Endre søk
Begrens søket
123 101 - 134 of 134
RefereraExporteraLink til resultatlisten
Permanent link
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Annet format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annet språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Treff pr side
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sortering
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Forfatter A-Ø
  • Forfatter Ø-A
  • Tittel A-Ø
  • Tittel Ø-A
  • Type publikasjon A-Ø
  • Type publikasjon Ø-A
  • Eldste først
  • Nyeste først
  • Skapad (Eldste først)
  • Skapad (Nyeste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Eldste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyeste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidligste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (siste først)
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Forfatter A-Ø
  • Forfatter Ø-A
  • Tittel A-Ø
  • Tittel Ø-A
  • Type publikasjon A-Ø
  • Type publikasjon Ø-A
  • Eldste først
  • Nyeste først
  • Skapad (Eldste først)
  • Skapad (Nyeste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Eldste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyeste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidligste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (siste først)
Merk
Maxantalet träffar du kan exportera från sökgränssnittet är 250. Vid större uttag använd dig av utsökningar.
  • 101. Nasr, A.
    et al.
    Iriemenam, N. C.
    Troye-Blomberg, Marita
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Wenner-Grens institut, Avdelningen för immunologi.
    Arnot, D.
    Theander, T. G.
    Berzins, Klavs
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Wenner-Grens institut, Avdelningen för immunologi.
    Giha, H. A.
    ElGhazali, G.
    Pattern of Pre-existing IgG Subclass Responses to a Panel of Asexual Stage Malaria Antigens Reported During the Lengthy Dry Season in Daraweesh, Sudan2011Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology, ISSN 0300-9475, E-ISSN 1365-3083, Vol. 74, nr 4, s. 390-396Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The anti-malarial IgG immune response during the lengthy and dry season in areas of low malaria transmission as in Eastern Sudan is largely unknown. In this study, ELISA was used for the measurement of pre-existing total IgG and IgG subclasses to a panel of malaria antigens, MSP2-3D7, MSP2-FC27, AMA-1 and Pf332-C231. The results showed that the antibody responses were predominantly age dependent, antigen specific, and their lifespan was at least 5-6 month long. Generally, the IgG3 was most abundant IgG subclass, and the most recognized antigen was Pf332-C231. Furthermore, the correlation between the levels of IgG subclasses was strongest between IgG1 and IgG3, which were more predictive to the total IgG levels. Finally, the response pattern of each of the IgG subclasses to the different test antigens that were spanning the dry season and the correlation between these responses were described in details for the first time.

  • 102.
    Nasr, A.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Iriemenam, N.C.
    Troye-Blomberg, M.
    Giha, H.A.
    Balogun, H.A.
    Osman, O.F.
    Montgomery, S.M
    ElGhazali, G.
    Berzins, K.
    Fc gamma Receptor IIa (CD32) Polymorphism and Antibody responses to Asexual Blood-stage Antigens of Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in Sudanese Patients2007Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology, ISSN 0300-9475, E-ISSN 1365-3083, Vol. 66, nr 1, s. 87-96Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 103. Nasr, Amre
    et al.
    Iriemenam, Nnaemeka C.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Giha, Hayder
    Balogun, Halima A.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Anders, Robin F.
    Troye-Blomberg, Marita
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Wenner-Grens institut.
    ElGhazali, Gehad
    Berzins, Klavs
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Wenner-Grens institut.
    FcgammaRIIa (CD32) polymorphism and anti-malarial IgG subclass pattern among Fulani and sympatric ethnic groups living in eastern Sudan2009Inngår i: Malaria Journal, ISSN 1475-2875, E-ISSN 1475-2875, Vol. 8, nr 43, s. 1-10Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: A SNP at position 131, in the FcgammaRIIa gene, affects the binding of the different IgG subclasses and may influence the clinical variation seen in patients with falciparum malaria. This study confirms and extends previous findings, analysing the FcgammaRIIa (CD32) polymorphism in relation to the IgG subclass distribution seen among two sympatric tribes living in eastern Sudan, characterized by marked differences in susceptibility to Plasmodium falciparum malaria. METHODS: Two hundred and fifty Fulani subjects living in an area of meso-endemic P. falciparum malaria infection were genotyped for the FcgammaRIIa-131 polymorphism. For comparison, 101 non-Fulani donors - (Masaleit, Hausa and Four) - living in the same study area, were genotyped. The levels of plasma antibodies (IgG and subclasses) to four malaria antigens (AMA-1, MSP 2 - 3D7 & FC27, Pf332-C231) were measured using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. RESULTS: The FcgammaRIIa-H/H131 genotype was found to be significantly more prevalent in the Fulani as compared to the non-Fulani ethnic groups (36.0% for Fulani versus 17.8% for non-Fulani, adjusted OR 3.10, 95% CI 1.61-5.97, P value < 0.001). The Fulani showed lower anti-malarial IgG1 and IgG3 antibody levels as compared to the non-Fulani and higher levels of IgG2 antibodies. CONCLUSION: The FcgammaRIIa-H/H131 genotype and H131 allele is at higher frequency in the Fulani ethnic group. The H/H131 genotype was consistently associated with higher levels of anti-malarial IgG2 and IgG3 antibodies, while the R/R131 genotype was associated with higher levels of IgG1 antibodies.

  • 104. Nilsson, C.
    et al.
    Larsson Sigfrinius, A-K
    Montgomery, S M
    Sverremark-Ekström, Eva
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Wenner-Grens institut, Avdelningen för immunologi.
    Linde, A
    Lilja, G
    Blomberg, Marita Troye
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Wenner-Grens institut, Avdelningen för immunologi.
    Epstein-Barr virus and cytomegalovirus are differentially associated with numbers of cytokine-producing cells and early atopy2009Inngår i: Clinical and experimental allergy, ISSN 1365-2222, Vol. 39, nr 4, s. 509-17Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: We have previously shown that Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) seropositivity, at 2 years of age, was inversely related to IgE-sensitization and that this effect was enhanced when EBV is combined with cytomegalovirus (CMV) seropositivity. We hypothesize that early exposure to EBV or CMV will affect the cytokine balance in the individual. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to relate the cytokine profile in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) to the EBV and CMV serostatus and IgE-sensitization in children at 2 years of age. METHODS: Seventy-five children were followed prospectively from birth until 2 years of age. Their EBV and CMV serostatus was correlated to the numbers of IFN-gamma, IL-4, IL-10 and IL-12-producing PBMC following PHA stimulation in vitro. Skin prick tests and allergen-specific IgE antibodies were used to assess IgE-sensitization. RESULTS: In the study cohort, there was an inverse association between EBV seropositivity and IgE-sensitization but not with CMV seropositivity. Following linear regression analysis, we did not detect any statistically significant associations between children with IgG antibodies against EBV at 2 years of age and the investigated cytokines. However, there was a non-significant tendency to a positive association between high numbers of all individual cytokine-producing cells and EBV seropositivity. Children who were CMV seropositive had significantly higher numbers of IFN-gamma and lower numbers of IL-4-producing cells compared with CMV negative children. There was a significant, positive association between the number of IL-4-producing cells and IgE-sensitization. CONCLUSION: Taken together our results indicate that infections with EBV and CMV in different ways will interact with the immune system and may protect children from developing early atopy.

