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  • 101.
    Dimitrov, Dimitar
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Paolillo, Antonio
    Wieber, Pierre-Brice
    Walking motion generation with online foot position adaptation based on L_1- and L_\inf-norm penalty formulations2010Inngår i: IEEE International conference on Robotics and automation (ICRA), IEEE conference proceedings, 2010, s. 3523-3529Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The article presents an improved formulation of an existing model predictive control scheme used to generate online "stable" walking motions for a humanoid robot. We introduce: (i) a change of variable that simplifies the optimiza tion problem to be solved; (ii) a simply bounded formulation in the case when the positions of the feet are predetermined; (iii) a formulation allowing foot repositioning (when the system is perturbed) based on ℓ1- and ℓ-norm minimization; (iv) a formulation that accounts for (approximate) double support constraints when foot repositioning occurs.

  • 102.
    Dimitrov, Dimitar
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Sherikov, Alexander
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Wieber, Pierre-Brice
    A sparse model predictive control formulation for walking motion generation2011Inngår i: IEEE/RSJ International conference on Intelligent robots and systems (IROS), IEEE, 2011, s. 2292-2299Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a comparison between dense and sparse model predictive control (MPC) formulations, in the context of walking motion generation for humanoid robots. The former formulation leads to smaller, the latter one to larger but more structured optimization problem. We put an accent on the sparse formulation and point out a number of advantages that it presents. In particular, motion generation with variable center of mass (CoM) height, as well as variable discretization of the preview window, come at a negligible additional computational cost. We present a sparse formulation that comprises a diagonal Hessian matrix and has only simple bounds (while still retaining the possibility to generate motions for an omnidirectional walk). Finally, we present the results from a customized code used to solve the underlying quadratic program (QP).

  • 103.
    Dimitrov, Dimitar
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Wieber, Pierre-Brice
    Stasse, Olivier
    Ferreau, Hans Joachim
    Diedam, Holger
    An optimized linear model predictive control solver2010Inngår i: Recent advances in optimization and its applications in engineering / [ed] Moritz Diehl, Francois Glineur, Elias Jarlebring, Wim Michiels, Heidelberg: Springer, 2010, 1, s. 309-318Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 104. Domingo, JL.
    et al.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Nadal, M.
    Perelló, G.
    Bigas, E.
    Llebaria, X.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Exposure to perfluorinated compounds through drinking water, and fish and seafood by the population of Catalonia (Spain)2011Inngår i: Organohalogen Compounds, ISSN 1026-4892, Vol. 73, s. 969-972Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 105.
    Ekblad, Alf
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Godbold, Douglas L.
    Wallander, Håkan
    The ectomycorrhizal mycelium and its importance in carbon cycling: strengths and weaknesses in current knowledge2010Inngår i: Below ground carbon turnover in European forests: state of the art / [ed] Ivano Brunner, Birmensdorf: Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL , 2010, s. 23-30Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The ecological importance of the extramatrical (EM) mycelia of mycorrhizal fungi is immense. To list but a few key functions; they are essential for nutrient uptake, growth and survival of most land plants. They are important for plant-plant interactions and for food webs in the soil. The production of the EM mycelium of ectomycorrhizas in forests might be in the same range as that of the fine roots. Thus the amount of carbon invested in the construction, operation and maintenance of this system is potentially very large. The importance of the EM mycelium in carbon cycling in ecosystems has only recently been recognised by a broader scientific community. However, currently our knowledge is limited of the basic parameters needed to calculate the extent of the EM mycelium in C dynamics such as variation in mycelial production, standing biomass and thus turnover rates, as well as its importance for the formation of stable soil carbon. Further, we also know very little about the regulating mechanisms behind such variations. In this paper we will first make a brief review of the current knowledge of the EM mycelium in C soil dynamics and identify important gaps in this knowledge. We will then present the methods currently available to estimate mycelial production and standing biomass, and subsequently turnover, and discuss their strengths and weaknesses.

  • 106.
    El Marghani, Ahmed
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Regulatory aspects of innate immune responses2011Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Activation of innate immunity is regulated by a variety of signaling molecules within the immune cells. The present thesis was aimed to improve our understanding of innate signaling mechanism and their possible use as bio-indicators of exposure and disease. The first part of the thesis deals with the involvement of TOM1L1 (Target of Myb1 like 1) in innate immune signaling and regulation of inflammatory cytokines in immune cells (study I and II). The initial event of T-cells activation depend on the recruitment of Src family kinases Fyn and Lck, leading to interleukine-2 (IL-2) production in T cells. Understanding the regulatory aspects of IL-2 induction in T-cells is of importance as IL-2 is a key regulator for T-cell proliferation and survival. Interaction screening indicated the ability of TOM1L1 protein to interact with Fyn, and Lck, that is important for IL-2 production in Jurkat T-cells. TOM1L1 silencing decreased the levels of CD3/CD28 dependent induction of IL-2 in Jurkat T-cells, and LPS dependent induction of TNF-α in THP-1. Furthermore, overexpression of TOM1L1 in Jurkat T-cells causes an increase of STAT3 expression. This was accompanied by an increase in the levels of IL-1β dependent induction of IL-6 and TNF-α in THP-1 cells. These results indicate that TOM1L11 participate in regulation of innate immune response. The second part of the thesis deals with development of innate immune signaling responses used as a diagnosis tools for disease and exposure (study III and IV). Inflammatory diseases are associated with innate immune reactions. In response to inflammation, the immune cells release inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1-β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α and CXCL8. These cytokines are regulated by stress related kinases include MAP kinase proteins such as ERK1-2, JNK, and MAPK p38, through activation of transcription factors AP-1, ATF-2, and NF-AT. In a clinical study, it was observed that activated MAPK p38 has a potential role in the regulation of IL-10 expression in intermittent claudication. However, expression of IL-10 and MAPK p38 was opposed in stable angina group. Therefore, targeting MAPK p38 in inflammatory disease such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and rheumatoid arthritis might be useful in development of treatment strategies. Innate immune reactions can also be used to monitor stress related inflammatory responses following environmental exposure of immune cells. Inflammatory responses of exposure were studied by in vitro exposure to waters from sewage treatment works and recipient waters. The analysis shows that exposure to inland waters can result in activated immune responses and that these responses are both site dependent and vary over time.

  • 107.
    El Marghani, Ahmed
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Abuabaid, Hanan
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Kjellén, Peter
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    TOM1L is involved in a novel signaling pathway important for the IL-2 production in Jurkat T cells stimulated by CD3/CD28 CoLigation2009Inngår i: Mediators of Inflammation, ISSN 0962-9351, E-ISSN 1466-1861, s. 416298-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    TOM1L (target of Myb-1 Like) was identified as a binding partner for the full length and catalytically-active Lck in a yeast 2-hybrid screening assay. Here we show that in Jurkat T cells stimulated by CD3/CD28 coligation where the expression of TOM1L is reduced by lenti virus mediated-siRNA results in a dramatically lower IL-2 production. The production of IL-2 in siRNA treated cells stimulated with PMA/ionomycin was not affected indicating an involvement of TOM1L in a pathway proximal of TCR and CD28. The coexpression of Fyn with TOM1L increased the level of the phosphorylated form of Fyn indicating that TOM1L has the ability to activate Fyn. The ability of TOM1L to activate Fyn was further shown in a kinase assay using angiotensin II as a substrate. By confocal microscopy, we show that the expression of TOM1L in non-treated HeLa and SK-N-SH cells colocalizes with the mitochondrial membrane but not with lysosomal compartments or the trans-Golgi network. Furthermore, we show that the over-expression of TOM1L in Jurkat cells causes an increase of the STAT3 expression. Based on our results, we here propose that TOM1L is involved in a novel signaling pathway that is important for the IL-2 production in T cells. Copyright (C) 2009 Ahmed Elmarghani et al.

  • 108.
    El Marghani, Ahmed
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Kjellén, Peter
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Olsson, Per-Erik
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Involvement of TOM1L1 in cytokine regulation in THP-1 cellsManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 109.
    El Marghani, Ahmed M.
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Abuabaid, Hanan M.
    Örebro universitet, Hälsoakademin.
    Hurtig-Wennlöf, Anita
    Örebro universitet, Hälsoakademin.
    Sirsjö, Allan
    Örebro universitet, Hälsoakademin.
    Norgren, Lars
    Department of Surgery, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Kjellén, Peter
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    High MAPK p38 activity and low level of IL-10 in intermittent claudication as opposed to stable angina2010Inngår i: International Journal of Angiology, ISSN 0392-9590, E-ISSN 1827-1839, Vol. 29, nr 4, s. 331-337Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM:

    The aim of the present pilot study was to relate the activity of MAPK p38 with the levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in a small cohort of patients with either stable angina (N=5) or intermittent claudication (N=5) compared to healthy controls (N=10).

