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  • 101.
    Batistoni, P.
    et al.
    ENEA, Dipartimento Fus & Sicurezza Nucl, Via E Fermi 45, I-00044 Frascati, Roma, Italy..
    Campling, D.
    CCFE, Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Conroy, Sean
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Croft, D.
    CCFE, Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Giegerich, T.
    Karlsruhe Inst Technol, POB 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe, Germany..
    Huddleston, T.
    CCFE, Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Lefebvre, X.
    CCFE, Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Lengar, I.
    Jozef Stefan Inst, Reactor Phys Dept, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia..
    Lilley, S.
    CCFE, Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Peacock, A.
    Culham Sci Ctr, JET Exploitat Unit, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Pillon, M.
    ENEA, Dipartimento Fus & Sicurezza Nucl, Via E Fermi 45, I-00044 Frascati, Roma, Italy..
    Popovichev, S.
    CCFE, Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Reynolds, S.
    CCFE, Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Vila, R.
    CIEMAT, Lab Nacl Fus, Madrid, Spain..
    Villari, R.
    ENEA, Dipartimento Fus & Sicurezza Nucl, Via E Fermi 45, I-00044 Frascati, Roma, Italy..
    Bekris, N.
    EUROfus Consortium, Culham Sci Ctr, ITER Phys Dept, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Technological exploitation of Deuterium-Tritium operations at JET in support of ITER design, operation and safety2016Inngår i: Fusion engineering and design, ISSN 0920-3796, E-ISSN 1873-7196, Vol. 109, s. 278-285Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the framework of the EUROfusion programme, a work-package of technology projects (WPJET3) is being carried out in conjunction with the planned Deuterium-Tritium experiment on JET (DTE2) with the objective of maximising the scientific and technological return of DT operations at JET in support of ITER. This paper presents the progress since the start of the project in 2014 in the preparatory experiments, analyses and studies in the areas of neutronics, neutron induced activation and damage in ITER materials, nuclear safety, tritium retention, permeation and outgassing, and waste production in preparation of DTE2.

  • 102. Batistoni, P.
    et al.
    Conroy, Sean
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Lilley, S.
    Naish, J.
    Obryk, B.
    Popovichev, S.
    Stamatelatos, I.
    Syme, B.
    Vasilopoulou, T.
    Benchmark experiments on neutron streaming through JET Torus Hall penetrations2015Inngår i: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 55, nr 5, artikkel-id 053028Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Neutronics experiments are performed at JET for validating in a real fusion environment the neutronics codes and nuclear data applied in ITER nuclear analyses. In particular, the neutron fluence through the penetrations of the JET torus hall is measured and compared with calculations to assess the capability of state-of-art numerical tools to correctly predict the radiation streaming in the ITER biological shield penetrations up to large distances from the neutron source, in large and complex geometries. Neutron streaming experiments started in 2012 when several hundreds of very sensitive thermo-luminescence detectors (TLDs), enriched to different levels in (LiF)-Li-6/(LiF)-Li-7, were used to measure the neutron and gamma dose separately. Lessons learnt from this first experiment led to significant improvements in the experimental arrangements to reduce the effects due to directional neutron source and self-shielding of TLDs. Here we report the results of measurements performed during the 2013-2014 JET campaign. Data from new positions, at further locations in the South West labyrinth and down to the Torus Hall basement through the air duct chimney, were obtained up to about a 40m distance from the plasma neutron source. In order to avoid interference between TLDs due to self-shielding effects, only TLDs containing natural Lithium and 99.97% Li-7 were used. All TLDs were located in the centre of large polyethylene (PE) moderators, with Li-nat and Li-7 crystals evenly arranged within two PE containers, one in horizontal and the other in vertical orientation, to investigate the shadowing effect in the directional neutron field. All TLDs were calibrated in the quantities of air kerma and neutron fluence. This improved experimental arrangement led to reduced statistical spread in the experimental data. The Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) code was used to calculate the air kerma due to neutrons and the neutron fluence at detector positions, using a JET model validated up to the magnetic limbs. JET biological shield and penetrations, the PE moderators and TLDs were modelled in detail. Different tallying methods were used in the calculations, which are routinely used in ITER nuclear analyses: the mesh tally and the track length estimator with multiple steps calculations using the surface source write/read capability available in MCNP. In both cases, the calculated neutron fluence (C) was compared to the measured fluence (E) and hence C/E comparisons have been obtained and are discussed. These results provide a validation of neutronics numerical tools, codes and nuclear data, used for ITER design.

  • 103. Batistoni, P.
    et al.
    Popovichev, S.
    Ghani, Z.
    Cufar, A.
    Giacomelli, L.
    Hawkins, P.
    Keogh, K.
    Jednorog, S.
    Laszynska, E.
    Loreti, S.
    Peacock, A.
    Pillon, M.
    Price, R.
    Reed, A.
    Rigamonti, D.
    Stephens, J.
    Bielecki, J.
    Conroy, Sean
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Dankowski, J.
    Krasilnikov, V.
    14 MeV calibration of JET neutron detectors-phase 2: in-vessel calibration2018Inngår i: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 58, nr 10, artikkel-id 106016Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A new DT campaign (DTE2) is planned at JET in 2020 to minimize the risks of ITER operations. In view of DT operations, a calibration of the JET neutron monitors at 14 MeV neutron energy has been performed using a well calibrated 14 MeV neutron generator (NG) deployed, together with its power supply and control unit, inside the vacuum vessel by the JET remote handling system. The NG was equipped with two calibrated diamond detectors, which continuously monitored its neutron emission rate during the calibration, and activation foils which provided the time integrated yield. Cables embedded in the remote handling boom were used to power the neutron generator, the active detectors and pre-amplifier, and to transport the detectors' signal. The monitoring activation foils were retrieved at the end of each day for decay gamma-ray counting, and replaced by fresh ones. About 76 hours of irradiation, in 9 days, were needed with the neutron generator in 73 different poloidal and toroidal positions in order to calibrate the two neutron yield measuring systems available at JET, the U-235 fission chambers (KN1) and the inner activation system (KN2). The NG neutron emission rates provided by the monitoring detectors were in agreement within 3%. Neutronics calculations have been performed using MCNP code and a detailed model of JET to derive the response of the JET neutron detectors to DT plasma neutrons starting from the response to the NG neutrons, and taking into account the anisotropy of the neutron generator and all the calibration circumstances. These calculations have made use of a very detailed and validated geometrical description of the neutron generator and of the modified. MNCP neutron source subroutine producing neutron energy-angle distribution for the neutrons emitted by the NG. The KN1 calibration factor for a DT plasma has been determined with +/- 4.2%' experimental uncertainty. Corrections due to NG and remote handling effects and the plasma volume effect have been calculated by simulation modelling. The related additional uncertainties are difficult to estimate, however the results of the previous calibration in 2013 have demonstrated that such uncertainties due to modelling are globally <= +/- 3%. It has been found that the difference between KN1 response to DD neutrons and that to DT neutrons is within the uncertainties in the derived responses. KN2 has been calibrated using the Nb-93(n,2n)Nb-92m and Al-27(n,a)Na-24 activation reactions (energy thresholds 10 MeV and 5 MeV respectively). The total uncertainty on the calibration factors is +/- 6% for Nb-93(n,2n)Nb-92m and +/- 8% Al-27(n,a)Na-24 (1 sigma). The calibration factors of the two independent systems KN1 and KN2 will be validated during DT operations. The experience gained and the lessons learnt are presented and discussed in particular with regard to the 14 MeV neutron calibrations in ITER.

  • 104.
    Batistoni, Paola
    et al.
    ENEA, Dept Fus & Technol Nucl Safety & Secur, I-00044 Frascati, Rome, Italy..
    Popovichev, S.
    Culham Sci Ctr, CCFE, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Conroy, Sean
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Lengar, I.
    Jozef Stefan Inst, Reactor Phys Div, Jamova Cesta 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia..
    Cufar, A.
    Jozef Stefan Inst, Reactor Phys Div, Jamova Cesta 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia..
    Abhangi, M.
    Inst Plasma Res, Gandhinagar 382428, Gujarat, India..
    Snoj, L.
    Jozef Stefan Inst, Reactor Phys Div, Jamova Cesta 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia..
    Horton, L.
    Culham Sci Ctr, JET Exploitat Unit, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Calibration of neutron detectors on the Joint European Torus2017Inngår i: Review of Scientific Instruments, ISSN 0034-6748, E-ISSN 1089-7623, Vol. 88, nr 10, artikkel-id 103505Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper describes the findings of the calibration of the neutron yield monitors on the Joint European Torus (JET) performed in 2013 using a Cf-252 source deployed inside the torus by the remote handling system, with particular regard to the calibration of fission chambers which provide the time resolved neutron yield from JET plasmas. The experimental data obtained in toroidal, radial, and vertical scans are presented. These data are first analysed following an analytical approach adopted in the previous neutron calibrations at JET. In this way, a calibration function for the volumetric plasma source is derived which allows us to understand the importance of the different plasma regions and of different spatial profiles of neutron emissivity on fission chamber response. Neutronics analyses have also been performed to calculate the correction factors needed to derive the plasma calibration factors taking into account the different energy spectrum and angular emission distribution of the calibrating (point) Cf-252 source, the discrete positions compared to the plasma volumetric source, and the calibration circumstances. All correction factors are presented and discussed. We discuss also the lessons learnt which are the basis for the on-going 14 MeV neutron calibration at JET and for ITER.