  • 105. Nouatin, O. P.
    et al.
    Agbowai, C.
    Ibitokou, S.
    Ezinmegnon, S.
    Gbedande, K.
    Adeothy, A. -I
    Moutairou, K.
    Borgella, S.
    Varani, S.
    Massougbodji, A.
    Troye-Blomberg, Marita
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Wenner-Grens institut, Avdelningen för immunologi.
    Luty, A. J. F.
    Deloron, Philippe
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Wenner-Grens institut, Avdelningen för immunologi.
    Fievet, N.
    Consequence of malaria during pregnancy on immunological responses of the newborn: a study of regulatory t cells2011Inngår i: Tropical medicine & international health, ISSN 1360-2276, E-ISSN 1365-3156, Vol. 16, s. 86-87Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 106. Nouatin, Odilon
    et al.
    Gbedande, Komi
    Ibitokou, Samad
    Vianou, Bertin
    Houngbegnon, Parfait
    Ezinmegnon, Sem
    Borgella, Sophie
    Akplogan, Carine
    Cottrell, Gilles
    Varani, Stefania
    Massougbodji, Achille
    Moutairou, Kabirou
    Troye-Blomberg, Marita
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Deloron, Philippe
    Luty, Adrian J. F.
    Fievet, Nadine
    Infants' Peripheral Blood Lymphocyte Composition Reflects Both Maternal and Post-Natal Infection with Plasmodium falciparum2015Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, nr 11, artikkel-id e0139606Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Maternal parasitoses modulate fetal immune development, manifesting as altered cellular immunological activity in cord blood that may be linked to enhanced susceptibility to infections in early life. Plasmodium falciparum typifies such infections, with distinct placental infection-related changes in cord blood exemplified by expanded populations of parasite antigen-specific regulatory T cells. Here we addressed whether such early-onset cellular immunological alterations persist through infancy. Specifically, in order to assess the potential impacts of P. falciparum infections either during pregnancy or during infancy, we quantified lymphocyte subsets in cord blood and in infants' peripheral blood during the first year of life. The principal age-related changes observed, independent of infection status, concerned decreases in the frequencies of CD4(+), NKdim and NKT cells, whilst CD8(+), Treg and Teff cells' frequencies increased from birth to 12 months of age. P. falciparum infections present at delivery, but not those earlier in gestation, were associated with increased frequencies of Treg and CD8(+) T cells but fewer CD4(+) and NKT cells during infancy, thus accentuating the observed age-related patterns. Overall, P. falciparum infections arising during infancy were associated with a reversal of the trends associated with maternal infection i.e. with more CD4(+) cells, with fewer Treg and CD8(+) cells. We conclude that maternal P. falciparum infection at delivery has significant and, in some cases, year-long effects on the composition of infants' peripheral blood lymphocyte populations. Those effects are superimposed on separate and independent age-as well as infant infection-related alterations that, respectively, either match or run counter to them.

  • 107.
    Nyakeriga, Alice M.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Wenner-Grens institut, Avdelningen för immunologi. Texas Tech University, USA; Kilifi District Hospital, Kenya.
    Troye-Blomberg, Marita
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Wenner-Grens institut, Avdelningen för immunologi.
    Haptoglobin phenotypes and iron status in children living in a malaria endemic area of Kenyan coast2013Inngår i: Acta Tropica, ISSN 0001-706X, E-ISSN 1873-6254, Vol. 126, nr 2, s. 127-131Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Malaria infection may be affected by host genetic factors as well as nutritional status. Iron status and the phenotype of haptoglobin, a heme-binding acute phase reactant may be determinants of malaria parasitemia. A combination of cross sectional studies and longitudinal follow-up were used to describe the association between iron status, C-reactive protein, malaria infections and host genetic factors including; haptoglobin (Hp) phenotypes, in children below 9 years in a malaria endemic area in Coastal Kenya. The prevalence of 0.45 and 0.41, respectively for Hp 1-1 and Hp 2-1 phenotypes was significantly higher than 0.14 for Hp 2-2 phenotype (n = 162). Children with Hp 2-2 phenotype showed significantly higher iron storage compared to those with Hp 1-1 and Hp 2-1 phenotypes when children with malaria parasites and high C-reactive protein (>9 mg/L) were excluded from the analysis. There were no significant differences in malaria parasite densities among Hp phenotypes but children with Hp 2-2 had lower number of clinical malaria episodes (P=0.045). Taken together, this study shows that the presence of malaria may complicate the interpretation of iron status in children based on their Hp-phenotypes. Further studies will be required to address possible interactions among the various genetic factors and iron status in a malaria endemic setting.

  • 108. Okafor, Christian M. F.
    et al.
    Anumudu, Chiaka I.
    Omosun, Yusuf O.
    Uthaipibull, Chairat
    Ayede, Idowu
    Awobode, Henrietta O.
    Odaibo, Alex B.
    Langhorne, Jean
    Holder, Anthony A.
    Nwuba, Roseangela I.
    Troye-Blomberg, Marita
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Cellular responses to modified Plasmodium falciparum MSP1(19) antigens in individuals previously exposed to natural malaria infection2009Inngår i: Malaria Journal, ISSN 1475-2875, E-ISSN 1475-2875, Vol. 8, s. 263-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: MSP1 processing-inhibitory antibodies bind to epitopes on the 19 kDa C-terminal region of the Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1(19)), inhibiting erythrocyte invasion. Blocking antibodies also bind to this antigen but prevent inhibitory antibodies binding, allowing invasion to proceed. Recombinant MSP1(19) had been modified previously to allow inhibitory but not blocking antibodies to continue to bind. Immunization with these modified proteins, therefore, has the potential to induce more effective protective antibodies. However, it was unclear whether the modification of MSP1(19) would affect critical T-cell responses to epitopes in this antigen. Methods: The cellular responses to wild-type MSP1(19) and a panel of modified MSP1(19) antigens were measured using an in-vitro assay for two groups of individuals: the first were malaria-nave and the second had been naturally exposed to Plasmodium falciparum infection. The cellular responses to the modified proteins were examined using cells from malaria-exposed infants and adults. Results: Interestingly, stimulation indices (SI) for responses induced by some of the modified proteins were at least two-fold higher than those elicited by the wild-type MSP1(19). A protein with four amino acid substitutions (Glu27 -> Tyr, Leu31 -> Arg, Tyr34 -> Ser and Glu43 -> Leu) had the highest stimulation index (SI up to 360) and induced large responses in 64% of the samples that had significant cellular responses to the modified proteins. Conclusion: This study suggests that specific MSP1(19) variants that have been engineered to improve their antigenicity for inhibitory antibodies, retain T-cell epitopes and the ability to induce cellular responses. These proteins are candidates for the development of MSP1-based malaria vaccines.

