In practice, it is quite common to neglect the effect of correlations between baselines, and instead assume single-baseline adjusted data in the optimisation procedure. However, in each session of observation usually more than two receivers are simultaneously taking data from a number of common GNSS satellites, implying that the single or double difference observations are correlated. Our study designs an optimal observation plan for a GPS network in Skåne in southern Sweden, with the aim of determining possible displacements. Assuming three receivers in each session of observations leads to correlation between the GPS baselines, and consequently a fully populated weight matrix for each session of observation. A bi-objective optimisation model of precision and reliability is chosen to optimise the variance factor of each session, and eventually, design an observation plan. It is shown in this study that observing 6 out of 10 possible sessions are sufficient to enable the network to detect a 5 mm displacement at each station. Assuming that the double difference phase observations are uncorrelated changes the observation plan by retaining 2 more sessions. However, defining the weight matrix based on the double difference observations requires the correlations to be taken into account, and neglecting them leads to incorrect results.

  • 119.
    Al-Jabban, Wathiq
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser.
    Soil Modification By Adding Small Amounts of Soil Stabilizers: Impact of Portland Cement and the Industrial By-Product Petrit T2017Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This licentiate thesis presents results of laboratory experiments regarding the effectiveness of adding small amounts of binders in order to modify and improve the mechanical performance of low organic clayey silt soil. Two types of binders have been used i.e. cement and an industrial by-product named Petrit T. The study covered both the immediate and longterm effects on the soil material. Binder content was added by soil dry weight, Petrit T at 2, 4 and 7% and cement at 1, 2, 4 and 7%. An experimental program has been carried out, including tests of consistency limits, unconfined compressive strength, density, solidification, grain size distribution (by laser particle size analyzer) and pH. The tests were conducted on the treated soil with varying binder contents and after different curing periods, i.e. after 7, 14, 28, 60 and 90 days. Results show that cement is more effective in improving the physical and engineering properties than Petrit T. Plasticity index decreases after treatment and leads to an immediate increase in workability. This is found directly after treatment and it increases with time. Soil density increased, whilst water content decreased, with increasing binder content and curing time. Particle size distribution of soil is changed toward the granular side by the reduction of the particles in clay size fraction and increasing silt size particles after 28 days of treatment. Both binder types resulted in an immediate effect on the soil pH value. This value increased to 12.3 after adding 7% of the binder and then it gradually decreased as curing time increased. The cement treated soil exhibits a more brittle failure behavior than the soil treated with Petrit T. In this case a more ductile behavior was observed. The findings confirmed that adding small binder contents of cement and by-product Petrit T significantly improved the physical and mechanical properties of soil, which can contribute to reduce the environmental threats and costs that are associated with using high binder contents in various construction projects.

  • 120.
    Al-Jabban, Wathiq
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Modification-Stabilization of Clayey Silt Soil Using Small Amounts of Cement2017Inngår i: Earth sciences and geotechnichal Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, Vol. 7, nr 3, s. 77-96Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the effects of using a small percentage of cement to stabilize clayey silt with a low organic content. Cement was added at percentages of 1, 2, 4 and 7% by dry weight. The physical and mechanical properties of the treated and untreated soil were evaluated by laboratory tests including tests of consistency limits, unconfined compressive strength, soil density, solidification and pH values. These tests have been conducted after 7, 14, 28, 60 and 90 days of curing time. Workability is defined as how easily the soil can be control or to handle physically. Results showed that the engineering properties of the clayey silt were improved. The soil exhibited better workability directly after treatment, and the workability increased with time. Soil density increased, while water content decreased, with increasing cement content and longer curing time. The pH value was immediately raised to 12 after adding 7% cement content, and then it gradually decreased as curing time increased. An increase of unconfined compressive strength and stiffness was observed, while strain at failure decreased. A gradual change in failure mode from ductile behavior to brittle failure was observed. The findings are useful when there is a need for modification and stabilization of clayey silt in order to increase the possibilities for different use which will reduce transportation and excavation.

  • 121.
    Al-Jabban, Wathiq
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Stabilization of Clayey Silt Soil UsingSmall Amounts of Petrit T2017Inngår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 9, nr 6, s. 540-562Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Effects of using small amounts of a Petrit T, a by-product of manufacture sponge iron, to modify clayey silt soil were investigated in this study. Petrit T was added at 2%, 4% and 7% of soil dry weight. A series of unconfined compressive strength tests, consistency limits tests and pH tests were conducted at 7, 14, 28, 60 and 90 days of curing periods to evaluate the physical and mechanical properties of treated soil. Results indicated improving in the unconfined compressive strength, stiffness and workability of treated soil directly after treatment and over time. Increasing in soil density and decreasing in water content were observed, with increasing Petrit T content and curing time. The pH value was immediately increasing after treatment and then gradually decreased over time. Failure mode gradually changed from plastic to brittle behavior with increasing binder content and curing time. The outcomes of this research show a promising way of using a new by-product binder to stabilize soft soils in various engineering projects in order to reduce the costs which are associated with of excavation and transportation works.