  • 105. Battistoni, G
    et al.
    Boccone, V
    Boehlen, T
    Broggi, F
    Brugger, M.c
    Brunetti, G
    Campanella, M
    Cappucci, F
    Cerutti, F
    Chin, M
    Colleoni, P
    Empl, A
    Fasso, A
    Ferrari, A
    Ferrari, A
    Gadioli, E
    Garcia Ortega, P
    Garzelli, M V
    Lari, L
    Lantz, Mattias
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Lechner, A
    Lee, K T
    Lukasik, G
    Mairani, A
    Margiotta, A
    Mereghetti, A
    Morone, M C
    Murano, S
    Nicolini, R
    Parodi, K
    Patera, V
    Pelliccioni, M
    Pinsky, L
    Ranft, J
    Rinaldi, I
    Roesler, S
    Rollet, S
    Sala, P R
    Santana, M
    Sarchiapone, L
    Sioli, M
    Smirnov, G
    Theis, C
    Trovati, S
    Versaci, R
    Vincke, H
    Vlachoudis, V
    Vollaire, J
    FLUKA Monte Carlo calculations for hadrontherapy application2013Inngår i: CERN-Proceedings-2012-002, 2013, s. 461-467Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Monte Carlo (MC) codes are increasingly spreading in the hadrontherapy community due to their detailed description of radiation transport and interaction with matter. The suitability of a MC code for application to hadrontherapy demands accurate and reliable physical models for the description of the transport and the interaction of all components of the expected radiation field (ions, hadrons, electrons, positrons and photons). This contribution will address the specific case of the general-purpose particle and interaction code FLUKA. In this work, an application of FLUKA will be presented, i.e. establishing CT (computed tomography)-based calculations of physical and RBE (relative biological effectiveness)-weighted dose distributions in scanned carbon ion beam therapy.

  • 106. Battistoni, G.
    et al.
    Broggi, F.
    Brugger, M.
    Campanella, M.
    Carboni, M.
    Cerutti, F.
    Colleoni, P.
    D’Ambrosio, C.
    Empl, A.
    Fassò, A.
    Ferrari, A.
    Gadioli, E.
    Lantz, Mattias
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik. INFN Milano, Chalmers University of Technology.
    Lee, K.
    Lukasik, G.
    Mairani, A.
    Margiotta, A.
    Mauri, M.
    Morone, M. C.
    Mostacci, A.
    Muraro, S.
    Parodi, K.
    Patera, V.
    Pelliccioni, M.
    Pinsky, L.
    Ranft, J.
    Roesler, S.
    Rollet, S.
    Sala, P. R.
    Sarchiapone, L.
    Stoli, M.
    Smirnov, G.
    Sommerer, F.
    Theis, C.
    Trovati, S.
    Villari, R.
    Vinke, H.
    Vlachoudis, V.
    Wilson, T.
    Zapp, N.
    The FLUKA code and its use in hadron therapy2008Inngår i: Nuovo Cimento C Geophysics Space Physics C, Vol. 31, nr 1, s. 69-75Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    FLUKA is a multipurpose Monte Carto code describing transport and interaction with matter of a, large variety of particles over a wide energy range ill complex geometries. FLUKA is successfully applied ill several fields, including, but not only particle physics, cosmic-ray physics, dosimetry, radioprotection, hadron therapy. space radiation, accelerator design and neutronics. Here we briefly review recent model developments and provide examples of applications to hadron therapy, including calculation of physical and biological dose for comparison with analytical treatment planning engines as well as beta(+)-activation for therapy monitoring by means of positron emission tomography.

  • 107. Battistoni, G.
    et al.
    Cerutti, F.
    Fassò, A.
    Ferrari, A.
    Garzelli, M. V.
    Lantz, Mattias
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik. INFN Milano, Chalmers University of Technology.
    Muraro, S.
    Pinsky, L. S.
    Ranft, J.
    Roesler, S.
    Sala, P. R.
    Secondary Cosmic Ray Particles due to GCR Interactions in the Earth’s Atmosphere2008Inngår i: Exotic Nuclei and Nuclear/Particle Astrophysics (II), American Institute of Physics, 2008, Vol. 972, s. 449-454Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Primary GCR interact with the Earth's atmosphere originating atmospheric showers, thus giving rise to fluxes of secondary particles in the atmosphere. Electromagnetic and hadronic interactions interplay in the production of these particles, whose detection is performed by means of complementary techniques in different energy ranges and at different depths in the atmosphere, down to the Earth's surface.

    Monte Carlo codes are essential calculation tools which can describe the complexity of the physics of these phenomena, thus allowing the analysis of experimental data. However, these codes are affected by important uncertainties, concerning, in particular, hadronic physics at high energy. In this paper we shall report some results concerning inclusive particle fluxes and atmospheric shower properties as obtained using the FLUKA transport and interaction code. Some emphasis will also be given to the validation of the physics models of FLUKA involved in these calculations.

  • 108. Battistoni, G.
    et al.
    Ferrari, A.
    Lantz, Mattias
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik. RIKEN Nishina Center.
    Sala, P. R.
    Smirnov, G. I.
    Generator of neutrino-nucleon interactions for the FLUKA based simulation code2009Inngår i: American Institute of Physics Conference Series, American Institute of Physics, 2009, Vol. 1189, s. 343-346Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    An event generator of neutrino-nucleon and neutrino-nucleus interactions has been developed for the general purpose Monte Carlo code FLUKA. The generator includes options for simulating quasi-elastic interactions, the neutrino-induced resonance production and deep inelastic scattering. Moreover, it shares the hadronization routines developed earlier in the framework of the FLUKA package for simulating hadron-nucleon interactions. The simulation of neutrino-nuclear interactions makes use of the well developed PEANUT event generator implemented in FLUKA for modeling of the interactions between hadrons and nuclei. The generator has been tested in the neutrino energy range from 0 to 10 TeV and it is available in the standard FLUKA distribution. Limitations related to some particular kinematical conditions are discussed. A number of upgrades is foreseen for the generator which will optimize its applications for simulating experiments in the CNGS beam.

  • 109. Battistoni, G.
    et al.
    Sala, P. R.
    Lantz, Mattias
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik. RIKEN Nishina Center.
    Ferrari, A.
    Smirnov, G.
    Neutrino Interactions with FLUKA2009Inngår i: Acta Physica Polonica B, ISSN 0587-4254, E-ISSN 1509-5770, Vol. 40, nr 9, s. 2491-2505Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A new neutrino interaction generator has been developed in FLUKA. The package, called NUNDIS (NeUtrino–Nucleon Deep Inelastic Scattering), is specifically built in order to be fully integrated with the hadronization and nuclear models of the FLUKA Monte Carlo code which were already successfully tested in hadronic interactions. This generator thus complements the already existing generator of quasi-elastic neutrino scattering. Here we describe the physics, sampling methods, and other specifics of NUNDIS, as well as the limitations of the code.

  • 110. Battistoni, Giuseppe
    et al.
    Boccone, Vittorio
    Broggi, Francesco
    Brugger, Markus
    Campanella, Mauro
    Carboni, Massimo
    Cerutti, Francesco
    Empl, Anton
    Fasso, Alberto
    Ferrari, Alfredo
    Ferrari, Anna
    Gadioli, Ettore
    Garzelli, Maria Vittoria
    Kramer, Daniel
    Lantz, Mattias
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Lebbos, Elias
    Mairani, Andrea
    Margiotta, Annarita
    Mereghetti, Alessio
    Morone, Cristina
    Muraro, Silvia
    Parodi, Katia
    Patera, Vincenzo
    Pelliccioni, Maurizio
    Pinsky, Lawrence
    Ranft, Johannes
    Roeed, Ketil
    Roesler, Stefan
    Rollet, Sofia
    Sala, Paola R.
    Santana, Mario
    Sarchiapone, Lucia
    Sioli, Massimiliano
    Smirnov, George
    Sommerer, Florian
    Theis, Christian
    Trovati, Stefania
    Versaci, Roberto
    Villari, Rosaria
    Vincke, Heinz
    Vincke, Helmut
    Vlachoudis, Vasilis
    Vollaire, Joachim
    Zapp, Neil
    FLUKA Capabilities and CERN Applications for the Study of Radiation Damage to Electronics at High-Energy Hadron Accelerators2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The assessment of radiation damage to electronics is a complex process and requires a detailed description of the full particle energy spectra, as well as a clear characterization of the quantities used to predict radiation damage. FLUKA, a multi-purpose particle interaction and transport code, is capable of calculating proton-proton and heavy ion collisions at LHC energies and beyond. It correctly describes the entire hadronic and electromagnetic particle cascade initiated by secondary particles from TeV energies down to thermal neutrons, and provides direct scoring capabilities essential to estimate in detail the possible risk of radiation damage to electronics. This paper presents the FLUKA capabilities for applications related to radiation damage to electronics, providing benchmarking examples and showing the practical applications of FLUKA at CERN facilities such as CNGS and LHC. Related applications range from the study of device effects, the detailed characterization of the radiation field and radiation monitor calibration, to the input requirements for important mitigation studies including shielding, relocation or other options.