    METHODS:

    The activity of MAPK p38 was determined in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, isolated from whole blood by western blot using phospho-specific anti-MAPK p38 antibodies. Cytokine levels of 11 pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines were determined from the serum using flow cytometry.

    RESULTS:

    We found a significant elevation of the MAPK p38 activity in the intermittent claudication group (P=0.0027) compared with the healthy control group whereas the stable angina group showed similar MAPK p38 activity as the healthy control group. The IL-10 level in serum found in the stable angina group was significantly higher compared with both the healthy control group (P=0.0116) and the intermittent claudication group (P=0.0317).

    CONCLUSION:

    Our results imply that there is a casual relationship between increased levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10 and IL-4 and the activity of the MAPK p38. Possibly has IL-10 a protective role that down-regulates the activity of MAPK p38 and thereby further inflammatory processes in stable angina patients.

  • 110.
    El Marghani, Ahmed M.
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Khalaf, Hazem
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Jass, Jana
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Olsson, Per-Erik
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Immune cell activation by sewage treatment plant effluents and inland waters in SwedenManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 111.
    Elgh-Dalgren, Kristin
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Remediation of materials with mixed contaminants: treatability, technology and final disposal2009Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Contaminated soils are a large issue worldwide and much effort has been made to find efficient remediation methods. At many contaminated sites, mixtures of dif­ferent contaminants with different properties are present, which may lead to addi­tional problems, and thus additional costs, during the remediation process. This thesis presents the results from soil remedia­tion of two mixed contaminated soils, containing explosives and heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and arsenic, respectively. The re­sults demonstrate that bioremediation may be an efficient method for moderate explosives concentration, but that too high contaminant concentrations may prevent the biodegradation, measured by both chemical and ecotoxicological analyses. If the contaminant concentration is very high, soil washing with alkaline pH (~12, NaOH) may be a good alterna­tive, which was observed to remove both explosives and heavy metals.

    For a PAH and arsenic contaminated soil, little degradation of organics was ob­served during the bioremediation. However, the arsenic present was re-distributed in the soil, which could poten­tially lead to increased availability and thus in­creased risk for contaminant spreading. Soil washing at alkaline pH (~12-13; Ca(OH)2) with a combination of a biodegradable non-ionic sur­factant and a biodegradable chelating agent, executed at high temperature (50°C), reached treatment goals for both arsenic and PAH after 10 min treatment. Measurement of ecotoxicity using Microtox® demonstrated that remaining surfactant in the soil may lead to increased toxicity despite lower con­taminant concentrations.

    Soil is a basically non-renewable resource and thus re-cycling of remediated soil ought to be commonly occurring. Yet, the re-cycling of remediated masses has so far been limited in Sweden, mainly because of the risk of spreading of pollu­tant remains. However, a recent proposition from the Swedish EPA opens for re-cycl­ing, even though the thresholds are very con­servative. Risk assessment of the re­mediated soil includes the utilization of leach­ing tests to estimate the risk of spreading of remaining pollutants. A comparison of the leaching from four reme­diated soils using three different leaching solutions reveals that leaching of both heavy metals and PAH occurs. In addition, differ­ences between different legisla­tions were observed, which could imply that the same soil could be re-cycled in one country (the Netherlands) but not another (Sweden).

  • 112.
    Elgh-Dalgren, Kristin
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Arwidsson, Zandra
    Sakab AB.
    Camdzija, Aida
    Sjöberg, Ragnar
    Ribé, Veronica
    Mälardalen University.
    Waara, Sylvia
    Mälardalen University.
    Allard, Bert
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    von Kronhelm, Thomas
    van Hees, Patrick A. W.
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Laboratory and pilot scale soil washing of PAH and arsenic from a wood preservation site: Changes in concentration and toxicity2009Inngår i: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 172, nr 2-3, s. 1033-1040Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Soil washing of a soil with a mixture of both polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and As was evaluated in laboratory and pilot scale, utilizing both single and mixtures of different additives. The highest level of decontamination was achieved with a combination of 0.213 M of the chelating agent MGDA and 3.2xCMC* of a nonionic, alkyl glucoside surfactant at pH 12 (Ca(OH)2). This combination managed to reach Swedish threshold values within 10 min of treat­ment when performed at elevated temperature (50°C), with initial conta­minant concentrations of As = 105±4 mg/kg and US-EPA PAH16 = 46.0±2.3 mg/kg. The main mechanisms behind the removal were the pH-effect for As and a combina­tion of SOM-ionization as a result of high pH and micellar solu­bilization for PAHs. Implementation of the laboratory results utilizing a pilot scale equipment did not improve the performance, which may be due to the shorter contact time between the washing solution and the particles, or changes in physical characte­ristics of the leaching solution due to the elevated pressure utilized. The ecotox­icological evaluation, Microtox®, demonstrated that all soil washing treatments increased the toxicity of soil leachates, possibly due to in­creased availability of contaminants and toxicity of soil washing solutions to the test organism.

  • 113.
    Elgh-Dalgren, Kristin
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Arwidsson, Zandra
    Ribé, Veronica
    Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Waara, Sylvia
    Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    von Kronhelm, Thomas
    van Hees, Patrick A. W.
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Bioremediation of a soil industrially contaminated by wood preservatives: degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydro­carbons and monitoring of coupled arsenic distribution2011Inngår i: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 214, nr 1-4, s. 275-285Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Two commercially available aerobic bioremediation methods (Daramend® and BioSan) were utilized to study the aerobic biodegradation of polycyclic aro­matic hydrocarbons (PAH) and the effect of the simultaneously present arsenic. The soil was collected at an old wood preservation site and the initial PAH16-concentration was 46 mg/kg, with mainly high molecular weight congeners. The As-concentration was105 mg/kg with low availability as assessed with se­quential extraction. To enahce the availability of PAH, the effect of a non-ionic surfactant was evaluated. Degradation of both low and high molecular weight PAH was observed, however after 30 weeks, the degradation was generally low and no treatment was significantly better than the others. The treatments had, on the other hand, an effect on As-distribution, with increased As-concentra­tion in the available fraction after treatment. This may be due to both the mi­crobial activity and the presence of anoxic micro sites in the soil. The overall efficiency of the biological treatment was further evaluated using the standar­dized ecotoxicity test utilizing Vibrio fischeri (Microtox®). The toxicity test demonstrated that the bioremediation led to an increase in toxicity, especially in treatments receiving surfactant. The surfactant implied an increase in conta­minant availability but also a decrease in surface tension, which might have contributed to the overall toxicity increase.

  • 114.
    Elgh-Dalgren, Kristin
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Arwidsson, Zandra
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Sjöberg, Ragnar
    Allard, Bert
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    von Kronhelm, Tomas
    van Hees, Patrick
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Effect of chemical amendments on the distribution of arsenic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a contaminated soil2009Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 115.
    Elgh-Dalgren, Kristin
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Düker, Anders
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Allard, Bert
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    van Hees, Patrick
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Simultaneous re­mediation of explosives and lead from contaminated soil by pH-adjust­mentManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Soil washing with pH-adjusted water was evaluated in two soils containing dif­ferent concentrations of heavy metals and explosives. Overall, the most efficient treatment was with water adjusted to pH 12 by NaOH. For explosives, pH 12 removed significantly higher amounts (P<0.05) of RDX and TNT compared to pH 4 (adjusted with HNO3) and distilled water in a moderately contaminated soil (230 mg HMX/kg, 1340 mg RDX/kg, 450 mg TNT/kg). In a more highly contaminated soil (6080 mg HMX/kg, 28740 mg RDX/kg, 3120 mg TNT/kg), the pH 12-treatment was the most efficient for removal of TNT and 2,4-DNT. Explosives removal increased with treatment time, probably due to the kineti­cally slow processes underlying the explosives degradation. Mobilization of heavy metals was strongly dependent on pH, with pH 12 mobilizing more than pH 3. In addition, the change in distribution coefficient (Kd) was more pro­nounced for local contaminants Pb and Cd in comparison with Cu and Zn, which were present in background concentrations.

