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  • 101.
    Ehrlin, Mikaela
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Floods and heavy rainfall wreak havoc in Kenya: The perception of causes, vulnerability and responsibility in media coverage of disasters: - an analysis of debates on climate change, development issues and responsibilities in media coverage of three floods in Kenya between 2013 and 20172018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 102.
    Ekstrand, Moa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology.
    Ord men inga visor: En jämförande masterstudie om humanitära organisationers policy kring dialog och mänskliga rättigheter i relation till praktiskt genomförande av flyktingläger2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The average time for an individual to be located in a refugee situation is 17 years. That people are fleeing for such a long period of their life means that a large part of their human rights can easily be neglected. This study examines the humanitarian organizations MSB’s and UN- HCR's implementation of refugee camps and how they allow refugees to play a part in this process. This essay intends to examine the policy the organizations adhere to, namely the in- ternationally recognized handbooks Handbook of Emergencies and The Sphere Project. Em- pirical material is based on a qualitative interview method where a comparison between poli- cy and practice is investigated. Employees of organizations and experts on refugee camp de- sign, management and urban planning have served as respondents in this study. The city planning theory collaborative rationality is used to examine the empirical data to answer how organizations work with refugee camps, if a dialogue processes occur between organizations and refugees, and what benefits the theory can provide. This is followed by a discussion re- garding the human rights of the refugees and whether these are considered in the implementa- tion of the camp. A question raised in the discussion is whether a clarification of the concept could help the organizations' employees to meet the human rights of the refugees. The aim of this thesis is to create an interdisciplinary understanding across disciplinary boundaries. The idea is that the amalgamation of disciplines can improve the humanitarian organizations’ work and aid refugees living conditions. This study highlights a discrepancy in the relation- ship between policy and practice in relation to the procedure manuals, but also in relation to refugees and the satisfaction of human rights. A majority of the respondents testify a wish that a dialogue should be conducted between the organization and the recipients of humanitar- ian aid but that issues such as time pressure, ignorance and power relations complicates this process. What is needed for an improvement of dialogue processes is that the organizations need to take clearer positions on how the practical implementation should play out which would more easily control their employees to execute their work. States need to review their approach to refugees and to take responsibility for the people who need help. Last but not least, the concept of human rights and Nussbaum's definition of it is offered as a suggestion as to how UNHCR and MSB could simplify their work to accommodate that the refugees are treated within the realms of the human rights legislation. 

  • 103.
    Ekström, Josephine
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Possibilities and obstacles regarding under-five mortality: A case study in Babati district, Tanzania2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Tanzania is close to reach one of the Millennium Development Goals; to reduce child mortality with two-thirds between 1990 until 2015. This qualitative case study focuses on under-five children’s health in Babati district, situated in the north-west of Tanzania. The empirical data used in this thesis has been collected through interviews with health personnel and mothers during three weeks in February to March 2012. The purpose of the study has been to identify direct and underlying reasons causing child mortality, and to investigate what measures are needed to improve the situation. The most prominent diseases creating death amongst children are pneumonia and malaria, and also diarrheal diseases are common. The prevalence of the diseases differs from wet and dry season, whereas there are more cases of illness and death during the wet season. Malaria and pneumonia are common causes of death during the wet season, and diarrheal diseases are more common during the dry season. Underlying reasons affecting child mortality in Babati district are the lack of infrastructure, such as few well-functioning roads to the main hospitals which affects the rural population in particular. Also the limited access to transport is a vast problem when there is acute illness or childbirth. The clinics available in Babati district are poorly equipped and have a lack of personnel, creating a stressful situation for both healthcare workers and patients. More governmental funds and infrastructure is needed in the area to be able to create a sustainable situation for future children.

  • 104.
    Eldén, Åsa
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Asian, Middle Eastern and Turkish Studies, Stockholm University Institute for Turkish Studies (SUITS).
    Levin, Paul T.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Asian, Middle Eastern and Turkish Studies, Stockholm University Institute for Turkish Studies (SUITS).
    Swedish Aid in the Era of Shrinking Space – the Case of Turkey2018Report (Refereed)
  • 105.
    Eliassi, Barzoo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Oxford University, UK ; Lund University, Sweden ; Linköping University, Sweden.
    Narratives of statelessness and political belonging among Kurdish diasporas in Sweden and the UK2015Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the phenomenon of statelessness and political belonging in a world of unequal nation-states and citizenship regimes. In so doing it will examine the theoretical construction and conceptions of the stateless in contemporary social and political thought and assess their implications for the conceptions of shared identity and citizenship rights in the legal-political framework of the nation-state and international legal processes and practices. In the academic field statelessness has been largely viewed in relation to the ‘lack’ of citizenship and the acquisition of citizenship has therefore been presented as a solution to statelessness. Although citizenship rights and membership of an internationally recognized state are central to the human rights of political subjects in the contemporary world, the conditions and experiences of statelessness do not fade away through acquisition of formal citizenship as the persistent political, legal and military struggles of the stateless groups around the world show. It is therefore important to investigate how notions of political belonging underpinning political projects and collective action of the stateless peoples are constructed and how they inform and shape the evolution of national consciousness among them. Political belonging creates collective goals to sustain or transform political order. This study combines theoretical investigation of statelessness and citizenship with empirical field research on the subjective experiences of the phenomena among the Kurds. Through deploying a narrative inquiry and in-depth interviews, this project will use the narratives of Kurdish migrants in Sweden and the UK to analyze how national consciousness emerges in the absence of a nation-state but also the role of the nation-state in shaping discourses about statelessness and political belonging outside of the ‘original’ homelands.

