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  • 101.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Toward prudent management of water resources in Iraq2011Inngår i: Journal of Advanced Science and Engineering Research, Vol. 2011, nr 1, s. 53-67Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In 1977 the Turkish Government started to utilize the water of Tigris and Euphrates Rivers through South-eastern Anatolia Project (GAP). The project includes 22 dams and 19 hydraulic power plants which are to irrigate 17 103 km2 of land with a total storage capacity of 100 km3 which is three times more than the overall capacity of Iraq and Syrian reservoirs Prior to 1990, Syria used to receive 21 km3/year of the Euphrates water which dropped to 12km3 in 2000 onward and for Iraq it dropped from 29 km3 before 1990 to 4,4km3 (90% reduction) now. This reduced agricultural land in both countries from 650 103 to 240 103 hectares. Iraq used to receive 20.9 km3/year of water from the Tigris River and once Ilisu dam is constructed, this is likely to drop to 9.7 km3 which means that 47% of the river flow will be depleted. This means that 696 103 hectares of agricultural land will be abandoned due to water scarcity. The reduction of flow in the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers in Iraq is considered to be national crises and will have severe negative consequences on health and on environmental, industrial and economic development. It is believed that the Iraqi Government should take solid and fast measures to ensure prudent management of its water resources and to secure the life of huge sector of its society and protect the environment.

  • 102.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Ali, Ammar
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Restoring the Garden of Eden, Iraq2012Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 2, nr 1, s. 53-88Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Iraqi marsh lands, which are known as the Garden of Eden, cover an area about 15-20 103. km2 in the lower part of the Mesopotamian basin where the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers flow. The area had played a prominent part in the history of man kind and was inhabited since the dawn of civilization. The area was considered among the largest wetlands in the world and the greatest in west Asia. Saddam regime began to drain the marsh lands for military and political reasons. Accordingly, at 2000 less than 10% of the marshes remained. The consequences were that most of the marsh dwellers left their places and some animals and plants are eradicated now. After the fall of Saddam regime in 2003, the process of restoration and rehabilitation of Iraqi marshes started. There are number of difficulties encountered in the process. Some of them are land use changes, climatic variations and changes, soil and water salinity as well as ecological fragmentation where many species were affected as well as the marsh dwellers.In this research we would like to explore the possibilities of restoring the Iraqi marshes. It is believed that 70- 75% of the original areas of the marshes can be restored. This implies that 13 km3 water should be available to achieve this goal keeping the water quality as it is. To evaluate the water quality in the marshes, 154 samples were collected at 48 stations during summer, spring and winter. All the results indicate that the water quality was bad. To improve the water quality, then 18.86 km3 of water is required. This requires plenty of efforts and international cooperation to overcome the existing obstacles.

  • 103.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Almuqdadi, Kadhim
    Arab Academy-Denmark.
    Engineering solution for Radioactive Waste in IRAQ2014Inngår i: Journal of Advanced Science and Engineering Research, ISSN 2231-8844, Vol. 4, nr 1, s. 18-36Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Depleted uranium (DU) is a by-product of the enrichment of natural uranium for nuclear reactor-grade or nuclear weapons-grade uranium. DU is chemically identical to natural uranium. Depleted uranium is chemically identical to natural uranium. DU is depleted with isotope of U235 and its radioactivity is 60% of the natural uranium and increases to 80% after few months and is usually considered as low level radioactive waste (LLW).Iraq experienced two devastating wars in 1991 and 2003, during which massive amounts of new weapons and sophisticated manufactured nuclear weapons were used -called Depleted Uranium (DU).During the second Gulf war in 2003 U.S. and British troops have reportedly used more than five times as many DU bombs and shells as the total number used during the 1991 war for the invasion and occupation of Iraq. It was estimated that more than 1100 to 2200 tons of DU was used. As a consequence the ruminants of wars are affecting the people (30 million) and environment. There are hundreds of sites contaminated with nuclear radiation.There is no Iraqi strategy and/or national program, not even well thought out plans and scientific personnel and technical equipment required to clean Iraq of these wastes. The aim of this work is to high light the environmental implications of the two Gulf wars on Iraq and suggest possible solutions to the problem.

  • 104.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    The environmental implications of depleted uranium in Iraq and the principles of isolating it2014Inngår i: Waste Management and the Environment VII / [ed] C.A. Beribba; G. Passerini; H. Itoh, Southanpton: WIT Press, 2014, s. 367-376Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq experienced two devastating wars in 1991 and 2003, during which massiveamounts of new weapons and sophisticated manufactured nuclear weaponscalled depleted uranium (DU) were used. DU is a by-product of the enrichmentof natural uranium for nuclear reactor-grade or nuclear weapons-grade uranium. Depleted uranium is chemically identical to natural uranium. During the second Gulf war in 2003 U.S. and British troops used more than 1100 to 2200 tons of DU. As a consequence the ruminants of wars are reported to have seriously affected people and the environment, causing cancer and abnormal birth defects. The water and soil all over most of Iraq is contaminated. There is no strategy, national or international program for cleaning Iraq of DU wastes. Site selection criteria have been suggested for the disposal of radioactive waste but no principle of designing and constructing disposals. The present paper describes a large geological feature, a deep natural depression, which would be useful for isolating DU by isolating it in smectitic Iraqi clay.

  • 105.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    Fouad, Saffa
    Deformational Style of the Soft Sediment (SEISMITES) within the Uppermost Part of the Euphrates Formation, Western Iraq2014Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 4, nr 4, s. 71-86Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Euphrates Formation (Early Miocene) is wide spread formations in central western part of Iraq. It consists of basal conglomerate, well bedded, grey, fossiliferous and hard limestones (Lower Member), chalky like dolomitic limestone, white and massive, green marl, and deformed, brecciated dolomitic limestone and well bedded undulated limestone (Upper Member). The thickness of the formation Iraq is 35-110 m.The uppermost part of the Euphrates Formation includes Brecciated Unit. The fragments (size 1 – 3 cm) are semi angular to semi rounded, consist of very finely crystalline, silicified limestone, arranged in systematic form, which is parallel to the deformations and undulations that are present in both the brecciated mass and the overlying Undulated Limestone Unit. These characteristics of the fragments indicate that the breccia is not formed due to break in sedimentation, but it is syn-sedimentary breccia.The genesis and deformation style of the breccia is discussed in this study. The results indicate the seismic effect on the development of the breccia, during the deposition, which means syn-sedimentary origin of the breccia, most probably due to tectonic unrest, which has caused seismic shocks in the depositional area; such sediments are called "seismites".

  • 106.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Zakaria, Salih
    Mosul University.
    Ezz-Aldeen, Mohammad
    Mosul University.
    Feasibility of using small dams in water harvesting, Northern Iraq2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq is experiencing water-resource shortages which are expected to become more severe in the future. Water harvesting techniques (WH) will definitely help to overcome or minimize the effect of this problem. Two areas (northwestern and northeastern part of Iraq) were tested for the feasibility of WH using small dams not more than 6m height. The locations of the dams and reservoirs were selected depending on the drainage area, the cross section of the valley (to ensure minimum construction material to be used for building the dams) and to minimize evaporation losses and insure the required storage was obtained; the ratio of surface area to storage volume was kept to a minimum. Watershed modeling system (WMS) and linear programming (LP) optimization techniques were applied to maximize the irrigated area, which could be supplied by each selected reservoir for the period 1990–2009.In northeastern part of Iraq, the technique was applied in Erbil and Sulaimaniyah. In the former, 22 dams (catchment areas ranged between 3.34 to 111.63 km2) were tested. While in the latter, five separated dams were used with total catchment area of 176.79 km2. Their area ranged between 7.35 to 98.08 km2. In northwestern part of Iraq, the technique was applied in Sinjar Mountain. At northern Sinjar Mountain, ten dams were selected, their catchment area ranged between 43.48 to197.7 km2.The results obtained from all areas were encouraging.

  • 107.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Suggested landfill sites for hazardous waste in Iraq2013Inngår i: Natural Science, ISSN 2150-4091, E-ISSN 2150-4105, Vol. 5, nr 4, s. 463-477Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq experienced two devastating wars in 1991 and 2003, during which massive amounts of new weapons and sophisticated manufactured nuclear weapons were used called Depleted Uranium (DU). As a consequence of the radioactive contamination; the humans are suffering from various disease like cancer and the environment is polluted.In practice, there is no strategy and/or national program, not even well thought out plans and scientific personnel and technical equipment required to clean Iraq of these wastes. Reviewing the geological, topographical and hydrological data, it had been noticed that Umm Chaimin depression is a good candidate site to dump all contaminated radioactive scrap and soil. The suggested design of the landfill will ensure safe containment of the waste for hundreds of thousands of years even if significant climatic changes will take place.