  • 116.
    Elgh-Dalgren, Kristin
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Düker, Anders
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Arwidsson, Zandra
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    von Kronhelm, Thomas
    van Hees, Patrick A. W.
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Re-cycling of remediated soil: evaluation of leaching tests as tools for characterization2011Inngår i: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 31, nr 2, s. 215-224Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, leaching tests with deionized water (D.W.) are frequently utilized in risk assessment, but implementation of these results to evaluate the risk of spreading in the environment is difficult. One problem is that most leaching procedures only consider heavy metals release, whereas organic pollutants are left out. The aim of the present study was to assess the possible pollutant miti­gation in four remediated soils, three with heavy metals and one with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), utilizing three different leaching solutions: D.W., a weak ionic solution (0.001 M CaCl2) and an artificially made soil wa­ter (ASW). In general, batch leaching implied larger contaminant removal than column leaching, possibly due to the more rough treatment of the soil particles, and guidelines would at times be exceeded by batch leaching but not column leaching. Utilization of CaCl2 was found to release much less heavy metal than D.W., whereas the metals mobilized by ASW were removed from solution by the filtration of soil leachates. Low molecular weight PAH was most efficiently mobilized by CaCl2, while D.W. worked better for high molecular weight PAH. Despite very low initial PAH-concentrations, tap- and groundwater criteria were exceeded by all leaching solutions.

  • 117.
    Elgh-Dalgren, Kristin
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Waara, Sylvia
    Mälardalen University.
    Düker, Anders
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    von Kronhelm, Thomas
    SAKAB AB.
    van Hees, Patrick A. W.
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Anaerobic bioremediation of a soil with mixed contaminants: Explosives degradation and influence on heavy metal distribution, monitored as changes in concentration and toxicity2009Inngår i: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 202, nr 1-4, s. 301-313Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Two soils with explosives and metals were evaluated for the degradation efficiency of explosives by native microorganisms under anaerobic conditions. The commercially available method Daramend®, amended with zero-valent iron (ZVI), was compared with a horse-manure amended compost and a treatment with ZVI alone. In a moderately contaminated soil, Daramend® and ZVI treatment gave significantly higher removal rates compared  to compost and control treatments (Tukey’s test, P<0.05). The largest overall decrease in ecotoxicity, measured with bioluminescent bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), was achieved with ZVI-treatment. In a more contaminated soil no degradation of contaminants and no decline in soil toxicity could be distinguished after the same time period. Problems with establishment of anaerobic conditions during parts of the remediation process and low microbial activity due to acute toxicity of contaminants are plausible explanations. Redistribution that could potentially lead to mobilization of the co-contaminant Pb was not observed in either of the soils during the biological treatments.

  • 118.
    Eliasson, Anton
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Amin, Hoshiar
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    WORLD CLASS MANUFACTURING PROFESSIONAL MAINTENANCE, ROBOTCELL STEG 1-32011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Examensarbetet har genomförts åt företaget Volvo Powertrain. Ett företag placerat i Köping som tillverkar växellådor och marina drev, där växellådor är deras största produkt. Volvos maskinpark består av cirka 800 maskiner, allt från stora fleroperationsmaskiner till mindre robotar. För att alla dessa maskiner ska vara i drift utan allt för mycket störningar krävs ett väl fungerande underhållsarbete, både förebyggande- och operatörsunderhåll.

    Produktionen på Volvo är uppdelad i flera undergrupper, bl.a. växellådshus, axlar och kugghjul. Examensarbetet utfördes på växellådshusavdelningen för underhåll, på en maskincell bestående av två fleroperationsmaskiner, en robot och ett antal kringutrustningar. Arbetet avgränsades till roboten med dess tillhörande kringutrustning.

    Enligt Volvos egna produktionssystem, Volvo Production System (VPS), ställs krav på hur underhållsarbetet ska utföras för att minska kostnader och öka tillförlitligheten. Målet med arbetet var att ta en ABB IRB 6400 robot från steg 1 till steg 3 i Professional Maintenance (PM – förebyggande underhåll). PM består av sju steg där målet för Volvo är att de mest kostsamma och strategiskt viktiga maskinerna skall tas till minst steg tre. När de tre stegen är utförda är målet att inga PM-relaterade haverier skall kunna ske.

    De tre stegen inkluderar att ta fram ritningar på alla komponenter i maskinen och undersöka vilka komponenter som tidigare har gått sönder samt ta fram förslag på förbättringar. Det ingår även att skriva instruktioner för det förebyggande underhållet och att göra en tidplan över när underhållet skall utföras.

    Resultatet av arbetet blev att all dokumentation togs fram som krävs för att roboten ska befinna sig i steg tre. Dokumentationen kommer att vara levande under en lång tid framåt tills robotcellen är optimerad.

    Arbetet ska resultera i att Volvo i framtiden inte ska ha några haverier beroende på bristande underhåll och att de ska kunna utföra grundläggande service på robotar själva.

  • 119.
    Elmabsout, Ali
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Hälsoakademin.
    Kumawat, Ashok K.
    Örebro universitet, Hälsoakademin.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Krivospitskaya, Olesya
    Örebro universitet, Hälsoakademin.
    Sävenstrand, Helena
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Hans, Törmä
    Uppsala universitet, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Strid, Åke
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Eriksson, Leif A
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Sirsjö, Allan
    Örebro universitet, Hälsoakademin.
    Cloning and functional studies of a splice variant of CYP26B1: a cellular storage protein for all-trans retinoic acid2010Inngår i: In Vivo, ISSN 0258-851X, E-ISSN 1791-7549, Vol. 24, nr 3, s. 345-346Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    All-trans retinoic acid (atRA) plays an essential role in the regulation of gene expression, cell growth and differentiation and is also important for normal cardiovascular development but may in turn be involved in cardiovascular diseases, i.e. atherosclerosis and restenosis. The cellular atRA levels are under strict control involving several cytochromes P450 isoforms (CYPs). CYP26 may be the most important regulator of atRA catabolism in vascular cells. The present study describes the molecular cloning, characterization and function of atRA-induced expression of a spliced variant of the CYP26B1 gene.

    Methodology/Principal Findings

    The coding region of the spliced CYP26B1 lacking exon 2 was amplified from cDNA synthesized from atRA-treated human aortic smooth muscle cells and sequenced. Both the spliced variant and full length CYP26B1 was found to be expressed in cultured human endothelial and smooth muscle cells, and in normal and atherosclerotic vessel. atRA induced both variants of CYP26B1 in cultured vascular cells. Furthermore, the levels of spliced mRNA transcript were 4.5 times higher in the atherosclerotic lesion compared to normal arteries and the expression in the lesions was increased 20-fold upon atRA treatment. The spliced CYP26B1 still has the capability to degrade atRA, but at an initial rate one-third that of the corresponding full length enzyme. Transfection of COS-1 and THP-1 cells with the CYP26B1 spliced variant indicated either an increase or a decrease in the catabolism of atRA, probably depending on the expression of other atRA catabolizing enzymes in the cells.

    Conclusions/Significance

    Vascular cells express the spliced variant of CYP26B1 lacking exon 2 and it is also increased in atherosclerotic lesions. The spliced variant displays a slower and reduced degradation of atRA as compared to the full-length enzyme. Further studies are needed, however, to clarify the substrate specificity and role of the CYP26B1 splice variant in health and disease.