  • 106.
    Eliassi, Barzoo
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    När blir man svensk?2008In: Migration and Youth, Stockholm: International Olof Palme Centre , 2008Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 107.
    Elvér, Sara
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Hur mikrofinanser genererar empowerment hos kvinnor i utvecklingsländer: Pengar med ett syfte2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Social work as an traditional aid is an area that provides welfare services financed from public funds, which is one of the methods of microloans. Microloans have since the mid-1970s has become an increasingly common tool in the fight against poverty. Instead of purely assistance is now offered microloans from more banks and other institutions, as well as NGOs (non governmental organization). This paper aims to study whether and how microcredit can contribute to the empowerment of women in Bangladesh and India. This study is based on a qualitative text analysis, and has hence been based on a number of reports and articles. The paper examines, from a radical feminist perspective how microcredit can fight and eliminate poverty, and how empowerment can help women in developing countries to become independent and liberated. The introduction of micro-loan is considered to have positive effects on women's empowerment in the short term. But it is, however, the longer term effects that are considered to have the greatest positive impact on society's unequal structures. The study shows, however, that in order to achieve the desired result, education is of utmost importance. Future research should focus on how to break down the patriarchal structures of society where this is considered a prerequisite for obtaining a long-lasting and stable change in the status of women in the countries concerned.

  • 108.
    Emelie, Lejonklou Hägg
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    The Ocean, a Global Common: A study about multilateral partnership for marine sustainability in the Coral Triangle2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 109.
    Enquist, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Online Preparedness – Redefining Resilience: A qualitative analysis on the role of online social networking in the context of natural hazards – a study of Indonesia.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Previous literature on social capital theory in disaster research has not been updated according to the modern ways of having social networks with friends and family on online platforms. With an increase of costly disasters caused by natural hazards for especially socio-economically vulnerable countries, there is inevitably a need for expanding research to include this modern view on social networks as well. This study uses an online survey with collected answers from Indonesian citizens in order to investigate the relationship between online social networking and disaster preparedness. Results show that certain parts of preparedness are more influenced by online networking than others, but also that more evidence is needed before reaching any conclusions. Overall this study still demonstrates an indication that online social networking should be included in future disaster research and policy work, since any potential preparedness effort is worth considering.

  • 110.
    Enqvist, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    A country can not be free unless the women are free: A critical discourse analysis of the impact of the ideologies of Abdullah Öcalan on gendered state building in Rojava2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 111.
    Enroth, Henrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Community?2015In: Global Community?: Transnational and Transdisciplinary Exchanges / [ed] Henrik Enroth & Douglas Brommesson, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2015, p. 165-180Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 112.
    Ericsson, Birgitta
    et al.
    Östlandsforskning, Lillehammer, Norge.
    Hauge, Atle
    Östlandsforskning, Hamar, Norge.
    Olsson, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Indre Skandinavia – hva nå?2012In: På gränsen – interaktion, attraktivitet och globalisering i Inre Skandinavien / [ed] Eva Olsson, Atle Hauge och Birgitta Ericsson, Karlstad: Karlstads universitet, 2012, 1, p. 311-316Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 113.
    Ericsson, Malin
    University College Stockholm, Stockholm School of Human Rights.
    Mötet mellan Agenda 2030 och mänskliga rättigheter på lokal nivå: En intervjustudie med politiska partier, förvaltning och civila samhället inför implementeringen av Agenda 2030 i Stockholms stad2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The City of Stockholm has declared that it will be leading in the implementation of Agenda 2030. The study is based on interviews with political parties, representatives from the administration and civil society actors in the City of Stockholm. It explores how concepts within and the relation between Agenda 2030 and human rights are perceived. The results of the study are based on four themes: to leave no one behind, politics, language and practice, and partnership. A tension between human rights and Agenda 2030 is found, but also commonalities. The study shows that in local administration, Agenda 2030 and the Sustainable Development Goals are often regarded as more practical than human rights. Yet, respondents believe that human rights can strengthen Agenda 2030. Across all respondent groups, the study finds that there are expectations of Agenda 2030 breaking silos, uniting actors and offering a framework that is stable over policy shifts