  • 122. AlJawad, Sadeq B.
    et al.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Evaluation of Storm Runoff in Wadi Hauran, Western Iraq2017Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Hydrology, ISSN 1058-3912, E-ISSN 1996-7918, Vol. 25, artikkel-id 6Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Arid and semi arid regions are characterized by low frequency monthly rainfall events and high evaporation during the remaining dry days. Utilizing monthly rainfall means for water balance calculation risks a high error margin. Even when daily rainfall analysis methods are used to evaluate the resulting runoff in a valley course, errors may still be committed when wrong values are assigned to important field elements such as soil cover type, vegetation and land use. Accordingly and when the Soil Conservation Service method (SCS) is applied, single storm rainfall and validation of the estimated Curve Number (CN) value using valley flow measurements is necessary. The evaluation of annual runoff volume in a major valley in the Western Iraqi desert using the SCS method applied to single rainfall storm events and validated by actual historical runoff measurements has revealed that Wadi Hauran would exhibit no runoff flow in one year out of three and that runoff may exceed 69 mm depth in a single water year but the average depth for those years with runoff events is only 11.1 mm

    which amounts to about 64 Mm3 at a location in the center of its catchment area.

    Journal

  • 123.
    Al-Khateeb, Mukdad
    et al.
    University of Technology, Baghdad.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    A Spatial Sustainable Development Model Based on Partnership between Government, Community and Specialist in Baghdad2016Inngår i: Creative Education, ISSN 2151-4755, E-ISSN 2151-4771, Vol. 7, nr 14, s. 1881-1890Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq is facing fatal challenges: internal, external and natural that are threatening the well-being of the Iraqi community at present and certainly jeopardizing the sustainable development at all levels of Sustainable Development (SD)-Capitals: natural, human and social, and manufactured/financial. This paper is intended to discuss on establishing a Sustainable Neighborhood in Baghdad, where it could serve as an experimental project to test the forms of expenditure that would guarantee the best eco-efficient transformation of expenditure to Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The paper illustrates the challenges of SD and the factors that would exacerbate their effect unless dealing with through scientific-well managed procedures based on green growth policiesand sustainable development strategies.

  • 124.
    Al-Khateeb, Mukdad
    et al.
    University of Technology.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Sustainable University Model for Higher Ed-ucation Iraq2014Inngår i: Creative Education, ISSN 2151-4755, E-ISSN 2151-4771, Vol. 5, nr 5, s. 318-328Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Education can become another burden on the development unless addresses the internal, external and natural challenges by Sustainable Universities that provide an educational, cultural and teaching model through a sustainable development strategy. This paper tends to illustrate the dif-ferent challenges of sustainable development in Iraq coupled with the full ignorance of the concept and principles of sustainability and suggests a model for a sustainable university. Although the suggested model is rather complicated, but it is crucial to encompass the different affects of human resources on the sustainable development capitals, at and beyond, the university campus.

  • 125.
    Al-Madhlom, Qais
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hussain, Hussain M.
    Department of Geology, College of Science, Kufa University.
    Assessment of Groundwater Vulnerability in Northern Babylon Governorate, Iraq2016Inngår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 8, nr 12, s. 883-902Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Groundwater is one of the main resources from the earth, especially for arid or semiarid

    countries. For this reason, it is very important to keep it unpolluted. Drastic

    Model is one of the widely used models to detect groundwater vulnerability to the

    contaminants that are found on ground surface. In this model, it is assumed that the

    vulnerability of the groundwater is affected by seven hydrological parameters. They

    are: depth from the surface ground to groundwater, net recharge into the aquifer

    from the surface, aquifer media, soil media, area topography, impact of vadose zone

    and aquifer hydraulic conductivity. In this study, the DRASTIC model was applied

    on the northern part of Babylon governorate in Iraq, to predict the vulnerability of

    Groundwater in that area. The results indicate that the vulnerability is very low to

    low grade.

  • 126.
    Al-Madhlom, Qais
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi. University of Babylon, Coolege of Engineering.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hussain, Hussain M.
    Department of Geology, College of Science, Kufa University.
    Lindblom, Jenny
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Abdullah, Twana
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Abid Hamza, Basher
    University of Babylon, Coolege of Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Seepage Velocity of Dibdibba Formation in Karbala, Iraq2017Inngår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 9, nr 3, s. 279-290Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq highly depends on its surface water resources. Now it is facing water shortage problems. For these reasons, the utilization of groundwater will be increasing with time. Karbala Governorate is located in the central part of Iraq. It covers an area of 5034 km2 and the population exceeds one million. It is characterized by an arid or semiarid environment. Karbala Governorate lack surface water resource and consequently, groundwater is the only available resource. The main groundwater aquifer within the area is Dibdibba formation. It is composed of poorly sorted sand and sand stone with gravel. In this research hydrological and hydrogeological information were used to find out the magnitude and the direction of groundwater seepage velocity. The results indicate that groundwater flow toward the flood plain to the east of the study region. The seepage velocity ranges from 0 to 0.18 m/d, with a general increase when moving from the west to the east.