  • 111. Battistoni, Giuseppe
    et al.
    Broggi, Francesco
    Brugger, Markus
    Campanella, Mauro
    Carboni, Massimo
    Empl, Anton
    Fasso, Alberto
    Gadioli, Ettore
    Cerutti, Francesco
    Ferrari, Alfredo
    Ferrari, Anna
    Garzelli, Maria Vittoria
    Lantz, Mattias
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Mairani, Andrea
    Magiotta, M.
    Morone, Cristina
    Muraro, Silvia
    Parodi, Katia
    Patera, Vincenzo
    Pelliccioni, Maurizio
    Pinsky, Lawrence
    Ranft, Johannes
    Roesler, Stefan
    Rollet, Sofia
    Sala, Paola R.
    Santana, Mario
    Sarchiapone, Lucia
    Sioli, Massimiliano
    Smirnov, George
    Sommerer, Florian
    Theis, Christian
    Trovati, Stefania
    Villari, R.
    Vincke, Heinz
    Vincke, Helmut
    Vlachoudis, Vasilis
    Vollaire, Joachim
    Zapp, Neil
    The Application of the Monte Carlo Code FLUKA in Radiation Protection Studies for the Large Hadron Collider2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The multi-purpose particle interaction and transport code FLUKA is integral part of all radiation protection studies for the design and operation of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. It is one of the very few codes available for this type of calculations which is capable to calculate in one and the same simulation proton-proton and heavy ion collisions at LHC energies as well as the entire hadronic and electromagnetic particle cascade initiated by secondary particles in detectors and beam-line components from TeV energies down to energies of thermal neutrons. The present paper reviews these capabilities of FLUKA in sketching the relevant physics models along with examples ofradiation protection studies for the LHC such as shielding studies for underground areas occupied by personnel during LHC operation and the simulation of induced radioactivity around beam loss points. Integral part of the FLUKA development is a careful benchmarking of specific models as well as the code performance in actual, complex applications which is demonstrated with examples of studies relevant to radiation protection at the LHC.

  • 112. Beal, J.
    et al.
    Andersson Sundén, Erik
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Asp, E.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Binda, Federico
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Cecconello, Marco
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Conroy, Sean
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Dzysiuk, Nataliia
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Ericsson, Göran
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Eriksson, Jacob
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Hellesen, Carl
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Sjöstrand, Henrik
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Skiba, Mateusz
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Weiszflog, Matthias
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Zychor, I.
    Deposition in the inner and outer corners of the JET divertor with carbon wall and metallic ITER-like wall2016Inngår i: Physica Scripta, ISSN 0031-8949, E-ISSN 1402-4896, Vol. T167, artikkel-id 014052Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Rotating collectors and quartz microbalances (QMBs) are used in JET to provide time-dependent measurements of erosion and deposition. Rotation of collector discs behind apertures allows recording of the long term evolution of deposition. QMBs measure mass change via the frequency deviations of vibrating quartz crystals. These diagnostics are used to investigate erosion/deposition during JET-C carbon operation and JET-ILW (ITER-like wall) beryllium/tungsten operation. A simple geometrical model utilising experimental data is used to model the time-dependent collector deposition profiles, demonstrating good qualitative agreement with experimental results. Overall, the JET-ILW collector deposition is reduced by an order of magnitude relative to JET-C, with beryllium replacing carbon as the dominant deposit. However, contrary to JET-C, in JET-ILW there is more deposition on the outer collector than the inner. This reversal of deposition asymmetry is investigated using an analysis of QMB data and is attributed to the different chemical properties of carbon and beryllium.

  • 113.
    Bejmer, Klaes-Håkan
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Malm, Christian
    PWR fuel of high enrichment with erbia and enriched gadolinia2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 114. Belli, Francesco
    et al.
    Conroy, Sean
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Esposito, Basilio
    Giacomelli, Luca
    Kiptily, Vasily
    Luecke, Andre
    Marocco, Daniele
    Riva, Marco
    Schuhmacher, Helmut
    Syme, Brian
    Tittelmeier, Kai
    Zimbal, Andreas
    Conceptual Design, Development and Preliminary Tests of a Compact Neutron Spectrometer for the JET Experiment2012Inngår i: IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, ISSN 0018-9499, E-ISSN 1558-1578, Vol. 59, nr 5, s. 2512-2519Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A Compact Neutron Spectrometer (CNS) has been developed to measure the neutron emission spectra in Joint European Torus (JET) fusion plasma experiments. The spectrometer, based on a liquid scintillation detector (BC501A), is equipped with a Digital Pulse Shape Discrimination (DPSD) acquisition system for neutron (n) and gamma-ray(gamma) separation. The CNS enables recording the n and gamma pulse height spectra (PHS) up to total count rates of similar to 10(6) s(-1). Energy resolution, after PHS unfolding, will be <2% for 14 MeV neutrons and <4% for 2.5 MeV neutrons. The work done by ENEA-Frascati and Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) respectively in the assembly and test of DPSD and scintillation detector, along with the first results obtained by the spectrometer in JET plasma experiments are presented. The experience obtained with CNS in JET will contribute to the development of neutron spectrometers suitable for applications in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER).

  • 115.
    Berglund, Martin
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Mikrosystemteknik.
    Gruden, Mathias
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Fasta tillståndets elektronik.
    Thornell, Greger
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Mikrosystemteknik.
    Persson, Anders
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Mikrosystemteknik.
    Evaluation of a microplasma source based on a stripline split-ring resonator2013Inngår i: Plasma sources science & technology (Print), ISSN 0963-0252, E-ISSN 1361-6595, Vol. 22, nr 5, s. 055017-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, a stripline split-ring resonator microwave-induced plasma source, aimed for integration in complex systems, is presented and compared with a traditional microstrip design. Devices based on the two designs are evaluated using a plasma breakdown test setup for measuring the power required to ignite plasmas at different pressures. Moreover, the radiation efficiency of the devices is investigated with a Wheeler cap, and their electromagnetic compatibility is investigated in a variable electrical environment emulating an application. Finally, the basic properties of the plasma in the two designs are investigated in terms of electron temperature, plasma potential and ion density. The study shows that, with a minor increase in plasma ignition power, the stripline design provides a more isolated and easy-to-integrate alternative to the conventional microstrip design. Moreover, the stripline devices showed a decreased antenna efficiency as compared with their microstrip counterparts, which is beneficial for plasma sources. Furthermore, the investigated stripline devices exhibited virtually no frequency shift in a varying electromagnetic environment, whereas the resonance frequency of their microstrip counterparts shifted up to 17.5%. With regard to the plasma parameters, the different designs showed only minor differences in electron temperature, whereas the ion density was higher with the stripline design.

  • 116.
    Berglund, Martin
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Tillämpad materialvetenskap.
    Persson, Anders
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Thornell, Greger
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Tillämpad materialvetenskap.
    Operation characteristics and optical emission distribution of a miniaturized silicon through-substrate split-ring resonator microplasma source2014Inngår i: Journal of microelectromechanical systems, ISSN 1057-7157, E-ISSN 1941-0158, Vol. 23, nr 6, s. 1340-1345Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There are many new microplasma sources being developed for a wide variety of applications, each with different properties tailored to its specific use. Microplasma sources enable portable instruments for, e.g., chemical analysis, sterilization, or activation of substances. A novel microplasma source, based on a microstrip split-ring resonator design with electrodes integrated in its silicon substrate, was designed, manufactured, and evaluated. This device has a plasma discharge gap with a controlled volume and geometry, and offers straightforward integration with other microelectromechancial systems (MEMS) components, e.g., microfluidics. The realized device was resonant at around 2.9 GHz with a quality factor of 18.7. Two different operational modes were observed with the plasma at high pressure being confined in the gap between the electrodes, whereas the plasma at low pressures appeared between the ends of the electrodes on the backside. Measurement of the angular distribution of light emitted from the device with through-substrate electrodes showed narrow emission lobes compared with a reference plasma source with on-substrate electrodes.

  • 117. Bergmann, Olaf
    et al.
    Zdunek, Sofia
    Felker, Anastasia
    Salehpour, Mehran
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Alkass, Kanar
    Bernard, Samuel
    Sjostrom, Staffan L.
    Szewczykowska, Mirosawa
    Jackowska, Teresa
    dos Remedios, Cris
    Malm, Torsten
    Andrae, Michaela
    Jashari, Ramadan
    Nyengaard, Jens R.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi.
    Jovinge, Stefan
    Druid, Henrik
    Frisen, Jonas
    Dynamics of Cell Generation and Turnover in the Human Heart2015Inngår i: Cell, ISSN 0092-8674, E-ISSN 1097-4172, Vol. 161, nr 7, s. 1566-1575Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The contribution of cell generation to physiological heart growth and maintenance in humans has been difficult to establish and has remained controversial. We report that the full complement of cardiomyocytes is established perinataly and remains stable over the human lifespan, whereas the numbers of both endothelial and mesenchymal cells increase substantially from birth to early adulthood. Analysis of the integration of nuclear bomb test-derived C-14 revealed a high turnover rate of endothelial cells throughout life (>15% per year) and more limited renewal of mesenchymal cells (<4% per year in adulthood). Cardiomyocyte exchange is highest in early childhood and decreases gradually throughout life to <1% per year in adulthood, with similar turnover rates in the major subdivisions of the myocardium. We provide an integrated model of cell generation and turnover in the human heart.

