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  • 101.
    Zeisig, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Idrottsmedicin.
    Tennis elbow: sonographic findings and intratendinous injection treatment2008Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Tennis elbow (TE) is a relatively common painful condition affecting the upper extremity. The aetiology is not known, but TE is most often seen in middle aged individuals using repetitive and forceful gripping at work or recreational activities, and is referred to overuse injuries. The pathogenesis is not known, but there are so-called degenerative changes in the wrist- and finger-extensor muscle origin (common extensor origin - CEO). The pain mechanisms involved have not been scientifically clarified.

    The studies in the present thesis aimed to 1) evaluate the structure and blood flow using ultrasound (US) and colour Doppler (CD) examinations of the CEO in patients with TE, and in pain-free elbows, 2) evaluate the clinical effects of US- and CD-guided intratendinous injection treatment with the sclerosing substance polidocanol, 3) evaluate the long term (2 years) effects of injection treatment on the tendon structure and blood flow, and 4) investigate if there is a local production of sympathetic and parasympathetic signal substances in non-neural cells in the CEO.

    Structural tendon changes and high blood flow was found in the CEO in patients with TE, but not in pain-free controls. Remaining structural changes and additional bone spur formation at the lateral epicondyle, but not high blood flow, were seen 2 years after successful injection treatment. In a randomised double-blind study, US- and CD-guided intratendinous injection treatment with sclerosing polidocanol or the local anaesthetic lidocaine combined with epinephrine, targeting the region with high blood flow, was found to reduce pain and increase grip strength in patients with TE. There were no differences in the outcome between the two treatment groups. A local production of catecholamines, but not acetylcholine, was found in fibroblasts in the CEO, in patients with TE.

    This thesis presents results showing US and CD examinations to be useful methods to diagnose TE, and to evaluate structure and blood flow in the CEO after treatment. US- and CD-guided injection treatment targeting high blood flow in the region with structural changes can reduce pain symptoms in patients with TE. The localised high blood flow, and local production of catecholamines in the tendon cells in the CEO, might be involved in the pain mechanisms.

  • 102.
    Zetterqvist, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för kliniska vetenskaper. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Non-Suicidal Self-Injury in Swedish Adolescents: Prevalence, Characteristics, Functions and Associations With Childhood Adversities2014Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), such as intentionally cutting, burning or hitting oneself, is a behavior with potentially detrimental consequences and empirical studies are necessary to gain knowledge of how to prevent NSSI in adolescents. The aims of this thesis were to investigate the prevalence, methods, characteristics and functions of NSSI in a large community sample of Swedish adolescents, and to examine the relationship between NSSI and adverse life events and trauma symptoms. All empirical studies had a cross-sectional design and were based on 3,097 adolescents in the county of Östergötland, aged 15-17 years, in their first year of high school. Participating school classes were selected through a randomization process and administered self-report questionnaires.