  • 127.
    Almuqdadi, Kadhim
    et al.
    Arab Academy-Denmark.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    The waste of wars in Iraq: its nature, size and contaminated areas2011Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In 1991, new weapons were used for the first time by the American and British troops in Iraq. These weapons proved to have high destructive capability against armored machinery and tanks. Later, there were many signs of being a weapon to destroy the human beings, animals and plants, which raised huge controversy and sharp criticism among scientists, doctors and environmentalists. Despite the opacity and deception, many of the secrets of depleted uranium ammunition were exposed, and confirmed the seriousness of use and serious repercussions on the environment and public health, which stepped up the international campaign against its manufacturing and use. However, the brilliant military success and profits of the military industry tempted the Pentagon and NATO to continue production and use of these weapons. Despite the high human and environment risks DU was used in various conflicts like Iraq, Bosnia, Kosovo and Serbia, Afghanistan, Gaza, Lebanon and recently in Libya. It is noteworthy to mention that the public and even some scientists, researchers and news media are ignorant of the effects and risks of the use of DU in military operations. This raises the point that there should be a large campaign to raise public awareness to prevent the risk of DU weapons. Based on scientific research and updates, we would like to high light the waste of wars in Iraq: Our paper shed the light on the size of depleted uranium(DU) weapons used in the wars on Iraq and the legacy of waste (their nature, size, and the contaminated regions), as high risks on humans and the environment. This is one of the leading environmental, health and social tragic problems in Iraq. This problem should be addressed immediately, seriously and effectively.

  • 128.
    Almuqdadi, Kadhum
    et al.
    Arab Academy-Denmark.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Nature, size and contaminated areas of the waste of war in Iraq2013Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 3, nr 3, s. 93-107Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In 1991, new weapons were used for the first time by the American and British troops in Iraq. These weapons proved to have high destructive capability against armored machinery and tanks. Later, there were many signs of being a weapon to destroy the human beings, animals and plants, which raised huge controversy and sharp criticism among scientists, doctors and environmentalists.Despite the opacity and deception, many of the secrets of depleted uranium ammunition were exposed, and confirmed the seriousness of use and serious repercussions on the environment and public health, which stepped up the international campaign against its manufacturing and use.However, the brilliant military success and profits of the military industry tempted the Pentagon and NATO to continue production and use of these weapons. Despite the high human and environment risks DU was used in various conflicts like Iraq, Bosnia, Kosovo and Serbia, Afghanistan, Gaza, Lebanon and recently in Libya.It is noteworthy to mention that the public and even some scientists, researchers and news media are ignorant of the effects and risks of the use of DU in military operations. This raises the point that there should be a large campaign to raise public awareness to prevent the risk of DU weapons.Based on scientific research and updates, we would like to high light the waste of wars in Iraq: Our paper shed the light on the size of depleted uranium(DU) weapons used in the wars on Iraq and the legacy of waste (their nature, size, and the contaminated regions), as high risks on humans and the environment. This is one of the leading environmental, health and social tragic problems in Iraq. This problem should be addressed immediately, seriously and effectively.

  • 129.
    Almuqdadi, Kadhum
    et al.
    Arab Academy-Denmark.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Risks of the military uses f depleted uranium on humans and the environment2013Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 3, nr 3, s. 163-203Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Great Development in the military industry had been witnessed in the past two decades, especially in depleted uranium weapons. These weapons were first used by USA and its allies in 1991 in Iraq. Later they were used in Bosnia (1995), Kosovo and Serbia (1999) Afghanistan (2001) and finally Iraq (2003).The manufacturers and users of these weapons continued to blackout the nature of these weapons and deny the harm caused on the public health, animals and the environment.After a short period of time, facts were revealed by the investigations and research executed by large number of scientists and investigators.This paper highlights the important effects caused by the use of depleted uranium weapons on human health and environment.

  • 130.
    Al-Naqshabandy, Mohammed
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Jord- och bergmekanik.
    Ultimate limit statedesign of LC columns2013Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 131.
    Al-Naqshabandy, Mohammed
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Jord- och bergmekanik.
    Larsson, Stefan
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Jord- och bergmekanik.
    Effect of Uncertainties of Improved Soil Shear Strength on the Reliability of Embankments2013Inngår i: Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, ISSN 1090-0241, E-ISSN 1943-5606, Vol. 139, nr 4, s. 619-632Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The strength variability of soils improved by lime-cement columns is very high, and assessment of the reliability is associated with high uncertainty. Previous research on natural soils has shown that variability has a major impact on the reliability of geotechnical systems. However, concerning ground improvement with lime-cement columns, the effect of the uncertainties associated with improved strength properties on the reliability is unknown. This paper addresses the integration of reliability-based design in the design of embankments founded on soil improved by lime-cement columns by an analysis of a project conducted in Sweden. The uncertainties associated with estimating the strength property based on results from cone penetration tests and their effect on the assessed system reliability are addressed and discussed. The use of variance reduction with respect to the spatial variability of the shear strength of the columns was found to have a major influence on the assessed system reliability. Furthermore, it was found that the transformation uncertainty from measurements based on cone penetration tests has a significant impact on the assessed system reliability. System reliability cannot be improved significantly simply by performing a large number of tests.