  • 120. Elwood, Chelsea N.
    et al.
    Chew, Ben H.
    Seney, Shannon
    Jass, Jana
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Denstedt, John D.
    Cadieux, Peter A.
    Triclosan Inhibits Uropathogenic Escherichia coli-Stimulated Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Secretion in T24 Bladder Cells in Vitro2007Inngår i: Journal of endourology, ISSN 0892-7790, E-ISSN 1557-900X, Vol. 21, nr 10, s. 1217-1222Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Triclosan is an antimicrobial agent commonly used in consumer and medical products that inhibits bacterial fatty acid synthesis. In addition to its bactericidal effects, sublethal concentrations of triclosan reduce local inflammation, inhibit the growth of bacterial uropathogens, induce membrane stress, and inhibit P-fimbrial expression in uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). We tested whether sublethal concentrations of triclosan could reduce the adherence of UPEC to bladder and kidney cells and reduce the amount of the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) produced by these cells during bacterial challenge in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Assays of bacterial growth, adhesion, and intracellularization were performed using UPEC GR12 incubated for 4 hours on monolayers of human T24 bladder cells or A498 kidney cells with various sublethal concentrations of triclosan. The expression profile of TNF-alpha from bladder cells was evaluated using ELISA. RESULTS: No significant decreases were observed in the adherence or invasion percentages of UPEC GR12 with either cell line when treated with sublethal amounts of triclosan. However, treatment with triclosan 0.5 microg/mL led to a significant decrease in the total number of UPEC GR12 recovered from T24 monolayers (P < 0.05). Importantly, a reduction in the expression of TNF-alpha by T24 cells was shown when UPEC GR12 was treated with triclosan (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Sublethal concentrations of triclosan did not inhibit the adhesion or intracellularization of UPEC into kidney or bladder cell lines but did significantly reduce the amount of TNF-alpha secreted by bladder cells. Therefore, the use of triclosan on ureteral stents may prove clinically beneficial, not only by inhibiting bacterial survival and growth within the urinary tract, but by reducing local inflammation as well.

  • 121.
    Engström, Daniel
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Blomquist, Marcus
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    EFFEKTIVISERING AV PRODUKTION VID LAXÅ SPECIAL VEHICLES2011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta examensarbete utfördes på uppdrag av Laxå Special Vehicles. Ett företag som tillverkar tunga specialfordon, bland annat ovanjordsborriggar på licens åt Atlas Copco. Företaget har för tillfället låg produktionsvolym, produktivitet och ett obalanserat flöde i borriggstillverkningen. Då produktionsvolymen inom en snar framtid markant kommer att öka finns det ett stort behov av ett balanserat och taktat flöde. Arbetet startade med en grundlig nulägesanalys där alla arbetsmoment loggades och dess arbetsbeskrivningar uppdaterades och kompletterades. Utifrån detta beräknades TOK (OEE-talet) på produktiviteten, som ger företaget en möjlighet att mäta sin produktivitet. Därefter skapades ett nytt balanserat flöde med olika taktningar beroende på produktionsvolym och bemanning. Detta medför en möjlighet för företaget att behålla och öka produktiviteten samtidigt som de förblir flexibla gällande produktionsvolym. Nulägesanalysen gav även många förbättringsförslag som analyserades och slutligen rekommenderades till företagets fortsatta arbete med ökad produktivitet. Förbättringsförslagen belyser problem som företaget har och kan stöta på vid ökad produktionsvolym. Detta ger en möjlighet att i ett tidigt skede förbättra och förbereda företaget för eventuella problem vid ökad produktion.

  • 122.
    Engwall, Magnus
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik. Department of Environmental Toxicology, Evolutionary Biology Center, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; .
    Hjelm, Katarina
    Department of Environmental Toxicology, Evolutionary Biology Center, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Uptake of dioxin-like compounds from sewage sludge into various plant species: assessment of levels using a sensitive bioassay2000Inngår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 40, nr 9-11, s. 1189-1195Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A bioassay for the detection of dioxin-like compounds was used to estimate uptake of dioxin-like compounds in carrots, oil seed rape seeds, zucchinis and cucumbers grown in soil amended with sewage sludge from Swedish sewage treatment plants (STP), This sensitive bioassay is based on 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD)-induction in cultured chicken embryo livers and reflects the combined biological effect of all dioxin-like compounds in a sample, including ones that seldom are analyzed. The bioassay detected low concentrations of dioxin-like compounds in all carrot, zucchini and cucumber samples, but did not detect any dioxin-like compounds in the rape seeds. In carrots the concentrations were increased up to seven times when grown in soil amended with high applications of some of the sludge samples, while others did not increase the concentrations compared to control. More realistic sludge applications only increased the concentrations slightly. The sludge-fertilized carrots contained the highest concentrations of the investigated plants (up to 14 pg bioassay-derived TCDD equivalents (bio-TEQs)/g d.w.). In the carrots, differences in uptake of dioxin-like compounds depended on the sludge origin, which may be due to more easily bioaccumulated dioxin-like compounds in some sludge samples, or other components that facilitated uptake into the carrots. In the cucumbers, a more than two-fold increase (from 0.2 to 0.5 pg bio-TEQs/g d.w.) was observed in specimens grown in sludge-amended soil when compared to controls, suggesting a small uptake from the roots to the shoots. No sludge-dependent increase in uptake was seen in the zucchini fruits. The bio-TEQ levels were generally low in the consumable above ground plant parts of the investigated species. However, the question if repeated sludge application results in a soil accumulation of dioxin-like compounds, thereby increasing the risk of plant uptake, remains to be investigated.

  • 123.
    Engwall, Magnus
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Larsson, Maria
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Bioanalys av organiska föroreningars biotillgänglighet: tillämpning i sanerade massor2009Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Polycykliska aromatiska kolväten (PAHer) är relativt vanliga i förorenadeområden, särskilt på gamla gasverktomter, bensinstationer och tidigare impregneringsanläggningar.På grund av deras toxicitet så är sanering av PAH-förorenadeområden av hög prioritet. För att minska riskerna med PAH-förorenade jordar,både före och efter sanering, är det viktigt att åstadkomma en heltäckande riskbedömningoch säker klassning av dessa jordmassor. De generella riktvärden förPAH-förorenad mark som används idag är i regel baserade på kemisk analys av 16standard PAHer (PAH16), trots att det ofta förekommer 100-tals PAHer och PAHmetaboliteri jordarna.I detta projekt har vi genom att jämföra kemisk och biologisk analys (H4IIEluc)av ett flertal sanerade PAH-förorenade jordprover studerat om toxicitetenverkligen minskar i proportion till minskningen av PAHer i jordarna. H4IIE-luc ären mekanismspecifik bioanalys som detekterar alla ämnen som aktiverar Ahreceptorn,en av de två viktigaste mekanismerna bakom PAHers toxicitet. Jämförelsenav resultaten visade att den totala toxiciteten i de sanerade jordprovernainte gick att förklara med kemisk analys av PAH16 och att man därmed med dagensanalysmetodik riskerar att missa toxikologiskt relevanta PAHer och andra liknandeämnen. Vidare kemiska identifieringsstudier samt bioanalytiska studier krävs föratt ta reda på om dessa okända ämnen utgör en risk för människa eller miljö.Våra resultat visar på svagheten med kemisk analys av ett mindre antal ämnensom grundval för klassning av renade massor. Det är därför är rimligt att inkluderamekanismspecifika tester i riskbedömning och vid klassning av renade PAHförorenadejordar. Dels för att minimera riskerna som dessa jordar kan utgöra förmänniskor och miljö, dels för att man med en större säkerhet och i större utsträckningskall kunna återanvända sanerade jordmassor.

  • 124.
    Erdis, Sahit
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Robot-Assisted Hospital Bed Transport2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The controlling of mobile robots has been and still is in the focus of researchers. Fuzzy rule-based controllers are extensively used to control robots. Path planners were created using different search methods finding the shortest  trajectory between two points and thereby avoiding recorded obstacles. The low degree of automation in hospitals promises huge potential for increasing logistical effects by the use of mobile robots. Especially the automated transport of a hospital bed, which manually requires two persons, would release time from transportation activities. The usage of a mobile robot joined to a hospital bed makes controlling considerably harder. This document describes a project accomplished by me in cooperation with RobCab AB. During the project, a path planner was created and controlling strategies to move a mobile robot joined to a hospital bed between two locations was implemented. The controlling strategies are not only based on sensor readings from a laser mounted on the mobile robot and a list of way points provided by a path planner but incorporates also the position of the bed in the environment. The robot adapts its behavior to ensure a safe movement considering the position of the bed which is not only determined by the kinematics of the robot-bed model but also by an external force in the form of a person following the transport (human intelligence). Development was done on the Stage simulator and is intended to be finally transferred to a real robot platform. Tests done in the simulator showed that the implemented methods are applicable to bring the bed to the desired goal taking into account the reaction of the person following the transport.