  • 118. Bernardo, J.
    et al.
    Andersson Sundén, Erik
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Asp, E.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Binda, Federico
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Cecconello, Marco
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Conroy, Sean
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Dzysiuk, Nataliia
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Ericsson, Göran
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Eriksson, Jacob
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Hellesen, Carl
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Sjöstrand, Henrik
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Skiba, Mateusz
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Weiszflog, Matthias
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Zychor, I.
    Ion temperature and toroidal rotation in JET's low torque plasmas2016Inngår i: Review of Scientific Instruments, ISSN 0034-6748, E-ISSN 1089-7623, Vol. 87, nr 11, artikkel-id 11E557Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on the procedure developed as the best method to provide an accurate and reliable estimation of the ion temperature T-i and the toroidal velocity v(phi) from Charge-eXchange Recombination Spectroscopy (CXRS) data from intrinsic rotation experiments at the Joint European Torus with the carbon wall. The low impurity content observed in such plasmas, resulting in low active CXRS signal, alongside low Doppler shifts makes the determination of Ti and v(phi) particularly difficult. The beam modulation method will be discussed along with the measures taken to increase photon statistics and minimise errors from the absolute calibration and magneto-hydro-dynamics effects that may impact the CXRS passive emission.

  • 119. Bernert, M.
    et al.
    Andersson Sundén, Erik
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Asp, E.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Binda, F.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Cecconello, Marco
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Conroy, Sean
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Dzysiuk, N.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Ericsson, Göran
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Eriksson, Jacob
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Hellesen, C.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Sjöstrand, Henrik
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Skiba, M.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Weiszflog, Matthias
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Zychor, I.
    Power exhaust by SOL and pedestal radiation at ASDEX Upgrade and JET2017Inngår i: Nuclear Materials and Energy, E-ISSN 2352-1791, Vol. 12, s. 111-118Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Future fusion reactors require a safe, steady state divertor operation. A possible solution for the power exhaust challenge is the detached divertor operation in scenarios with high radiated power fractions. The radiation can be increased by seeding impurities, such as N for dominant scrape-off-layer radiation, Ne or Ar for SOL and pedestal radiation and Kr for dominant core radiation. Recent experiments on two of the all-metal tokamaks, ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) and JET, demonstrate operation with high radiated power fractions and a fully-detached divertor by N, Ne or Kr seeding with a conventional divertor in a vertical target geometry. For both devices similar observations can be made. In the scenarios with the highest radiated power fraction, the dominant radiation originates from the confined region, in the case of N and Ne seeding concentrated in a region close to the X-point. Applying these seed impurities for highly radiative scenarios impacts local plasma parameters and alters the impurity transport in the pedestal region. Thus, plasma confinement and stability can be affected. A proper understanding of the effects by these impurities is required in order to predict the applicability of such scenarios for future devices. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 120.
    Bevilacqua, Riccardo
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Neutron-Induced Light-Ion Production from Iron and Bismuth at 175 MeV2011Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Radioactive waste management is one of the key issues in sustainability of nuclear energy production. Geological repositories represent today the most appropriate solution to long-term management of high-level radioactive waste. Strategies such as Partitioning and Transmutation of spent nuclear fuel may offer a positive impact on geological repositories, by reducing the mass of transuranium elements to be disposed and the time scale for their radiotoxicity. In this scenario, Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) may play a relevant role as dedicated burners towards sustainable nuclear energy.

    The NEXT project at Uppsala University contributes to a European effort to improve nuclear data knowledge for transmutation, providing the first experimental neutron induced data in the 100 to 200 MeV energy region. This thesis presents measurements of double-differential cross sections for production of light-ions in the interaction of 175 MeV quasi-monoenergetic neutrons with Fe and Bi. Results are compared with model calculations obtained with state-of-the-art nuclear reaction codes; TALYS-1.2, a modified version of JQMD, and MCNP6. Special focus in this work is given to pre-equilibrium emission of composite light-ions. A new energy dependence in the mechanisms described by the Kalbach systematics used in TALYS to account for composite particle emission in the pre-equilibrium stage is proposed. Data show also the need to include multiple pre-equilibrium emission of composite particles, a mechanism now included in TALYS only for protons and neutrons. The JQMD code was recently modified to include a surface coalescence model in the quantum molecular dynamics description of the formation of composite particles. Comparisons of the measured data with results from this modified JQMD code confirm the importance of coalescence mechanisms for the description of the emission spectra of composite particles. Finally, the neutron-induced data are compared with MCNP6 calculations, to contribute to the process of validation and verification of the code.

  • 121.
    Bevilacqua, Riccardo
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    New neutron data measurements at 175 MeV for Accelerator Driven Systems2011Inngår i: Proceedings of the 2011 International Congress on Advances in Nuclear Power Plants: Performance & Flexibility: The Power of Innovation, 2011, s. 2828-2834Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We have compared TALYS, MCNP6 and quantum molecular dynamics model calculations with preliminary light-ion production data in the interaction of 175 MeV quasi-monoenergetic neutrons with Fe and Bi. Data were measured with the Medley setup at the The Svedberg Laboratory, in Uppsala – Sweden. These are the first neutron induced light-ion production data available in the 100 to 200 MeV energy region; these data are relevant for the development of accelerator-driven system technologies, and are needed to ensure a link between high and low energy processes. Model calculations are consistent with some results, but at the moment no code is able to fully predict  all the experimental data. Our results show the need of further investigation of neutron-induced reactions in this energy region, in particular to study the production of composite light ions.

  • 122.
    Bevilacqua, Riccardo
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Pomp, Stephan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Hayashi, Masataru
    Hirayama, Shusuke
    Naitou, Yuuki
    Watanabe, Yukinobu
    Tippawan, Udomrat
    Simutkin, Vasily
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Andersson, Pernilla
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi.
    Blomgren, Jan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Österlund, Michael
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Tesinsky, Milan
    Lecolley, Francoise-Rene
    Marie, Nathalie
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    Prokofiev, Alexander V.
    Uppsala universitet, The Svedberg-laboratoriet.
    Kolozhvari, Anatoly
    Study of pre-equilibrium emission of light complex particles from Fe and Bi induced by intermediate energy neutrons2011Inngår i: International Nuclear Physics Conference 2010: Nuclear Reactions, 2011, s. 082013-Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We have measured double differential cross sections (DDX) for emission of hydrogen- and helium-isotopes in the interaction of 175 MeV quasi-monoenergetic neutrons with Fe and Bi using the Medley setup at the The Svedberg Laboratory (Uppsala, Sweden). We compared experimental DDX with calculations with the TALYS code, which includes exciton model and Kalbach systematics; the code fails to reproduce the emission of complex light-ions, generally overestimating it. We propose an correction for the application of the Kalbach phenomenological model in the TALYS code by introducing a new energy dependence for the nucleon transfer mechanism in the pre-equilibrium emission region. Our results suggest also evidence for multiple pre-equilibrium emission of composite particles at 175 MeV.

     

  • 123.
    Bevilacqua, Riccardo
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Pomp, Stephan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Jansson, Kaj
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Gustavsson, Cecilia
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Osterlund, M.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Simutkin, V.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Hayashi, M.
    Hirayama, S.
    Naitou, Y.
    Watanabe, Y.
    Hjalmarsson, A.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Prokofiev, A.
    Uppsala universitet, The Svedberg-laboratoriet.
    Tippawan, U.
    Lecolley, F.-R.
    Marie, N
    Leray, S
    David, J.-C.
    Mashnik, S
    Light-ion production from O, Si, Fe and Bi induced by 175 MeV quasi-monoenergetic neutron2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 124.
    Bevilacqua, Riccardo
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Pomp, Stephan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Jansson, Kaj
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Gustavsson, Cecilia
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Österlund, Michael
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Simutkin, V.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Hayashi, M.
    Hirayama, S.
    Naitou, Y.
    Watanabe, Y.
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Prokofiev, Alexander
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik. Uppsala universitet, The Svedberg-laboratoriet.
    Tippawan, U.
    Lecolley, F. -R
    Marie, N.
    Leray, S.
    David, J. -C
    Mashnik, S.
    Light-ion Production from O, Si, Fe and Bi Induced by 175 MeV Quasi-monoenergetic Neutrons2014Inngår i: Nuclear Data Sheets, ISSN 0090-3752, E-ISSN 1095-9904, Vol. 119, s. 190-193Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We have measured double-differential cross sections in the interaction of 175 MeV quasimonoenergetic neutrons with O, Si, Fe and Bi. We have compared these results with model calculations with INCL4.5-Abla07, MCNP6 and TALYS-1.2. We have also compared our data with PHITS calculations, where the pre-equilibrium stage of the reaction was accounted respectively using the JENDL/HE-2007 evaluated data library, the quantum molecular dynamics model (QMD) and a modified version of QMD (MQMD) to include a surface coalescence model. The most crucial aspect is the formation and emission of composite particles in the pre-equilibrium stage.