  • 132.
    Al-Naqshabandy, Mohammed
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Jord- och bergmekanik.
    Larsson, Stefan
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Jord- och bergmekanik.
    Partial factor design for a highway embankment founded on lime-cement columns2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Stability assessment of highway embankments is a common practice in geotechnical engineering. Rational estimation of soil properties is essential for reliable and safe design. However, previous research has shown that high degree of uncertainty is associated with engineering properties and the behavior of the ground improvement with lime-cement columns. Current design methods for stability of lime-cement column are deterministic and the uncertainties are not treated rationally. A reliable design requires rational treatment of uncertainties. This paper addresses the need for application of partial factor design for safety and reliability assessment of lime-cement columns. The study was carried out on an example highway embankment of 6 m height. Resistance and load parameters were considered random variables. The sensitivity factors for the random variables were evaluated from the first order reliability method (FORM). Partial factors were evaluated for the random variables according to the approximate location of the design values. It was shown that the design by partial factor method fulfills both safety and reliability requirements.

  • 133.
    Al-Naqshabandy, Mohammed Salim
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Jord- och bergmekanik.
    Strength variability in lime-cement columns and its effect on the reliability of embankments2011Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Ground improvement by deep mixing (DM) is a generic term used for a number of methods in which a binding agent, often lime and/or cement, is mechanically mixed with the soil to increase its engineering properties. The inherent variability with respect to the engineering properties of the improved soil is high due to the variations in geology and the complex mixing process. High variability introduces uncertainty in estimating improved soil properties and the performance of the structure.

    Current design methodology deals with soil properties deterministically and the uncertainties involved are incorporated in a single value represented by a total factor of safety (FS). The chosen FS is highly dependent on the engineer’s judgment and past experience, in which both of these factors vary between different geotechnical designers. Therefore, current design methodology used in practice for DM does not deal with uncertainties in a rational way. In order to design a geotechnical system with the desired level of confidence, the uncertainties involved must be integrated in the DM design. This can be achieved by using reliability-based design (RBD) methods.

    The research work in this thesis is presented as a collection of three papers. In the first paper, a comprehensive statistical analysis of cone penetration test (CPT) data is described. The objective was to make a contribution to empirical knowledge by evaluating the strength variability of lime-cement columns within the group of tested columns. In the second paper, the effect of the spatial variability and statistical uncertainty with regard to the embankment’s reliability was investigated within the framework of RBD. The study in the third paper investigated the strength variability in lime-cement columns based on two test methods, namely CPT and column penetration test (KPS). In this study, the effect of different test methods on the evaluation of the design value was addressed.

    The main conclusions from this study can be summarized as follows. First, the probability distribution function (PDF) for the undrained shear strength of lime-cement columns can be modeled in RBD as normal or log-normal distributions. However, the use of log-normal distribution is recommended for RBD analyses. Second, the evaluated scales of fluctuation indicate ranges of 2 to 4 m and 0.2 to 0.8 m in the horizontal and the vertical directions respectively. This means that in order to fulfill the requirements of independent/uncorrelated samples for assessment of the design value, the spacing between samples must exceed the horizontal scale of fluctuation. It is therefore proposed that the spacing between individual samples should be at least 4 meters. Third, the design values evaluated using CPT and KPS were approximately the same. However, the inherent variability evaluated differs due to the larger volume tested with the KPS probe than with the CPT probe. However, this difference was not significant between the two tests. Fourthly, due to the limitation in the deterministic design in terms of dealing with uncertainties, it is recommended that RBD design should be used in parallel with the deterministic design of lime-cement column.

  • 134.
    Al-Naqshabandy, Mohammed Salim
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Jord- och bergmekanik.
    Bergman, Niclas
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Jord- och bergmekanik.
    Larsson, Stefan
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Jord- och bergmekanik.
    Effect of spatial variability of the strength properties in lime-cement columns on embankment stability2012Inngår i: Geotechnical Special Publication, ISSN 0895-0563, Vol. 228, s. 231-242Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Spatial variability with respect to the strength in lime-cement columns is an unavoidable source of uncertainty that should be considered in design. Current design method for the assessment of embankment stability, based on the deterministic factor of safety, cannot address the effect of spatial variability. Reliability-based design methodology is a powerful tool that can be used to integrate the variability into the analysis. In this paper, the spatial variability with respect to the undrained shear strength in the soil and in the columns was evaluated based on CPT test. The first order second moment (FOSM) reliability method was applied to address the impact of the spatial variability of the strength in the soil and in the columns on the reliability of an embankment founded on improved soil by lime-cement columns. The paper also presents a technique to evaluate the variance reduction factor over the failure surface. The results propose that the undrained shear strength in the soil and in the columns can be modelled following normal or lognormal distribution. The analysed example show that the reliability increased significantly when the spatial variability was considered

  • 135.
    Al-Naqshabandy, Mohammed Salim
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Jord- och bergmekanik.
    Bergman, Niclas
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Jord- och bergmekanik.
    Larsson, Stefan
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Jord- och bergmekanik.
    Strength variability in lime-cement columns based on CPT data2012Inngår i: Ground Improvement, ISSN 1365-781X, E-ISSN 1751-7621, Vol. 165, nr 1, s. 15--30Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Natural and improved soils have relatively high inherent property variability that should be taken into consideration in design. Investigations of the spatial variability in lime-cement columns are important since they provide a rational quantification of the variability parameters needed for a reliability-based design analysis of geotechnical systems. Statistical analyses are used to evaluate the spatial variability parameters, i.e. the mean, the variance, and the scale of fluctuation, which is the distance within which soil properties reveal strong correlation. This paper presents a field test, in which 30 CPT soundings were performed and analyzed statistically in order to address the spatial variability in a group of lime-cement columns, with respect to the cone tip resistance. The objective of this paper is to describe the statistical analyses and to make a contribution to the empirical knowledge about strength variability in a volume of lime-cement columns. Stationarity has been assessed, and the scale of fluctuation has been evaluated in the vertical and horizontal directions. Random field theory was used based on the sample autocorrelation function ACF. The scale of fluctuation was found to be within the range of 0.2-0.7 m and 2-3 m in the vertical and horizontal direction, respectively. A simple design consideration shows that the variance reduction factor has a major influence on the determination of the design value.