  • 125.
    Erdtman, Edvin
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    5-Aminolevulinic acid and derivatives thereof: properties, lipid permeability and enzymatic reactions2010Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) and derivatives thereof are widely usedprodrugs in treatment of pre-malignant skin diseases of the cancer treatmentmethod photodynamic therapy (PDT). The target molecule in 5-ALAPDTis protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), which is synthesized endogenously from5-ALA via the heme pathway in the cell. This thesis is focused on 5-ALA,which is studied in different perspectives and with a variety of computationalmethods. The structural and energetic properties of 5-ALA, itsmethyl-, ethyl- and hexyl esters, four different 5-ALA enols, and hydrated5-ALA have been investigated using Quantum Mechanical (QM) first principlesdensity functional theory (DFT) calculations. 5-ALA is found to bemore stable than its isomers and the hydrolysations of the esters are morespontaneous for longer 5-ALA ester chains than shorter. The keto-enoltautomerization mechanism of 5-ALA has been studied, and a self-catalysismechanism has been proposed to be the most probable. Molecular Dynamics(MD) simulations of a lipid bilayer have been performed to study themembrane permeability of 5-ALA and its esters. The methyl ester of 5-ALAwas found to have the highest permeability constant (PMe-5-ALA = 52.8 cm/s).The mechanism of the two heme pathway enzymes; Porphobilinogen synthase(PBGS) and Uroporphyrinogen III decarboxylase (UROD), have beenstudied by DFT calculations and QM/MM methodology. The rate-limitingstep is found to have a barrier of 19.4 kcal/mol for PBGS and 13.7kcal/mol for the first decarboxylation step in UROD. Generally, the resultsare in good agreement with experimental results available to date.

  • 126.
    Erdtman, Edvin
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Bushnell, Eric A. C.
    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Windsor, Windsor ON, Canada.
    Gauld, James W.
    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Windsor, Windsor ON, Canada.
    Eriksson, Leif A.
    School of Chemistry, National University Ireland (NUI) Galway, Galway, Ireland.
    Computational insights into the mechanism of porphobilinogen synthase2010Inngår i: Journal of Physical Chemistry B, ISSN 1520-6106, E-ISSN 1520-5207, Vol. 114, nr 50, s. 16860-16870Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Porphobilinogen synthase (PBGS) is a key enzyme in heme biosynthesis that catalyzes the formation of porphobilinogen (PBG) from two 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) molecules via formation of intersubstrateC-N and C-C bonds. The active site consists of several invariant residues, including two lysyl residues (Lys210 and Lys263; yeast numbering) that bind the two substrate moieties as Schiff bases. Based on experimental studies, various reaction mechanisms have been proposed for this enzyme that generally can be classified according to whether the intersubstrate C-C or C-N bond is formed first. However, the detailed catalytic mechanism of PBGS remains unclear. In the present study, we have employed density functional theory methods in combination with chemical models of the two key lysyl residues and two substrate moieties in order to investigate various proposed reaction steps and gain insight into the mechanism of PBGS. Importantly, it is found that mechanisms in which the intersubstrate C-N bond is formed first have a ratelimiting barrier (17.5 kcal/mol) that is lower than those in which the intersubstrate C-C bond is formed first (22.8 kcal/mol).

  • 127.
    Erdtman, Edvin
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Bushnell, Eric A. C.
    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Windsor, Windsor ON, Canada.
    Gauld, James W.
    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Windsor, Windsor ON, Canada.
    Eriksson, Leif A.
    School of Chemistry, National University of Ireland (NUI Galway), Galway, Ireland.
    Computational studies on Schiff-base formation: Implications for the catalytic mechanism of porphobilinogen synthase2011Inngår i: Computational and Theoretical Chemistry, ISSN 2210-271X, E-ISSN 2210-2728, Vol. 963, nr 2-3, s. 479-489Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Schiff bases are common and important intermediates in many bioenzymatic systems. The mechanism by which they are formed, however,is dependent on the solvent, pH and other factors. In the present study we have used density functional theory methods in combination with appropriate chemical models to get a better understanding of the inherent chemistry of the formation of two Schiff bases that have been proposed to be involved in the catalytic mechanism of porphobilinogensynthase (PBGS), a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of porphyrins. More specifically, we have investigated the uncatalysed reaction of its substrate 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) with a lysine residue for theformation of the P-site Schiff base, and as possibly catalysed by the second active site lysine, water or the 5-ALA itself. It is found that cooperatively both the second lysine and the amino group of the initial 5-ALA itself are capable of reducing the rate-limiting energy barrier to14.0 kcal mol-1. We therefore propose these to be likely routes involved in the P-site Schiff-base formation in PBGS.

  • 128.
    Erdtman, Edvin
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Gauld, James W
    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario N9B.
    Eriksson, Leif A.
    School of Chemistry, NUI Galway, Galway, Ireland.
    Computational Insights into the Mechanism of Substrate Binding in Potphobilinogen SynthaseManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 129.
    Erdtman, Edvin
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Gauld, James W.
    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario N9B.
    Eriksson, Leif A.
    School of Chemistry, NUI Galway, Galway, Ireland.
    Modelling the mechanism of porphobilinogen synthaseManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 130.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Assessment of human exposure to per- and polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs): exposure through food, drinking water, house dust and indoor air2011Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Per- and polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are detected in humans worldwide but all sources of human exposure have not been fully characterized. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate the contributions from food, water, air and dust as sources for human PFC exposure in the general population.

    Per- and polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are detected in humans worldwide but all sources of Up to 27 PFCs were determined at trace levels in blood (ng/mL), water (ng/L), foods (ng/g), dust (ng/g) and air (pg/m3) in a selected Catalan population and PFC intake was estimated from the measured PFC concentrations of the different sources of exposure.

    The major compounds detected in human blood of the studied population were perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS; 7.6 ng/mL), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS; 3.6 ng/mL) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA; 1.8 ng/mL). In general, PFOS was also the major compound detected in most sources of exposure.

    Food was found to be the dominant pathway for human PFC exposure accounting for more than 70 % of the total intake of both PFOS and PFOA. In the most populated area (the Barcelona Province) where the highest levels were measured, tap water can contribute to the total exposure substantially with more than 50 % for adults. Indoor sources were negligible in the selected area for most PFCs when compared to food and water intake, except for toddlers under a worst case scenario where contribution from dust and food intake were equal (19 %).

    Pharmacokinetic (PK) modelling resulted in exposure of 103 ng PFOS/day and 33 ng PFOA/day of adults from the internal PFC blood concentrations. This agrees well with the intake estimated from external exposure through food, drinking water, house dust and indoor air of 80 ng PFOS/day and 32 ng PFOA/day and evidently all major exposure sources for the general population were included (in this study).

  • 131.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Domingo, Jose L.
    Nadal, Marti
    Bigas, Esther
    Llebaria, Xavier
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Levels of perfluorinated chemicals in municipal drinking water from Catalonia, Spain: public health implications2009Inngår i: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, ISSN 0090-4341, E-ISSN 1432-0703, Vol. 57, nr 4, s. 631-638Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the concentrations of 13 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) (PFBuS, PFHxS, PFOS, THPFOS, PFHxA, PFHpA, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnDA, PFDoDA, PFTDA, and PFOSA) were analyzed in municipal drinking water samples collected at 40 different locations from 5 different zones of Catalonia, Spain. Detection limits ranged between 0.02 (PFHxS) and 0.85 ng/L (PFOA). The most frequent compounds were PFOS and PFHxS, which were detected in 35 and 31 samples, with maximum concentrations of 58.1 and 5.30 ng/L, respectively. PFBuS, PFHxA, and PFOA were also frequently detected (29, 27, and 26 samples, respectively), with maximum levels of 69.4, 8.55, and 57.4 ng/L. In contrast, PFDoDA and PFTDA could not be detected in any sample. The most contaminated water samples were found in the Barcelona Province, whereas none of the analyzed PFCs could be detected in two samples (Banyoles and Lleida), and only one PFC could be detected in four of the samples. Assuming a human water consumption of 2 L/day, the maximum daily intake of PFOS and PFOA from municipal drinking water would be, for a subject of 70 kg of body weight, 1.7 and 1.6 ng/kg/day. This is clearly lower than the respective Tolerable Daily Intake set by the European Food Safety Authority. In all samples, PFOS and PFOA also showed lower levels than the short-term provisional health advisory limit for drinking water (200 ng PFOS/L and 400 ng PFOA/L) set by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Although PFOS and PFOA concentrations found in drinking water in Catalonia are not expected to pose human health risks, safety limits for exposure to the remaining PFCs are clearly necessary, as health-based drinking water concentration protective for lifetime exposure is set to 40 ng/L for PFOA.