  • 109. Olaniyan, Subulade A.
    et al.
    Amodu, Olukemi K.
    Bakare, Adekunle A.
    Troye-Blomberg, Marita
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Omotade, Olayemi O.
    Rockett, Kirk A.
    Tumour necrosis factor alpha promoter polymorphism, TNF-238 is associated with severe clinical outcome of falciparum malaria in Ibadan southwest Nigeria2016Inngår i: Acta Tropica, ISSN 0001-706X, E-ISSN 1873-6254, Vol. 161, s. 62-67Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) - alpha has been shown to play an important role in the pathogenesis of falciparum malaria. Two TNF promoter polymorphisms, TNF-308 and TNF-238 have been associated with differential activity and production of TNF. In order to investigate the association between TNF-308 and TNF-238 and the clinical outcome of malaria in a Nigerian population, the two TNF polymorphisms were analysed using Sequenom iPLEX Platform. A total of 782 children; 283 children with uncomplicated malaria, 255 children with severe malaria and 244 children with asymptomatic infection (controls) were studied. The distribution of TNF-308 and TNF-238 genotypes were consistent with the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Distribution of both TNF polymorphisms differed significantly across all clinical groups (TNF-308: p = 0.007; TNF-238: p=0.001). Further tests for association with severe malaria using genotype models controlling for age, parasitaemia and HbAS showed a significant association of the TNF-238 polymorphism with susceptibility to severe malaria (95% CI = 1.43-6.02, OR= 2.94, p = 0.003237) The GG genotype of TNF-238 significantly increased the risk of developing cerebral malaria from asymptomatic malaria and uncomplicated malaria (95% CI = 1.99-18.17, OR= 6.02, p <0.001 and 95% CI= 1.78-8.23, OR= 3.84, p <0.001 respectively). No significant association was found between TNF-308 and malaria outcome. These results show thegenetic association of TNF-238 in the clinical outcome of malaria in Ibadan, southwest Nigeria. These findings add support to the role of TNF in the outcome of malaria infection. Further large scale studies across multiple malaria endemic populations will be required to determine the specific roles of TNF-308 and TNF-238 in the outcome of falciparum malaria infection.

  • 110.
    Perdijk, Olaf
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut. Wageningen University, Netherlands.
    Arama, Charles
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut. University of Bamako, Mali.
    Giusti, Pablo
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Maiga, Bakary
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut. University of Bamako, Mali.
    Troye-Blomberg, Marita
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Dolo, Amagana
    Doumbo, Ogobara
    Persson, Jan-Olov
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Matematiska institutionen.
    Boström, Stephanie
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Haptoglobin phenotype prevalence and cytokine profiles during Plasmodium falciparum infection in Dogon and Fulani ethnic groups living in Mali2013Inngår i: Malaria Journal, ISSN 1475-2875, E-ISSN 1475-2875, Vol. 12, s. 432-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The Fulani are known to have a lower parasitaemia and less clinical episodes of malaria as compared to the Dogon sympatric ethnic group, living in Mali. Higher circulating malaria-specific antibody titers and increased pro-inflammatory cytokine levels have been shown in Fulani individuals. Several studies have tried to link haptoglobin (Hp) phenotypes with susceptibility to malaria, but without consensus. This study investigated the role of Hp phenotypes and cytokine levels in Dogon and Fulani during asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum infection. Methods: Two different cohorts were combined in this study: a 2008 cohort with 77 children aged between two and ten years and a 2001 cohort, with 82 children and adults, aged between 11 and 68 years. Hp phenotypes in plasma were measured by Western Blot. Circulating levels of sCD163, IL-6, IL-10, IFN-gamma and TNF were measured by ELISA. Multiple regression analysis was performed to associate Hp phenotypes with cytokine profiles. In addition, in vitro stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with Hp:Hb complexes was performed and cytokine release in corresponding supernatants were measured using cytometric bead array. Results: The results revealed a higher Hp2-2 phenotype prevalence in the Fulani. The Hp2-2 phenotype was associated with a higher susceptibility to P. falciparum infection in Dogon, but not in Fulani. In concordance with previous studies, Fulani showed increased inflammatory mediators (IL-6, IFN-gamma) and additionally also increased sCD163 levels compared to Dogon, irrespective of infection. Furthermore, infected individuals showed elevated sCD163 levels compared to uninfected individuals, in both Fulani and Dogon. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the Hp1-1 phenotype was associated with higher levels of TNF and IFN-gamma, as compared to the Hp2-2 phenotype. In vitro stimulation of PBMCs with Hb:Hp1-1 complexes resulted in a pro-inflammatory cytokine profile, whilst stimulation with Hb: Hp2-2 complexes showed a more balanced profile. Conclusions: Ethnicity might be an important confounder on the Hp phenotype-dependent susceptibility to malaria and future studies could consider taking this into account when designing new immunological studies. Although, the relatively small sample size used in this study warrens for precautions in the interpretation of the data and these findings should ideally be validated in a bigger cohort.

  • 111. Portugal, Silvia
    et al.
    Doumtabe, Didier
    Traore, Boubacar
    Miller, Louis H.
    Troye-Blomberg, Marita
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Wenner-Grens institut, Avdelningen för immunologi.
    Doumbo, Ogobara K.
    Dolo, Amagana
    Pierce, Susan K.
    Crompton, Peter D.
    B cell analysis of ethnic groups in Mali with differential susceptibility to malaria2012Inngår i: Malaria Journal, ISSN 1475-2875, E-ISSN 1475-2875, Vol. 11, s. 162-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Several studies indicate that people of the Fulani ethnic group are less susceptible to malaria compared to those of other ethnic groups living sympatrically in Africa, including the Dogon ethnic group. Although the mechanisms of this protection remain unclear, the Fulani are known to have higher levels of Plasmodium falciparum-specific antibodies of all Ig classes as compared to the Dogon. However, the proportions of B cell subsets in the Fulani and Dogon that may account for differences in the levels of Ig have not been characterized. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, venous blood was collected from asymptomatic Fulani (n = 25) and Dogon (n = 25) adults in Mali during the malaria season, and from P. falciparum-naive adults in the U. S. (n = 8). At the time of the blood collection, P. falciparum infection was detected by blood-smear in 16% of the Fulani and 36% of the Dogon volunteers. Thawed lymphocytes were analysed by flow cytometry to quantify B cell subsets, including immature and naive B cells; plasma cells; and classical, activated, and atypical memory B cells (MBCs). Results: The overall distribution of B cell subsets was similar between Fulani and Dogon adults, although the percentage of activated MBCs was higher in the Fulani group (Fulani: 11.07% [95% CI: 9.317 - 12.82]; Dogon: 8.31% [95% CI: 6.378 - 10.23]; P = 0.016). The percentage of atypical MBCs was similar between Fulani and Dogon adults (Fulani: 28.3% [95% CI: 22.73 - 34.88]; Dogon: 29.3% [95% CI: 25.06 - 33.55], but higher than U. S. adults (U. S.: 3.0% [95% CI: -0.21 - 6.164]; P < 0.001). Plasmodium falciparum infection was associated with a higher percentage of plasma cells among Fulani (Fulani infected: 3.3% [95% CI: 1.788 - 4.744]; Fulani uninfected: 1.71% [95% CI: 1.33 - 2.08]; P = 0.011), but not Dogon adults. Conclusion: These data show that the malaria-resistant Fulani have a higher percentage of activated MBCs compared to the Dogon, and that P. falciparum infection is associated with a higher percentage of plasma cells in the Fulani compared to the Dogon, findings that may account for the higher levels of P. falciparum antibodies in the Fulani.

  • 112. Potup, Pachuen
    et al.
    Kumsiri, Ratchanok
    Kano, Shigeyuki
    Kalambaheti, Thareerat
    Looareesuwan, Sornchai
    Troye-Blomberg, Marita
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Maneerat, Yaowapa
    Blood stage plasmodium falciparum antigens induce immunoglobulin class switching in human enriched B cell culture2009Inngår i: Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health, ISSN 0125-1562, Vol. 40, nr 4, s. 651-664Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to demonstrate class switch recombination (CSR) in heavy chain expressing immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgE in human B cells after exposure to Plasmodium falciparum schizont lysate. Human B cells (CD20(+)CD27(-)) were Cultured with crude P, falciparum antigen (cPfAg) and anti-CD40. On Day 4 post-exposure, total RNA from B cells was prepared and the occurrence of CSR from IgM to IgG and/or IgE was investigated by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Molecular markers to detect active CSR included enzyme activation-induced cytidine deaminase mRNA, gamma and epsilon-germline transcripts (gamma, epsilon-GLT), circle transcript (CT) and mature transcript (gamma and epsilon-mRNA) expression. On Day 7 and Day 14 after exposure, levels of Igs in the culture supernatant were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Our findings showed that we could demonstrate cPfAg-stimulated B cells undergoing CSR by use of the expressed CSR markers and the increase in specific IgG and IgE indicating the potential of this approach in the study of CSR in P. falciparum-stimulated B cells.