  • 136.
    Al-Rawabdeh, Abdulla M.
    et al.
    University of Calgary, Alberta.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Taani, Ahmed A.
    Yarmouk University.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    A GIS-based drastic model for assessing aquifer vulnerability in Amman-Zerqa groundwater basin, Jordan2013Inngår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, nr 5, s. 490-504Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Amman-Zerqa Basin (AZB) is a major basin in Jordan. The concentration of economic, agricultural and social activities within the basin makes it of prime importance to Jordan. Intensive agricultural practices are widespread and located close to groundwater wells, which pose imminent threats to these resources. Groundwater contamination is of particular concern as groundwater resources are the principal source of water for irrigation, drinking and industrial activities. A DRASTIC model integrated with, and GIS tool has been used to evaluate the groundwater vulnerability of AZB. The Drastic index map showed that only 1.2% of the basin’s total area of 3792 km2 lies in the no vulnerable zone and about 69% is classified as having low pollution potential. The results also revealed that about 30% of the catchment area is moderately susceptible to pollution potential and slightly 1% is potentially under high pollution risk. These results suggest that almost one third of the AZB is at moderate risk of pollution potential. These areas are mainly in the north-east and central parts of the basin where the physical factors like gentle slope and high water table well support the chances of getting shallow aquifer water polluted. Areas with high vulnerable pollution are mainly the central of Amman old city.

  • 137.
    Al-Rawabdeh, Abdullah
    et al.
    Department of Geomatics Engineering, University of Calgary.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Taani, Ahmed
    Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, Yarmouk University.
    Al-Khateeb, Fadi
    Department of Chemistry, University of Calgary, Alberta.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Modeling the risk of groundwater contamination using modified DRASTIC and GIS in Amman-Zerqa basin, Jordan2014Inngår i: Central European Journal of Engineering, ISSN 1896-1541, E-ISSN 2081-9927, Vol. 4, nr 3, s. 264-280Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Amman-Zerqa Basin (AZB) is the second largest groundwater basin in Jordan with the highest abstraction rate, where more than 28% of total abstractions in Jordan come from this basin. In view of the extensive reliance on this basin, contamination of AZB groundwater became an alarming issue. This paper develops a Modified DRASTIC model by combining the generic DRASTIC model with land use activities and lineament density for the study area with a new model map that evaluates pollution potential of groundwater resources in AZB to various types of pollution. It involves the comparison of modified DRASTIC model that integrates nitrate loading along with other DRASTIC parameters. In addition, parameters to account for differences in land use and lineaments density were added to the DRASTIC model to reflect their influences on groundwater pollution potential. The DRASTIC model showed only 0.08% (3 km2) of the AZB is situated in the high vulnerability area and about 30% of the basin is located in the moderately vulnerable zone (mainly in central basin). After modifying the DRASTIC to account for lineament density, about 87% of the area was classified as having low pollution potential and no vulnerability class accounts for about 5.01% of the AZB area. The moderately susceptible zone covers 7.83% of the basin’s total area and the high vulnerability area constitutes 0.13%. The vulnerability map based on land use revealed that about 71% of the study area has low pollution potential and no vulnerability area accounts for about 0.55%, whereas moderate pollution potential zone covers an area of 28.35% and the high vulnerability class constitutes 0.11% of AZB. The final DRASTIC model which combined all DRASTIC models shows that slightly more than 89% of the study area falls under low pollution risk and about 6% is considered areas with no vulnerability. The moderate pollution risk potential covers an area of about 4% of AZB and the high vulnerability class constitutes 0.21% of the basin. The results also showed that an area of about 1761 km2 of bare soils is of low vulnerability, whereas about 28 km2 is moderately vulnerable. For agriculture and the urban sector, approximately 1472 km2 are located within the low vulnerability zone and about 144 km2 are moderately vulnerable, which together account for about 8% of the total agriculture and urban area. These areas are contaminated with human activities, particularly from the agriculture. Management of land use must be considered when changing human or agricultural activity patterns in the study area, to reduce groundwater vulnerability in the basin. The results also showed that the wells with the highest nitrate levels (81-107 mg/l) were located in high vulnerable areas and are attributed to leakage from old sewage water.