  • 114.
    Eriksson Baaz, Maria
    et al.
    School of Global Studies.
    Stern, Maria
    Being reformed: Subjectification and security sector reform in the Congolese armed forcesIn: Journal of Intervention and Statebuilding, ISSN 1750-2977, E-ISSN 1750-2985Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 115.
    Eriksson, Evelina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Framing ‘CPEC’ - a comparative study of Chinese and Indian perceptions of the ‘China-Pakistan Economic Corridor’2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    China’s assertive aim to resume its leading global position has become more evident since Xi Jinping entered the presidency in 2012. Under the concept of Chinese rejuvenation, Xi presented the development project ‘Belt and Road Initiative’ in 2013 with the official goal of developing struggling surrounding countries through increased economic opportunities and infrastructural design. The ‘China-Pakistan Economic Corridor’ is the flagship of BRI, which takes its place in Pakistani-occupied Kashmir. India has from the project’s initiation been directing strong opposition towards CPEC; accusing it of being an instrument of influence rather than an integrating development strategy; which finally led India to boycott the Belt and Road Forum the 15th May 2017. The aim of this study is to analyse how CPEC is framed in Chinese and Indian media to understand how geopolitical contestation works and exists within the frameworks of language, and further how language can serve as an instrument in ‘soft warfare’ between states. It also provides a more profound understanding why something is perceived as an ‘issue’ based on the identity of included actors. Furthermore, it aims to unravel what roles foreign policy can play in tense relational constellations and how such constellations can both explicitly and implicitly affect the interpretational motives of policy construction. As framing can be described as the deliberative communicative process actors are using to inform, engage, or convince, certain audiences of their agenda by formatting their own definitions of issues, framing analysis was considered as the appropriate analytical tool of this study. I have further analysed 15 Indian and 15 Chinese articles dealing with CPEC between the time period of 15th May 2017 to 15th of August 2017. The identified frames show that CPEC is understood through social constellations and constructed identities of actors, and further that the contesting character of the Sino-Indian relationship are affecting the perceptions of the project. This study thus demonstrates that foreign policies and development projects are not only evaluated through their instrumental value, but equally their social and relational context.

  • 116.
    Eriksson, Evelina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Leave No One Behind – But What About the ‘Scum of the Earth’?: A Discourse Analysis Based on Theories by Arendt and Agamben on Rohingya and Statelessness2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to understand the situation of Rohingya through the concept of statelessness and to illustrate the importance of citizenship in relation to human rights. The Rohingya minority has for a long period of time been victims of violence and discrimination by the Myanmar government and military. In 1982, all Rohingyas were deprived their Myanmar citizenship through a domestic law, which is in conflict with international human rights law. Various military operations, attacks, and attempts have been made to drive the Rohingya population out of the country. Consequently, as of 2019, nearly one million stateless Rohingyas are living in overcrowded camps in neighbouring Bangladesh. By applying the philosophical understandings and conceptualisations of Hannah Arendt and Giorgio Agamben, this study seeks answers to how it is possible to perform such acts of breaching human rights. Furthermore, a number of official conventions and principles are analysed to seek answers to how the international community are obligated to act prior, during, and after atrocities on humanity are performed. The main findings of this study are that these acts of violence have been possible due to the Rohingya populations’ statelessness. The sustainable development goals aim to ‘leave no one behind’ and several universal documents and principles are in place to protect humanity from such atrocities. Nevertheless, the international community has clearly failed when it comes to protect the Rohingya population. One important and significant step towards preventing future genocides and ethnic cleansings has been identified through this study – all individuals need to be ensured their fundamental human rights.

  • 117.
    Eriksson, Jacob
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Amnesti och vägen till försoning: En jämförande studie mellan två amnestimodeller och deras respektive inverkan på respektive försoningsprocess.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sedan 1990-talet har antalet inomstatliga konflikter vuxit där forna fiender efter att konflikten är över tvingas leva med eller sida vid sida av varandra. Dock är detta inte oproblematiskt då känslorna forna fiender emellan inte försvinner över en natt utan kvarstår i dessa postkonflikt-samhällen. För att lösa detta stora och svåra problem har det blivit allt vanligare med upprättandet av sannings- och försoningskommissioner med olika konstellationer, vilka har haft som mål att underlätta en försoningsprocess med att form och lyckas och därmed nå en stabil och varaktig fred. Ett vanligt verktyg i dessa kommissioners arbete för att nå detta mål har blivit bildandet av olika amnestimodeller med olika krav och amnestiprocesser som en förövare måste uppfylla och genomgå för att erhålla amnesti, vilket även tidigare forskning pekar åt har en viss betydelse utifall en amnestimodell ska få en mer positiv än en mer negativ inverkan på en försoningsprocess. Utifrån denna bakgrund har denna studie som syfte att ge en djupare förståelse kring vilken inverkan utformningen av en amnestimodell har på en försoningsprocess genom att jämföra två olika amnestimodeller, den sydafrikanska (villkorlig och transparant) med den algeriska (delvis villkorlig och icke-transparant). Vilket denna studie belyser har inneburit den största skillnaden i inverkan på respektive försoningsprocess där den sydafrikanska har inneburit en mer positiv inverkan medan den algeriska amnestimodellen har inneburit en mer negativ inverkan på dess försoningsprocess.  