  • 113.
    Quin, Jaclyn E.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Bujila, Ioana
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Chérif, Mariama
    Sanou, Guillaume S.
    Qu, Ying
    Homann, Manijeh Vafa
    Rolicka, Anna
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Sirima, Sodiomon B.
    O'Connell, Mary A.
    Lennartsson, Andreas
    Troye-Blomberg, Marita
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Nebie, Issa
    Östlund Farrants, Ann-Kristin
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Major transcriptional changes observed in the Fulani, an ethnic group less susceptible to malaria2017Inngår i: eLIFE, E-ISSN 2050-084X, Vol. 6, artikkel-id e29156Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Fulani ethnic group has relatively better protection from Plasmodium falciparum malaria, as reflected by fewer symptomatic cases of malaria, lower infection rates, and lower parasite densities compared to sympatric ethnic groups. However, the basis for this lower susceptibility to malaria by the Fulani is unknown. The incidence of classic malaria resistance genes are lower in the Fulani than in other sympatric ethnic populations, and targeted SNP analyses of other candidate genes involved in the immune response to malaria have not been able to account for the observed difference in the Fulani susceptibility to P.falciparum. Therefore, we have performed a pilot study to examine global transcription and DNA methylation patterns in specific immune cell populations in the Fulani to elucidate the mechanisms that confer the lower susceptibility to P.falciparum malaria. When we compared uninfected and infected Fulani individuals, in contrast to uninfected and infected individuals from the sympatric ethnic group Mossi, we observed a key difference: a strong transcriptional response was only detected in the monocyte fraction of the Fulani, where over 1000 genes were significantly differentially expressed upon P.falciparum infection.

  • 114.
    Rizk, Aya
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Johansson, Jan-Olov
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, CDT.
    Holst, Marita
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, CDT.
    Heijnen, Adriënne
    Palacios, Belén
    Lynch, John
    Harderberg, Esben
    Lindstrøm, Michelle
    Christophersen, Sebastian
    Cuenca, Juan
    Gutiérrez, Veronica
    Theodoridis, Evangelos
    Etienne, Gandrille
    Co-Creating Smart Cities of the Future: First Open Call Instructions2016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 115. Rizzo, Cinzia
    et al.
    Ronca, Raffaele
    Lombardo, Fabrizio
    Mangano, Valentina
    Sirima, Sodiomon Bienvenu
    Nebie, Issa
    Fiorentino, Gabriella
    Troye-Blomberg, Marita
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Modiano, David
    Arca, Bruno
    IgG1 and IgG4 Antibody Responses to the Anopheles gambiae Salivary Protein gSG6 in the Sympatric Ethnic Groups Mossi and Fulani in a Malaria Hyperhendemic Area of Burkina Faso2014Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, nr 4, s. e96130-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Human antibody response to the Anopheles gambiae salivary protein gSG6 has recently emerged as a potentially useful tool for malaria epidemiological studies and for the evaluation of vector control interventions. However, the current understanding of the host immune response to mosquito salivary proteins and of the possible crosstalk with early response to Plasmodium parasites is still very limited. We report here the analysis of IgG1 and IgG4 subclasses among anti-gSG6 IgG responders belonging to Mossi and Fulani from Burkina Faso, two ethnic groups which are known for their differential humoral response to parasite antigens and for their different susceptibility to malaria. The IgG1 antibody response against the gSG6 protein was comparable in the two groups. On the contrary, IgG4 titers were significantly higher in the Fulani where, in addition, anti-gSG6 IgG4 antibodies appeared in younger children and the ratio IgG4/IgG1 stayed relatively stable throughout adulthood. Both gSG6-specific IgG1 and IgG4 antibodies showed a tendency to decrease with age whereas, as expected, the IgG response to the Plasmodium circumsporozoite protein (CSP) exhibited an opposite trend in the same individuals. These observations are in line with the idea that the An. gambiae gSG6 salivary protein induces immune tolerance, especially after intense and prolonged exposure as is the case for the area under study, suggesting that gSG6 may trigger in exposed individuals a Th2-oriented immune response.

  • 116.
    Rodriguez, Ariane
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Tjärnlund, Anna
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Ivanyi, Juraj
    Singh, Mahavir
    García, Irene
    Williams, Ann
    Marsh, Philip
    Troye-Blomberg, Marita
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Fernández, Carmen
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Role of IgA in the defense against respiratory infections: IgA deficient mice exhibited increased susceptibility to intranasal infection with Mycobacterium bovis BCG2005Inngår i: Vaccine, ISSN 0264-410X, E-ISSN 1873-2518, Vol. 23, nr 20, s. 2565-2572Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    IgA is the predominant Ig isotype in mucosal tissue and is believed to be involved in defense against viral and bacterial infections at these sites. Here, we examined the role of IgA in the protection against intranasal (i.n.) infection with Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). IgA deficient (IgA−/−) mice and wild type non-targeted littermate (IgA+/+) mice were immunized by i.n. route with the mycobacterium surface antigen PstS-1 formulated with cholera toxin (CT). Our data showed that IgA−/− mice were more susceptible to BCG infection compared to IgA+/+ mice, as revealed by the higher bacterial loads in the lungs and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Analysis of the Ig levels and the antibody responses to PstS-1 showed that IgA−/− mice had no detectable IgA either in the saliva or in the BAL. However, these mice displayed higher levels of total and specific IgM than IgA+/+ mice in both mucosal fluids. More importantly, analysis of the cytokine responses revealed a reduction in the IFN-γ and TNF-α production in the lungs of IgA−/− compared to IgA+/+ mice. Altogether, our results suggest that IgA may play a role in protection against mycobacterial infections in the respiratory tract by blocking the pathogen entrance and/or by modulating the pro-inflammatory responses.

  • 117.
    Runardotter, Mari
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Holst, Marita
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, CDT.
    Views on Energy Efficiency: Findings from the CASSANDRA project2014Inngår i: 2014 20th International ICE Conference on Engineering, Technology and Innovation (ICE 2014): Bergamo, Italy; 23 - 25 June 2014, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2014, artikkel-id 6871610Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present findings from the CASSANDRA project, in the area of energy efficiency. We set out to explore what view on energy efficiency elderly individual tenants and the European Union (EU) convey, respectively, as well as whether their respective views differ or not. Data used are a) qualitative interviews with 15 tenants at a multi-residential building for elderly people; and b) EU Directives in relation to energy efficiency. We find that environmental concerns are shared by both parties, and that resources are limited is also agreed upon. Where they differ is around growth and lack of information, of which the first is not an issue for the tenants, and the other they regard to be wrong – they see themselves as informed. Of specific interest was whether the tenants was aware, knowledgeable and motivated or not, since this is regarded to be preconditions for energy efficiency, according to the EU. Our findings show that most individual consumers show great concern for the environment, and they claim that they are raised and taught in being economic with all resources.