    In study I (n = 3,060) a single item NSSI question resulted in a prevalence rate of 17.2%, while 35.6% of adolescents reported having engaged in NSSI at least once during the past year when given a checklist. The most commonly reported type of NSSI in this sample was “bit yourself”, followed by “hit yourself on purpose”, “erased your skin” and “cut or carved on your skin”. Applying the proposed DSM-5 diagnostic criteria of NSSI resulted in a prevalence rate of 6.7%. Results in study II (n = 2,964) showed that after controlling for gender, parental occupation and living conditions, adolescents with no self-injurious behavior reported the lowest level of adversities and trauma symptoms, while adolescents with both NSSI and suicide attempts (5.7%) reported the highest levels compared to those with only NSSI or a suicide attempt. Adolescents reporting frequent NSSI reported more adversities and trauma symptoms than those with less frequent NSSI. Automatic functions, such as affect regulation, self-punishment and feeling-generation, were the most commonly reported functions of NSSI. Attempts in study I to confirm Nock and Prinstein’s (2004) four-factor model of underlying factors of NSSI functions resulted in a close to acceptable fit. An attempt to refine the factor analysis on this community sample of Swedish adolescents, using Mplus with cross-validation, was made in study III (n = 836). An exploratory factor analysis resulted in a three-factor model (social influence, automatic functions and non-conformist peer identification), which was validated in confirmatory analysis. In order to adhere more closely to learning theory and the concept of negative and positive reinforcement, the third factor was then split into two factors, resulting in a four-factor model (social influence, automatic functions, peer identification and avoiding demands), which showed excellent fit to the data in the confirmatory factor analysis. Study IV (n = 816) showed that NSSI frequency, gender (female), self-reported experience of emotional and physical abuse, having made a suicide attempt, prolonged illness or handicap and symptoms of depression and dissociation were significant predictors in the final model of the automatic functions, indicating that these variables are important in understanding the mechanisms underlying the need to engage in NSSI to regulate emotions, generate feelings, gain control or to self-punish. Symptoms of depression and dissociation mediated the relationship between sexual, physical and emotional abuse and the automatic  functions. Furthermore, frequency of NSSI, gender, emotional abuse, prolonged illness or handicap and symptoms of depression uniquely predicted automatic functions but not social functions. Self-reported experience of physical abuse, having made a suicide attempt, symptoms of anxiety and dissociation were significant in the final model of social functions, i.e., performing NSSI to influence or  communicate with others, to avoid demands or to identify with peers. Of these, symptoms of anxiety were uniquely associated with social functions. Symptoms of anxiety and dissociation mediated the relationship between physical abuse and social functions of NSSI.

    Taken together, this thesis has shown that NSSI is prevalent in Swedish adolescents and findings contribute to the discussion of a potential NSSI diagnosis. It is important to consider the effect of different types of negative life events and trauma symptoms in relation to NSSI in adolescents. Assessing the specific reinforcing functions of NSSI and the underlying factor structure can be helpful in developing functionally relevant individualized treatment.

  • 103.
    Zineldin, Mosad
    Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap, Ekonomihögskolan, EHV. marknadsföring.
    cooperation, competition and health care refrom: Challenges and opportunities for health care officials, professionals and patents2007Konferanseproceedings (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 104.
    Ängeby, Karin
    et al.
    Women’s Department, Central Hospital, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Wilde-Larsson, Bodil
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper (from 2013). Inland Norway Univ Appl Sci, Fac Publ Hlth, Dept Nursing, Elverum, Norway.
    Hildingsson, Ingegerd
    Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, .
    Sandin-Bojö, Ann-Kristin
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper (from 2013).
    Prevalence of Prolonged Latent Phase and Labor Outcome: Review of Birth Records in a Swedish Population2018Inngår i: Journal of midwifery & women's health, ISSN 1526-9523, E-ISSN 1542-2011, Vol. 63, nr 1, s. 33-44, artikkel-id JMWH12704Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The prevalence of a prolonged latent phase of labor has been described as ranging from 5% to 6.5% in previous research. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of the prolonged latent phase of 18 hours or more, based on women's report, in women intending vaginal birth and who had spontaneous onset of labor. An additional aim was to compare the incidence of obstetric interventions, and the labor and neonatal outcomes in women with and without a prolonged latent phase.

    METHODS:

    A descriptive and comparative study was performed in a mid-sized hospital in western Sweden. The sample consisted of 1343 birth records of women who intended vaginal births and who had spontaneous onset of labor at 37 or more weeks' gestation during a one-year period (2013-2014). Background characteristics, obstetric interventions, and labor and neonatal outcomes were compared between women with latent phases lasting less than 18 hours and 18 hours or more, based on women's self-report. Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated for the different exposure variables.