  • 118.
    Eriksson, Jennifer
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Global Studies.
    Jonsson, Andreas
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Global Studies.
    Kallak - en debatt om framtiden: En studie om miljörättvisa i debatten om gruvan i Kallak2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental justice has its origin in the US and comes from the African-American Civil Rights Movement. Today the environmental justice rhetoric can be found among researchers and politicians as well as grassroots movements. However, it does not exist in Sweden to a great extent. This study focuses on the debate around the establishment of a mine in Kallak, Sweden, and what kind of rhetoric different actors uses. The content analysis of newspaper articles show that there are both similarities and differences in this debate compared with the global rhetoric of environmental justice.

  • 119.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Political Science.
    Frontier politics: The realm of dreamers2015In: Global Affairs, ISSN 2334-0460, E-ISSN 2334-0479, Vol. 1, no 4-5, p. 365-367Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 120.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Political Science.
    Rymdkolonier - från fantasi till verklighet?2017Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 121.
    Eriksson, Johan
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Political Science.
    Giacomello, Giampiero
    University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
    International Relations, Digital Security, and Content Analysis: A Constructivist Approach2014In: International Relations and the Global Politics of Science and Technology / [ed] Maximilian Mayer, Mariana Carpes, Ruth Knoblich, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2014, p. 205-219Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development and global diffusion of access to the Internet has—as is the case with most new and game-changing technologies—been accompanied with fears and threat perceptions. This chapter argues, on the one hand, that Constructivist IR theory is particularly suited for addressing and interpreting the threat discourses and identity issues which come in focus in cybersecurity. The ease with which cyber-culprits can hide their identity and location, operating through networks of hijacked computers across the world, makes fear-mongering threat and identity discourses a key issue in cybersecurity. On the other hand, this chapter presents content analysis—a set of quantitative methods focusing on key word searches—as a pertinent or even ubiquitous method for both the study and practice of cybersecurity. Through simple and globally accessible interfaces, the entire Web can be scrutinized using content analysis. Equipped with Constructivist theory and content analysis methods, the IR scholar stands prepared to uncover and better understand the massive discursive world of the Internet.

  • 122.
    Eriksson, Johan
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Political Science.
    Giacomello, Giampiero
    Universita` di Bologna.
    Who controls the Internet?: Beyond the obstinacy or obsolescence of the state2009In: International Studies Review, ISSN 1521-9488, E-ISSN 1468-2486, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 206-230Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the Internet being a truly global phenomenon, understanding how this is controlled should yield observations of relevance for the study of global governance more generally. The Internet, and how it is controlled, should therefore be a concern for all students of world politics, and not only for the smaller albeit multidisciplinary community of scholars engaging in ‘‘Internet studies.’’ A first step is to acknowledge that Internet control varies across time, space, and issue-areas. To better understand such complex patterns of governance, we need to go beyond universal generalizations. In an attempt to support the middle-range theorizing, which arguably is needed, this essay introduces and briefly unpacks three analytical questions: What are the key aspects of Internet control? What actors might control what aspects of the Internet? And, finally, under what conditions are different types of actors likely to control various aspects of the Internet?

  • 123.
    Eriksson, Johan
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Political Science.
    Lagerkvist, Johan
    Stockholm University.
    Cybersecurity in Sweden and China: Going on the Attack?2016In: Conflict in Cyberspace: Theoretical, Strategic and Legal Perspectives / [ed] Kristian Friis and Jens Ringsmose, London: Routledge, 2016, p. 83-94Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 124.
    Eriksson, Johan
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Political Science.
    Reischl, Gunilla
    Swedish Institute of International Affairs.
    Worlds apart, worlds together: Converging and diverging frames in climate and energy governance2019In: Globalizations, ISSN 1474-7731, E-ISSN 1474-774X, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 67-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper argues that past research has overlooked how the way problems and solutions are framed contribute to a prevailing gap in the global governance of climate and energy. Empirically, this paper investigates the frames of energy and climate change as expressed in key documents from the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and International Energy Agency (IEA). Partly in contrast to past research, this paper finds (1) that there is a growing similarity in how the IPCC and IEA frame climate and energy; (2) that the IEA has gone from ignoring to acknowledging climate change and the transformation to a low-carbon energy system; and (3) that there is a prevailing difference in emphasis, whereas the IPCC only marginally discuss energy, while the IEA is still mainly talking about energy needs and fossil fuels even if climate change and renewables have entered their agenda.