  • 132.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Hagberg, Jessika
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Analysis of POPs in human samples reveal a contribution of brominated dioxin of up to 15% of the total dioxin TEQ2010Inngår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 78, nr 2, s. 113-120Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) were analyzed in both human adipose tissue and plasma from nine individuals, from the Swedish general population, using high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). In addition, several other persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were determined in the same samples, including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs). Polybrominated dibenzofurans were detected in all of the human adipose tissue samples confirming their presence in the Swedish population. The highest concentration was found for 2,3,7,8-TeBDF, ranging from 0.27 to 2.4 pg g(-1) lipid. followed by 1,2,3,7,8-PeBDF, 0.23-0.89 pg g(-1) lipid, 2,3,4,7,8-PeBDF, 0.44-0.54 pg g(-1) lipid, and 2,7/2,8-DiBDF, 0.19-0.30 pg g(-1) lipid. No PBDDs could be detected above the limit of detection (<0.02-<0.21 pg g(-1) lipid) in any of the samples. The levels of PCDD/Fs were in the range 1.79-31.5 pg toxic equivalents (TEQ) g(-1) lipid, and PBDEs were found in the 1.16-7.46 ng g(-1) lipid range. The measured chlorinated dioxins indicate decreasing human concentrations in Sweden. The toxicity equivalents (TEQ) for PBDD/Fs (0.2-0.8 pg TEQ g(-1) lipid) were found to contribute 1-15% of the total dioxin TEQ of the chlorinated dioxins and furans (5-18 pg TEQ g(-1) lipid) depending on the individual. Also PBDEs concentrations are decreasing compared to 1997-2000, but most noteworthy a shift in BDE pattern where BDE#47 is surpassed by BDE#153. The levels of PFCs are in the same range as the highest levels of the traditional POPs (sum of 60 PCBs) based on volume. These findings illustrate the importance of continuous monitoring of brominated compounds in both human and the environment. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 133.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Martí-Cid, Roser
    Nadal, Martí
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Domingo, José L.
    Human exposure to perfluorinated chemicals through the diet: intake of perfluorinated compounds in foods from the Catalan (Spain) market2008Inngår i: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, ISSN 0021-8561, E-ISSN 1520-5118, Vol. 56, nr 5, s. 1787-1794Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to determine the dietary intake of perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) by the population of Tarragona County (Catalonia, Spain). PFC levels were determined in 36 composite samples of foodstuffs randomly purchased in various locations. Exposure to PFCs through the diet was estimated for various age/gender groups. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorocarboxylate perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA) were the only detected PFCs in foodstuffs. On average, for a standard adult man (70 kg of body weight), the dietary intake of PFOS was estimated to be 62.5 or 74.2 ng/day (assuming ND=0 or ND=1/2 LOD, respectively). Fish, followed by dairy products and meats, were the main contributors to PFOS intake. For an adult man, the intake of PFOS (1.07 ng/kg/day) and those of PFOA and PFHpA were lower than that recently reported for Canada (4.0 ng/kg/day), and considerably lower than that previously found in the United Kingdom, the only two countries where, to date, results concerning this issue have been reported. A correlation between dietary intake and blood levels of PFOS is suggested. However, the current results do not justify dietary intake as the main route of exposure governing blood concentrations of other PFCs.

  • 134.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Nadal, Martí
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Domingo, José L.
    Levels of perfluorochemicals in water samples from Catalonia, Spain: is drinking water a significant contribution to human exposure?2008Inngår i: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 15, nr 7, s. 614-619Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND, AIM, AND SCOPE: In recent years, due to a high persistence, biomagnification in food webs, presence in remote regions, and potential toxicity, perfluorochemicals (PFCs) have generated a considerable interest. The present study was aimed to determine the levels of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and other PFCs in drinking water (tap and bottled) and river water samples from Tarragona Province (Catalonia, Spain). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Municipal drinking (tap) water samples were collected from the four most populated towns in the Tarragona Province, whereas samples of bottled waters were purchased from supermarkets. River water samples were collected from the Ebro (two samples), Cortiella, and Francolí Rivers. After pretreatment, PFC analyses were performed by HPLC-MS. Quantification was done using the internal standard method, with recoveries between 68% and 118%. RESULTS: In tap water, PFOS and PFOA levels ranged between 0.39 and 0.87 ng/L (0.78 and 1.74 pmol/L) and between 0.32 and 6.28 ng/L (0.77 and 15.2 pmol/L), respectively. PFHpA, PFHxS, and PFNA were also other detected PFCs. PFC levels were notably lower in bottled water, where PFOS could not be detected in any sample. Moreover, PFHpA, PFHxS, PFOA, PFNA, PFOS, PFOSA, and PFDA could be detected in the river water samples. PFOS and PFOA concentrations were between <0.24 and 5.88 ng/L (<0.48 and 11.8 pmol/L) and between <0.22 and 24.9 ng/L (<0.53 and 60.1 pmol/L), respectively. DISCUSSION: Assuming a human water consumption of 2 L per day, the daily intake of PFOS and PFOA by the population of the area under evaluation was calculated (0.78-1.74 and 12.6 ng, respectively). It was found that drinking water might be a source of exposure to PFCs as important as the dietary intake of these pollutants. CONCLUSIONS: The contribution of drinking water (tap and bottled) to the human daily intake of various PFCs has been compared for the first time with data from dietary intake of these PFCs. It was noted that in certain cases, drinking water can be a source of exposure to PFCs as important as the dietary intake of these pollutants although the current concentrations were similar or lower than those reported in the literature for surface water samples from a number of regions and countries. RECOMMENDATIONS AND PERSPECTIVES: Further studies should be carried out in order to increase the knowledge of the role of drinking water in human exposure to PFCs.

  • 135.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Nadal, Martí
    Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, Rovira i Virgili University, Reus, Spain.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Domingo, José L.
    Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, Rovira i Virgili University, Reus, Spain.
    Per- and polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in house dust and indoor air in Catalonia, Spain: implications for human exposure2012Inngår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 39, nr 1, s. 172-180Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A total of 27 per- and polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were determined in both house dust (n=10) and indoor air (n=10) from selected homes in Catalonia, Spain. Concentrations were found to be similar or lower than those previously reported for household microenvironments in other countries. Ten PFCs were detected in all house dust samples. The highest mean concentrations corresponded to perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), 10.7 ng/g (median: 1.5 ng/g) and 10.4 ng/g (median: 5.4 ng/g), respectively, while the 8:2 fluorotelomer alcohol (FTOH) was the dominating neutral PFC at a concentration of 0.41 ng/g (median: 0.35 ng/g). The indoor air was dominated by the FTOHs, especially the 8:2 FTOH at a mean (median) concentration of 51 pg/m(3) (median: 42 pg/m(3)). A limited number of ionic PFCs were also detected in the indoor air samples. Daily intakes of PFCs were estimated for average and worst case scenarios of human exposure from indoor sources. For toddlers, this resulted in average intakes of ∑ionic PFCs of 4.9ng/day (0.33 ng/kg(bw)/day for a 15 kg toddlers) and ∑neutral PFCs of 0.072 ng/day (0.005 ng/kg(bw)/day) from house dust. For adults, the average daily intakes of dust were 3.6 and 0.053 ng/day (0.05 and 0.001 ng/kg(bw)/day for a 70 kg adult) for ∑ionic and ∑neutral PFCs, respectively. The average daily inhalation of ∑neutral PFCs was estimated to be 0.9 and 1.3 ng/day (0.06 and 0.02 ng/kg(bw)/day) for toddlers and adults, respectively. For PFOS, the main ionic PFC detected in indoor air samples, the median intakes (based on those samples where PFOS was detected), resulted in indoor exposures of 0.06 and 0.11 ng/day (0.004 and 0.002 ng/kg(bw)/day) for toddlers and adults, respectively. Based on previous studies on dietary intake and drinking water consumption, both house dust and indoor air contribute significantly less to PFC exposure within this population.