  • 138.
    Al-Rawabdeh, bdullaabdulala
    et al.
    University of Calgary, Department of Geomatics Engineering.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Attya, Hussain
    University of Calgary, Department of Geomatics Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    GIS Applications for Building 3D Campus, Utilities and Implementation Mapping Aspects for University Planning Purposes2014Inngår i: Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, ISSN 1934-7359, E-ISSN 1934-7367, Vol. 8, nr 1, s. 19-28Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In city planning managing the third dimension is becoming a necessity. Using 3D GIS modeling within a GIS environment offers a flexible interactive system for providing the best visual interpretation because it aids the planning and decision-process. Previous 3D virtual models did not have to be completely accurate. It did need to be a relatively accurate representation of the true simulation of reality. Every point in 3D GIS models has their true coordinates, so they can express terrain features in an intuitive way which enhances the management and analysis of a proposed project through 3D visualization.A university campus is a complex infrastructure. New students and first- time visitors have a hard time orientating themselves and finding places. This paper discusses the concept of 3D GIS modeling techniques using the following simple procedure to generate a university campus as a real 3D GIS model which will show the effectiveness of the 3D GIS modeling approach. The 3D GIS model provides access to mapping data to support planning, design, and data management. Intelligent GIS models and GIS tools help community planning and apply regional and discipline-specific standards. Integration of GIS spatial data with campus organization helps to improve quality, productivity, and asset management. The following study built 3D GIS map and all utility information for Al al-Bayt University campus as a case study. The primary objective is to establish a 3D GIS for the Al al-Bayt university campus, Jordan to improved data management (e.g., maps, plans, usage of facilities, services) and to develop methods using 3D spatial analysis for specific applications.

  • 139.
    Altaie, Entidhar
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Analysis of Shallow Foundations in Three Different Regions in Iraq2016Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 140.
    Al-Taie, Entidhar
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Foundations of educational buildings in Iraq: past, present and future2013Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Foundation is considered as one of the main parts of any structure such as buildings, railways, bridges, etc. The type of foundation used is highly dependent on the type and properties of soil. The design of foundations requires many factors that should be defined such as the load that the foundation is going to hold, geological conditions of the soil under the foundation, type of soil and the local building code criteria.There are number of differences in the geological and soil conditions in Iraq. As a consequence, these differences are reflected on the type of foundation to be used. Despite these differences, same materials and style of buildings are used all over Iraq. To have good information about the materials and the required design of the foundation, a comprehensive historical review was executed to highlight the progress of the materials and types of foundation that was used since the dawn of civilization up to the present (ancient, Islamic, Ottoman and British occupation till after independent). Present day situation had been analysed through a case study which illustrated the link between soil and foundation types in three different parts of Iraq (Mosul, Baghdad and Basrah). One building was analysed using STAAD. Pro software in these regions. Furthermore, the same building was analysed using local materials, which were historically used and was compared with present day materials used.It is evident that Iraqi designers and engineers require local code to define all the loads, materials and design of the foundation to be used. The use of local materials might be very effective from both engineering and economic perspectives.

  • 141.
    Al-Taie, Entidhar
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Bearing Capacity Affecting the Design of Shallow Foundation in Various Regions of Iraq Using SAP200 & SAFE softwares2014Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 4, nr 4, s. 35-52Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Bearing pressure is the load per unit area along the foundation bottom. The value of bearing pressure can be obtained from soil exploration. In this research, three sites in Iraq were tested (Mosul at north, Baghdad at middle and Basrah at south) for the best type of foundation to be chosen. Seventy nine samples were taken from twenty three boreholes drilled to a depth ranging from 1to 24m, from various sites for the three sites. Samples were tested for their size; Atterberg limits; direct shear; unconfined compression; consolidation and SPT tests. The results showed that the nature of soil in Mosul was generally were silty clay to clay (in some areas silt or sand) with high to very high plasticity. In Baghdad, it was loam clay, silty clay, and in some areas silt. Its plasticity range was medium to high and non-plastic in few sites. For Basrah, the soil type was clay loam and in many places was sand or silt. The value of plasticity was medium. The average and the worst values of bearing capacity were: 177KN/m2 and 77KN/m2 for Mosul; 125 KN/m2 and 68 KN/m2 for Baghdad; and 84KN/m2 and 24 KN/m2 for Basrah. These values were used in a computer model (SAP2000 and SAFE softwares) to find the best suitable foundation in each site. The model suggests that spread or continuous and raft (if basement is used for building with many floors) are suitable for Mosul. For Baghdad, spread and raft type of foundations are suitable. While, for Basrah, raft foundation type are to be used in some areas where building should be less than three floors and for other areas, deep foundation (piles or pier) can only to be used.

  • 142.
    Al-Taie, Entidhar
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Effect of bearing capacity on designing foundations in Iraq using STAAD Pro- v8i2014Inngår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 2014, nr 6, s. 292-303Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Most of Iraqi soil is classified as Quaternary deposits, especially in the Mesopotamian plain and tributaries of the River Tigris. Soil varies from north to south of Iraq. These differences in soil af-fected the process to select the suitable type of foundation. This research is to study the effect of bearing capacity on shallow foundations in different regions of Iraq. Seventy nine samples were collected from 23 boreholes at three different locations (Mosul at the North, Baghdad at the middle and Basrah at the south of Iraq). The samples were collected at varying depth between 1 to 24m. They were subjected to the following testes: Atterberg limits, sieve and hydrometers, consolidation, direct shear, unconfined compression and the filed (SPT test). The values of the bearing capacity parameters (ϕ and c) were obtained from the above tests. The results obtained were used in the application of the general equation of the bearing capacity. Then, the model of a building was designed (two floors, with mat foundation type) using STAAD Pro software. The average values of bearing capacity in each region were applied in the program (Mosul= 177KPa, Baghdad= 125KPa and Basrah= 84KPa). In addition, the worst bearing capacity values were also used for the three regions (Mosul = 77KPa, Baghdad= 68 KPa and Basrah= 24KPa). The results obtained from the average and worst bearing capacity indicated that for Mosul, we could use shallow foundation (spread and mat used if there was basement) for different areas and for buildings with many sto-ries. For Baghdad region, shallow foundation was more suitable for building not higher than five stories. Finally, for Basrah region, shallow foundations were an appropriate selection, but for most areas deep foundation was the right choice.