  • 125.
    Eriksson, Sara
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    A credit-plus approach: the way to increase women´s empowerment in microcredit? - Evidence from Colombia2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Does participation in microcredit programs lead to the empowerment of women? The answer is not clear-cut, and earlier studies report ambivalent results. The United Nations Sustainable Development Goals number 5 argues for the importance of finding paths to empowerment. In order to facilitate women’s empowerment in microcredit scholars suggest the use of a credit-plus approach. The purpose of this paper is to reassess the impact of microcredit by making use of the credit-plus approach of Fundación WWB. The study is based on new primary data collected in a Minor Field Study conducted in Colombia. Through developing and testing three hypotheses I assess the impact on three dimensions of women’s empowerment: economic, social and cultural, and psychological. A mixed method approach of both OLS regressions and semi-structured interviews are applied. The results indicate that a credit-plus approach does increase the positive impact of credit on women’s financial control within the household. Yet, no significant result could be found in the case of decision-making power or self-efficiency. The paper also concludes that non-financial services per se may constitute a way to increase women empowerment.

  • 126.
    Erman, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Ethics & Global Politics2014In: Peace Review, ISSN 1040-2659, E-ISSN 1469-9982, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 479-481Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 127.
    Erman, Eva
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Näsström, SofiaUppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Political Equality in Transnational Democracy2013Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book is about the status of political equality under global political conditions. If political equality generally is considered a core feature of democracy, it has received little attention among theorists concerned with global governance. Given the enormous emphasis on democracy as legitimizing factor in global politics, this neglect is noteworthy. This book sets out to address what accounts for the neglect, on the one hand, and how it may be remedied, on the other. The overall aim is to revitalize the debate on the status of political equality in transnational democracy.

  • 128.
    Ewald, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Are democracy, good governance and development improving at the national and local level in Tanzania? 25th of October 2015: Progress report to COSTECH for the project with research clearance No: 2014-66-NA-2014-212015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper present fresh field work data from three case studies carried out in different fieldworks in the period January 2014 to February 2015 on to what extent the Tanzanian Local Government Reform Programmes (LGRP) 1996/2000-2013 (5) has brought about more democratic and decentralised decision making processes. The main findings point to that even if the local government has well elaborated structures for governance and democratic participation from the sub-village/street to the district level, the outcomes of the LGRP on improving the democratic processes at the local level has been limited. We examine to what extent various actors at various levels can - and do -exercise horizontal and vertical accountability. Our findings indicate that the local government reforms have inadequately changed the existing power relations, political elite interests and ideology of the political actors. Real power still lies in the hands of the ruling party elites at the National and District level and constrains power sharing at the Local Government Authority (LGA) levels and at the Ward, Village and Sub village level. The Local Government Reform has not provided adequate mechanisms, processes and Incentives to hold political elites and the duty bearers to account, neither vertically nor horizontally, at the different levels of local government. Power distribution has remained Top-Down with increasing conflict of interest between the Top and the Bottom. Local governance is inadequately addressing the existing competing interests e.g. personal versus public, party versus collective, local versus national. In addition, mediating competing claims over resources remains a challenge as the local government reforms have inadequately strengthened the governance system at the local levels. One of the largest constraints is the lack of awareness, information and capacity to process information by citizens, and elected members of the political structures. The Village and in particular the Sub-village structures have, however, a huge and underestimated potential, both as entry point in the political system, and as effective mechanisms for democratic governance. The overall conclusion is that the decentralisation process has been reversed to a re-centralisation process.