  • 118.
    Saghafian-Hedengren, Shanie
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Wenner-Grens institut, Avdelningen för immunologi.
    Sundström, Yvonne
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Wenner-Grens institut, Avdelningen för immunologi.
    Sohlberg, Ebba
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Wenner-Grens institut, Avdelningen för immunologi.
    Nilsson, Caroline
    Linde, Annika
    Troye-Blomberg, Marita
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Wenner-Grens institut, Avdelningen för immunologi.
    Berg, Louise
    Sverremark-Ekström, Eva
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Wenner-Grens institut, Avdelningen för immunologi.
    Herpesvirus seropositivity in childhood associates with decreased monocyte-induced NK-cell IFN-γ production2009Inngår i: Journal of Immunology, ISSN 0022-1767, E-ISSN 1550-6606, Vol. 182, nr 4, s. 2511-2517Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    EBV infection is inversely associated with IgE sensitization in children, and this association is further enhanced by CMV coinfection. In mice, herpesvirus latency causes systemic innate activation and protection from bacterial coinfection, implying the importance of herpesviruses in skewing immune responses during latent infection. Early control of viral infections depends on IFN- release by NK cells, which generally requires the presence of accessory cells. We investigated IFN- production by NK cells in PBMCs from children seropositive (SP) for EBV alone, for both EBV and CMV, or seronegative for both viruses. The ability of classical (CD14++CD16–) and proinflammatory (CD14+CD16+) monocytes to induce autologous NK cell IFN- was studied by coculture experiments with enriched CD3–CD56+ cells. Transwell experiments were used to evaluate how monocytes interact with NK cells to induce IFN- synthesis. SP children had a significantly reduced proportion of IFN-+ NK cells and cognate intracellular IFN- levels, which was more pronounced in CMV-coinfected subjects. Also, resting PBMCs of SP children displayed lower proportions of proinflammatory monocytes. IFN- production by NK cells was dependent on interactions with monocytes, with the proinflammatory subset inducing the highest IFN-. Finally, SP children had markedly lower levels of plasma IFN-, concurrent with in vitro findings. Herpesvirus infections could be one contributing factor for maturation toward balanced Th1-Th2 responses. Our data indicate that early infection by herpesviruses may affect NK cell and monocyte interactions and thereby also influence the development of allergies.

  • 119. Sanou, Guillaume S
    et al.
    Tiendrebeogo, Régis W
    Ouédraogo, André L
    Diarra, Amidou
    Ouédraogo, Alphonse
    Yaro, Jean-Baptiste
    Ouédraogo, Espérance
    Verra, Federica
    Behr, Charlotte
    Troye-Blomberg, Marita
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Modiano, David
    Dolo, Amagana
    Torcia, Maria G
    Traoré, Yves
    Sirima, Sodiomon B
    Nébié, Issa
    Haematological parameters, natural regulatory CD4 + CD25 + FOXP3+ T cells and γδ T cells among two sympatric ethnic groups having different susceptibility to malaria in Burkina Faso.2012Inngår i: BMC Research Notes, ISSN 1756-0500, E-ISSN 1756-0500, Vol. 5, s. 76-(12 pp)Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Fulani ethnic group individuals are less susceptible than sympatric Mossi ethnic group, in term of malaria infection severity, and differ in antibody production against malaria antigens. The differences in susceptibility to malaria between Fulani and Mossi ethnic groups are thought to be regulated by different genetic backgrounds and offer the opportunity to compare haematological parameters, Tregs and γδT cell profiles in seasonal and stable malaria transmission settings in Burkina Faso. The study was conducted at two different time points i.e. during the high and low malaria transmission period.

    RESULTS: Two cross-sectional surveys were undertaken in adults above 20 years belonging either to the Fulani or the Mossi ethnic groups 1) at the peak of the malaria transmission season and 2) during the middle of the low malaria transmission season. Full blood counts, proportions of Tregs and γδ T cells were measured at both time-points.As previously shown the Fulani and Mossi ethnic groups showed a consistent difference in P. falciparum infection rates and parasite load. Differential white blood cell counts showed that the absolute lymphocyte counts were higher in the Mossi than in the Fulani ethnic group at both time points. While the proportion of CD4+CD25high was higher in the Fulani ethnic group at the peak of malaria transmission season (p = 0.03), no clear pattern emerged for T regulatory cells expressing FoxP3+ and CD127low. However CD3+γδ+ subpopulations were found to be higher in the Fulani compared to the Mossi ethnic group, and this difference was statistically significant at both time-points (p = 0.004 at low transmission season and p = 0.04 at peak of transmission).

    CONCLUSION: Our findings on regulatory T cell phenotypes suggest an interesting role for immune regulatory mechanisms in response to malaria. The study also suggests that TCRγδ + cells might contribute to the protection against malaria in the Fulani ethnic group involving their reported parasite inhibitory activities.

  • 120. Shelton, Jennifer M. G.
    et al.
    Corran, Patrick
    Risley, Paul
    Silva, Nilupa
    Hubbart, Christina
    Jeffreys, Anna
    Rowlands, Kate
    Craik, Rachel
    Cornelius, Victoria
    Hensmann, Meike
    Molloy, Sile
    Sepulveda, Nuno
    Clark, Taane G.
    Band, Gavin
    Clarke, Geraldine M.
    Spencer, Christopher C. A.
    Kerasidou, Angeliki
    Campino, Susana
    Auburn, Sarah
    Tall, Adama
    Ly, Alioune Badara
    Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile
    Sakuntabhai, Anavaj
    Djimde, Abdoulaye
    Maiga, Boubacar
    Toure, Ousmane
    Doumbo, Ogobara K.
    Dolo, Amagana
    Troye-Blomberg, Marita
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Mangano, Valentina D.
    Verra, Frederica
    Modiano, David
    Bougouma, Edith
    Sirima, Sodiomon B.
    Ibrahim, Muntaser
    Hussain, Ayman
    Eid, Nahid
    Elzein, Abier
    Mohammed, Hiba
    Elhassan, Ahmed
    Elhassan, Ibrahim
    Williams, Thomas N.
    Ndila, Carolyne
    Macharia, Alexander
    Marsh, Kevin
    Manjurano, Alphaxard
    Reyburn, Hugh
    Lemnge, Martha
    Ishengoma, Deus
    Carter, Richard
    Karunaweera, Nadira
    Fernando, Deepika
    Dewasurendra, Rajika
    Drakeley, Christopher J.
    Riley, Eleanor M.
    Kwiatkowski, Dominic P.
    Rockett, Kirk A.
    Genetic determinants of anti-malarial acquired immunity in a large multi-centre study2015Inngår i: Malaria Journal, ISSN 1475-2875, E-ISSN 1475-2875, Vol. 14, artikkel-id 333Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Many studies report associations between human genetic factors and immunity to malaria but few have been reliably replicated. These studies are usually country-specific, use small sample sizes and are not directly comparable due to differences in methodologies. This study brings together samples and data collected from multiple sites across Africa and Asia to use standardized methods to look for consistent genetic effects on anti-malarial antibody levels. Methods: Sera, DNA samples and clinical data were collected from 13,299 individuals from ten sites in Senegal, Mali, Burkina Faso, Sudan, Kenya, Tanzania, and Sri Lanka using standardized methods. DNA was extracted and typed for 202 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms with known associations to malaria or antibody production, and antibody levels to four clinical grade malarial antigens [AMA1, MSP1, MSP2, and (NANP) 4] plus total IgE were measured by ELISA techniques. Regression models were used to investigate the associations of clinical and genetic factors with antibody levels. Results: Malaria infection increased levels of antibodies to malaria antigens and, as expected, stable predictors of anti-malarial antibody levels included age, seasonality, location, and ethnicity. Correlations between antibodies to blood-stage antigens AMA1, MSP1 and MSP2 were higher between themselves than with antibodies to the (NANP)(4) epitope of the pre-erythrocytic circumsporozoite protein, while there was little or no correlation with total IgE levels. Individuals with sickle cell trait had significantly lower antibody levels to all blood-stage antigens, and recessive homozygotes for CD36 (rs321198) had significantly lower anti-malarial antibody levels to MSP2. Conclusion: Although the most significant finding with a consistent effect across sites was for sickle cell trait, its effect is likely to be via reducing a microscopically positive parasitaemia rather than directly on antibody levels. However, this study does demonstrate a framework for the feasibility of combining data from sites with heterogeneous malaria transmission levels across Africa and Asia with which to explore genetic effects on anti-malarial immunity.