  • 143.
    Altaie, Entidhar
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Effect of Material Used in Concrete Mixture on the Foundation Stresses on Soil2015Inngår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 7, nr 10, s. 668-675Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable design, green architecture and sustainable construction are new methods for design and construction that are employed for environmental and economic challenges. Clay and bricks proved as sustainable building materials. In this paper, crush brick in the concrete mixture instead of normal coarse aggregate will be used. STAAD Prov8i software was applied for the designed of a hypothetical building in different sites of the three locations in Iraq (Mosul at the north, Baghdad at the center and Basrah at the south). The input model data used in the software were depending on the field and laboratory tests done for twenty three sites in the three locations of Iraq. Concrete properties values were used in the software for concrete mixture with crushed bricks. The results values of base pressure obtained from the software were low for the three locations. The maximum values of base pressure under the foundation for both the average and the minimum bearing capacity values for Mosul region for the normal strength concrete and air-entrained were (94, 84) kPa and (91, 82) kPa respectively, for Baghdad region were (89, 82) kPa and (86, 81) kPa respectively. Finally, for Basrah, the results for the base pressure were (84, 77) kPa and (82, 76) kPa, respectively. The results values of the base pressure were less for all locations compared with the base pressure values obtained from a previous work for the same locations. The use of crushed brick as aggregate in the concrete mixture is economical due to its availability as local material and it is durable materials with low weight.

  • 144.
    Altaie, Entidhar
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Estimation of Settlement under Shallow Foundation for Different Regions in Iraq Using SAFE Software2015Inngår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 7, nr 7, s. 379-386Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Foundation design must satisfy limited values of settlement. Settlement is an essential criterion in the design process of shallow foundations. To calculate the settlement under different types of shallow foundations, 79 samples were taken from twenty-three sites distributed in three regions:Mosul, Baghdad and Basrah in the northern, central and southern parts of Iraq. Field and laboratory tests were performed to obtain the strength parameters to calculate the bearing capacity. The results obtained for the bearing capacity were used in SAFE software. The software was used to design and analyze the foundation and to calculate the settlements under two types of foundations (raft and continuous) for the three regions. Average and minimum values of bearing capacity wereused. The software used subgrade reaction modules values for the design and analysis. According to the results, the suitable, safe and economical type of foundation to be used in Mosul, Baghdad and Basrah regions for the average value of bearing capacity is the continuous type for the first two regions while the raft type is recommended for Basrah region. In case that the minimumbearing capacity values are used, raft foundation is recommended for Mosul and Baghdad. While deep foundation is the suitable type of foundation for Basrah region.

  • 145.
    Al-Taie, Entidhar
    et al.
    Reconstruction and Projects Department, Minister of Higher Education and Scientific Research, Baghdad.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Evaluation of Foundation Settlement under Various Added Loads in Different Locations of Iraq Using Finite Element2016Inngår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 8, nr 5, s. 257-268Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Settlement is an important criterion in the design of the foundations. It is classifying into immedi-ate (or elastic) settlement and consolidated settlement (primary and secondary). The factors that affect the shallow foundation settlement are the applied loads, soil stiffness, and geometric shape of foundation. Calculations of settlement depend on the parameters of soil which can be obtained from field and laboratory tests. Field and laboratory tests were conducted for twenty three sites in three different regions in Iraq (Mosul, Baghdad, and Basrah). In this research, field and laboratory tests results adopted for two sites from each region depended on the maximum and minimum bearing capacity values. Settlement for each site was calculated using numerical (mathematical) calculations and PLAXIS software under different added loads. The results of settlements beneath the foundation were competing for the sites with maximum value of bearing capacity in Mosul; Baghdad and Basrah. Also, the comparison conducted for sites of minimum bearing capacity value and the results showed different settlement values of each site. The change of settlement values under different loads was linearly in the six sites using numerical (mathematical) calculations. While, the settlement values obtained from PLAXIS software for sites with maximum bearing ca- pacity value showed that Mosul site had the highest value due to the type of soil layers and the dif- ference models of soil used in the software. Basrah site had a settlement value higher than Bagh- dad site due to the soil layers of sand type only. PLAXIS results for sites with minimum bearing capacity showed that for Basrah site the soil went to failure. While, the settlement values for Mosul and Baghdad sites were close to each other due to have nearly same soil layers. Therefore, high rise buildings could not be used in some sites. Also, soil in some locations and under some added loads needed to be improved before the implementation of any constructions.