  • 125.
    Bevilacqua, Riccardo
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Pomp, Stephan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Simutkin, Vasily D.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Hayashi, Masateru
    Hirayama, Shusuke
    Naitou, Yuuki
    Watanabe, Yukinobu
    Tippawan, Udomrat
    Tesinsky, Milan
    Ban, Gilles
    Lecouey, Jean-Luc
    Lecolley, Francois-René
    Marie, Nathalie
    Hamel, Quentin
    Medley spectrometer for ligh ions in neutron induced reactions at 175 MeV2011Inngår i: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, Vol. 646, nr 1, s. 100-107Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We have upgraded the Medley spectrometer to measure neutron-induced double differential cross-sections for light-ion production, with neutron energies up to 175 MeV. Measurements were performed at the quasi-monoenergetic neutron beam line at the The Svedberg Laboratory, in Uppsala (Sweden). Medley is a spectrometer system composed of eight three-element telescope detectors; Delta E-E technique is used for particle identification and total kinetic energy measurement. We have improved particle separation and installed new detectors that fully stop ions with kinetic energy up to 170 MeV. To reduce the contribution of the low energy tail in the quasi-monoenergetic neutron spectrum, we have applied time-of-flight techniques and investigated the results for measurements with 175 MeV neutrons. We have investigated the response function of the CsI(Tl) scintillators and describe a method for efficiency correction. We have studied the signal-to-background ratio of the new configuration of the spectrometer and of the collimation system. A method to obtain absolute cross-section normalization, separating the peak neutrons from the low-energy tail, is proposed. Finally we have characterized the 175 MeV quasi-monoenergetic neutron spectrum with the Medley spectrometer. This upgraded configuration has been used in 2007 and 2009 for light-ion production measurements at 175 MeV from C, Si, O, Fe, Bi and U.

  • 126.
    Bevilacqua, Riccardo
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Pomp, Stephan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Simutkin, Vasily D.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Tippawan, U.
    Andersson, Pernilla
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Blomgren, Jan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Österlund, Michael
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Hayashi, M.
    Hirayama, S.
    Naito, Y.
    Watanabe, Y.
    Tesinsky, M.
    LeColley, F. -R
    Marie, N.
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    Uppsala universitet, The Svedberg-laboratoriet.
    Prokofiev, Alexander V.
    Uppsala universitet, The Svedberg-laboratoriet.
    Kolozhvari, A.
    Neutron induced light-ion production from iron and bismuth at 175 MeV2010Inngår i: Radiation Measurements, ISSN 1350-4487, E-ISSN 1879-0925, Vol. 45, nr 10, s. 1145-1150Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We have measured light-ion (p, d, t, He-3 and alpha) production in the interaction of 175 MeV neutrons with iron and bismuth with low-energy thresholds and for a wide angular range (from 20 degrees to 160 degrees, in steps of 20 degrees). Measurements have been performed with the Medley setup, semi-permanently installed at the The Svedberg Laboratory, Uppsala (Sweden), where a quasi-monoenergetic neutron beam is available and well characterized. Medley is a conventional spectrometer system and consists of eight telescopes, each of them composed of two silicon surface barrier detectors, to perform particle identification, and a CsI(Tl) scintillator to fully measure the kinetic energy of the produced light-ions. We report preliminary double-differential cross sections for production of protons, deuterons and tritons in comparison with model calculations using TALYS-1.0 code. These show better agreement for the production of protons, while the theoretical calculations seem to overestimate the experimental production of deuterons and tritons.

  • 127.
    Bevilacqua, Riccardo
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Pomp, Stephan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Simutkin, Vasily D.
    Tippawan, U.
    Hayashi, M.
    Hirayama, S.
    Naitou, Y.
    Watanabe, Y.
    Prokofiev, Alexander V.
    Uppsala universitet, The Svedberg-laboratoriet.
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    Uppsala universitet, The Svedberg-laboratoriet.
    Andersson, P.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Blomgren, Jan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Österlund, Michael
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Tesinsky, M.
    Lecolley, F. -R
    Marie, N.
    Kolozhvari, A.
    Light-Ion Production in the Interaction of 175 MeV Neutrons with Iron and Bismuth2011Inngår i: Journal of the Korean Physical Society, ISSN 0374-4884, E-ISSN 1976-8524, Vol. 59, nr 2, s. 1701-1704Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We have measured double-differential (angle and energy) cross sections for light-ion (p, d, t, (3)He, and a) production in the interaction of quasi-monoenergetic 175 MeV neutrons with iron and bismuth. Measurements have been performed at the The Svedberg Laboratory, Uppsala (Sweden), using the Medley setup which allows low-energy thresholds and wide energy and angular ranges. Medley is a spectrometer system consisting of eight three-element telescopes placed at angles from 20 degrees to 160 degrees, in steps of 20 degrees. Each telescope is composed of two silicon surface barrier detectors and a CsI(Tl) scintillator, to perform particle identification, fully stop the produced light-ions and measure their kinetic energy. The time-of-flight was used to reduce the contribution from the low energy tail in the accepted incident neutron spectrum. We report double-differential production cross sections for protons, deuterons, tritons, (3)He and alpha particles and compare them with model calculations with TALYS-1.2.

  • 128. Bevilacqua, Riccardo
    et al.
    Pomp, Stephan
    Simutkin, Vasily
    Tippawan, Udomrat
    Andersson, Pernilla
    Blomgren, Jan
    Osterlund, Michael
    Hayashi, Masateru
    Hirayama, Shusuke
    Naito, Yuuki
    Watanabe, Yukinobu
    Tesinsky, Milan
    LeColley, Francois-Rene
    Marie, Nathalie
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Prokofiev, Alexander V.
    Uppsala universitet, The Svedberg-laboratoriet.
    Kolozhvari, Anatoly
    Neutron induced light-ion production from Iron and Bismuth at 175 MeV2010Inngår i: CNR '09: SECOND INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON COMPOUND NUCLEAR REACTIONS AND RELATED TOPICS, 2010, artikkel-id 05005Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We have measured light-ion (p, d, t, He-3 and alpha) production in the interaction of 175 MeV neutrons with iron and bismuth, using the MEDLEY setup. A large set of measurements at 96 MeV has been recently completed and published, and now higher energy region is under investigation. MEDLEY is a conventional spectrometer system that allows low-energy thresholds and offers measurements over a wide angular range. The system consists of eight telescopes, each of them composed of two silicon surface barrier detectors, to perform particle identification, and a Csl(Tl) scintillator to fully measure the kinetic energy of the produced light-ions. The telescopes are placed at angles from 20 degrees to 160 degrees, in steps of 20 degrees. Measurements have been performed at The Svedberg Laboratory, Uppsala (Sweden), where a quasi mono-energetic neutron beam is available and well characterized. Time of flight techniques are used to select light-ion events induced by neutrons in the main peak of the source neutron spectrum. We report preliminary double differential cross sections for production of protons, deuterons and tritons in comparison with model calculations using TALYS-1.0 code.

  • 129.
    Bevilacqua, Riccardo
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Pomp, Stephan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Simutkin, Vasily
    Tippawan, Udomrat
    Hayashi, Masateru
    Hirayama, Shusuke
    Naitou, Yuuki
    Watanabe, Yukinobu
    Prokofiev, Alexander
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    Andersson, Pernilla
    Blomgren, Jan
    Österlund, Michael
    Tesinsky, Milan
    Lecolley, Francois-Rene
    Marie, Nathalie
    Kolozhvari, Anatoly
    Light-ion production in the interaction of 175 MeV neutrons with iron and bismuth2011Inngår i: Journal of Korean Physical Society: Proceedings of the International Conference on Nuclear Data for Science and Technology / [ed] Korean Physical Society, 2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We have measured double-differential (angle and energy) cross sections for light-ion (p, d, t, 3He and α) production in the interaction of quasi-monoenergetic 175 MeV neutrons with iron and bismuth. Measurements have been performed at the The Svedberg Laboratory, Uppsala (Sweden), using the Medley setup which allows low-energy thresholds and wide energy and angular ranges. Medley is a spectrometer system consisting of eight three-element telescopes placed at angles from 20◦ to 160◦, in steps of 20◦. Each telescope is composed of two silicon surface barrier detectors and a CsI(Tl) scintillator, to perform particle identification,fully stop the produced light-ions and measure their kinetic energy. The time-of-flight was used to reduce the contribution from the low energy tail in the accepted incident neutron spectrum. We report double-differential production cross sections for protons, deuterons, tritons, 3He and α particles and compare them with model calculations with TALYS-1.2.