  • 129.
    Ewald, Jonas
    University of Gothenburg.
    Challenges for the democratisation process in Tanzania: Moving towards consolidation 50 years after independence?2011Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Tanzania has been independent in 2011 for 50 years. While most neighbouring states have gone through violent conflicts, Tanzania has managed to implement extensive reforms without armed political conflicts. Hence, Tanzania is an interesting case for Peace and Development research. This thesis analyses the political development in Tanzania since the introduction of the multiparty system in 1992, with a focus on the challenges for the democratisation process in connection with the 2000 and 2005 elections. The question of to what extent Tanzania has moved towards a consolidation of democracy, is analysed through an analysis of nine different institutions of importance for democratisation, grouped in four spheres, the state, the political, civil and economic society. Focus is on the development of the political society, and the role of the opposition in particular. The analysis is based on secondary and primary material collected in the period September 2000 to April 2010. The main conclusion is that even if the institutions of liberal democracy have gradually developed, in practice single-party rule has continued, manifested in the 2005 election when the CCM won 92% of the seats in the parliament. Despite an impressive economic growth, poverty remains deep and has not been substantially reduced. On a theoretical level this brings the old debate between liberal and substantive democracy back to the fore. Neither the economic nor the political reforms have apparently brought about a transformation of the political and economic system resulting in the poor majority gaining substantially more political influence and improved economic conditions. Hence, it is argued that the interface between the economic, political and administrative reforms has not been sufficiently considered in the liberal democratic tradition. Liberal democracy is necessary for a democratic development, but not sufficient for democracy to be consolidated. For that a substantive democratic development is necessary.

  • 130.
    Ewald, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Challenges for the democratisation process in Tanzania. Moving towards consolidation years after independence?2013Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tanzania has been independent in 2011 for 50 years. While most neighbouring states have gone through violent conflicts, Tanzania has managed to implement extensive reforms without armed political conflicts, Hence, Tanzania is an interesting case for Peace and Development research. This dissertation analyses the political development in Tanzania since the introduction of the multiparty system in 1992, with a focus on the challenges for the democratisation process in connection with the 2000 and 2005 elections. The question of to what extent Tanzania had moved towards a consolidation of democracy, is analysed by looking at nine different institutions of importance for democratisation grouped in four spheres: the state, the political, civil and economic society. Focus is on the development of the political society, and the role of the opposition in particular. The analysis is based on secondary and primary material collected between September 2000 to April 2010. The main conclusion is that even if the institutions of liberal democracy have gradually developed, in practice single-party rule has continued, manifested in the 2005 election when the CCM won 92% of seats. Despite impressive economic growth, poverty remains deep and has not been substantially reduced. On a theoretical level this brings the old debate between liberal and substantive democracy back to the fore. Neither the economic nor the political reforms have brought about a transformation of the political and economic system resulting in the poor majority gaining substantially more political influence and improved economic conditions. Hence, it is argued that the interface between the economic, political and administrative reforms has not been sufficiently considered in the liberal democratic tradition. Liberal democracy is necessary for a democratic development, but not sufficient for democracy to be consolidated. For that a substantive democratic development is necessary.

    About the author:Jonas Ewald is lecturer and researcher in Peace and Development Studies. His main research areas are democratisation and its linkages to development, conflicts, and post-conflict management, with a focus on East Africa/Great Lakes Region—and Tanzania and Rwanda in particular.

  • 131.
    Ewald, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    Challenges to the democratisation process in Tanzania2010In: Tanzania in transition from Nyerere to Mkapa / [ed] Havnevik, Kjell and Isinika, Aida C., Dar es Salaam ; Uppsala: Mkuki na Nyota Publishers, 2010, p. 223-264Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 132.
    Ewald, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    Demokratiseringens utmaningar i Tanzania2012In: Habari : medlemsblad för Svensk tanzaniska föreningen, ISSN 0345-4371, Vol. 44, no 3, p. 8-9Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 133.
    Ewald, Jonas
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Nine challenges for the transition to democracy in Tanzania2011In: ECAS 4, the 4th European Conference on African Studies: 15–18 June 2011, Uppsala, Sweden : African Engagements: On Whose Terms?, Uppsala: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, 2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Nine challenges for the democratisation process in Tanzania is analysed, based on extensive field work in connection with the elections in 1995, 1999/2000, 2004/2005 and in 2008.

  • 134.
    Ewald, Jonas
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Post election violence and conflict management in Kenya in connection with the 2007 election2008In: International Conference on The Great Lakes Region. Progress, Challenges and Opportunities, Butare, Rwanda: Centre for Conflict Managment, National University of Rwanda , 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Driving force behind post-election violence in the Kenyan elections in 2007/2008 is analysed.

  • 135.
    Ewald, Jonas
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Rwanda2008In: Africa Yearbook 4: Politics, Economy and Society South of the Sahara 2007 / [ed] Andreas Mehler, Henning Melber, Klaas van Walraven, Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers, 2008, p. 347-359Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Regional conflict dynamics and political development in Rwanda 2007 is analysed. Reforms, institution building, effort to balance between reconciliation and justice is analysed. Human rights and the debate on the political space in Rwanda are assessed. Rwanda's relation to the region and the international society is discussed.