  • 146.
    Altaie, Entidhar
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Materials and the style of buildings used in Iraq during the Islamic period2012Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 2, nr 2, s. 69-97Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Islamic period in Iraq lasted 1002 years (637-1639 AD). During this period big cities were constructed and old cities were reconstructed. There was development of the materials used and the design. Bricks, grill wage, plaster, gypsum and marble and stones were used. The environmental conditions were taken in the design of the buildings. The walls were thick and basements and badgur were established. This makes it easier to cool or heat the house. Tar was used to protect the buildings from moisture. New style of buildings was established using new engineering innovations. Well-designed arches and domes were noticed during this period. Islamic buildings had special features such as minarets, arches, domes, vaults, gilding, patterns and decorations.

  • 147.
    Altaie, Entidhar
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Progress of building materials and foundation engineering in ancient Iraq2012Inngår i: Advanced Materials Research, ISSN 1022-6680, E-ISSN 1662-8985, s. 220-241Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Humans realised the importance of housing since the dawn of history. The first man used the caves as shelter. When agricultural activities dominated the life style of humans, villages started to be constructed. Later these were developed into cities. The dawn of civilization started in Iraq. The inhabitants in that time used the available natural materials in their construction. Reviewing the progress of engineering practices of ancient Iraq, reveals the facts that the inhabitants were aware of the principles of construction and engineering. The materials used and the design of the buildings were very suitable from both environmental and engineering perspectives. This work is a critical review of the progress and development of engineering practices and construction materials used in ancient Mesopotamia

  • 148.
    Al-Taie, Entidhar
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    The need to develop a building code for Iraq2014Inngår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 6, nr 10, s. 610-632Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Building Code is a legal document provided a minimum level of safety and health for the construc-tions to make public living in safe buildings. People recognize the importance of constructing the buildings in safe conditions, since the dawn of civilization. Many countries around the world were facing different kind of disasters such as fires, earthquakes, etc. These disasters made builders to develop methods for safe construction to avoid any disaster. Later, these developments became codes and standards. Since, the middle of the last century many countries established its local codes. This research represents a review of the importance of the codes with a short history for them. Furthermore, reviews for some national codes (Egyptian, Syrian and Arabia Saudi) were done as well as comparison between load’s correction factors, geotechnical requirements and materials used in concrete. Most of the national codes were highly based on the ACI, British and Germany codes and standards. In addition, a review and comparison were presented for International codes (American (ACI) and European (EC)) through a case study. EC code is becoming more common for the world. Eurocode give more flexibility to the user to employ their own standards (national annex). To find the best suitable foundation design to be used in Iraq and the differences when using the American and European codes, a building model was designed and analyzed using STAAD Pro., and SAFE softwares for three locations (Mosul, Baghdad and Basrah). The combination loads used in the two softwares were for ACI and EC codes. Results obtained were very similar. The type of foundation to be chosen for Mosul location is spread or continuous. For Baghdad location the suitable type is raft and for Basrah the choice is raft and piles.In view of the fact that Iraq has no national code engineers and designers were depending on the ACI and British codes and standards. It is very important to have an Iraqi code because it will im-prove the quality and safety of the design and construction of buildings as well as its economic value.

  • 149.
    Altaie, Entidhar
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    The progress of buildings style and materials from the Ottoman and British occupations of Iraq2012Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 2, nr 2, s. 41-51Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The period of ottoman occupation of Iraq was characterized by the same style of buildings and they used local materials as did their predecessors. At the beginning of ottoman occupation, governors were focusing on build mosques and religion schools (Tkaya). Houses were built in random styles depending on the experiences of the builders. For this reason, the houses became irregular and expanded randomly. This lead to the shrinkage of the areas of the roads where they became very narrow and used to referred to as “Drbuna”. At the end of the ottoman period the style of buildings changed and it was reflecting European renaissance influences such as the government campus known as “Qishla”. In 1917 the British army occupied Iraq. During this period the buildings were more inclined to the European style. New materials were used for the first time like cement and iron (Schliemann). The new materials and design destroyed the Iraqi heritage and cultural identity. It is believed that the new housing style did not take into consideration the Iraqi environment.

  • 150.
    Al-Taie, Entidhar
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Saaed, Tarek Edrees
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Foundation assessment in different parts of Iraq using STAAD Pro v8i2013Inngår i: Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, ISSN 1934-7359, E-ISSN 1934-7367, Vol. 7, nr 3, s. 273-281Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Foundation is considered as one of the main parts of any structure such as buildings, railways, bridges, etc. The type of foundation used is highly dependent on the type and properties of soil. The design of foundations requires many factors that should be defined such as the load that the foundation is going to hold, geological conditions of the soil under the foundation, type of soil and the local building code criteria.There are number of differences in the geological and soil conditions in Iraq. As a consequence, these differences are reflected on the type of foundation to be used. Despite these differences, same materials and style of buildings are used all over Iraq. The main problems of Iraqi soil are high gypsum content, salinity and shallow water table depth. These factors that influence the foundations are the soil properties and the amount of loads that transmitted by the superstructure.The situation had been analysed through a case study which illustrated the link between soil and foundation types in three different parts of Iraq (Mosul, Baghdad and Basra). One building was analysed using STAAD. Pro software in these regions. It is evident that Iraqi designers and engineers require local code to define all the loads, materials and design of the foundation to be used. The use of local materials might be very effective from both engineering and economic perspectives.

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