  • 130.
    Bevilacqua, Riccardo
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Watanabe, Yukinobu
    Kyushu University.
    Pomp, Stephan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Exciton model and quantum molecular dynamics in inclusive nucleon-induced reactions2011Inngår i: Proceedings of the 2010 Symposium on Nuclear Data (SND-2010) / [ed] Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 131.
    Biel, W.
    et al.
    Forschungszentrum Julich, Inst Energie & Klimaforschurg, Julich, Germany;Univ Ghent, Dept Appl Phys, Ghent, Belgium.
    Albanese, R.
    Univ Napoli Federico II, Consorzio CREATE, Naples, Italy.
    Ambrosino, R.
    Univ Napoli Parthenope, Consorzio CREATE, Naples, Italy.
    Ariola, M.
    Univ Napoli Parthenope, Consorzio CREATE, Naples, Italy.
    Berkel, M. , V
    Bolshakova, I
    Magnet Sensor Lab, Lvov, Ukraine.
    Brunner, K. J.
    Max Planck Inst Plasma Phys, Greifswald, Germany.
    Cavazzana, R.
    Univ Padua, Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, ENEA, Consorzio RFX,CNR, Padua, Italy.
    Cecconello, Marco
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Conroy, Sean
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Dinklage, A.
    Max Planck Inst Plasma Phys, Greifswald, Germany.
    Duran, I
    Czech Acad Sci, Inst Plasma Phys, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Dux, R.
    Max Planck Inst Plasma Phys, Garching, Germany.
    Eade, T.
    Culham Sci Ctr, CCFE, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England.
    Entler, S.
    Czech Acad Sci, Inst Plasma Phys, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Ericsson, Göran
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Fable, E.
    Max Planck Inst Plasma Phys, Garching, Germany.
    Farina, D.
    CNR, IFP, Milan, Italy.
    Figini, L.
    CNR, IFP, Milan, Italy.
    Finotti, C.
    Univ Padua, Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, ENEA, Consorzio RFX,CNR, Padua, Italy.
    Franke, Th
    Max Planck Inst Plasma Phys, Garching, Germany;EUROfus Power Plant Phys & Technol PPPT Dept, Garching, Germany.
    Giacomelli, L.
    CNR, IFP, Milan, Italy.
    Giannone, L.
    Max Planck Inst Plasma Phys, Garching, Germany.
    Gonzalez, W.
    Forschungszentrum Julich, Inst Energie & Klimaforschurg, Julich, Germany.
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Hron, M.
    Czech Acad Sci, Inst Plasma Phys, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Janky, F.
    Max Planck Inst Plasma Phys, Garching, Germany.
    Kallenbach, A.
    Max Planck Inst Plasma Phys, Garching, Germany.
    Kogoj, J.
    Cosylab, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Koenig, R.
    Max Planck Inst Plasma Phys, Greifswald, Germany.
    Kudlacek, O.
    Max Planck Inst Plasma Phys, Garching, Germany.
    Luis, R.
    Univ Lisbon, Inst Plasmas & Fusao Nucl, IST, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Malaquias, A.
    Univ Lisbon, Inst Plasmas & Fusao Nucl, IST, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Marchuk, O.
    Forschungszentrum Julich, Inst Energie & Klimaforschurg, Julich, Germany.
    Marchiori, G.
    Univ Padua, Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, ENEA, Consorzio RFX,CNR, Padua, Italy.
    Mattei, M.
    Univ Campania Luigi Vanvitelli, Consorzio CREATE, Caserta, Italy.
    Maviglia, F.
    Univ Napoli Federico II, Consorzio CREATE, Naples, Italy;EUROfus Power Plant Phys & Technol PPPT Dept, Garching, Germany.
    De Masi, G.
    Univ Padua, Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, ENEA, Consorzio RFX,CNR, Padua, Italy.
    Mazon, D.
    CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St Paul Les Durance, France.
    Meister, H.
    Max Planck Inst Plasma Phys, Garching, Germany.
    Meyer, K.
    Cosylab, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Micheletti, D.
    CNR, IFP, Milan, Italy.
    Nowak, S.
    CNR, IFP, Milan, Italy.
    Piron, Ch
    Univ Padua, Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, ENEA, Consorzio RFX,CNR, Padua, Italy.
    Pironti, A.
    Univ Napoli Federico II, Consorzio CREATE, Naples, Italy.
    Rispoli, N.
    CNR, IFP, Milan, Italy.
    Rohde, V
    Max Planck Inst Plasma Phys, Garching, Germany.
    Sergienko, G.
    Forschungszentrum Julich, Inst Energie & Klimaforschurg, Julich, Germany.
    El Shawish, S.
    Jozef Stefan Inst, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Siccinio, M.
    Max Planck Inst Plasma Phys, Garching, Germany;EUROfus Power Plant Phys & Technol PPPT Dept, Garching, Germany.
    Silva, A.
    Univ Lisbon, Inst Plasmas & Fusao Nucl, IST, Lisbon, Portugal.
    da Silva, F.
    Univ Lisbon, Inst Plasmas & Fusao Nucl, IST, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Sozzi, C.
    CNR, IFP, Milan, Italy.
    Tardocchi, M.
    CNR, IFP, Milan, Italy.
    Tokar, M.
    Forschungszentrum Julich, Inst Energie & Klimaforschurg, Julich, Germany.
    Treutterer, W.
    Max Planck Inst Plasma Phys, Garching, Germany.
    Zohm, H.
    Max Planck Inst Plasma Phys, Garching, Germany.
    Diagnostics for plasma control -: From ITER to DEMO2019Inngår i: Fusion engineering and design, ISSN 0920-3796, E-ISSN 1873-7196, Vol. 146, nr A, s. 465-472Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The plasma diagnostic and control (D&C) system for a future tokamak demonstration fusion reactor (DEMO) will have to provide reliable operation near technical and physics limits, while its front-end components will be subject to strong adverse effects within the nuclear and high temperature plasma environment. The ongoing developments for the ITER D&C system represent an important starting point for progressing towards DEMO. Requirements for detailed exploration of physics are however pushing the ITER diagnostic design towards using sophisticated methods and aiming for large spatial coverage and high signal intensities, so that many front-end components have to be mounted in forward positions. In many cases this results in a rapid aging of diagnostic components, so that additional measures like protection shutters, plasma based mirror cleaning or modular approaches for frequent maintenance and exchange are being developed. Under the even stronger fluences of plasma particles, neutron/gamma and radiation loads on DEMO, durable and reliable signals for plasma control can only be obtained by selecting diagnostic methods with regard to their robustness, and retracting vulnerable front-end components into protected locations. Based on this approach, an initial DEMO D&C concept is presented, which covers all major control issues by signals to be derived from at least two different diagnostic methods (risk mitigation).

  • 132. Bielewicz, M.
    et al.
    Kilim, S.
    Strugalska-Gola, E.
    Szuta, M.
    Wojciechowski, A.
    Tyutyunnikov, S.
    Prokofiev, Alexander
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Passoth, Elke
    Uppsala universitet, The Svedberg-laboratoriet.
    (n,xn) cross section measurements for Y-89 foils used as detectors for high energy neutron measurements in the deeply subcritical assembly “QUINTA”2017Inngår i: ND 2016: INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON NUCLEAR DATA FOR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY / [ed] Plompen, A.; Hambsch, FJ.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Mondelaers, W.; Heyse, J.; Kopecky, S.; Siegler, P.; Oberstedt, S., Les Ulis: EDP Sciences, 2017, Vol. 146, artikkel-id 11032Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Study of the deep subcritical systems (QUINTA) using relativistic beams is performed within the project “Energy and Transmutation of Radioactive Wastes” (E&T – RAW). The experiment assembly was irradiated by deuteron/proton beam (Dubna NUCLOTRON). We calculated the neutron energy spectrum inside the whole assembly by using threshold energy (n,xn) reactions in yttrium (Y-89) foils. There are almost no experimental cross section data for those reactions. New Y-89(n,xn) cross section measurements were carried out at The Svedberg laboratory (TSL) in Uppsala, Sweden in 2015. In this paper we present preliminary results of those experiments.

  • 133.
    Binda, Federico
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Andersson Sundén, Erik
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Eriksson, Jacob
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Hellesen, Carl
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Ericsson, Göran
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Absolute calibration of the JET neutron profile monitorInngår i: Review of Scientific Instruments, ISSN 0034-6748, E-ISSN 1089-7623Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 134.
    Binda, Federico
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Characterization of a NE-213 liquid scintillator for neutron flux measurement at JET2011Annet (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The measurment of the total neutron rate from a nuclear fusion reactor is very important in order to calculate the power produced in a plasma. An improvement of a method currently in use at JET will involve the installation of an organic liquid scintillator NE-213 of 1 cm3 of volume combined with a digital acquisition card. 

    In this project a first stage of the characterization of the digitizer and of the detector has been performed.

  • 135.
    Binda, Federico
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    High Count Rate Neutron Detector Installation at JET2011Annet (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The measurement of fusion power is of paramount importance for the control of a fusion reactor's operation. The neutron yield from the reactor is strictly related to the energy production. One of the methods employed at JET to measure the yield involves the use of the MPRu spectrometer together with the neutron camera. However the MPRu has an intrinsically low efficiency (about 10-6), which results in a poor time resolution. An improvement involving the installation of a NE213 detectorfor high count rate has been proposed. The testing phase of the new instrumentation, conducted at Uppsala University, has shown that the acquisition system works properly and it is ready to be installed on site in view of the coming JET experimental campaign.

  • 136.
    Binda, Federico
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Liquid scintillators as neutron diagnostic tools for fusion plasmas: System characterization and data analysis2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The neutrons produced in fusion devices carry information about various properties of the ions that are reacting in the machine. Measurements of the neutron flux and energy distribution can therefore be used to study the behaviour of the plasma ions under different experimental conditions.

    Several neutron detection techniques are available, each having advantages and disadvantages compared to the others. In this thesis we study neutron measurements performed with NE213 liquid scintillators. One advantage of NE213s compared to other neutron detection techniques is that they are simple to use, small and cheap. On the other hand, their response to neutrons makes the extraction of information about the neutron energy less precise.

    In the thesis we present the development of methods for the characterization and the data analysis of NE213 detectors. The work was performed using two instruments installed at the Joint European Torus (JET) tokamak in the UK: the “Afterburner” detector, which is an NE213 installed on a tangential line of sight, and the neutron camera, which is a system composed of 19 NE213 detectors installed on different lines of sight (10 horizontal and 9 vertical).The analysis of data from the Afterburner detector was focused on resolving different features of the neutron energy spectra which are related to different properties of the ion velocity distribution.

    The analysis of data from the neutron camera was directed towards the investigation of the spatial distribution of ions in the plasma. However, the individual characterization of the camera detectors allowed the inclusion of information about the energy distribution of the ions in the analysis.

    The outcomes of the studies performed indicate that the methods developed give reliable results and can therefore be applied to extract information about the plasma ions. In particular, the possibility of performing neutron emission spectroscopy analysis in each line of sight of a neutron camera is of great value for future studies.

  • 137.
    Binda, Federico
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Neutron emission spectroscopy of fusion plasmas with a NE213 liquid scintillator at JET2015Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Neutron diagnostics will play a fundamental role in future fusion plasma machines,where the harsh environment will make the use of many other type of diagnos-tics practically impossible. Complex techniques to measure the neutron spectrumemitted from tokamk plasmas have been developed over the years, producing stateof the art neutron spectrometers. However, recently compact neutron spectrom-eters have been gaining the interest of the research community. They are muchsimpler to operate and maintain, have lower cost and they can be employed in thechannels of a neutron camera, providing profile measurements. The drawbacks arethat they have a worse resolution and a response to neutrons that is not optimalfor spectroscopy.The goal of the work presented in this thesis is to estimate to which extenta compact detector such as a NE213 liquid scintillator can be used to performneutron emission spectroscopy analysis.The detector used for this study was installed in the back of the MPRu spec-trometer at JET in 2012. The characterization of the response of the detector wasdone using a combination of MCNPX simulations and real measurements. Thedata analysis was performed using the forward fitting approach: a model of theneutron spectrum is produced, then folded with the response of the detector andfinally compared with the data. Two types of plasma scenarios were analyzed, onewith NBI heating only, and another with NBI and third harmonic radio-frequencyheating. In both cases the TOFOR spectrometer was used as a reference to esti-mate the parameters in the model of the neutron spectrum.The results are promising and suggest that neutron spectroscopy can be per-formed with NE213 scintillators although the quality of the results, as given byperformance indicators such as uncertainties, is much lower than the performanceof high resolution spectrometers.

  • 138.
    Binda, Federico
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Ericsson, Göran
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Conroy, Sean
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Andersson Sundén, Erik
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Calculation of the profile-dependent neutron backscatter matrix for the JET neutron camera system2017Inngår i: Fusion engineering and design, ISSN 0920-3796, E-ISSN 1873-7196, Vol. 123, s. 865-868Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated the dependence of the backscatter component of the neutron spectrum on the emissivity profile. We did so for the JET neutron camera system, by calculating a profile-dependent backscatter matrix for each of the 19 camera channels using a MCNP model of the JET tokamak. We found that, when using a low minimum energy for the summation of the counts in the neutron pulse height spectrum, the backscatter contribution can depend significantly on the emissivity profile. The maximum variation in the backscatter level was 24% (8.0% when compared to the total emission). This effect needs to be considered when a correction for the backscatter contribution is applied to the measured profile.

  • 139.
    Binda, Federico
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Ericsson, Göran
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Eriksson, Jacob
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Hellesen, Carl
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Conroy, Sean
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Sundén, Erik Andersson
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Forward fitting of experimental data from a NE213 neutron detector installed with the magnetic proton recoil upgraded spectrometer at JET2014Inngår i: Review of Scientific Instruments, ISSN 0034-6748, E-ISSN 1089-7623, Vol. 85, nr 11, s. 11E123-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present the results obtained from the data analysis of neutron spectra measured with a NE213 liquid scintillator at JET. We calculated the neutron response matrix of the instrument combining MCNPX simulations, a generic proton light output function measured with another detector and the fit of data from ohmic pulses. For the analysis, we selected a set of pulses with neutral beam injection heating (NBI) only and we applied a forward fitting procedure of modeled spectral components to extract the fraction of thermal neutron emission. The results showed the same trend of the ones obtained with the dedicated spectrometer TOFOR, even though the values from the NE213 analysis were systematically higher. This discrepancy is probably due to the different lines of sight of the two spectrometers (tangential for the NE213, vertical for TOFOR). The uncertainties on the thermal fraction estimates were from 4 to 7 times higher than the ones from the TOFOR analysis.

  • 140.
    Binda, Federico
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Ericsson, Göran
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Hellesen, Carl
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Eriksson, Jacob
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Skiba, Mateusz
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Conroy, Sean
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Weiszflog, Matthias
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Monte Carlo Simulation Of The Data Acquisition Chain Of Scintillation Detectors2014Inngår i: International Conference on Fusion Reactor Diagnostics, SEP 09-13, 2013, Varenna, ITALY, 2014, s. 101-104Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The good performance of a detector can be strongly affected by the instrumentation used to acquire the data. The possibility of anticipating how the acquisition chain will affect the signal can help in finding the best solution among different set-ups. In this work we developed a Monte Carlo code that aims to simulate the effect of the various components of a digital Data Acquisition system (DAQ) applied to scintillation detectors. The components included in the model are: the scintillator, the photomultiplier tube (PMT), the signal cable and the digitizer. We benchmarked the code against real data acquired with a NE213 scintillator, comparing simulated and real signal pulses induced by gamma-ray interaction. Then we studied the dependence of the energy resolution of a pulse height spectrum (PHS) on the sampling frequency and the bit resolution of the digitizer. We found that exceeding some values of the sampling frequency and the bit resolution improves only marginally the performance of the system. The method can be applied for the study of various detector systems relevant for nuclear techniques, such as in fusion diagnostics.

  • 141.
    Binda, Federico
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Eriksson, Jacob
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Ericsson, Göran
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Hellesen, Carl
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Cecconello, Marco
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Nocente, Massimo
    Cazzaniga, Carlo
    Andersson Sundén, Erik
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Analysis of the fast ion tails observed in the NE213pulse height specta measured during third harmonicradio-frequency heating experiments at JETManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we investigate the possibility of using a NE213 liquid scintillator as aneutron spectrometer to diagnose the fast ion tails produced in experiments with 3rd harmonicradio-frequency heating.We discuss mainly the instrumental effects that need to be considered and corrected for in orderto obtain a good agreement between measured data and models: gain drift, pile-up, impact of theassumption of a standard proton light yield function. We also address problems related to thepresence of triton burn-up events in the spectrum.The expected ion distribution is obtained from a simple 1D Fokker-Planck model. The parametersof the model are estimated using the data collected by the TOFOR neutron spectrometer.The agreement between the data and the model is good and it is possible to make a clear distinctionbetween discharges that had different electron densities and thus different cut-off energies. Wecan conclude that NE213 scintillators can provide useful spectroscopic information for this kind ofexperiments.

  • 142.
    Binda, Federico
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Eriksson, Jacob
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Ericsson, Göran
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Hellesen, Carl
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Conroy, Sean
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Nocente, M.
    Univ Milano Bicocca, Dipartimento Fis G Occhialini.;Ist Fis Plasma P Caldirola..
    Andersson Sundén, Erik
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Generation of the neutron response function of an NE213 scintillator for fusion applications2017Inngår i: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, Vol. 866, s. 222-229Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work we present a method to evaluate the neutron response function of an NE213 liquid scintillator. This method is particularly useful when the proton light yield function of the detector has not been measured, since it is based on a proton light yield function taken from literature, MCNPX simulations, measurements of gammarays from a calibration source and measurements of neutrons from fusion experiments with ohmic plasmas. The inclusion of the latter improves the description of the proton light yield function in the energy range of interest (around 2.46 MeV). We apply this method to an NE213 detector installed at JET, inside the radiation shielding of the magnetic proton recoil (MPRu) spectrometer, and present the results from the calibration along with some examples of application of the response function to perform neutron emission spectroscopy (NES) of fusion plasmas. We also investigate how the choice of the proton light yield function affects the NES analysis, finding that the result does not change significantly. This points to the fact that the method for the evaluation of the neutron response function is robust and gives reliable results.

  • 143.
    Binda, Federico
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Eriksson, Jacob
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Hellesen, Carl
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Ericsson, Göran
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Andersson Sundén, Erik
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Conroy, Sean
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Fabien, Jaulmes
    Study of the energy-dependent fast ion redistribution during sawtooth oscillations with the neutron camera at JETManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 144. Bisoffi, Andrea
    et al.
    Andersson Sundén, Erik
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Asp, E.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Binda, Federico
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Cecconello, Marco
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Conroy, Sean
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Dzysiuk, Nataliia
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Ericsson, Göran
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Eriksson, Jacob
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Hellesen, Carl
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Sjöstrand, Henrik
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Skiba, Mateusz
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Weiszflog, Matthias
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Zychor, I.
    Hybrid cancellation of ripple disturbances arising in AC/DC converters2017Inngår i: Automatica, ISSN 0005-1098, E-ISSN 1873-2836, Vol. 77, s. 344-352Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In AC/DC converters, a peculiar periodic nonsmooth waveform arises, the so-called ripple. In this paper we propose a novel model that captures this nonsmoothness by means of a hybrid dynamical system performing state jumps at certain switching instants, and we illustrate its properties with reference to a three phase diode bridge rectifier. As the ripple corrupts an underlying desirable signal, we propound two observer schemes ensuring asymptotic estimation of the ripple, the first with and the second without knowledge of the switching instants. Our theoretical developments are well placed in the context of recent techniques for hybrid regulation and constitute a contribution especially for our second observer, where the switching instants are estimated. Once asymptotic estimation of the ripple is achieved, the ripple can be conveniently canceled from the desirable signal, and thanks to the inherent robustness properties of the proposed hybrid formulation, the two observer schemes require only that the desirable signal is slowly time varying compared to the ripple. Exploiting this fact, we illustrate the effectiveness of our second hybrid observation law on experimental data collected from the Joint European Torus tokamak. 