  • 136.
    Ewald, Jonas
    Göteborg University, Sweden.
    Rwanda. A model for successful post-conflict transformation – or a freezing of underlying conflicts?2005In: Nordic Africa Days. The panel Post-Conflict Transition, The State and Civil Society in Africa, Uppsala, 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper analyse Rwanda's development after the genocide and the regional dynamics. The balance between reconciliation and justice is discussed, and the Rwandan model for post-conflict management. The regional conflict complex is analysed and how Rwanda is linked, directly and indirectly.

  • 137.
    Ewald, Jonas
    Göteborg University, Sweden.
    Rwanda: Political, Economic and International development 20042005In: Africa Yearbook Volume 1: Politics, Economy and Society South of the Sahara 2004 / [ed] Klaas van Walraven, Andreas Mehler, Henning Melber, Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers, 2005, p. 313-325Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The chapter analyses Rwanda´s political, and socio-economic developments in 2004. The post-genocide tensions, efforts to build institutions for reconciliation and justice and the regional conflict dynamics are assesed and put in context. 

  • 138.
    Ewald, Jonas
    Göteborg University, Sweden.
    Rwanda: Political, Economic and International development 20052006In: Africa Yearbook Volume 2: Politics, Economy and Society South of the Sahara in 2005 / [ed] Andreas Mehler, Henning Melber, Klaas van Walraven, Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers, 2006, p. 310-322Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rwanda's political and economic development 2005 is analysed. The reconciliation process and the proceedings of the gaca gaca courts as well as the trial processes in the International tribunal for Rwanda is summarised. The regional and international relations is discussed, and the conflict dynamic assessed. Challenges are identified.

  • 139.
    Ewald, Jonas
    Göteborg University, Sweden.
    Rwanda: Political, Economic and International development 20062007In: Africa Yearbook Volume 3: Politics, Economy and Society South of the Sahara / [ed] Andreas Mehler; Henning Melber; Klaas van Walraven, Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers, 2007, p. 337-348Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 140.
    Ewald, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Turbulensen kring den konstitutionella processen2014In: Habari : medlemsblad för Svensk tanzaniska föreningen, ISSN 0345-4371, Vol. 46, no 1, p. 3p. 19-20Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Artikeln ger en forskningsbaserad översikt av debatten och processen kring den nya konstitutionen i Tanzania. Oppositionen i Tanzania har sedan flerpartisystemet infördes krävt att den gamla enpartikonstitutionen med alla dess begränsningar i organisations, yttrande och informationsfrihet skrivs om. Den mest känsliga frågan gäller dock Zanzibars ställning och huruvida unionen skall styras av en, två eller tre regeringar.

  • 141.
    Ewald, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Är demokrati och utveckling ömsesidigt förstärkande? 
Ett exempel från Tanzania2013Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Under 1990- och 2000-talets utvecklingsforskningsdebatt etablerades föreställningen att fattigdom kunde brytas med hjälp av liberala ekonomiska reformer, liberala politiska reformer och new-public management inspirerade förvaltningsreformer samt att de tre ”reformpaketen” var ömsesidigt förstärkande, oavsett i vilken kontext de tillämpades.

    Men är det verkligen så? Det är en fråga som jag intresserat mig för i min forskning om demokratiseringsprocessen i Tanzania, i olika omgångar med fältstudier sedan flerpartisystemet infördes 1992, senast nu i september 2013. Jag vill här peka på några sidoeffekter av de olika reformpaketen som tvärtemot den förgivet tagna positiva samverkan mellan liberalisering av ekonomin och införande av flerpartisystem och ”gott styrelseskicksreformer” riskerar att underminera viktiga mål inom andra politikområden, om de inte beaktas.

  • 142.
    Ewald, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Ökenhett valklimat – bakgrunden till årets dramatiska val2015In: Habari, ISSN 0345-4371, Vol. 47, no 4, p. 7-9Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Årets val är det mest dramatiska valet, sedan självständigheten. Aldrig tidigare har så många varit så engagerade och maktkampen så hård och jämn mellan olika partikonstellationer. När detta skrivs dagen före valet är det fortfarande helt oförutsägbart hur valresultatet blir – för första gången i Tanzanias historia. Även om CCM med största sannolikhet vinner, så är det sannolikt med en mindre marginal än förra gången, och med en mycket större mobilisering.

    När vi tänker på årets mycket heta val och bedömer hur väl flerpartisystemets institutioner fungerar, så tror jag att det är bra att ta ett historiskt perspektiv. Årets val är Tanzanias sjätte flerpartival, sedan flerpartisystemet (åter)infördes för 23 år sedan. Av de 54 år Tanzania varit självständigt styrdes landet som enpartisystem i 28 år, fram till det formella beslutet att införa flerpartisystem 1992. Det tar tid att montera ned maktstrukturer och bygga upp nya institutioner – och framför allt att förändra människors attityder från enpartisystemets tänkesätt och dominans, till en mer demokratisk kultur.