  • 121.
    Simone, Olivia
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Wenner-Grens institut, Avdelningen för immunologi.
    Bejarano, Maria Teresa
    Pierce, Susan K
    Antonaci, Salvatore
    Wahlgren, Mats
    Troye-Blomberg, Marita
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Wenner-Grens institut, Avdelningen för immunologi.
    Donati, Daria
    TLRs innate immunereceptors and Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) CIDR1α-driven human polyclonal B-cell activation.2011Inngår i: Acta Tropica, ISSN 0001-706X, E-ISSN 1873-6254, Vol. 119, nr 2-3, s. 144-150Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Chronic malaria severely affects the immune system and causes polyclonal B-cell activation, as evidenced by the presence of hypergammaglobulinemia, elevated levels of autoantibodies, loss of B-cell memory and the frequent occurrence of Burkitt's lymphomas (BL) in children living in malaria endemic areas. Previous studies have shown that the cysteine-rich interdomain region 1α (CIDR1α) of the Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) of the FCR3S1.2 strain, subsequently named CIDR1α, interacts with B cells partially through the binding to the B-cell receptor (BCR). This interaction leads to an activated phenotype, increased survival, and a low degree of proliferation. CIDR1α preferentially activates the memory B-cell compartment, therefore PfEMP1 is considered to act as a polyclonal B-cell activator and its role in memory maintenance has been suggested. In this report, we extend the analysis of the PfEMP1-CIDR1α B-cell interaction and demonstrate that PfEMP1-CIDR1α increases the expression of TLR7 and TLR10 mRNA transcripts and sensitizes B cells to TLR9 signalling via the MyD88 adaptor molecule. Furthermore, despite its ability to bind to surface Igs, PfEMP1-CIDR1α-induced B-cell activation does not seem to proceed through the BCR, since it does not induce Lyn and/or phospho-tyrosine mediated signalling pathways. Rather PfEMP1-CIDR1α induces the phosphorylation of downstream kinases, such as ERK1/2, p38 and IKBα, in human B cells. These findings indicate that PfEMP1-CIDR1α induces a persistent activation of B cells, which in turn can contribute to the exhaustion and impairment of B-cell functions during chronic malaria infection.

  • 122.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Bergvall-Kåreborn, Birgitta
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Holst, Marita
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, CDT.
    Understanding innovation community users2009Inngår i: Proceedings of the XX ISPIM Conference, Vienna, Austria, 21-24 June 2009 / [ed] K.R.E. Huizingh; S. Conn; M. Torkkeli; I. Bitran, 2009Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, we are facing new and challenging situations with the growing financial crisis and the difficult times for companies with a decreasing number of customers and declining revenues. It is therefore important for companies to challenge their way of thinking and developing innovations. An up-coming approach to innovation is to open up the innovation process and to include users in this process. Due to immaturity of this approach, there is little knowledge on how these communities should be designed and used to really support companies’ innovation processes. In this paper, we illustrate how and why users engage in innovation communities, as well as the nature of these users. We do this with the objective to render results that can guide companies on how to utilize their on-line user communities in order to accelerate user’s participation in open innovation processes.

  • 123.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Holst, Marita
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, CDT.
    Living Lab: Stimulating Adoption of Smart City Innovations2016Inngår i: Open Living Lab Days 2016: Research Day Conference Proceedings, Montreal: European Network of Living Lab , 2016, s. 145-162Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cities are facing complex and widespread problems such as changing demographics, reduction of resources and climate changes, unequal social participation, overfilled transport networks, and difficult trade-offs in land use decisions can only be turned into opportunities if suitable strategies are applied. To facilitate the efforts related to creating and sustaining smart city development, supportive infrastructures and innovative eco-systems need to be implemented and used, and one such infrastructure can be the concept of Living Labs. These Living Labs deploy contemporary open and user driven innovation processes into real world contexts in which all relevant stakeholders are involved and engaged with the endeavour to create and experiment with innovations. In this paper, we will illustrate and discuss a Living Lab approach focusing on a way to stimulate adoption of smart cities innovations among citizens in their domestic context and thus lowering their energy consumption. Our findings show that applying a Living Lab approach for adoption of innovation was successful in several ways. By stimulating participants to use the socio-technical solution in their context by assigning them well-defined tasks, participants both increased their understanding of the socio-technical solution, they changed their behaviour and they fulfilled the purpose of the technology. Hence, applying an interactive Living Lab approach in innovation processes can strengthen the adoption of smart city solutions.

  • 124.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Holst, Marita
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, CDT.
    Reflecting on Actions in Living Lab Research2017Inngår i: Technology Innovation Management Review, ISSN 1927-0321, E-ISSN 1927-0321, Vol. 7, nr 2, s. 27-34, artikkel-id 1055Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Living labs deploy contemporary open and user-centred engagement processes in real-world contexts where all relevant stakeholders are involved and engaged with the endeavour to create and experiment with different innovations. The approach is evidently successful and builds on the perspective that people have a democratic right to have influence over changes that might affect them, such as those brought about by an innovation. In this article, we will reflect on and discuss a case in which end users took part in the development of a method that stimulates learning and adoption of digital innovations in their own homes while testing and interacting with it. The results show that, when end users were stimulated to use the implemented innovation through different explicit assignments, they both increased their understanding of the situation as well as changed their behaviour. Living lab processes are complex and dynamic, and we find that it is essential that a living lab have the capability to adjust its roles and actions. We argue that being reflective is beneficial for innovation process managers in living labs because it allows them to adjust processes in response to dynamic circumstances.

  • 125.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Holst, Marita
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, CDT.
    Bergvall-Kåreborn, Birgitta
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Sällström, Annika
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, CDT.
    Striving for realism in a user involvement process2009Inngår i: Proceedings of the 2nd ISPIM Innovation Symposium: Stimulating Recovery - The Role of Innovation Management, New York City, USA 6-9 december 2009 / [ed] K.R.E. Huizingh; S. Conn; M. Torkkeli; I. Bitran, 2009Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, it is commonly acknowledged that it is important to learn from users when the aim is to develop user-centred services and products. This is shown in the fact that a lot of the commercially important innovations that are developed today are developed by end-users. When it comes to innovation, it is burdened with uncertainty and the only way to get input on users reactions, is to start developing it and to let users use it. One way to involve users in the process of innovation development is the Living Lab approach in which one guiding principle is realism. In this paper, the aim is to define and illustrate how the Living Lab principle realism takes form and is facilitated in a mobile service development project described in this paper. We found that realism takes different forms dependent on in which phase the innovation process is.