  • 108.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Almuqdadi, Kadhim
    Arab Academy-Denmark.
    Effective isolation of radioactive military wastes in Iraq: a necessary humanitarian action2011Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq has been subject to a series of wars for more than fifty years, the latest one leaving large amounts of wrecked tanks, vehicles, weapons and ammunition. A considerable part of the waste has the form of, or contains, depleted uranium (DU), that is concluded to have cancerogenic effects through its radioactivity and toxicity. The DU exists in significant concentrations in areas where combat took place, mostly in and around the cities of Bagdad and Basra, the total number of particularly encountered areas being about 15. The way of long-term isolation of DU that is proposed in this paper is to construct relatively simple landfills of sandwiched contaminated soil and clay or clayey soil, covered by sand/gravel and erosion-resistant coarser material on top. The very low annual precipitation and long draught in the deserts, implying significant evaporation, means that the system of tight soil interlayered with contaminated soil, embedding wrecked military objects, minimizes percolation and release of DU, keeping it adsorbed on the finest soil particles. The clay-based material must be composed in a way that, i/ desiccation fractures are not formed in periods of long draught and ii/ not swell uncontrolled and loose strength in wet periods. The DU-contaminated soil is proposed to be scraped off and transported in closed trucks to four desert sites where landfills of the sandwich-type are proposed to be constructed.

  • 109.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Almuqdadi, Kadhim
    Arab Academy-Denmark.
    Isolation of radioactive military wastes in Iraq2013Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 3, nr 3, s. 1-10Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq has been subject to a series of wars for more than fifty years, the latest one leaving large amounts of wrecked tanks, vehicles, weapons and ammunition. A considerable part of the waste has the form of, or contains, depleted uranium (DU), that is concluded to have cancerogenic effects through its radioactivity and toxicity. The DU exists in significant concentrations in areas where combat took place, mostly in and around the cities of Bagdad and Basra, the total number of particularly encountered areas being about 15. The way of long-term isolation of DU that is proposed in this paper is to construct relatively simple landfills of sandwiched contaminated soil and clay or clayey soil, covered by sand/gravel and erosion-resistant coarser material on top. The very low annual precipitation and long draught in the deserts, implying significant evaporation, means that the system of tight soil interlayered with contaminated soil, embedding wrecked military objects, minimizes percolation and release of DU, keeping it adsorbed on the finest soil particles. The clay-based material must be composed in a way that, i/ desiccation fractures are not formed in periods of long draught and ii/ not swell uncontrolled and loose strength in wet periods. The DU-contaminated soil is proposed to be scraped off and transported in closed trucks to four desert sites where landfills of the sandwich-type are proposed to be constructed.

  • 110.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Almuqdadi, Kadhim
    Arab Academy-Denmark.
    Saving Iraqi civilians and their environment from catastrophic implications of depleted uranium used in Gulf wars I and II2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Depleted uranium (DU) was used twice by the Americans and allied forces against Iraqi troops and personnel in 1991 and 2003. The largest single radionuclide contamination occurred in the Gulf during Gulf War II, 1991, where depleted uranium was used as an amour-penetrating ordnance. Due to this use the countryside of Iraq was contaminated to a significant extent and thus chronically exposed the civilian population and military personnel to different environmental loads i.e. DU dust, vapors, and aerosols etc. In addition to the radioactive contamination due to military activities in Gulf wars, other dangerous source of contamination has been reported from the material and equipment at the Iraqi Energy Authority. After the fall of the Baath regime in 2003, the Iraqi Energy Authority, like all other Ministries and governmental organizations, sustained immense losses due to the turmoil and looting. As an example the Middle East Media Research Institute (MEMI) reported in 2003 that uranium (as yellow cakes) as well as byproducts from processing activities in addition to tons of radioactive waste was stored in barrels. Simple citizens stole these barrels and used them for storing water. The radioactive materials in these barrels were in this way either spread in large quantities on the ground or taken to their homes. Other examples of how DU material is spread are given in the report as well. This report is highlighting the effect of radioactive waste on the people and the environment of Iraq and trying to find possible solutions to the problem. Special concerns are directed to the question of finding sustainable, environmentally acceptable and safe landfills for the final deposition of DU contaminated material.

  • 111.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Zakaria, Saleh
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Mustafa, Yaseen
    University of Zakho.
    Ahmad, Payman
    Koya University.
    Ghafour, Bahra
    Koya University.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Development of Water Resources in Koya City, Iraq2013Inngår i: First International Symposium on Urban Development, UK: WIT Press, 2013, s. 91-98Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq is facing water shortage problem, which is becoming more severe with time. Rain Water Harvesting (RWH) can help to minimize the water shortage problem. Seven years of rainfall records was used to find out the quantity of water that can be harvested using a Watershed modeling system (WMS).Koya city is located in the northern part of Iraq. The population of the city is about 39484.The application of the WMS model for rainfall records of seven years (2002-3 to 2010-11) showed that 275.51 million cubic meters of water can be harvested. This implies that annual average of rain harvested water is 39.4 million cubic meters and the allocation per capita to be 997 cubic meters per year. This amount of water can greatly help to the development of industry and agriculture in the city.

  • 112. Alawaji, H.
    et al.
    Runesson, K.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Sture, S
    Axelsson, Kennet
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Implicit integration in soil plasticity under mixed control for drained and undrained response1992Inngår i: International journal for numerical and analytical methods in geomechanics (Print), ISSN 0363-9061, E-ISSN 1096-9853, Vol. 16, nr 10, s. 737-756Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    An algorithm is outlined for the implicit integration of isotropic plasticity models for an arbitrary choice of mixed stress and strain control variables. Drained as well as undrained behaviour is considered. The closest-point-projection method in conjunction with a completely strain-driven format is used in a core algorithm. In the drained case strain response variables are determined via iterations to satisfy equilibrium of prescribed and calculated stresses that correspond to the strain response variables. In the undrained case, on the other hand, strains and pore pressure are determined via simultaneous iterations to satisfy equilibrium and the incompressibility condition. The algorithm is applied to a new generalized cam-clay model, and various iteration techniques are assessed. In particular, Newton iterations which employ the matrix of algorithmic tangent stiffness moduli are shown to compete favourably with more conventional methods.

  • 113.
    Alcalá Perales, Diego
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Jord- och bergmekanik. UPV.
    Spatial variation in uplift pressure and correlation with rock mass conditions under two buttress dams: A case study of Ramsele and Storfinnforsen dams2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Uplift water pressure is one of the dominating forces with signicant impact acting on a dam. It is usually measured with piezometers installed along the dam. However, the value of the pressure along the dam is often hard to measure due to the limited number of piezometers available (Bernstone et al., 2009). Furthermore, uplift pressure can oscillate substantially in a single hole both with time and also spatially under the dam due to the combination of rock mass characteristics in the foundation, loads and temperature variations.There is still a lack of information regarding the magnitude and variation of the uplift pressure. The aim of this thesis is to investigate the spatial variation of the uplift pressure based on uplift pressure measurements taken from Storfinnforsen and Ramsele dams. The aim is also to investigate how the uplift pressure depends on the rock mass conditions. The two dams Storfinnforsen and Ramsele provides a unique opportunity due to the signicant amount of piezometers, 270 in total, installed along the rock foundation for the new monitoring programme at the monoliths of both dams.Based on the measured uplift pressure, a probabilistic distribution has been assigned to the uplift pressure. In addition, a possible correlation between the rock mass quality and the uplift pressure as well as the joint aperture and the uplift pressure was analysed.

  • 114.
    Al-Dahan, Saadi
    et al.
    Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, University of Kufa.
    Alabidi, Abdelkadhum
    Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, University of Kufa.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Relationship between Selected Hydrochemical Parameters in Springs of Najaf Province, Iraq2015Inngår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 7, nr 6, s. 337-346Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Several springs exist at the south-western desert of Iraq in Najaf Province at latitude 31˚00' -32˚15' and longitude 43˚30' - 44˚30'. They are almost parallel to Euphrates River on the eastern edge of western desert. General direction for the distribution of springs coincides with that of faults running northwest-southeast. The Hydrogen sulfide, temperature, pH and electrical conductivity were investigated in these springs. The analyses indicated that the concentration of H2S decreased from northwest toward southeast which is attributed to the escape of this gas to the atmosphere during the flow of groundwater near or on the earth surface. The surrounding geologic conditions did not affect the temperature and pH of the springs. Electrical conductivity showed an increase from northwest towards southeast which reflects dissolving more ions from the rocks of the aquifer. The electrical conductivity and hydrogen sulfide concentration had reverse relationship.

  • 115.
    al-Dahan, Saadi
    et al.
    Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, University of Kufa.
    M., Hussain Hussain
    Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, University of Kufa.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hydrochemistry of springs, Najaf area, Iraq2015Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Hydrology, ISSN 1058-3912, E-ISSN 1996-7918, Vol. 23, artikkel-id 3Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Springs exist in southwestern Iraq at Najaf area in southwestern desert (latitude 31º 00 ̄ – 32º 15 ̄ and longitude 43º 30 ̄ – 44º 30 ̄). Two aquifers exist in the area. The first is composed of recent deposits while the second aquifer is of Miocene deposits. The latter is important because it contains huge quantities of groundwater. Water of these springs is slightly brackish and very hard. The predominant salt in the water of these springs is magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) and sodium chloride (NaCl). The water type is sulfate. Most of water springs (70%) are of marine water origin, while the minority (30%) are of continental water origin.