  • 143.
    Ewald, Jonas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Johansson, Kajsa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Nilsson, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Åkesson, Gunilla
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Biståndspolitiska plattformen är starkt ideologiserad2014Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 144.
    Ewald, Jonas
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Mellander, Lotta
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Mhamba, Robert
    University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Shao, Ibrahim F.
    University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
    A Matter of Choice? Cost sharing in health and education from a rights of the child perspective in Pangani, Rombo and Geita Disticts in Tanzania: Final report to Sida/Sarec2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report analyse findings from extensive field research on local level in Pangani, Rombo and Geita districts in the period 2000-2004, on the effects of the introduction of user fees in health and eduction for various types of childrens rights to health and education. The report conclude that a number of reforms have been decided upon and implemented. Still however, the rights of the child to health and education as spelled out in the by Tanzania signed convention on Children’s rights has not been fully respected. Particular children to poorer families, and to a certain girl child’s, rights are violated. Especially vulnerable are orphaned or abandon children, even if they are taken care of by grandmothers. Access to health and education for all children is important for ensuring not only improved life chances for individual children, and households, but also for long term development of the whole country. To increase the fees to health and education does not seem to be a viable road to achieve that, if not poor peoples incomes increase first.

    Concerning choice health was considered as an emergency cost and always had priority, gender or type of child did not matter. Education was considered to be an investment, and in times of scarce resources, the child considered to have the best opportunities to pass school was given priority, and gender played a lesser role then the team had assumed from the beginning. In no few cases girls were given priority to boys, as girls was considered to be more trustworthy to return the investment in the future. Children belonging to the core family was to a larger exten given priority then other children in the family. 

  • 145.
    Ewald, Jonas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Mhamba, Robert
    IDS, University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Are democracy, good governance and development improving at the national and local level in Tanzania?2014In: Nordic Africa Days, Uppsala, 2014, Uppsala, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 146.
    Ewald, Jonas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    Mhamba, Robert
    Democratic Development in Tanzania. An analysis of the period 2010-2015.2015Report (Other academic)
  • 147.
    Ewald, Jonas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Mhamba, Robert
    University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Leveraging Tanzania´s extractive sector for inclusive development: The case of gold mining in Geita - Tanzania2015In: The Extractive Industries for African Development. A paradigm shift: Pennstate University, USA, March 27 2015 / [ed] Kidane Mengistab, Pennsylvania, USA: African Studies Program, Pennsylvania State University , 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 148.
    Ewald, Jonas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Mhamba, Robert
    IDS, University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Tanzania Local government reform - towards de-centralisation or recentralisation? (Abstract accepted for presentation in the panel Local State-making in Africa.2015In: AEGIS V (Africa-Europe Group for Interdisciplinary Studies) Bi-annual Conference, Paris, July 7-8 2015, Paris, France, 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Tanzania Local government reform - towards de-centralissation or recentralisation? This paper present fresh field work data from case studies carried out from January 2014 to Mars 2015 on to what extent the Tanzanian Local Government Reform Programmes (LGRP) 2000-2013 has brought about more democratic decision making processes – and state building on local level. The LGRP is a typical “Blueprint administrative reform funded and guided by international donors’ agencies”. The main findings is that the outcomes of the LGRP on improving the democratic processes at the local level has been limited. We examine to what extent various actors, including national and local CSO, at various levels can exercise horizontal and vertical accountability. We also look at the role of large international mining companies and local governments. Our findings indicate that the LGR have inadequately changed the existing power relations, political elite interests and ideology of the political actors. Real power still lies in the hands of the ruling party elites at the National and District level and constrains power sharing at the Local Government Authority (LGA) levels and at the Ward, Village and Sub village level. The LGR has not provided adequate mechanisms, processes and incentives to hold political elites and the duty bearers to account, neither vertically nor horizontally. Power distribution has remained Top-Down with increasing conflict of interest between the Top and the Bottom. Local governance is inadequately addressing the existing competing interests e.g. personal versus public, party versus collective, local versus national. In addition, mediating competing claims over resources remains, in particular in mineral rich areas. One of the largest constraints is the lack of awareness, information and capacity to process information by citizens, and elected members of the political structures.

  • 149.
    Ewald, Jonas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Mhamba, Robert
    University of Dar es Salaam.
    Will the up-coming elections rift democratic development in Tanzania?
- Discussion on some risks and possibilities: A presentation at the Swedish Embassy, Dar es Salaam 2014-01-232014Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 150.
    Ewald, Jonas
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    Nilsson, Anders
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    Närman, Anders
    Handelshögskolan Göteborg.
    Stålgren, Patrik
    Institutionen för statsvetenskap, Göteborg.
    A Strategic Conflict Analysis for the Great Lakes Region2004Report (Other academic)
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