  • 136.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Nilsson, Helena
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Nadal, M.
    Bigas, E.
    Llebaria, X.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Domingo, JL.
    Per- and polyfluorinated chemicals in indoor sources: Levels in house dust and indoor air from Catalonia, Spain2011Inngår i: Organohalogen Compounds, ISSN 1026-4892, Vol. 73Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 137.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Perelló, Gemma
    Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, Institut d’Investigacions Sanitàries Pere Virgili, “Rovira i Virgili” University, Sant Llorenç 21, 43201 Reus, Spain.
    Llebaria, Xavier
    Health Protection Agency, Department of Health, Generalitat de Catalunya, Roc Boronat 81-95, Barcelona, Spain.
    Bigas, Esther
    Health Protection Agency, Department of Health, Generalitat de Catalunya, Roc Boronat 81-95, Barcelona, Spain.
    Martí-Cid, Roser
    Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, Institut d’Investigacions Sanitàries Pere Virgili, “Rovira i Virgili” University, Sant Llorenç 21, 43201 Reus, Spain.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Domingo, José L.
    Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, Institut d’Investigacions Sanitàries Pere Virgili, “Rovira i Virgili” University, Sant Llorenç 21, 43201 Reus, Spain.
    Exposure to perfluorinated compounds in Catalonia, Spain, through consumption of various raw and cooked foodstuffs, including packaged food2009Inngår i: Food and Chemical Toxicology, ISSN 0278-6915, E-ISSN 1873-6351, Vol. 47, nr 7, s. 1577-1583Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the role that some food processing and packaging might play as a source of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) through the diet was assessed. The levels of PFCs were determined in composite samples of veal steak (raw, grilled, and fried), pork loin (raw, grilled, and fried), chicken breast (raw, grilled, and fried), black pudding (uncooked), liver lamb (raw), marinated salmon (home-made and packaged), lettuce (fresh and packaged), pate of pork liver, foie gras of duck, frankfurt, sausages, chicken nuggets (fried), and common salt. Among the 11 PFCs analyzed, only PFHxS, PFOS, PFHxA, and PFOA were detected in at least one composite sample, while the levels of the remaining PFCs (PFBuS, PFHpA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnDA, and PFDoDA) were under their respective detection limits. PFOS was the compound most frequently detected, being found in 8 of the 20 food items analyzed, while PFHxA was detected in samples of raw veal, chicken nuggets, frankfurt, sausages, and packaged lettuce. According to the results of the present study, it is not sufficiently clear if cooking with non-stick cookware, or packaging some foods, could contribute to a higher human exposure to PFCs.

  • 138.
    Ericsson, Peter
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Including Android Devices in PEIS-ecologies2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis describes the work to make a portable ubiquitous device into a component

    in a networked robotic environment. The device can both control and

    be controlled in a robotic network as well as used to survey a robotic network.

    This is done by building upon existing software for making networked robotic

    components and use it on devices with the Android operating system. The software

    is the

    PEIS-kernel (Physically Embedded Intelligent System) middleware.

    The middleware makes it possible to build robotic components called PEIScomponents

    that can communicate, work together and share their resources

    and capabilities. The result of this work is three-fold,

    first a way to make devices

    with the Android operating system into PEIS-devices so that they can be

    used to control or be controlled as well as survey a PEIS-network.With this the

    Android device functionality can be used to extend the capabilities of an entire

    PEIS-network.

    Secondly, devices with Android get access to a simple and powerful

    way to exchange information with any device that is a PEIS-device. The

    third

    contribution is the capability to make humans a much more integral part

    of a PEIS-network as devices with Android are in general easy to use and familiar

    to humans. These devices will serve as a very good human - PEIS-network

    interaction tool.

     

  • 139.
    Eriksson, Billy
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Wide, Magnus
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    FRAMTAGNING AV UTRUSTNING FÖR FLÖDESKALIBRERING AV BRÄNNARE TILL GASTURBIN SGT-7502011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta examensarbete har genomförts på avdelningen Mätteknik & Teknologi (REI) på Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB i Finspång. Målet med arbetet var att konstruera och designa en ny utrustning för kalibrering av brännarna till gasturbinen SGT-750. Dagens befintliga utrustning har ett stort kalibreringsbehov och genom att ersätta komponenter i dagens utrustning med nya som är mer optimala för kalibreringen fås bättre mätnoggrannhet, beräkningarna blir enklare och kalibreringsbehovet av utrustningen blir mindre. Därmed skapas en tidsvinst för företaget. Idag används mätsträckor i utrustningen och de kommer i den framtagna utrustningen att ersättas av en massflödesmätare av typ Coriolis.

    På grund av att examensarbetet är ett delprojekt i ett större projekt som har försenats, mot förväntad tidsplan, så har examensarbetets huvudsakliga innehåll ändrats under projekttiden. Arbetet har bestått av, konstruktion och tillverkning av en Masterlikare. Samt utvärdera dagens utrustning med hjälp av ett formulär som skickats ut till operatörerna och med en riskanalys. Samt framtagning av en kravspecifikation till utrustningen. Fyra olika layoutförslag har presenterats och samtliga har även analyserats.

    Vår slutsats är layoutförslag 2 bestående av en inkapsling från företaget EMS Cases som motsvarade de krav som i dagsläget ställs på utrustningen. Därför rekommenderades Siemens SIT att vidareutveckla layoutförslag 2 och konstruera en prototyp.

  • 140.
    Eriksson, Emma S. E.
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    dos Santos, Daniel J. V. A.
    Guedes, Rita C.
    Eriksson, Leif A.
    Properties and Permeability of Hypericin and Brominated Hypericin in Lipid Membranes2009Inngår i: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation, ISSN 1549-9618, E-ISSN 1549-9626, Vol. 5, nr 12, s. 3139-3149Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The promising photosensitizing properties of hypericin, a substituted phenanthroperylene quinone naturally found in Saint John's wort, has led to the proposal that it can be utilized in photodynamic therapy, Structurally modified derivatives are at the present time being investigated to generate a more effective hypericin photosensitizer. Neither the detailed mechanism behind the powerful action of hypericin, arising as a result of light excitation, nor the intracellular localization and transportation is still fully understood. In the present work, molecular dynamics simulations have been performed to study the properties and the permeability of hypericin and modifications thereof, substituted with one or four bromine atoms, in a dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine lipid membrane. The molecules were found to accumulate in the most dense region of the lipids due to competing interactions with the hydrophobic lipid interior and the polar aqueous environment. This was confirmed by analyzing the radial distribution functions and by the density profiles of the system components. Calculated free energy profiles display large negative changes in free energy for the transport process of the molecules into the lipids, which also support this finding. Permeability coefficients show overall fastest diffusion in the membrane system for hypericin containing one bromine.

  • 141.
    Eriksson, Maria
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    WEB SERVICES FÖR MOBILAPPLIKATIONER: Utveckling av säkra RESTful web services för mobilapplikationer2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This report describes the development of a RESTful web service for mobile applications. The web service makes resources from an existing system called kompetensdatabasen ("the competence database") available. Kompetensdatabasen holds information about the capabilities of consultants and about assignments carried out at the IT consultant business Nethouse AB.

    The web service was developed according to the principles of REST and ROA (Resource Oriented Architecture) which puts focus on making resources available. The resources are made available through the HTTP protocol and the methods associated with it. This means it was designed to use the same technologies as the world wide web. Following these principles when designing the system has been of great importance.

    To make sure that the service does not leak information to competing companies or violate the Personal Data Act some kind of solution for securing the service had to be implemented. A model for authentication was produced to make the system accessible only for employees of the company.

  • 142.
    Erlandsson, Tina
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Situation analysis for fighter aircraft combat survivability2011Licentiatavhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Fighter pilots operate in environments where an erroneous decision may have fatal consequences. A tactical decision support system (TDSS) could aid the pilots to analyze the situation and make correct decisions. The TDSS can, for instance, highlight important information and suggest suitable actions. The aim of this thesis is to provide a situation analysis model of combat survival that can be utilized in a TDSS.

    The first part of this thesis describes an analysis of what the model needs to describe and how it can be used. It is concluded that the model should evaluate the outcome of different actions with respect to combat survival. This evaluation can guide the pilot’s decision making, so that actions leading to dangerous situations are avoided. The analysis also highlights the need of handling uncertainties, both measurement precision uncertainty regarding the locations and capabilities of the threats (enemies) and inference uncertainties regarding the prediction of how the threats will act.