  • 116.
    Algmark, Carl
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Medie- och Informationsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eskilsson, Mattias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Medie- och Informationsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Omgivningspåverkan vid sänkhammarborrning2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Sänkhammarborrning är en metod som används för att utföra grundläggning med stålpålar. Metoden blir allt vanligare i Svenska tätbebyggda miljöer där krav ställs på låg omgivningspåverkan. Vid sänkhammarborrning borras ett foderrör av stål ner genom jordlagren till avsett djup, oftast till bärkraftigt berg. Foderröret lämnas sedan kvar, armeras, gjuts och utgör sedan själva pålen. Borrmaskinen består bland annat av en hammare som arbetar nere i hålet och drivs av antingen vatten eller luft. Borrföretagen har ofta tillgång till flera olika borrsystem men det saknas ibland underlag och forskning för hur olika borrsystem och metoder påverkar mark och omgivning vilket kan skapa en osäkerhet i projekteringsfasen och oförutsedda problem i utförandestadiet. Sänkhammarborrning anses ha en mindre massförträngande effekt men ger ändå en viss omgivningspåverkan både ovan och under mark. I den här studien har omgivningspåverkan under mark behandlats. Tre störningskällor har undersökts; vibrationer, uppspolning och trycksättning. Syftet har varit att teoretiskt undersöka hur vattendrivet- och luftdrivet sänkhammarborrsystem påverkar undergrunden i samband med att stålrörspålar installeras. För att nå syftet har en litteraturstudie och en intervjustudie genomförts. Även två fältbesök har gjorts. Litteratur och intervjuer har sedan analyserats med utgångspunkt i de tre nämnda fenomenen. Resultatet visar att de viktigaste faktorerna som påverkar hur stor omgivningspåverkan blir är markförutsättningar, maskinutrustning och utförandet. Vattendriven borrning visar sig löpa mindre risk att påverka omgivningen när det gäller uppspolning och trycksättning men om borrningen utförs på rätt sätt kan omgivningspåverkan undvikas även vid luftdriven borrning. De två borrsystemen har olika slagenergier och slagfrekvenser dock kan inga slutsatser dras av hur detta påverkar vibrationsnivåerna. Ett antal åtgärder finns för att minimera omgivningspåverkan, det handlar framförallt om att välja rätt borrsystem samt att borrningen utförs på rätt sätt.

  • 117.
    Al-Haidarey, Mohammed
    et al.
    Department of Ecology, Faculty of Science, University of Kufa.
    Abdumunem, Ibtihal
    Department of Biology, College of Science, Muthanna University.
    Abbas, Muhson
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    The Trophic State Index of Bahr Al-Najaf Depression reservoir, Iraq2016Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Hydrology, ISSN 1058-3912, E-ISSN 1996-7918, Vol. 24, artikkel-id 1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Bahr Al-Najaf Depression Reservoir (BNDR) is located 5 kilometers south-southwest of Najaf city in central Iraq. It covers an area of approximately 360 square kilometers. Carlson’s Trophic State Index (CTSI) was applied to the BNDR. To do so, Chlorophyll (A), total phosphorus (TP), Secchi disc depth Transparency (SD) and some physiochemical parameters were measured. The mean value of Chl-a was 1,06 (±1,33), the maximum and minimum values of TSI based on total Chl-a were recorded during summer and spring respectively. The classification of trophic state using TSI (TP) and TSI (SD) was closed, but by using TSI (Chl-a) it was much higher, the value of TSI (Chl-a) > TSI (TP) >TSI (SD), the CTSI value of BNDR was between 35.11-71.33 (r2 = -27, 53), the highest value of CTSI was in summer while the lowest values were during winter, the average of physiochemical parameters (±standard deviation) were: 26,5 (±1,42), 7,6 (±0,88), 0,1 (±0,16), 71 (±16,57), 10100 (±5591), 1,55 (±2,26), 53350 (±24143), 243299 (±358773), 30752 (±44649), 20 (±13), 2499 (±1819), 2659 (±2561), 0,22 (±0,02), 0,32 (±0,06) for temperature, pH, DO, Ec, HCO- 3, TN, TH, Cl- SO= 4 , TOC, Na+, K+, Fe+, and Mn+ respectively. According to CTSI, BNDR can be classified as eutrophic. CTSI results were very close to those of lakes Sawa and Al-Razzazah, while there were some slight differences when compared with Al-Habbanayh and Derbandikhan lakes, where the level of trophic index was decreasing (56, and 52 for Al-Habbanayh lake and Derbandikhan lake respectively).

  • 118.
    Al-Hashimi, Shaymaa A.M.
    et al.
    Department of Civil Engineering, Al-Mustansiriayah University, Baghdad 1001, Iraq.
    Madhloom, Huda M.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi. Department of Civil Engineering, Al-Mustansiriayah University, Baghdad 1001, Iraq.
    Khalaf, Rasul M.
    Department of Civil Engineering, Al-Mustansiriayah University, Baghdad 1001, Iraq.
    Nahi, Thameen N.
    Department of Civil Engineering, Al-Mustansiriayah University, Baghdad 1001, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir A.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Flow over Broad Crested Weirs: Comparison of 2D and 3D Models2017Inngår i: Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, ISSN 1934-7359, E-ISSN 1934-7367, Vol. 11, nr 8, s. 769-779Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The flow over broad-crested weirs was simulated by computational fluid dynamic model. The water surface profile over broad crested weir was measured in a laboratory model and validated using two and three dimensional Fluent programs. The Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations coupled with the turbulent standard (k-ε) model and volume of fluid method were applied to estimate the water surface profile. The results of numerical model were compared with experimental results to evaluate the ability of model in describing the behaviour of water surface profile over the weir. The results indicated that the 3D required more time in comparison with 2D results and the flow over weir changed from subcritical flow at the upstream (U/S) face of weir to critical flow over the crest and to supercritical flow at downstream (D/S). A reasonable agreement was noticed between numerical results and experimental observations with mean error less than 2 %.

  • 119.
    Al-Hashimi, Shaymaa
    et al.
    Department of Civil Engineering, Al -Mustansiriayah University, Baghdad.
    Madhloom, Huda
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Nahi, Thameen N.
    Department of Civil Engineering, Al -Mustansiriayah University, Baghdad.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Channel Slope Effect on Energy Dissipation of Flow over Broad Crested Weirs: Channel Slope Effect on Energy Dissipation of Flow over Broad Crested Weirs2016Inngår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, Vol. 8, nr 12, s. 837-851Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of broad crested weir used in open channels is to raise and control upstream (U/S) water level. In this study a new performance was added to this weir, by making a step at downstream (D/S) of weir. The energy dissipation, the height of the weir/ the upstream water height ratio and Froude number relationships  (E% - P/h – Fr) for three range of flume slop S=0.0, 0.002 and 0.004 were simulated. The experiments were performed in a laboratory horizontal channel of 4.6 m length, 0.3 m width and   0.3 m depth for a wide range of discharge. The D/S step height of the weir was 7.5 cm. FLUENT software was used as numerical model which represent a type of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model in order to simulate flow over weirs. The Volume of Fluid (VOF) method with the Standard k–ε turbulence model was used to estimate the free surface profile and the structured mesh with high concentration near the wall regions. The experimental results of the water surface profile gave a high agreement with the results of the numerical models. The maximum value 28.78 of E % was obtained in single step broad crested weir in the experimental result and 27.35 in numerical result at S=0.004. Finally, the range of the relative error of the energy dissipation between experimental and numerical results was achieved and the maximum was 6.76 in all runs.

  • 120.
    Al-Hasnawi, Salwan
    et al.
    Chemistry Department, Collage of Science, Mustansirya University, Baghdad.
    Hussain, Hussain M.
    Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, University of Kufa.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    The Effect of the Industrial Activities on Air Pollution at Baiji and its surrounding areas, Iraq2016Inngår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 8, nr 1, s. 34-44Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The polluters of total suspended particles (TSP) and some heavy metals (Cd, Co, and Ni) concentrations were studied in the areas of Al-Fatha, Al-Alam and Baiji, Iraq. These concentrations were measured for selected 22 sample locations for two periods, January and July 2013. The analyzed values of (TSP) and (Cd) exceeded the limits of Iraqi National and the World Health Organization (WHO) for the two periods. Also, (Ni) values exceeded the limits for July only, while (Co) values were under the limits for the two periods. The difference between the two periods reflects the effect of the wind speed and direction, rainfall, and the intensity of the dust storms during the two months respectively. GIS technique makes optimal predictions possible by examining the relationships between all the sample points and producing a continuous surface of polluter’s concentration. Therefore, GIS was used to produce predictions and probabilities maps for the critical polluter values in the study area

  • 121.
    Ali, Ammar
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Three Dimensional Hydro-Morphological Modeling of Tigris River2016Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The River Tigris is a major river in Iraq. It divides Baghdad, the capital of Iraq, in two parts. The reach of the river within Baghdad is about 60 km long. The climate change within the region and the construction of hydraulic structures upstream of Baghdad has reduced the water discharge of the river by 44%. Despite the fact that huge volumes of sediment have been trapped in the constructed headwater reservoirs, substantial changes have occurred in the topography of the Tigris River within Baghdad City and the number of depositions is increasing. The debris of the destroyed bridges from the wars of 1991 and 2003 and their subsequent reconstruction have contributed to the development of these depositions. As a consequence, the ability of the river to carry the peak flood waters has been reduced. This has led to a potential increase of flooding in parts of the city. To predict the maximum flood capacity for the river, the bathymetric survey that was conducted for 50 km of the Tigris River by the Ministry of Water Resources in 2008 has been used with the one-dimensional flow model “HEC-RAS”. Calibration of the model was carried out using field measurements for water levels along the last 15 km of the reach, and the water level observations at the Sarai Baghdad gauging station for the last 10 years were used to validate the model. The model showed a significant reduction in the river’s capacity compared with what the river had carried during the floods of 1971 and 1988. This result agrees with previous surveys conducted on the same reach indicating that the ability of the river to convey high water has decreased. To overcome this problem, dredging operations started along most of the Tigris River inside Baghdad City to remove many islands and side bars, as well as cleaning water intakes. An examination for the dredging plan currently in progress and two additional proposed plans was conducted using the ‘HEC-RAS’ model for the 50 km long river reach to investigate whether the designed flooding capacity of the river can be recovered and how much it can be improved. Comparing the historical records of water level and discharge for the last three decades, some improvement of flood capacity was achieved. Cautions about the water intakes should be considered to maintain their functionalities with the expected drop in water levels due to dredging operations. Bathymetric and land surveys were conducted for the northern Tigris River reach (18 km length) in Baghdad, producing 180 cross sections. A riverbed topography map was established from these cross sections. Sediment transport rates and bed composition were investigated by collecting three different types of sediment samples at the quartiles of 16 cross sections along this reach. The Helley-Smith sampler was used to collect 288 bedload samples, a suction pump was used to collect 212 suspended load samples from different depths. The Van Veen grab was used to collect 46 bed material samples. The velocity profiles and the water discharges were measured using ADCP at the sampling sections. Bed sediment compositions were investigated by analysing the collected bed material samples. It was noticed that fine sand dominated the riverbed (90.74%). The average median size within the reach was 2.49 phi (0.177mm) whilst the mean size was 2.58 phi (0.16mm). In addition, the sediments were moderately sorted, fine skewed and leptokurtic. The size of the bed sediment relatively decreased compared to older investigations due to the decrease of the competence of the river. The bed elevation had increased compared to previous surveys. It was noticed that dredging operations and obstacles (e.g. fallen bridges and islands) disturbed the flow of the river and the sediment characteristics in several sites. Bedload rates were computed using the weights of the collected bedload samples. The spatial distribution of sampling cross sections took into consideration the variance of river topography where 7 meanders, 2 islands and several bank depositions characterize the geometry of the river reach. Twenty bedload predictors were applied to the same reach. The annual transported quantities of the bedload were estimated to be 36 and 50 thousand tons in 2009 and 2013 respectively. The total load discharge rate in the northern reach of the Tigris River was computed using the sediment concentrations of the collected suspended load samples after adding the bedload rate at each of the sampling cross sections. The results indicated that the suspended load is the dominant mode in the total load with a minimum percentage of 93.5%. The total load ranged from 29.1 to 190.3 kg/s. A total load rating curve of the power function was established. The associated errors from using the proposed rating curve are within reassuring levels and less than the errors produced from most of the other twenty-two total load formulas, which were applied to the same reach. The scattering of the results from the other formulas can be attributed to the spatial variance in the topography of the riverbed. According to the final results obtained, it is recommended to use the proposed procedure for establishing a spatial total load rating curve to estimate sediment rates for morphologically complicated rivers. The annual transported quantities of the total load were estimated at 2.47 and 4.23 million tons for 2009 and 2013 respectively. The three-dimensional morphodynamic model (Simulation of Sediment movements In water Intakes with Multiblock option - SSIIM) was used to simulate the velocity field and the water surface profile along the northern reach of the Tigris River using the findings of the current bathymetric survey of the river. The model was calibrated for the water levels, the velocity profiles and the sediment concentration profiles using different combinations of parameters and algorithms, those available in the model. The set of parameters that gave a minimum root mean square error (RMSE) was used for the validation process using another set of field measurements. The calibration and the validation results showed good agreement with field measurements, and the model was used to predict the future changes in river hydro-morphology for a period of 14 months. The results of the future predictions showed increases in depositions on the shallow part of the cross section having lower velocity and, on the other hand, the river deepens the incised route to fit its current hydrologic condition leaving the former wide section as a floodplain for the newer river. The net deposition/erosion rate was 67.44 kg/s in average and the total deposition quantity was 2.12 million tons annually. The locations of depositions are compatible with those of the river in the real world. An expansion in the size of current islands was predicted. An indication of the potential threats of the river banks’ collapse and the bridge piers’ instability was given by high erosion along the thalweg line.Keywords: Flood capacity, Dredging, HEC-RAS, Bathymetric survey, Bed sediment, Bedload, Total load, Helley-Smith sampler, Sediment transport, ADCP, Prediction formulas, 3-D morphodynamic model, Bed changes, SSIIM, underfit river, regulated river, Tigris River, Baghdad.

  • 122.
    Ali, Ammar A.
    et al.
    Water Resources, College of Engineering, University of Baghdad.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Suhail, Qusay
    Earth Sciences, College of Science, University of Baghdad, Iraq.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Spatial Measurement of Bed Load Transport in Tigris River2017Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 7, nr 4, s. 55-75Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Using Helley-Smith sampler, 288 bed load samples were collected from 16 cross sections along 18 km reach length of Tigris River within Baghdad. The spatial distribution of sampling along the reach took into consideration the variance of river topography where 7 meanders, 2 islands and several bank depositions characterize the geometry of the river. The implemented regulation schemes on Tigris River have reduced 44% of water discharges compared to previous period. The spatial variance in topography was effectively scattering the results of the applied twenty bed load formulas. The study results indicated that the complicated geometry of the river reach makes finding a unique representative bed load formula along the study reach rather difficult, and there is no grantee to have good agreement with measurements in the irregular cross sections (meanders, sand bars, etc.). The closest bed load prediction formulas were van Rijn1984. The annual transported quantities of bed load were estimated to be 30 thousand tons (minimum) in 2009 and 50 thousand tons (maximum) in 2013.

  • 123.
    Ali, Ammar Adel
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Morphology of Tigris River inside Baghdad City2013Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Tigris and Euphrates rivers represent the artery of life in Iraq. Tigris River rises from Turkey and flows toward the southeast to enter Iraq. It drains a catchment area of 473 100 km² of which about 58% lies in Iraq. In this study the reach, about 50 km long, of the river inside Baghdad was been studied. It starts at Al-Muthana Bridge and ends at Tigris-Diyala River confluence. Generally, the river reach is part of an alluvial plain, single channel and meandering. The bed material of the river is composed mainly of fine sand and small portion of silt and clay. Other significant features of the reach are the growing islands and bank depositions. Recently water resources of Iraq are negatively affected by climatic changes and the huge water projects in the riparian countries. As a result, the flow of Tigris River at Baghdad city has significantly decreased where the average monthly flow is 520 m³/s for the period 2000-2012 which represents about 50% reduction compared to previous periods. The estimated trend for the average monthly discharges is a reduction of 5.4 % during the last 23 years. Low flow and low water levels have enhanced the water to erode the banks below its protected part. This might affect the future stability of the banks. The drop of the river discharge together with debris from the last wars in 1991 and 2003 enhanced the growing of islands in the river. In this research, changes in the morphology of Tigris River within Baghdad are to be investigated and the causes will be highlighted in order to take the right measures to restore the river system. This is a first step toward studying the hydrological characteristics of the reach. One-dimensional gradually varied flow model, using HEC-RAS, was applied to examine the flood capacity and the possibilities of inundation of the banks. The geometry of the river was represented by the findings from the river survey of 2008. Additional data about the locations and dimensions of the bridges were supplied to the model. The average monthly discharge at Sarai Baghdad for the years 2000-2012 was assumed as the base flow. A range of different scenarios were examined by increasing the discharges in order to determine the critical discharge that may cause inundation. Model calibration was achieved by adjusting the Manning’s roughness coefficient for an observed water surface profile along the lowest part of the reach. The associated error with the computed water surface profiles was in order 0.026m. Additional water level observations at Sarai Baghdad were used for verification purposes. It was found that the discharges higher than 2700 m3/s could cause partial inundation in some areas in the northern part of the reach and these areas extend to approximately 9 km for discharges greater than 3500 m3/s. The southern part of the reach is still safe from inundation for discharges below 3500 m3/s. The slope of water surface profile varies from 6.03 to 10 cm/km for discharges between 400 and 4000 m3/s respectively. In this study, a field survey was conducted between May, 2012 and January, 2013. It involved the installation of 25 bench marks, surveying the upper river banks (from the crest of the stony protection to the water surface) and 250 cross sections. Three kinds of samples were collected at this stage work: (i) river bed material, (ii) suspended load samples and (iii) bed loads samples. Hydraulic measurements were conducted and included water surface elevations, water depths at sampling points, water discharges and transversal velocities. Water temperature and other environmental measurements were also conducted. Particle size distribution, specific gravity and concentration of suspended sediment were executed in the laboratory for the collected samples.

  • 124.
    Ali, Ammar
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi. College of Engineering, Unive rsity of Baghdad.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Suhail, Qusay
    College of Science, University of Baghdad.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Three-Dimensional Morphodynamic Modelling of TigrisRiver in Baghdad2017Inngår i: Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, ISSN 1934-7359, E-ISSN 1934-7367, Vol. 11, nr 6, s. 571-594Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Bathymetric and land surveys were conducted for the northern Tigris River reach (18 km length) in Baghdad, producing 180cross sections. A river bed topography map was constructed from these cross sections. The velocity profiles and the water discharges were measured using ADCP (Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler) at 16 cross sections, where intensive number of sediment samples was collected to determine riverbed characteristics and sediment transport rate. The three-dimensional morphodynamic model (SSIIM (simulation of sediment movements in water intakes with multiblock option)) was used to simulate the velocity field and the water surface profile along the river reach. The model was calibrated for the water levels, the velocity profiles and the sediment concentration profiles using different combinations of parameters and algorithms. The calibration and the validation results showed good agreement with field measurements, and the model was used to predict the future changes in river hydro-morphology for a period of 14 months. The results of the future predictions showed the Tigris River which behaved like an under-fit river, increases in depositions on the shallow part of the cross section having lower velocity, and the river deepens the incised route to fit its current hydrologic condition leaving the former wide section as a floodplain for the newer river. The net deposition/erosion rate was 67.44 kg/s in average and the total deposition quantity was 2.12 million ton annually. An expansion in the size of current islands was predicted. An indication of thepotential threats of the river banks’ collapse and the bridge piers’ instability was given by high erosion along the thalweg line.

  • 125.
    Ali, Ammar
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Impact of Growing Islands on the Flood Capacity of Tigris River in Baghdad City2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Growing islands became noticeable phenomena in the channel of River Tigris within Baghdad City during recent years.Despite the fact that large amount of sediments are trapped in reservoirs on the River Tigris and its tributaries thenumber of islands are increasing with time. This is due to the debris of destroyed bridges in the wars of 1991 and 2003.As a consequence the ability of the river had been reduced to pass ood waves. This fact caused ooding parts of majorcities like Baghdad. Cross sections of the River Tigris were surveyed in dierent occasions (1976, 1991 and 2008). In1977 the survey was conducted by Geohydraulique and in 1991 by University of Technology - Baghdad (extended forthe previous study). The last survey was conducted in 2008 by Ministry of Water Resources extending 48 kilometersfrom Al-Muthana Bridge till the conuence with Diyala River at intervals having horizontal spacing of 250m. The datawas used to predict the maximum ood capacity for the river using HEC-RAS through performed a one- dimensionalhydraulic model for the ow. The average discharge of the river in Baghdad had been calculated for the past ten years.This value was introduced in the model. Then dierent scenarios were applied by increasing the discharge in orderto nd out the critical discharge that can cause inundation. The procedure continued to detect the areas that had beeninundated and the water level was recorded. The primary runs for the model showed a signicant reduction in thecurrent river capacity in comparison with what the river had used to hold during oods of 1971 and 1988. The threesurveys that had been conducted on the same reach of the River Tigris indicated that the capacity of the river to passwater had been decreased. In addition the changes in the morphology of the river cross sections were very clear.

  • 126.
    Ali, Ammar
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Morphology of Tigris river within Baghdad city2012Inngår i: Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, ISSN 1027-5606, E-ISSN 1607-7938, Vol. 16, nr 10, s. 3783-3790Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Changes in the morphology of the River Tigris within Baghdad City are very noticeablein recent years. The number of islands is increasing with time despite the fact that hugeamount of sediments are trapped in reservoirs upstream Baghdad City. The debris of5 destroyed bridges in the wars of 1991 and 2003 had enhanced the development ofthese islands. As a consequence the ability of the river had been reduced to pass floodwaves. This fact caused partial flooding of parts of Baghdad City.Cross sections of the River Tigris were surveyed in three occasions (1976, 1991and 2008). The last survey conducted in 2008 by Ministry of Water Resources covered10 49 km of the river from Al-Muthana Bridge to its confluence with Diyala River at 250mintervals. The data was used to predict the maximum flood capacity for the river usingone-dimensional hydraulic model for steady flow “HEC-RAS”. Calibration was carriedout for the model using field measurements for water levels along the last 15 km fromits reach and the last 10 yr observations at Sarai Baghdad station.15 The average discharge of the river in Baghdad had been calculated for the past tenyears. This value was introduced in the model. Then different scenarios were appliedby increasing the discharge in order to find out the critical discharge that can causeinundation. The procedure continued to detect the areas that had been inundated andthe water level was recorded.20 The model showed a significant reduction in the current river capacity in comparisonwith what the river had used to hold during floods of 1971 and 1988. The three surveysconducted on the same reach of the River Tigris indicated that the capacity of the riverto pass water had been decreased. In addition the changes in the morphology of theriver cross sections were very clear.

  • 127.
    Ali, Ammar
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Suhail, Qusay
    Baghdad University.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Evaluation of dredging operations for Tigris river within Baghdad, Iraq2014Inngår i: Journal of Water Resource and Protection, ISSN 1945-3094, E-ISSN 1945-3108, Vol. 6, nr 4, s. 202-213Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    River Tigris divides Baghdad, capital of Iraq, in two parts. The reach of the river within Baghdad is about 60 km long. Many islands and bars are obstructing the flow of the river within Baghdad. To overcome this problem, dredging operations started along most of Tigris River inside Baghdad City to remove many islands and side bars, which reduced the flooding capacity and the efficiency of water intakes. An examination for the dredging plan under process and two proposed additional plans were performed using HEC-RAS program for a 50km long river reach to investigate whether they can recover the designed flooding capacity of the river or just improving it. Calibration and verification processes were implemented in the model using observed water levels at Sarai Baghdad gauging station and along the last 15 km of the river reach. Comparisons of computed water levels were conducted with those of previous studies and historical data. Some improvement of flood capacity was achieved based on the recorded data of the last three decades. Cautions about the water intakes should be considered to maintain their function with the expected drop in water level due to dredging operations.

  • 128.
    Ali, Salahalddin
    et al.
    Department of Geology, School of Science, Faculty of Science and Science Education, University of Sulaimaniyah.
    Al-Umary, Foad A.
    Department of Geography, College of Education, University of Tikrit.
    Salar, Sarkawt G.
    Department of Geography, Faculty of Education/Kalar, University of Garmian.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    GIS Based Soil Erosion Estimation Using EPM Method, Garmiyan Area, Kurdistan Region, Iraq2016Inngår i: Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, ISSN 1934-7359, E-ISSN 1934-7367, Vol. 10, s. 291-308Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Using empirical model is one of the approaches of evaluating sediment yield. This research is aimed at predicting erosion and sedimentation in Garmiyan area at Kurdistan Region, Iraq used EPM (erosion potential model) incorporating into GIS (geographic information system) software. This basin area is about 1,620 km2. It has a range of vegetation, slope, geological, soil texture and land use types. The spatial distribution of gully erosion shows three main zones in the studied area (slight to moderate gully, high gully and sever fluvial erosion). They form about 10%, 89% and 1% of gully erosion in the studied area respectively. The results of the EPM model show that the values of the coefficient of erosion Z are classified as moderate to high erosion intensity. They increase northward due to increasing of slope, elevation and rate of precipitation that generate Hortonian overland flow, which is due to high discharge and huge fluvial erosion power that cause ground surface erosion to produce large quantity of sediment. The results of GSP (spatial sediment rate) are increasing northward similar to Z due the same reasons, while the value of total sediment rate, shows different values for each watershed because they are mainly affected by the total watershed area.

  • 129.
    Ali, Salahalddin
    et al.
    Department of Geology, School of Science, Faculty of Science and Science Education, University of Sulaimaniyah.
    Al-Umary, Foad
    Department of Geography, College of Education, University of Tikrit.
    Sarkawt, Salar
    Department of Geography, Faculty of Education/Kalar, University of Garmian.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Geomorphology of Garmiyan Area Using GIS Technique, Kurdistan Region, Iraq2016Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 6, nr 1, s. 63-87Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The goals of the present study are to investigate, explore and assess the geomorphologic characteristics of a part of Garmiyan area through highlighting the forming and controlling factors of the geomorphology, mapping the landforms and reveal the geomorphologic processes that created them in Garmiyan area. Geographic information systems (GIS) and remote sensing through satellite images and Digital Elevation Model (DEM) have facilitated the investigation in this large area with more accuracy.The Garmiyan area is a part of Garmiyan area located about (62 Km) south of Sulaimani City and (104 km) east of Kirkuk city. It lies between longitudes (45o10- - 45o32-) E and latitude (34o40-- 35o02-) N. It is within unstable shelf where 3.9% of it lie within the High Folded Zone and 96.1 % within the Foothill Zone. The geologic formations are forming 57.93% and the Quaternary deposits are forming 42.07%. Clastic sedimentary rocks are forming nearly 99% of the total area, while non clastic sedimentary rocks are forming nearly 1%. The topography of the studied area is greatly influenced by lithologic characteristics of the geologic units. The factors, which influence the geomorphology of the studied area, are tectonics, lithology, climate, vegetation and humans. Hence the geomorphologic evolution is controlled by many geomorphologic processes. The main endogenic process is uplifting of the western and north western sides of the studied area which was the final stage of Zagros Fold Thrust Belt formation during the Arabia–Eurasia collision. The main exogenic processes include weathering, erosion, fluvial, hillslope processes, karstification and anthropogenic processes. The main geomorphologic landforms recognized in the studied area are structural, denudational, fluvial, solutional and anthropogenic landforms. Anthropogenic landforms produced by excavation by road cuttings, quarrying and farming. The geomorphic landforms indicate that deformation is propagating from northeast to southwest.

  • 130. Ali, Salahaldin
    et al.
    Al-Umary, Foad
    Salar, Sarkawt
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Evaluation of selected site location for subsurface dam construction within Isayi watershed using GIS and RS Garmiyan area, Kurdistan region2014Inngår i: Journal of Water Resource and Protection, ISSN 1945-3094, E-ISSN 1945-3108, Vol. 6, nr 11, s. 972-987Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Garmiyan area suffers from many water problems such as poor rainfall rate, water shortage, aridity and absence of groundwater in many places. Hence the subsurface dam is the best solution due to many advantages such as; low cost of construction, least maintenance, low evaporation, no con-tamination, utilization of the land over the dam and better storage. The objective of this study is to evaluate the suitability of the selected site location for subsurface dam construction, to serve as strategic water supply storage, to solute the aridity and water shortage in this area of arid to semi arid climate in Isayi watershed within the stream deposits.Geographic information systems (GIS) and remote sensing through satellite images and Digital El-evation Model (DEM) interpretation and analysis have facilitated the investigation with more ac-curacy. ArcGIS helped in construction of thematic maps of the studied area.The geologic, structural, geomorphologic, hydrologic, hydrogeologic, characteristics with GPR survey show the suitability of the selected site location for construction of subsurface dam. According to the standard water quality for domestic, irrigation and livestock the water quality of all water samples are within the recommended range and the best time to be chosen, for construction of the subsurface dam, is during the autumn season from September to November.

  • 131.
    Alizadeh Khameneh, Mohammad Amin
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geodesi och satellitpositionering. WSP Civils, Department of Geographic Information and Asset Management, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Optimal Design in Geodetic GNSS-based Networks2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    An optimal design of a geodetic network helps the surveying engineers maximise the efficiency of the network. A number of pre-defined quality requirements, i.e. precision, reliability, and cost, of the network are fulfilled by performing an optimisation procedure. Today, this is almost always accomplished by implementing analytical solutions, where the human intervention in the process cycle is limited to defining the requirements. Nevertheless, a trial and error method can be beneficial to some applications. In order to analytically solve an optimisation problem, it can be classified to different orders, where an optimal datum, configuration, and optimal observation weights can be sought such that the precision, reliability and cost criteria are satisfied.

    In this thesis, which is a compilation of six peer-reviewed papers, we optimised and redesigned a number of GNSS-based monitoring networks in Sweden by developing new methodologies. In addition, optimal design and efficiency of total station establishment with RTK-GNSS is investigated in this research.

    Sensitivity of a network in detecting displacements is of importance for monitoring purposes. In the first paper, a precision criterion was defined to enable a GNSS-based monitoring network to detect 5 mm displacements at each network point. Developing an optimisation model by considering this precision criterion, reliability and cost yielded a decrease of 17% in the number of observed single baselines implying a reliable and precise network at lower cost. The second paper concerned a case, where the precision of observations could be improved in forthcoming measurements. Thus a new precision criterion was developed to consider this assumption. A significant change was seen in the optimised design of the network for subsequent measurements. As yet, the weight of single baselines was subject to optimisation, while in the third paper, the effect of mathematical correlations between GNSS baselines was considered in the optimisation. Hence, the sessions of observations, including more than two receivers, were optimised. Four out of ten sessions with three simultaneous operating receivers were eliminated in a monitoring network with designed displacement detection of 5 mm. The sixth paper was the last one dealing with optimisation of GNSS networks. The area of interest was divided into a number of three-dimensional elements and the precision of deformation parameters was used in developing a precision criterion. This criterion enabled the network to detect displacements of 3 mm at each point.

    A total station can be set up in the field by different methods, e.g. free station or setup over a known point. A real-time updated free station method uses RTK-GNSS to determine the coordinates and orientation of a total station. The efficiency of this method in height determination was investigated in the fourth paper. The research produced promising results suggesting using the method as an alternative to traditional levelling under some conditions. Moreover, an optimal location for the total station in free station establishment was studied in the fifth paper. It was numerically shown that the height component has no significant effect on the optimal localisation.

  • 132.
    Alizadeh Khameneh, Mohammad Amin
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geodesi och satellitpositionering.
    Optimization of Lilla Edet Land Slide GPS Monitoring Network2014Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 133.
    Alizadeh Khameneh, Mohammad Amin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Fastigheter och byggande, Geodesi och satellitpositionering. WSP Civils, Department of Geographic Information and Asset Management.
    Eshagh, Mehdi
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Jensen, Anna B. O.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Fastigheter och byggande, Geodesi och satellitpositionering.
    Optimization of Deformation Monitoring Networks using Finite Element Strain Analysis2018Inngår i: Journal of Applied Geodesy, ISSN 1862-9016, E-ISSN 1862-9024, Vol. 12, nr 2Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    An optimal design of a geodetic network can fulfill the requested precision and reliability of the network, and decrease the expenses of its execution by removing unnecessary observations. The role of an optimal design is highlighted in deformation monitoring network due to the repeatability of these networks. The core design problem is how to define precision and reliability criteria. This paper proposes a solution, where the precision criterion is defined based on the precision of deformation parameters, i.e. precision of strain and differential rotations. A strain analysis can be performed to obtain some information about the possible deformation of a deformable object. In this study, we split an area into a number of three-dimensional finite elements with the help of the Delaunay triangulation and performed the strain analysis on each element. According to the obtained precision of deformation parameters in each element, the precision criterion of displacement detection at each network point is then determined. The developed criterion is implemented to optimize the observations from the Global Positioning System (GPS) in Skåne monitoring network in Sweden. The network was established in 1989 and straddled the Tornquist zone, which is one of the most active faults in southern Sweden. The numerical results show that 17 out of all 21 possible GPS baseline observations are sufficient to detect minimum 3 mm displacement at each network point.

  • 134.
    Alizadeh Khameneh, Mohammad Amin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geodesi och satellitpositionering.
    Eshagh, Mehdi
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geodesi och satellitpositionering. University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Sjöberg, Lars E.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geodesi och satellitpositionering.
    The Effect of Instrumental Precision on Optimisation of Epoch-Wise Displacement Networks2015Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 135.
    Alizadeh Khameneh, Mohammad Amin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geodesi och satellitpositionering. WSP Civils, Department of Geographic Information and Asset Management.
    Horemuž, Milan
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geodesi och satellitpositionering.
    Jensen, Anna B. O.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geodesi och satellitpositionering.
    Vium Andersson, Johan
    WSP Civils, Department of Geographic Information and Asset Management.
    Optimal Vertical Placement of Total Station2018Inngår i: Journal of Surveying Engineering, ISSN 0733-9453, E-ISSN 1943-5428Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    When using the free station method, a Total Station (TS) is established by performing distance and angle observations toward a number of Control Points (CPs). The quality of the establishment is crucial for the quality of subsequent measurements. The optimal horizontal location of the TS has been investigated in previous studies. Even the vertical precision is important in many applications, especially with significant height variations. Therefore in this paper, we focus on the optimality of vertical location of the TS. As an optimality criterion, the sum of TS coordinates and orientation variances is used. To investigate the optimization problem, an analytical as well as a trial and error method is developed. Both methods showed that the height component has no significant influence on the optimal vertical placement of the TS. Inspection of results from the trial and error method, where the CPs are moved in different height layers, indicates differences in the height uncertainty of the establishment in micrometer range, which is negligible for most engineering applications.

  • 136.
    Alizadeh Khameneh, Mohammad Amin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geodesi och satellitpositionering. WSP Civils, Department of Geographic Information and Asset Management.
    Jensen, Anna B. O.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geodesi och satellitpositionering.
    Horemuž, Milan
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geodesi och satellitpositionering.
    Andersson, Johan Vium
    WSP Civils, Department of Geographic Information and Asset Management.
    Investigation of the RUFRIS Method with GNSS and Total Station for Leveling2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The establishment of leveling benchmarks for performing geodetic measurements, for instance in construction works, is usually costly and laborious due to a mass of field works in transferring the height from nearby known benchmarks. In this study, a real-time updated free station (RUFRIS) method is investigated to be used as an alternative approach for the traditional leveling. The coordinates of a RUFRIS station are determined by establishing a total station on the point, and performing a free-station by observing some points with both Real-Time Kinematic (RTK) GNSS and total station distance and direction observations. The study is conducted based on data from the East Link project in Sweden, where a 150 km long high-speed railway is to be constructed. The results show a standard deviation of 7 mm between the RUFRIS and leveling heights in this project and imply the feasibility of replacing the traditional leveling methods with RUFRIS in projects with low accessibility to benchmarks.

  • 137.
    Alizadeh Khameneh, Mohammad Amin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geodesi och satellitpositionering. WSP Civils, Department of Geographic Information and Asset Management.
    Sjöberg, Lars E.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geodesi och satellitpositionering.
    Jensen, Anna B. O.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geodesi och satellitpositionering.
    Optimisation of GNSS Networks - Considering Baseline Correlations2017Inngår i: Survey review - Directorate of Overseas Surveys, ISSN 0039-6265, E-ISSN 1752-2706, s. 1-8Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    By considering GNSS observations one can perform optimisation according to some pre-defined criteria and come up with the best location of receivers and optimum number of baselines. In practice, it is quite common to neglect the effect of correlations between baselines, and instead assume single-baseline adjusted data in the optimisation procedure. However, in each session of observation usually more than two receivers are simultaneously taking data from a number of common GNSS satellites, implying that the single or double difference observations are correlated. Our study designs an optimal observation plan for a GPS network in Skåne in southern Sweden, with the aim of determining possible displacements. Assuming three receivers in each session of observations leads to correlation between the GPS baselines, and consequently a fully populated weight matrix for each session of observation. A bi-objective optimisation model of precision and reliability is chosen to optimise the variance factor of each session, and eventually, design an observation plan. It is shown in this study that observing 6 out of 10 possible sessions are sufficient to enable the network to detect a 5 mm displacement at each station. Assuming that the double difference phase observations are uncorrelated changes the observation plan by retaining 2 more sessions. However, defining the weight matrix based on the double difference observations requires the correlations to be taken into account, and neglecting them leads to incorrect results.

  • 138.
    Alizadeh Khameneh, Mohammad Amin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geodesi och satellitpositionering. WSP Civils, Department of Geographic Information and Asset Management.
    Sjöberg, Lars E.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geodesi och satellitpositionering.
    Jensen, Anna B. O.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geodesi och satellitpositionering.
    Optimization of GNSS Deformation Monitoring Networks by Considering Baseline Correlations2016Inngår i: FIG Working Week 2016 Proceedings, 2016Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In the study of deformations of man-made constructions or in geodynamics one usually needs to carefully monitor fixed objects attached to the deformable body. The purpose is to use precise observations to build up an accurate, reliable and possibly low-cost network around the objects to study their motion in short- or long-time intervals and to estimate the possible displacements or deformations among those objects. Frequently, such studies are performed to prevent unwanted disasters (e.g. due to earthquakes and landslides as well as the progressive or abrupt destruction of large-scale structures). This study is concerned with designing an optimal GNSS network to monitor possible deformations of a geodetic network.

    By considering GNSS observations one can perform the optimization according to some pre-defined criteria and come up with the best location of receivers and optimum number of baselines. In practice, it is quite common to neglect the effect of correlations between baselines, and instead use single-baseline adjusted data in the optimisation procedure. However, in each session of observation usually more than two receivers are simultaneously taking data from a number of common GNSS satellites. This procedure inevitably leads to between-baseline correlations. Our study designs an optimal observation plan for a GNSS monitoring network with the aim of determining possible displacements and deformations. The developed methodology will be tested on a simulated network with five points, where three receivers simultaneously take data from four satellites.

  • 139.
    Al-Jabban, Wathiq
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser.
    Soil Modification By Adding Small Amounts of Soil Stabilizers: Impact of Portland Cement and the Industrial By-Product Petrit T2017Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This licentiate thesis presents results of laboratory experiments regarding the effectiveness of adding small amounts of binders in order to modify and improve the mechanical performance of low organic clayey silt soil. Two types of binders have been used i.e. cement and an industrial by-product named Petrit T. The study covered both the immediate and longterm effects on the soil material. Binder content was added by soil dry weight, Petrit T at 2, 4 and 7% and cement at 1, 2, 4 and 7%. An experimental program has been carried out, including tests of consistency limits, unconfined compressive strength, density, solidification, grain size distribution (by laser particle size analyzer) and pH. The tests were conducted on the treated soil with varying binder contents and after different curing periods, i.e. after 7, 14, 28, 60 and 90 days. Results show that cement is more effective in improving the physical and engineering properties than Petrit T. Plasticity index decreases after treatment and leads to an immediate increase in workability. This is found directly after treatment and it increases with time. Soil density increased, whilst water content decreased, with increasing binder content and curing time. Particle size distribution of soil is changed toward the granular side by the reduction of the particles in clay size fraction and increasing silt size particles after 28 days of treatment. Both binder types resulted in an immediate effect on the soil pH value. This value increased to 12.3 after adding 7% of the binder and then it gradually decreased as curing time increased. The cement treated soil exhibits a more brittle failure behavior than the soil treated with Petrit T. In this case a more ductile behavior was observed. The findings confirmed that adding small binder contents of cement and by-product Petrit T significantly improved the physical and mechanical properties of soil, which can contribute to reduce the environmental threats and costs that are associated with using high binder contents in various construction projects.

  • 140.
    Al-Jabban, Wathiq
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Modification-Stabilization of Clayey Silt Soil Using Small Amounts of Cement2017Inngår i: Earth sciences and geotechnichal Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, Vol. 7, nr 3, s. 77-96Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the effects of using a small percentage of cement to stabilize clayey silt with a low organic content. Cement was added at percentages of 1, 2, 4 and 7% by dry weight. The physical and mechanical properties of the treated and untreated soil were evaluated by laboratory tests including tests of consistency limits, unconfined compressive strength, soil density, solidification and pH values. These tests have been conducted after 7, 14, 28, 60 and 90 days of curing time. Workability is defined as how easily the soil can be control or to handle physically. Results showed that the engineering properties of the clayey silt were improved. The soil exhibited better workability directly after treatment, and the workability increased with time. Soil density increased, while water content decreased, with increasing cement content and longer curing time. The pH value was immediately raised to 12 after adding 7% cement content, and then it gradually decreased as curing time increased. An increase of unconfined compressive strength and stiffness was observed, while strain at failure decreased. A gradual change in failure mode from ductile behavior to brittle failure was observed. The findings are useful when there is a need for modification and stabilization of clayey silt in order to increase the possibilities for different use which will reduce transportation and excavation.

  • 141.
    Al-Jabban, Wathiq
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Stabilization of Clayey Silt Soil UsingSmall Amounts of Petrit T2017Inngår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 9, nr 6, s. 540-562Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Effects of using small amounts of a Petrit T, a by-product of manufacture sponge iron, to modify clayey silt soil were investigated in this study. Petrit T was added at 2%, 4% and 7% of soil dry weight. A series of unconfined compressive strength tests, consistency limits tests and pH tests were conducted at 7, 14, 28, 60 and 90 days of curing periods to evaluate the physical and mechanical properties of treated soil. Results indicated improving in the unconfined compressive strength, stiffness and workability of treated soil directly after treatment and over time. Increasing in soil density and decreasing in water content were observed, with increasing Petrit T content and curing time. The pH value was immediately increasing after treatment and then gradually decreased over time. Failure mode gradually changed from plastic to brittle behavior with increasing binder content and curing time. The outcomes of this research show a promising way of using a new by-product binder to stabilize soft soils in various engineering projects in order to reduce the costs which are associated with of excavation and transportation works.

  • 142.
    AlJawad, Sadeq
    et al.
    Expert and Consultant Hydrogeologists, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Expert and Consultant Hydrogeologists, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    LTU team.
    Sissakian, Varoujan K.
    University of Kurdistan, Howler, KRG, Iraq and Private Con sultant Geologist, Erbil, Iraq.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Groundwater Quality and Their Uses in Iraq2018Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 8, nr 3, s. 123-144Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aquifers are porous media with various physical criteria and hydraulic conditions that largely affect the quality of water they contain. When an aquifer is a sedimentary rock, its depositional environment draws along with its present recharge condition and the footprint of its groundwater quality. The geologic setting of Iraq consists of a sedimentary cover 4 – 13 km thick with a sequence of alternating pervious and impervious sedimentary rock beds of coarse clastics and fractured carbonates with fine clastics and hard rock carbonate. This succession has developed a successive multi aquifer systems. The present study has recognized the major formations that so far have been explored and sampled using available data to identify the probability of their water quality which might be obtained when drilling a well through any of the formations. From among tens of thousands of wells drilled to produce water from whatever horizons they encounter, only those wells which penetrate a single formation were considered. The results show that groundwater quality expressed as total dissolved solids in the explored 17 aquifers or aquifer systems are highly variable. Nevertheless, an indicative medium range value can be deduced for each. In principle, lower salinity values and carbonate water type associate with the unconfined aquifers that receive active contemporary recharge as in the case of the exposed aquifers in the High, and to less extend the Low Folded Zones. Even in the Stable Shelf where present recharge is limited, unconfined part of the aquifers is differentiated by their lower salinity and water type. On the other hand, a partial displacement of sea water in the marine deposit carbonates has as well occurred due to previous recharge periods. This was possible to the karstified carbonates of the Stable Shelf due to their high porosity. The finer marine deposits in the Mesopotamia Basin maintained their high groundwater salinity and marine water type. Water suitability for human drinking can be found in most of the aquifers especially aquifers in the High and Low Folded Zones. In the Stable Shelf, Al-Jazira, and even in the Mesopotamian Plain, recharge boundary conditions of the aquifer in the selected drilling spot should be carefully examined. The high variations of water quality in the aquifers in the latter zones requires an evaluation of water suitability well by well. However, most of the groundwater derived from the northern parts of the Stable Shelf and Al-Jazira Zones aquifers are suitable for agriculture, while that those of the southern parts and the Mesopotamian Plain are questionable or unsuitable.

  • 143. AlJawad, Sadeq B.
    et al.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Evaluation of Storm Runoff in Wadi Hauran, Western Iraq2017Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Hydrology, ISSN 1058-3912, E-ISSN 1996-7918, Vol. 25, artikkel-id 6Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Arid and semi arid regions are characterized by low frequency monthly rainfall events and high evaporation during the remaining dry days. Utilizing monthly rainfall means for water balance calculation risks a high error margin. Even when daily rainfall analysis methods are used to evaluate the resulting runoff in a valley course, errors may still be committed when wrong values are assigned to important field elements such as soil cover type, vegetation and land use. Accordingly and when the Soil Conservation Service method (SCS) is applied, single storm rainfall and validation of the estimated Curve Number (CN) value using valley flow measurements is necessary. The evaluation of annual runoff volume in a major valley in the Western Iraqi desert using the SCS method applied to single rainfall storm events and validated by actual historical runoff measurements has revealed that Wadi Hauran would exhibit no runoff flow in one year out of three and that runoff may exceed 69 mm depth in a single water year but the average depth for those years with runoff events is only 11.1 mm

    which amounts to about 64 Mm3 at a location in the center of its catchment area.