  • 145. Blanken, T. C.
    et al.
    Cecconello, Marco
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Klimek, Iwona
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Wodniak, I
    Yadykin, Dimitry
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi.
    Dori, V
    Real-time plasma state monitoring and supervisory control on TCV2019Inngår i: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 59, nr 2, artikkel-id 026017Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In ITER and DEMO, various control objectives related to plasma control must be simultaneously achieved by the plasma control system (PCS), in both normal operation as well as off-normal conditions. The PCS must act on off-normal events and deviations from the target scenario, since certain sequences (chains) of events can precede disruptions. It is important that these decisions are made while maintaining a coherent prioritization between the real-time control tasks to ensure high-performance operation. In this paper, a generic architecture for task-based integrated plasma control is proposed. The architecture is characterized by the separation of state estimation, event detection, decisions and task execution among different algorithms, with standardized signal interfaces. Central to the architecture are a plasma state monitor and supervisory controller. In the plasma state monitor, discrete events in the continuous-valued plasma state arc modeled using finite state machines. This provides a high-level representation of the plasma state. The supervisory controller coordinates the execution of multiple plasma control tasks by assigning task priorities, based on the finite states of the plasma and the pulse schedule. These algorithms were implemented on the TCV digital control system and integrated with actuator resource management and existing state estimation algorithms and controllers. The plasma state monitor on TCV can track a multitude of plasma events, related to plasma current, rotating and locked neoclassical tearing modes, and position displacements. In TCV experiments on simultaneous control of plasma pressure, safety factor profile and NTMs using electron cyclotron heating (ECI I) and current drive (ECCD), the supervisory controller assigns priorities to the relevant control tasks. The tasks are then executed by feedback controllers and actuator allocation management. This work forms a significant step forward in the ongoing integration of control capabilities in experiments on TCV, in support of tokamak reactor operation.

  • 146.
    Blom, Erik
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Characterization of γ-rays at MAST2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The γ-ray characterizing possibility of the neutron collimated flux monitor (in short, Neutron Camera) at the Mega Ampere Spherical Tokamak (MAST) is explored. Typically used to monitor neutron emission, the Neutron Camera has excellent neutron/γ-ray discrimination properties and thus presents the opportunity to measure spatially and temporally resolved γ-ray emission - a possibility of an additional fusion diagnostics method with already existing equipment. An Online Data Analysis (ODA) code was used to analyze the data on γ-rays from several plasma discharges with similar plasma parameters. A high statistics temporal distribution of the γ-ray emission and a lower statistics spatial distribution were analyzed. However, the low energy resolution and range for the Neutron Camera γ-ray measurements revealed few conclusive results on the origin of the higher energy γ-rays. Detection systems with higher energy resolution and range are suggested for an extensive analysis of γ-ray emission at MAST Upgrade.

  • 147.
    Blomberg, Joel
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Sensitivity study of control rod depletion coefficients2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This report investigates the sensitivity of the control rod depletion coefficients, Sg, to different input parameters and how this affects the accumulated 10B depletion, β. Currently the coefficients are generated with PHOENIX4, but the geometries can be more accurately simulated in McScram. McScram is used to calculate Control Rod Worth, which in turn is used to calculate Nuclear End Of Life, and Sg cannot be generated in the current version of McScram. Therefore, it is also analyzed whether the coefficients can be related to CRW and thus be studied indirectly through it. Simulations of the coefficients were done in PHOENIX4, simulations of CRW were done in both PHOENIX4 and McScram and simulations of β were done in POLCA7. All simulations were performed for a CR99 in a BWR reactor.

    The control rod coefficients were found to be sensitive to the enrichment of the fuel, void fraction of the water and the width of the gap, and these effects were also seen in the results of β. As a result, one of three steps could be taken. First, the parameter values should not be set arbitrarily, instead default values could be chosen such that Sg is calculated more accurately. Second, a set of tables of Sg could be generated for different parameter values so that β can be calculated with Sg from the current conditions, although this would mean that PHOENIX4 needs to be updated. Third, McScram can be updated to be able to calculate Sg directly.

    It has been concluded that Sg cannot be studied indirectly through CRW since the trends and the sensitivity to the different parameters were not consistent between Sg, CRW calculated with PHOENIX4 and CRW calculated with McScram, where PHOENIX4 was more sensitive than McScram. The results can instead be used to bench-mark the PHOENIX4 results.

  • 148.
    Bläckberg, Lisa
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Materialteori. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
    Surface coatings as xenon diffusion barriers on plastic scintillators: Improving Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty verification2011Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates the ability of transparent surface coatings to reduce xenon diffusion into plastic scintillators. The motivation for the work is improved radioxenon monitoring equipment, used with in the framework of the verification regime of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty.

    A large part of the equipment used in this context incorporates plastic scintillators which are in direct contact with the radioactive gas to be detected. One problem with such setup is that radioxenon diffuses into the plastic scintillator material during the measurement, resulting in an unwanted memory effect consisting of residual activity left in the detector.

    In this work coatings of Al2O3 and SiO2, with thicknesses between 20 and 400 nm have been deposited onto flat plastic scintillator samples, and tested with respect to their Xe diffusion barrier capabilities. All tested coatings were found to reduce the memory effect, and 425 nm of Al2O3 showed the most promise.

    This coating was deposited onto a complete detector. Compared to uncoated detectors, the coated one presented a memory effect reduction of a factor of 1000. Simulations and measurements of the expected light collection efficiency of a coated detector were also performed, since it is important that this property is not degraded by the coating. It was shown that a smooth coating, with a similar refractive index as the one of the plastic, should not significantly affect the light collection and resolution. The resolution of the complete coated detector was also measured, showing a resolution comparable to uncoated detectors. The work conducted in this thesis proved that this coating approach is a viable solution to the memory effect problem, given that the results are reproducible, and that the quality of the coating is maintained over time.

  • 149.
    Bläckberg, Lisa
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik. Massachusetts General Hospital & Harvard Medical School.
    El Fakhri, Georges
    Massachusetts General Hospital & Harvard Medical School.
    Sabet, Hamid
    Massachusetts General Hospital & Harvard Medical School.
    Simulation study of light transport in laser-processed LYSO:Ce detectors with single-side readout2017Inngår i: Physics in Medicine and Biology, ISSN 0031-9155, E-ISSN 1361-6560, Vol. 62, nr 21, s. 8419-8440Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A tightly focused pulsed laser beam can locally modify the crystal structure inside the bulk of a scintillator. The result is incorporation of so-called optical barriers with a refractive index different from that of the crystal bulk, that can be used to redirect the scintillation light and control the light spread in the detector. We here systematically study the scintillation light transport in detectors fabricated using the laser induced optical barrier technique, and objectively compare their potential performance characteristics with those of the two mainstream detector types: monolithic and mechanically pixelated arrays. Among countless optical barrier patterns, we explore barriers arranged in a pixel-like pattern extending all-the-way or half-way through a 20 mm thick LYSO:Ce crystal. We analyze the performance of the detectors coupled to MPPC arrays, in terms of light response functions, flood maps, line profiles, and light collection efficiency. Our results show that laser-processed detectors with both barrier patterns constitute a new detector category with a behavior between that of the two standard detector types. Results show that when the barrier-crystal interface is smooth, no DOI information can be obtained regardless of barrier refractive index (RI). However, with a rough barrier-crystal interface we can extract multiple levels of DOI. Lower barrier RI results in larger light confinement, leading to better transverse resolution. Furthermore we see that the laser-processed crystals have the potential to increase the light collection efficiency, which could lead to improved energy resolution and potentially better timing resolution due to higher signals. For a laser-processed detector with smooth barrier-crystal interfaces the light collection efficiency is simulated to  >42%, and for rough interfaces  >73%. The corresponding numbers for a monolithic crystal is 39% with polished surfaces, and 71% with rough surfaces, and for a mechanically pixelated array 35% with polished pixel surfaces and 59% with rough surfaces.

  • 150.
    Bläckberg, Lisa
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik. Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Dept Radiol, Gordon Ctr Med Imaging, Boston, MA 02114 USA;Harvard Med Sch, Boston, MA 02115 USA.
    El Fakhri, Georges
    Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Dept Radiol, Gordon Ctr Med Imaging, Boston, MA 02114 USA;Harvard Med Sch, Boston, MA 02115 USA.
    Sabet, Hamid
    Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Dept Radiol, Gordon Ctr Med Imaging, Boston, MA 02114 USA;Harvard Med Sch, Boston, MA 02115 USA.
    Simulation Study of Partially Laser-Processed LYSO:Ce with Single-Side Readout2017Inngår i: 2017 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium And Medical Imaging Conference (NSS/MIC), 2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Laser Induced Optical Barriers (LIOB) can be used to locally engineer the refractive index of a scintillator crystal, leading to the incorporation of so-called optical barriers. Given that the optical barriers may be placed in virtually any pattern inside the scintillator, light transport simulations are important tools for pattern optimization for a given end-application. In this work we simulate the light spread in a 20 mm thick LYSO:Ce detector with optical barriers in a pixel-like pattern half way through its thickness, read out by a photodetector array on one side. We compare the detector performance in terms of DOI and transversal resolution, depending on which side of the detector is chosen for light extraction. Our results show that reading the detector from the laser-processed side yields higher DOI resolution, at the expense of XY resolution, compared to the opposite configuration.

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