    Finally, arguments for focusing the rest of the work on a single fighter aircraft and threats located on the ground are presented. The second part of the thesis suggests a model, which describes the survivability, i.e., the probability that the aircraft can fly a route without being hit by fire from ground-based threats. Thus, the model represents the inference uncertainty, since it describes the probability of survival. The model’s characteristics are discussed, e.g., that the model is implementable and can be adapted to describe different kinds of ground-based threats. Uncertainty in terms of measurement precision influences the estimate of the survivability. Two different ways of representing this is discussed: calculating the worst case scenario or describing the input as random variables and the resulting survivability as a random variable with a probability distribution. Monte Carlo simulations are used for estimating the distribution for survivability in a few illustrative scenarios, where the input is represented as random variables. The simulations show that when the uncertainty in input is large, the survivability distribution may be both multimodal and mixed. Two uncertainty measures are investigated that condense the information in the distributions into a single value: standard deviation and entropy. The simulations show that both of these measures reflect the uncertainty. Furthermore, the simulations indicate that the uncertainty measures can be used for sensor management, since they point out which information that is the most valuable to gather in order to decrease the uncertainty in the survivability.

    Finally, directions for future work are suggested. A number of TDSS functions that can be developed based on the model are discussed e.g., warnings, countermeasure management, route-planning and sensor management. The design of these functions could require extending the threat model to incorporate airborne threats and the effects of countermeasures. Further investigations regarding the uncertainty in the model are also suggested.

  • 143.
    Erlandsson, Tina
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Helldin, T.
    Falkman, G.
    Niklasson, L.
    Information fusion supporting team situation awareness for future fighting aircraft2010Inngår i: Proceedings of the 13th Conference on Information Fusion (FUSION), 2010, New York: IEEE conference proceedings, 2010, s. 1-8Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In the military aviation domain, the decision maker, i.e. the pilot, often has to process huge amounts of information in order to make correct decisions. This is further aggravated by factors such as time-pressure, high workload and the presence of uncertain information. A support system that aids the pilot to achieve his/her goals has long been considered vital for performance progress in military aviation. Research programs within the domain have studied such support systems, though focus has not been on team collaboration. Based on identified challenges of assessing team situation awareness we suggest an approach to future military aviation support systems based on information fusion. In contrast to most previous work in this area, focus is on supporting team situation awareness, including team threat evaluation. To deal with these challenges, we propose the development of a situational adapting system, which presents information and recommendations based on the current situation.

  • 144.
    Erlandsson, Tina
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Molander, S.
    Alfredson, J.
    Nordlund, P.-J.
    Challenges in tactical support functions for fighter aircraft2009Inngår i: Proceedings of the 3rd Skövde workshop on information fusion topics (SWIFT 2009), Skövde: Högskolan i Skövde , 2009, s. 39-43Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes challenges for tactical supportfunctions in a fighter aircraft systems with one or severalcooperating members. A short description of the domain ofcooperating fighter aircraft is presented, which is linked totactical support functions using an air-to-air scenario. Themain rationale for developing an advanced tactical supportsystem is to aid the pilot in handling complex time-criticalscenarios and missions involving extensive cooperation.Important research directions include developing qualitymeasures/metrics for situation awareness, methods for proactive tactical support functions, and methods to automaticallyreduce the tactical information gap.

  • 145.
    Erlandsson, Tina
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Niklasson, Lars
    Uncertainty measures for sensor management in a survivability application2011Inngår i: INFORMATIK 2011: Informatik schafft Communities 41. Jahrestagung der Gesellschaft für Informatik , 4.-7.10.2011, Berlin, Gesellschaft für Informatik, 2011Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    When flying a mission, a fighter pilot is exposed to the risk of being hit by enemy fire. A tactical support system can aid the pilot by calculating the survivability of a given route, which is the probability that the fighter pilot can fly the route without being hit. The survivability estimate will be uncertain due to uncertainty in the information about threats in the area. In this paper, we investigate the uncertainty in the estimate of the survivability and compare two different measures of uncertainty; standard deviation and entropy. Furthermore, we discuss how these measures can be used for sensor management and discuss a few issues that need to be addressed in the design of a sensor management system in a fighter aircraft.

  • 146.
    Erlandsson, Tina
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Niklasson, Lars
    Nordlund, Per-Johan
    Warston, Håkan
    Modeling fighter aircraft mission survivability2011Inngår i: Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Information Fusion (FUSION 2011), New York: IEEE conference proceedings, 2011, s. 999-1006Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    A fighter aircraft flying a mission is often exposed to ground-based threats such as surface-to-air missile (SAM) sites.The fighter pilot needs to take actions to minimize the risk of being shot down, but at the same time be able to accomplish the mission. In this paper we propose a survivability model, which describes the probability that the aircraft will be able to fly a given route without being hit by incoming missiles. Input to this model can consist of sensor measurements collected during flight as well as intelligence data gathered before the mission.This input is by nature uncertain and we therefore investigate the influence of uncertainty in the input to the model. Finally we propose a number of decision support functions that can be developed based on the suggested model such as countermeasure management, mission planning and sensor management

  • 147.
    Erling, Fredrik
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Sessman, Loisa
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Utvärdering av hjälpmedel för äldre2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Äldre människor är en grupp som växer och blir allt större. På grund av åldrandetdrabbas denna grupp ofta av någon form av funktionsnedsättning. Många gångerkan den äldre populationen känna sig hotad av åldrandet, eftersom den påverkarindividens självständighet. Ett sätt att bibehålla självständigheten är att användahjälpmedel. Idag finns många hjälpmedel på marknaden, vilket också ökatbehovet av att utvärdera hur väl produkterna uppfyller sin funktion. Ett företagsom tillverkar hjälpmedel för äldre är ComfortSystem AB (CS). Syftet med dettaprojekt har varit att utvärdera två hjälpmedel för att ta sig ur säng och detta meden lämplig metod för produktutvärdering. Målet med projektet har varit attanvända den utvalda metoden för att redovisa siffror som ett resultat av produktutvärderingen.Med Puhgs utvärderingsmatris valdes elektromyografi (EMG) somen lämplig utvärderingsmetod. Vid tillämpning av EMG visade detta att vidanvändning av produkterna sker en förändring av muskelaktiviteten för m. rectusabdominis och m. obliquus externus abdominis när hjälpmedlen används jämförtmed att ta sig ur säng och att inte använda dem. En intervju genomfördes medföretaget för att undersöka resultatets betydelse för CSs produktutvecklingsprocess.För ett statistiskt säkert resultat krävs vidare studier med fler testpersoner.

  • 148.
    Farkas, Sanja
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik. Örebro universitet.
    Development of a UV-B marker in plants2009Licentiatavhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 149.
    Fikri Ali Mosallam, Ahmed
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Self-organized Selection of Features for Unsupervised On-board Fault Detection2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
  • 150. Finlay, R.
    et al.
    Wallander, H.
    Smits, M.
    Holmstrom, S.
    van Hees, Patrick A. W.
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Lian, B.
    Rosling, A.
    The role of fungi in biogenic weathering in boreal forest soils2009Inngår i: Fungal Biology Reviews, ISSN 1878-0253, Vol. 23, nr 4, s. 101-106Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we discuss the possible significance of biological processes, and of fungi in particular, in weathering of minerals. We consider biological activity to be a significant driver of mineral weathering in forest ecosystems. In these environments fungi play key roles in organic matter decomposition, uptake, transfer and cycling of organic and inorganic nutrients, biogenic mineral formation, as well as transformation and accumulation of metals. The ability of lichens, mutualistic symbioses between fungi and photobionts such as algae or cyanobacteria, to weather minerals is well documented. The role of mycorrhizal fungi forming symbioses with forest trees is less well understood, but the mineral horizons of boreal forests are intensively colonised by mycorrhizal mycelia which transfer protons and organic metabolites derived from plant photosynthates to mineral surfaces, resulting in mineral dissolution and mobilisation and redistribution of anionic nutrients and metal cations. The mycorrhizal mycelia, in turn provide efficient systems for the uptake and direct transport of mobilised essential nutrients to their host plants which are large sinks. Since almost all (99.99. %) non-suberised lateral plant roots involved in nutrient uptake are covered by ectomycorrhizal fungi, most of this exchange of metabolites must take place through the plant-fungus interface. This idea is still consistent with a linear relationship between soil mineral surface area and weathering rate since the mycelia that emanate from the tree roots will have a larger area of contact with minerals if the mineral surface area is higher. Although empirical models based on bulk soil solution chemistry may fit field data, we argue that biological processes make an important contribution to mineral weathering and that a more detailed mechanistic understanding of these must be developed in order to predict responses to environmental changes and anthropogenic impact. © 2010 The British Mycological Society.

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