  • 126.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Holst, Marita
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, CDT.
    Krogstie, John
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim.
    Gudmundsdottir, Asta
    Innovation Centre Iceland.
    Olesen, Annie
    A9 Consulting.
    Braskus, Laruynas
    Sunrise Valley.
    Jelle, Thomas
    Wireless Trondheim.
    Users and Energy Savings - Their Perspectives and Needs2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It is becoming increasingly important to create a sustainable environment for the future. This is a problem that is recognised but it still not evident what kind of solutions that would be beneficial and useful. However, one important step is to reduce the energy consumption. In Europe, 25% of the total amount of energy being consumed is consumed by private households. Hence, if private households decrease their energy consumption this would contribute to the environment in positive ways. The aim of this paper is to describe what kind of needs users have related to energy consumption and solutions for that. Our study have been carried out in a project called Smarties in which the objective is to develop solutions that stimulates users to decrease their energy consumption. This paper reports on the users needs related to their current energy consumption situation, the actions they want or can take, and the possible future solutions they want to se.

  • 127.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Sällström, Annika
    Holst, Marita
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, CDT.
    User evaluations in the wild: experiences from mobile living labs2009Inngår i: Mobile Living Labs 09: Methods and Tools for Evaluation in the Wild, 2009, s. 7-10Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Involving users has become a prerequisite these days in ITproduct and service development processes; hence, the question is not so much about why we should involve users, but rather how they should be involved. Embracing a Living Lab approach means to strive to involve users throughout the innovation process and to make users engaged co-creators of the innovation. In this paper, we present different degrees of user involvement in design and evaluation processes and relate these to our experiences of involving users in Mobile Living Lab situations. We identify aspects we have grappled with in these process and issues that needs to be elaborated on further since the area of Mobile Living Lab is growing and concepts such as ubiquitous computing and context awareness is emerging. This in turn, sets new demands on methods for user involvement in the wild.

  • 128. Tangteerawatana, Piyatida
    et al.
    Krudsood, Srivicha
    Kanchanakhan, Naowarat
    Troye-Blomberg, Marita
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Khusmith, Srisin
    LOW MONOCYTE TO NEUTROPHIL RATIO IN PERIPHERAL BLOOD ASSOCIATED WITH DISEASE COMPLICATION IN PRIMARY PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM INFECTION2014Inngår i: Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health, ISSN 0125-1562, Vol. 45, nr 3, s. 517-530Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Immunity to malaria can be acquired but only after repeat exposures to polymorphic Plasmodium. However, the development of clinical outcomes during P. falciparum infection is not clearly understood. This study elucidated whether monocytes, neutrophils and pro/anti-inflammatory cytokines were associated with clinical outcomes in single infection and prior repeated malaria infections. Two hundred and seventy-nine patients with complicated and uncomplicated malaria were investigated. Peripheral blood IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha and IL-10 levels were measured by ELISA, and monocytes and neutrophils by an automated cell counter. On admission, in patients with uncomplicated malaria prior repeated infections, absolute neutrophil counts were positively and monocyte to neutrophil ratio negatively correlated significantly with parasitemia (r = 0.358, p = 0.000; r = -0.356, p = 0.000, respectively), while those with single infection absolute monocyte counts and monocyte to neutrophil ratio were significantly correlated negatively with IFN-gamma (r = -0.381, p = 0.001; r = -0.393, p = 0.000, respectively), and positively with TNF-a levels (r = 0.310, p = 0.007; r = 0.227, p = 0.017, respectively). In sharp contrast, in complicated malaria with single infection extremely high IFN-gamma and IL-10 levels but significantly low percent monocyte counts and monocyte to neutrophil ratio were seen. After 7 days of treatment, absolute monocyte counts and monocyte to neutrophil ratio were significantly increased, while absolute neutrophil counts significantly decreased (p = 0.000, 0.000, and 0.001, respectively), similarly after 28 days of treatment (p = 0.008, 0.000 and 0.000, respectively). These results suggest different functions of monocytes, neutrophils and pro/anti-inflammatory cytokines in complicated and uncomplicated malaria with single P. falciparum infection or prior repeated infections in the context of disease severity. Low monocyte to neutrophil ratio may be regarded as a risk factor in developing complication in primary malaria infection.

  • 129. Tangteerawatana, Piyatida
    et al.
    Perlmann, Hedvig
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Wenner-Grens institut, Avdelningen för immunologi.
    Hayano, Masashi
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Wenner-Grens institut, Avdelningen för immunologi.
    Kalambaheti, Thareerat
    Troye-Blomberg, Marita
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Wenner-Grens institut, Avdelningen för immunologi.
    Khusmith, Srisin
    IL4 gene polymorphism and previous malaria experiences manipulate anti-Plasmodium falciparum antibody isotype profiles in complicated and uncomplicated malaria.2009Inngår i: Malaria Journal, ISSN 1475-2875, E-ISSN 1475-2875, Vol. 8, nr 1, s. 286-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The IL4-590 gene polymorphism has been shown to be associated with elevated levels of anti-Plasmodium falciparum IgG antibodies and parasite intensity in the malaria protected Fulani of West Africa. This study aimed to investigate the possible impact of IL4-590C/T polymorphism on anti-P. falciparum IgG subclasses and IgE antibodies levels and the alteration of malaria severity in complicated and uncomplicated malaria patients with or without previous malaria experiences. METHODS: Anti-P.falciparum IgG subclasses and IgE antibodies in plasma of complicated and uncomplicated malaria patients with or without previous malaria experiences were analysed using ELISA. IL4-590 polymorphisms were genotyped using RFLP-PCR. Statistical analyses of the IgG subclasses and IgE levels were done by Oneway ANOVA. Genotype differences were tested by Chi-squared test. RESULTS: The IL4-590T allele was significantly associated with anti-P. falciparum IgG3 antibody levels in patients with complicated (P=0.031), but not with uncomplicated malaria (P=0.622). Complicated malaria patients with previous malaria experiences carrying IL4-590TT genotype had significantly lower levels of anti-P. falciparum IgG3 (P=0.0156), while uncomplicated malaria patients with previous malaria experiences carrying the same genotype had significantly higher levels (P=0.0206) compared to their IL4-590 counterparts. The different anti-P. falciparum IgG1 and IgG3 levels among IL4-590 genotypes were observed. Complicated malaria patients with previous malaria experiences tended to have lower IgG3 levels in individuals carrying TT when compared to CT genotypes (P=0.075). In contrast, complicated malaria patients without previous malaria experiences carrying CC genotype had significantly higher anti-P. falciparum IgG1 than those carrying either CT or TT genotypes (P=0.004, P=0.002, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that IL4-590C or T alleles participated differently in the regulation of anti-malarial antibody isotype profiles in primary and secondary malaria infection and, therefore, could play an important role in alteration of malaria severity.