    Journal

  • 144.
    Alkaradaghi, Karwan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi. Department of Geology, College of Science, Sulaimani University.
    Ali, Salahalddin S.
    Department of Geology, College of Science, Sulaimani University.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Evaluation of Land Use & Land Cover Change Using Multi-Temporal Landsat Imagery: A Case Study Sulaimaniyah Governorate, Iraq2018Inngår i: Journal of Geographic Information System, ISSN 2151-1950, E-ISSN 2151-1969, Vol. 10, nr 6, s. 247-260Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Land use & land cover change detection in rapid growth urbanized area have been studied by many researchers and there are many works on this topic. Commonly, settlement sprawl in area depends on many factors such as economic prosperity and population growth. Iraq is one of the countries which witnessed rapid development in the settlement area. Remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) are analytical software technologies to evaluate this familiar worldwide phenomenon. This study illustrates settlement development in Sulaimaniyah Governorate from 2001 to 2017 using Landsat satellite imageries of different periods. All images had been classified using remote sensing software in order to proceed powerful mapping of land use classification. Maximum likelihood method is used in the accurately extracted solution information from geospatial imagery. Landsat images from the study area were categorized into four different classes. These are: forest, vegetation, soil, and settlement. Change detection analysis results illustrate that in the face of an explosive demographic shift in the settlement area where the record + 8.99 percent which is equivalent to 51.80 Km2 over a 16-year period and settlement area increasing from 3.87 percent in 2001 to 12.86 percent in 2017. Accuracy assessment model was used to evaluate (LULC) classified images. Accuracy results show an overall accuracy of 78.83% to 90.09% from 2001 to 2017 respectively while convincing results of Kappa coefficient given between substantial and almost perfect agreements. This study will help decision-makers in urban plan for future city development.

  • 145.
    Al-Khateeb, Mukdad
    et al.
    University of Technology, Baghdad.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    A Spatial Sustainable Development Model Based on Partnership between Government, Community and Specialist in Baghdad2016Inngår i: Creative Education, ISSN 2151-4755, E-ISSN 2151-4771, Vol. 7, nr 14, s. 1881-1890Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq is facing fatal challenges: internal, external and natural that are threatening the well-being of the Iraqi community at present and certainly jeopardizing the sustainable development at all levels of Sustainable Development (SD)-Capitals: natural, human and social, and manufactured/financial. This paper is intended to discuss on establishing a Sustainable Neighborhood in Baghdad, where it could serve as an experimental project to test the forms of expenditure that would guarantee the best eco-efficient transformation of expenditure to Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The paper illustrates the challenges of SD and the factors that would exacerbate their effect unless dealing with through scientific-well managed procedures based on green growth policiesand sustainable development strategies.

  • 146.
    Al-Khateeb, Mukdad
    et al.
    University of Technology.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Sustainable University Model for Higher Ed-ucation Iraq2014Inngår i: Creative Education, ISSN 2151-4755, E-ISSN 2151-4771, Vol. 5, nr 5, s. 318-328Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Education can become another burden on the development unless addresses the internal, external and natural challenges by Sustainable Universities that provide an educational, cultural and teaching model through a sustainable development strategy. This paper tends to illustrate the dif-ferent challenges of sustainable development in Iraq coupled with the full ignorance of the concept and principles of sustainability and suggests a model for a sustainable university. Although the suggested model is rather complicated, but it is crucial to encompass the different affects of human resources on the sustainable development capitals, at and beyond, the university campus.

  • 147.
    Al-Madhlom, Qais
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hussain, Hussain M.
    Department of Geology, College of Science, Kufa University.
    Assessment of Groundwater Vulnerability in Northern Babylon Governorate, Iraq2016Inngår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 8, nr 12, s. 883-902Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Groundwater is one of the main resources from the earth, especially for arid or semiarid

    countries. For this reason, it is very important to keep it unpolluted. Drastic

    Model is one of the widely used models to detect groundwater vulnerability to the

    contaminants that are found on ground surface. In this model, it is assumed that the

    vulnerability of the groundwater is affected by seven hydrological parameters. They

    are: depth from the surface ground to groundwater, net recharge into the aquifer

    from the surface, aquifer media, soil media, area topography, impact of vadose zone

    and aquifer hydraulic conductivity. In this study, the DRASTIC model was applied

    on the northern part of Babylon governorate in Iraq, to predict the vulnerability of

    Groundwater in that area. The results indicate that the vulnerability is very low to

    low grade.

  • 148.
    Al-Madhlom, Qais
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi. University of Babylon, Coolege of Engineering.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hussain, Hussain M.
    Department of Geology, College of Science, Kufa University.
    Lindblom, Jenny
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Abdullah, Twana
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Abid Hamza, Basher
    University of Babylon, Coolege of Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Seepage Velocity of Dibdibba Formation in Karbala, Iraq2017Inngår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 9, nr 3, s. 279-290Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq highly depends on its surface water resources. Now it is facing water shortage problems. For these reasons, the utilization of groundwater will be increasing with time. Karbala Governorate is located in the central part of Iraq. It covers an area of 5034 km2 and the population exceeds one million. It is characterized by an arid or semiarid environment. Karbala Governorate lack surface water resource and consequently, groundwater is the only available resource. The main groundwater aquifer within the area is Dibdibba formation. It is composed of poorly sorted sand and sand stone with gravel. In this research hydrological and hydrogeological information were used to find out the magnitude and the direction of groundwater seepage velocity. The results indicate that groundwater flow toward the flood plain to the east of the study region. The seepage velocity ranges from 0 to 0.18 m/d, with a general increase when moving from the west to the east.

  • 149.
    Al-Maliki, Laheab A. Jasem
    et al.
    Department of Hydraulic Engineering Structu res, Faculty of Water Resources Engine ering, Green University of Al Qasim, Baghdad.
    Al-Mamoori, Suhaib Kareem
    Department of Environmental Planning, Faculty of Physical Planning, University of Kufa, Najaf.
    El-Tawel, Khaled
    Lebanese University, Faculty of Engineering, Beirut.
    Hussain, Hussain M.
    Remote Sensing Center, University of Kufa, Najaf.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al Ali, Mohammed Jawad
    Department of Environmental Planning, Faculty of Physical Planning, University of Kufa, Najaf.
    Bearing Capacity Map for An-Najaf and Kufa Cities Using GIS2018Inngår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 10, nr 5, s. 262-269Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    An-Najaf province is situated in south-western part of Iraq. It is 70 meters above the sea level in the dry desert environment. The city is considered as one of the most important cities in Iraq, facing a fast population growth and continuous development in constructions such as residential complexes, hotels, bridges and shopping malls. Soil investigation data for An-Najaf Province (An-Najaf and Kufa cities) from 464 boreholes drilled by the National Centre for Construction Laboratories & Researches (NCCLR)/Babylon laboratory were used in this research. The data were analysed and possessed using Excel program then represented on the Geographical Information System (GIS) program by Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) tool to create an allowable bearing capacity map for the soil at depths 0 - 2 meters. The allowable bearing capacity is one of the most important soil characteristics to be considered when making a database for An-Najaf city soil. Geographical Information System GIS program enables to create reliable database for any characteristic and it is one of the best programs to produce an accurate map and allow ease in dealing with it. Those maps cover all the studied areas and by using contour lines, approximate values for no-data areas can be obtained. The results show that the allowable bearing capacity range is 5 - 20 Ton/m2 for both An-Najaf and Kufa cities. Kufa city has the range 5 - 9 Ton/m2. An-Najaf city has the range 7 - 18 at the center, 8 - 10 Ton/m2 at the north eastern part, 7 - 14 Ton/m2 for the north western part, 6 - 12 Ton/m2 at the south eastern and 12 - 19 Ton/m2 at the south western.

  • 150.
    Almuqdadi, Kadhim
    et al.
    Arab Academy-Denmark.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    The waste of wars in Iraq: its nature, size and contaminated areas2011Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In 1991, new weapons were used for the first time by the American and British troops in Iraq. These weapons proved to have high destructive capability against armored machinery and tanks. Later, there were many signs of being a weapon to destroy the human beings, animals and plants, which raised huge controversy and sharp criticism among scientists, doctors and environmentalists. Despite the opacity and deception, many of the secrets of depleted uranium ammunition were exposed, and confirmed the seriousness of use and serious repercussions on the environment and public health, which stepped up the international campaign against its manufacturing and use. However, the brilliant military success and profits of the military industry tempted the Pentagon and NATO to continue production and use of these weapons. Despite the high human and environment risks DU was used in various conflicts like Iraq, Bosnia, Kosovo and Serbia, Afghanistan, Gaza, Lebanon and recently in Libya. It is noteworthy to mention that the public and even some scientists, researchers and news media are ignorant of the effects and risks of the use of DU in military operations. This raises the point that there should be a large campaign to raise public awareness to prevent the risk of DU weapons. Based on scientific research and updates, we would like to high light the waste of wars in Iraq: Our paper shed the light on the size of depleted uranium(DU) weapons used in the wars on Iraq and the legacy of waste (their nature, size, and the contaminated regions), as high risks on humans and the environment. This is one of the leading environmental, health and social tragic problems in Iraq. This problem should be addressed immediately, seriously and effectively.

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