    A prolonged latent phase lasting 18 hours or more occurred in 23% of all births analyzed (n = 1343). A prolonged latent phase was more common among nulliparous women (29.2%) but also common for multiparous women (17%). Nulliparous and multiparous women who experienced a prolonged latent phase were more often exposed to amniotomy during latent phase. For nulliparous women, the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) was 11.57 (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.25-25.51) and for multiparous women the aOR was 18.73 (95% CI, 9.06-38.69). Similarly, amniotomy during active phase was more common for both nulliparous and multiparous women who experienced a prolonged latent phase (aOR, 4.05; 95% CI, 2.53-6.47 and aOR, 3.93; 95% CI, 2.43-6.37, respectively). Women with latent phases of 18 hours or more, more often experienced augmentation of labor during all phases, especially during latent phase. For nulliparous women, the aOR was 10.13 (95% CI, 2.82-36.39) and for multiparous women, aOR was11.9 (95% CI, 3.69-38.71). A prolonged latent phase was associated with more instrumental vaginal births for multiparas (aOR, 2.58; 95% CI, 1.27-5.26) and emergency cesarean regardless of parity (nulliparous women: aOR, 3.21; 95% CI, 1.08-9.50 and multiparous women: aOR, 3.93; 95% CI, 1.67-9.26).

    Based on women's self-report, the prevalence of a prolonged latent phase in women at term who planned a vaginal birth and had spontaneous onset of labor was higher than previously reported. Women with a prolonged latent phase were more likely to receive obstetric interventions. Assisted vaginal birth was more common for nulliparous women with prolonged latent phase and emergency cesarean occurred more frequently for both nulliparous women and multiparous women with a prolonged latent phase.

  • 105.
    Åkerman, Linda
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för kliniska vetenskaper. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Aspects of the Pre-Diabetic Period in Type 1 Diabetes2016Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease characterized by insulin deficiency, due to immune-mediated destruction of beta cells. Current knowledge regarding the period preceding disease onset comes, to a large extent, from studying risk cohorts based on relatives of T1D-patients, as they have an increased disease risk. Among T1D patients in general, however, few have the disease in their immediate family. It is therefore important to study risk cohorts from the general population as well. An ongoing autoimmune reaction can often be seen in the blood long before disease onset, by detection of autoantibodies directed towards beta cell antigens. By autoantibody screening among participants in the ABIS (All Babies in the South-east of Sweden) cohort, we could identify a group of children from the general population with increased risk for T1D, positive for multiple autoantibodies. They were enrolled in a 2-year prospective follow-up aiming to characterize the prediabetic period and to identify factors indicative of progression/non-progression to T1D. We assessed glucose homeostasis and autoantibody titers over time, and searched for risk-biomarkers by analyzing the expression of immune-related genes (Th1-Th2-Th3) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from these children, in comparison to healthy children and newly diagnosed T1D patients. In the same groups we also compared serum micro RNA (miRNA) profiles, knowing that miRNA molecules have desirable biomarker properties. We found that two specific autoantibodies, IA2A and ZnT8A, were detected at higher concentrations in risk-individuals who progressed to overt T1D during or after the follow-up period, compared to those who still have not. We also observed disturbed glucose homeostasis long before onset in the progressors, but it was seen among those who remain symptom free as well. Further, we found support for the possible role of insulin resistance as an accelerator of the disease process. For gene expression and serum miRNA, few differences were observed between risk-individuals and healthy children overall. However, for PBMC gene expression and serum miRNA both, there were associations to beta cell function and glucose homeostasis, and for miRNA also to islet autoantibodies. Although specific profiles for prediction of disease onset or identification of risk-individuals could not be found, these results are interesting and deserve to be evaluated further. As part of another sub-study within ABIS, the effects of physical activity on glucose homeostasis were assessed in healthy schoolchildren. The level of physical activity, measured by pedometers, was related to insulin resistance and beta cell-stress, and decreased physical activity was associated with increased insulin resistance and load on the insulin-producing beta cells, already at school-age.

123 101 - 105 of 105
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