  • 130.
    Tjärnlund, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Rodriguez, Ariane
    Cardona, Pere-Joan
    Guirado, Evelyn
    Ivanyi, Juraj
    Singh, Mahavir
    Troye-Blomberg, Marita
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Wenner-Grens institut, Avdelningen för immunologi.
    Fernandez, Carmen
    Polymeric Ig receptor knockout mice are more susceptible to mycobacteria infection in the respiratory tract2006Inngår i: International Immunology, ISSN 0953-8178, E-ISSN 1460-2377, Vol. 18, nr 5, s. 807-816Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It is generally accepted that cellular, and not humoral immunity, plays the crucial role in defense against intracellular bacteria. However, accumulating data indicate the importance of humoral immunity for the defense against a number of intracellular bacteria, including mycobacteria. We have investigated the role of secretory IgA, the main isotype found in mucosal tissues, in protection against mycobacterial infection, using polymeric IgR (pIgR)-deficient mice. Characterization of the humoral response induced after intra-nasal immunizations with the mycobacterial antigen PstS-1 revealed a loss of antigen-specific IgA response in saliva from the knockout mice. IgA level in the bronchoalveolar lavage of knockout mice was similar to wild-type level, although the IgA antibodies must have reached the lumen by other means than pIgR-mediated transport. Infection with Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) demonstrated that the immunized pIgR−/− mice were more susceptible to BCG infection than immunized wild-type mice, based on higher bacterial loads in the lungs. This was accompanied by a reduced production of both IFN-γ and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in the lungs. Additionally, the pIgR−/− mice displayed reduced natural resistance to mycobacterial infection proved by significantly higher bacterial growth in their lungs compared with wild-type mice after infection with virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The knockout mice appeared to have a delayed mycobacteria-induced immune response with reduced expression of protective mediators, such as IFN-γ, TNF-α, inducible nitric oxide synthase and regulated upon activation normal T cell sequence, during early infection. Collectively, our results show that actively secreted IgA plays a role in protection against mycobacterial infections in the respiratory tract, by blocking entrance of bacilli into the lungs, in addition to modulation of the mycobacteria-induced pro-inflammatory response.

  • 131. Topalis, Pantelis
    et al.
    Mitraka, Elvira
    Bujila, Ioana
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Deligianni, Elena
    Dialynas, Emmanuel
    Siden-Kiamos, Inga
    Troye-Blomberg, Marita
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Louis, Christos
    IDOMAL: an ontology for malaria2010Inngår i: Malaria Journal, ISSN 1475-2875, E-ISSN 1475-2875, Vol. 9, s. 230-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Ontologies are rapidly becoming a necessity for the design of efficient information technology tools, especially databases, because they permit the organization of stored data using logical rules and defined terms that are understood by both humans and machines. This has as consequence both an enhanced usage and interoperability of databases and related resources. It is hoped that IDOMAL, the ontology of malaria will prove a valuable instrument when implemented in both malaria research and control measures. METHODS: The OBOEdit2 software was used for the construction of the ontology. IDOMAL is based on the Basic Formal Ontology (BFO) and follows the rules set by the OBO Foundry consortium. RESULTS: The first version of the malaria ontology covers both clinical and epidemiological aspects of the disease, as well as disease and vector biology. IDOMAL is meant to later become the nucleation site for a much larger ontology of vector borne diseases, which will itself be an extension of a large ontology of infectious diseases (IDO). The latter is currently being developed in the frame of a large international collaborative effort. CONCLUSIONS: IDOMAL, already freely available in its first version, will form part of a suite of ontologies that will be used to drive IT tools and databases specifically constructed to help control malaria and, later, other vector-borne diseases. This suite already consists of the ontology described here as well as the one on insecticide resistance that has been available for some time. Additional components are being developed and introduced into IDOMAL.

  • 132.
    Vafa, Manijeh
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Maiga, Bakary
    Berzins, Klavs
    Hayano, Masashi
    Bereczky, Sandor
    Dolo, Amagana
    Daou, Modibo
    Arama, Charles
    Kouriba, Bourema
    Färnert, Anna
    Doumbo, Ogobara K.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Troye-Blomberg, Marita
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Associations between the IL-4 -590 T allele and Plasmodium falciparum infection prevalence in asymptomatic Fulani of Mali2007Inngår i: Microbes and infection, ISSN 1286-4579, E-ISSN 1769-714X, Vol. 9, nr 9, s. 1043-1048Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we compared the genotype and allele frequencies of the IL-10 -1087 A/G and IL-4 -590 C/T single nucleotide polymorphisms in asymptomatic subjects of two sympatric ethnic tribes differing in susceptibility to malaria, the Fulani and the Dogon in Mali. The genotype data was correlated with ethnicity and malariometric indexes. A statistically significant inter-ethnic difference in allele and genotype frequency for both loci was noted (P < 0.0001). Within the Fulani, the prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum infection, as detected by both microscopy and PCR, was associated with the IL-4 -590 T allele (P = 0.005 and P = 0.0005, respectively), whereas, no such associations were seen in the Dogon. Inter-ethnic differences in spleen rates, higher in the Fulani than the Dogon, were seen between T carriers (TT and CT) of both groups (P < 0.0001). Parasite densities and number of concurrent clones did not vary between IL-4 genotypes within any of the studied groups. These results suggest an association between the IL-4 -590 T allele and P. falciparum prevalence within the Fulani but not the Dogon. No associations between IL-10 genotypes and studied malariometric indexes were observed in any of the two communities.

  • 133.
    Vafa, Manijeh
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Maiga, Bakary
    Department of Epidemiology of Parasitic Diseases, Faculty of Medicine,Pharmacy and Odontostomatology, University of Bamako, Mali.
    Israelsson, Elisabeth
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Dolo, Amagana
    Doumbo, Ogobara K
    Troye-Blomberg, Marita
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Wenner-Grens institut, Avdelningen för immunologi.
    Impact of the IL-4 -590 C/T transition on the levels of Plasmodium falciparum specific IgE, IgG, IgG subclasses and total IgE in two sympatric ethnic groups living in Mali.2009Inngår i: Microbes and infection, ISSN 1286-4579, E-ISSN 1769-714X, Vol. 11, nr 8-9, s. 779-84Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to examine the effect of IL-4 -590 T/C polymorphism on the levels of malaria-specific IgE, IgG, IgG (1-4) subclasses as well as total IgE in the Fulani and their sympatric ethnic group, the Dogon, in Mali. Asymptomatic individuals, of the Fulani and the Dogon ethnic groups, were included in the study. IL-4 is involved in the regulation of IgE and IgG4 subclass. In line with this we found that within the Fulani, the T allele was associated with increased levels of total and anti-malarial IgE (P=0.02 and P=0.04, respectively). The Fulani T allele carriers had slightly higher levels of malarial specific IgG4 as compared to those with the CC genotype (P=0.08). No such differences were observed amongst the Dogon individuals. Taken together, these data indicate that the impact of IL-4 -590 variants on antibody levels may vary in different ethnic populations, and that this might affect the Ig-class and subclass distributions.

  • 134. Yman, Victor
    et al.
    White, Michael T.
    Rono, Josea
    Arca, Bruno
    Osier, Faith H.
    Troye-Blomberg, Marita
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Boström, Stephanie
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Ronca, Raffaele
    Rooth, Ingegerd
    Färnert, Anna
    Antibody acquisition models: A new tool for serological surveillance of malaria transmission intensity2016Inngår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, artikkel-id 19472Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Serology has become an increasingly important tool for the surveillance of a wide range of infectious diseases. It has been particularly useful to monitor malaria transmission in elimination settings where existing metrics such as parasite prevalence and incidence of clinical cases are less sensitive. Seroconversion rates, based on antibody prevalence to Plasmodium falciparum asexual blood-stage antigens, provide estimates of transmission intensity that correlate with entomological inoculation rates but lack precision in settings where seroprevalence is still high. Here we present a new and widely applicable method, based on cross-sectional data on individual antibody levels. We evaluate its use as a sero-surveillance tool in a Tanzanian setting with declining malaria prevalence. We find that the newly developed mathematical models produce more precise estimates of transmission patterns, are robust in high transmission settings and when sample sizes are small, and provide a powerful tool for serological evaluation of malaria transmission intensity.

123 101 - 134 of 134
RefereraExporteraLink til resultatlisten
Permanent link
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Annet format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annet språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf