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  • 101.
    Abbasian, Saeid
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Avdelningen för turismvetenskap och geografi.
    Yazdanfar, Darush
    Mittuniversitetet, Avdelningen för ekonomivetenskap och juridik.
    Hedberg, Charlotta
    Department of Human Geography, Stockholm University, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden .
    The determinant of external financing at the start-up stage: Empirical evidences from Swedish data2014In: World Review of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, ISSN 1746-0573, E-ISSN 1746-0581, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 124-141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Small firms in general have limited access to funding, which is a major problem for entrepreneurs. In particular, this problem is evident for women and ethnic minority groups. The purpose of the study is to examine empirically the impact of gender, ethnicity and other relevant variables on the access to external financing of new small firms. A sample of 2,764 female- And male-owned small businesses, based on a unique and large database gathered through interviews, was investigated employing binary logistic regression models. The results suggest that both gender and ethnicity are significant explanatory variables influencing the access to external capital at the start-up stage. Entrepreneurs' age, experience of starting businesses and education, as well as additional jobs beside their own business, are other variables that influence the way in which entrepreneurs finance their business. Moreover, firm characteristics in terms of personal start-up capital, firm size and legal form have an impact on financing behaviour at start-up. Since the knowledge about this issue is limited, the results of this study add to our understanding of the variables affecting the behaviour of small business endeavours in seeking funding at start-up.

  • 102.
    Abbasian, Saeid
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Yazdanfar, Darush
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Hedberg, Charlotta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    The determinant of external financing at the start-up stage: Empirical evidences from Swedish data2014In: World Review of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, ISSN 1746-0573, E-ISSN 1746-0581, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 124-141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Small firms in general have limited access to funding, which is a major problem for entrepreneurs. In particular, this problem is evident for women and ethnic minority groups. The purpose of the study is to examine empirically the impact of gender, ethnicity and other relevant variables on the access to external financing of new small firms. A sample of 2,764 female– and male–owned small businesses, based on a unique and large database gathered through interviews, was investigated employing binary logistic regression models. The results suggest that both gender and ethnicity are significant explanatory variables influencing the access to external capital at the start–up stage. Entrepreneurs' age, experience of starting businesses and education, as well as additional jobs beside their own business, are other variables that influence the way in which entrepreneurs finance their business. Moreover, firm characteristics in terms of personal start–up capital, firm size and legal form have an impact on financing behaviour at start–up. Since the knowledge about this issue is limited, the results of this study add to our understanding of the variables affecting the behaviour of small business endeavours in seeking funding at start–up

  • 103.
    ABBASSI, BEHRANG
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Organization and management.
    HULTLING JACOBSEN, JOHANNES
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Organization and management.
    A Managerial Perspective on Uncertainty and Commitment in Organizational Change2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Organizational change has during the last decades become a common practice among corporations in every major market. Change has ironically become a constant, which has put an emphasis on organizations to master the practice of change management. In addition to becoming a more and more relevant practice, change initiatives are hard to carry through with little, or even any, financial success, according to prevalent research. The purpose of this master’s thesis, conducted at The Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) and in collaboration with a large company going through a major organizational change, was investigating the notion of uncertainty and commitment, as well as the relationship between the two, amongst managers within the context of organizational change.

    The thesis, which is a qualitative study, has been based on 14 interviews with mid-level managers at a company, referred to in the thesis as Case Company. Furthermore, the thesis has used prevalent research in order to segment, delimit and analyze the empirical data. The findings have shown that the drivers of commitment; namely understanding; belief and involvement, and the mitigating factors of uncertainty; information sharing and control, do in fact have interlinking causalities. In short, information sharing furthers understanding, which in turn affects the belief in the change initiatives. Moreover, involvement gives employees, managers included, a sense of control, which reduces feelings of uncertainty. The findings have also shown that there exist factors, which are not underlined by prevalent research, that heavily affect the communicating and information sharing processes of change initiatives. These factors are primarily the involvement and power possessed by unions and worker’s councils. The research has also shown that both current theory and practice do not consider the long-term adverse effect of organizational change to the extent we argue that it mandates. These adverse effects are referred to in the thesis, as well as prevalent theor, as survivor’s syndrome, which can be summarized as the residual effects of a change on the members of the organization that remain.

    The thesis has given fruit to possible areas of improvement for Case Company, which  ncludes, among others, the information sharing process and long-term adverse effects of organizational change. Moreover, the thesis has also highlighted potential segmentations and focus areas of future research, which include observing how commitment to the proposed change compared to the commitment to the organization changes as organizational change makes its presence felt.

  • 104.
    Abbink, Jan
    et al.
    African Studies Centre, Leiden University.
    Adetula, VictorThe Nordic Africa Institute, Research Unit. University of Jos, Nigeria.Mehler, AndreasArnold Bergstraesser Institute.Melber, HenningThe Nordic Africa Institute, Research Unit. The Dag Hammarskjöld Foundation, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Africa Yearbook Volume 14: Politics, Economy and Society South of the Sahara 20172018Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 105.
    Abd, Naimul
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Forouzan, Mona
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Overcoming social constraints for immigrantentrepreneurs in Sweden2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Entrepreneurship is in full-swing across the globe and it is widely regarded as a sustainable solution to long-unresolved economic issues like unemployment and poverty. Immigration is also a growing reality and the immigrating individuals can contribute to the new societies either by settling for a job or launching a business as an entrepreneur and in turn creating more jobs. However, social constraints are a key hurdle in the way of immigrant entrepreneurs. This paper aims to not only understand the social constraints faced by immigrant entrepreneurs but also provide a set of guidelines on how to overcome these social constraints. A qualitative research study focused on immigrant entrepreneurs in Sweden was designed around this purpose and was conducted in two cities of Sweden. Entrepreneurs in the study were from diverse nationalities of origin and business sectors. Key social constraints identified through the study are cultural differences, differences in business practices, and language – all acting as a wall for foreign entrepreneurs. Networking – both business and social – is regarded as the main solution to overcome these barriers and the weight for this lies equally on state, entrepreneurship industry, and the immigrant entrepreneurs. Immigrant entrepreneurs can overcome the social constraints by also researching their business area in detail as well as marketing themselves and their businesses especially by establishing a strong and trustable social media profile. Government needs to recognize the diversity of immigrant entrepreneurship communities and create tailor-made social interaction programs for different nationalities, educational backgrounds, and business sectors. It can also project positive image of successful immigrant entrepreneurs not only to inspire other immigrant entrepreneurs but also to increase trust regarding immigrant entrepreneurs among native population. Another important step by government could be early orientation for immigrant entrepreneurs to Swedish business market. Entrepreneurship advisory industry needs to understand immigrant entrepreneurs better and organize more multi-cultural events to lower the barriers between native and immigrant communities.

  • 106.
    Abdalla, Amal
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Konradsdal, Amanda
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    CSR, receptet för en lyckad M&A transaktion?: En kvantitativ studie om hur effekterna av företagens sociala ansvar påverkar M&A transaktioner2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine whether the awareness of social- and environmental factors could be beneficial within M&A transactions in such that companies tend to obtain a higher success in such transactions if they are aware of these factors. The study also examines whether the actual return by the event date strikes higher for the social- and environmental aware companies than the unaware companies, where the event date is when the M&A transaction was due.

    Method: The authors have chosen to use two different methods; the Event Study- and Panel Study methods. The event window consists of five days before- and five days after the due date of the M&A, which makes it a total of 11 days. The estimation window is based on the 30 days before the event window and is examined in order to obtain an expected return of which is not affected by the event. The sample is based on international, Swedish companies which has undergone a M&A with a non- Swedish company, and is connected to the UN’s initiative Global Compact.

    Theory: The authors have chosen to apply the Efficient Market Hypothesis and besides that, a developed model based on a current one, the Merger Management Model. The difference between the models is that the Merger Management Model is based on tangible factors whereas the developed model, Social and Environmental Merger Management Model, is based on intangible factors. The chapter starts with the Efficient Market Hypothesis and then continues with the Merger Management Model and an explanation of the social- and environmental factors. The chapter ends with an explanation of the factors’ impact on companies and culminates onto the developed model.

    Conclusion: The outcome shows that companies of which are aware of social- and environmental risks, have incentives to a higher success rate in M&A transactions than companies that are unaware of these risks. The results of the hypothesis test made in this study strengthens the conclusion since the outcome of the p-value almost reached 64 percent, which means that there most likely is a correlation between the companies’ awareness of the social- and environmental factors and their success in M&A transactions.

  • 107.
    Abdallah, Rosanne
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Bajrakti, Lirije
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    En studie om hur reklam på sociala medier påverkar individers köpbeteende2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Social media has grown, becoming more popular among millions of users. With its growth, companies are attracting more customers using advertising through social media. Companies are using online advertising to increase their customer base and market new products.

    Growth in social media can be determined by examining how advertising affects individual buying behavior. This study focuses on analyzing the purchasing behavior of young individuals through the influence of advertising in social media. The purpose of this study is to provide an effective basis for companies in practice; providing insight on individual behavior in regard to advertising within social media.

    We answered the research question using a qualitative approach with semi-structured interviews in conjunction with the ten selected respondents.

    The result indicated that young people are heavily influenced by advertising on social media. As a result, companies are using advertising to guide consumers in the direction of their interests. However, social media advertising may negatively influence customer interpretation if the message is not correlated with the consumers interests.

  • 108.
    Abdallaoui Berrada, Chakir
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    Ciro, aida
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    Bottlenecks in the Freight Forwarding sector in West - coast Africa2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Problem – The expansion of global trade and supply chain integration has put great emphasison logistics, particularly in the intermediary sector, freight forwarders. Whilst in developedcountries freight forwarders benefit from competitive markets and trade facilitatingpolicies, this sector in West coast Africa exhibits low logistics performance levels. Inorder to address such issues, one needs to analyse the problem and identify the causes; thisthesis focuses on identifying the bottlenecks in the freight-forwarding sector in west coastAfrica.Purpose – The main purpose of this study is to identify the bottleneck/s within thefreight-forwarding industry in west coast Africa, namely: Angola, Cameroon, DR of Congo,Gabon, and Nigeria.Method – This thesis employs a pre-study and case study method, to ensure sufficient collectionof relevant material, taking into account the lack of research in this subject. We usedthe material obtained from the interviews and the secondary source, to structure our purpose,research questions, and to define the case of our study.Results – The study concludes with a series of interesting findings; First, the activity of aFreight Forwarder depends on a series of factors that do not depend on the Freight Forwarderper se. And second, Freight Forwarders in order to accomplish their tasks, have accessto services that are shared by all providers, and that are beyond their control. To conclude,the study identifies infrastructure as a major bottleneck in the Freight Forwarding sector.

  • 109.
    Abdelnour, Samer
    et al.
    Erasmus University, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Hasselbladh, Hans
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Kallinikos, Jannis
    London School of Economics and Political Science, London, UK.
    Agency and Instituions in Organization Studies2017In: Organization Studies, ISSN 0170-8406, E-ISSN 1741-3044, Vol. 38, no 12, p. 1775-1792Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Agency and institutions are essential concepts within institutional theory. In this Perspectives issue, we draw on a select group of Organization Studies articles to provide an overview of the topic of agency and institutions. We first consider different ways of defining agency and institutions and examine their implications for institutional theory. We then analyse the relationship of actors and institutions through four lenses – the wilful actor, collective intentionality, patchwork institutions and modular individuals. Our analysis leads us to dissociate agency from individuals and view it as a capacity or quality that stems from resources, rights and obligations tied to the roles and social positions actors occupy. Roles and social positions are institutionally engineered. It is social actors qua occupants of roles and positions (not individuals) that enter the social ‘stage’ and exercise agency.

  • 110.
    Abd-El-Samie, Jasmen
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Asbaha, Winta
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Tarar, Shah Alam Riaz
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    The Use of Online Reviews for Pure Player Products2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Electronic commerce is the selected field to investigate for this thesis, particularly pure player apparel brands. This has been of interest as consumers struggle when shopping online for apparel since they cannot test the product before purchasing with pure players, therefore, there is information asymmetry. Moreover, when consumers lack trust, they may be more hesitant to purchase online due to the perceived risk, therefore, companies should attempt to relieve their doubts. It has been recognized in previous research that electronic word of mouth (e-WOM) could provide guidance and develop confidence during the purchasing process. The aim of this study was to develop an understanding on how consumers perceive online reviews to assure that they will be satisfied with the order. Moreover, there were several factors identified in previous research that could influence the use of online reviews, therefore, those factors were recognized and analyzed in the context of pure players for this study. In addition, the study revealed two factors that influenced the use of online reviews. A qualitative method was utilized, to gain a deeper understanding on consumers’ opinions on the topic. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to provide the opportunity for individuals to further develop their responses. The results suggested that pure player apparel brands should include online reviews. They could improve the mechanism by considering the factors that were identified in this study.

  • 111.
    Abdi, Abdirahman
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Huang, Renyuan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Market efficiency for two classes of stocks in China: state owned and private companies2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The fast-growing economy in China attracts the world’s interests, which includes the Chinese stock markets. The market efficiency of Chinese stock markets is widely discussed by researchers in different approaches. The involvement of government in stock markets is a unique case in the financial world.

     

    By this paper, we are answering the question that is the degree of market efficiency of stat-owned companies different from that of private companies in Chinese stock markets. This will bring us knowledge about Chinese stock markets as well as the impact from ownership, market value and management styles on market efficiency.

     

    To clarify the influence from government involvement in stock markets, we select 938 stocks distinguished by ownership structure. This quantitative study is preceded on daily data from 2007 to 2011. We use auto correlation, Chi-square test, and linear regression together with Spearman’s correlation to test our hypothesis. The degree of market efficiency of each ownership group is examined and compared to each other. Market efficiency related to ownership and market capitalization are inspected if they are anomaly factors in Chinese markets.

     

    The empirical results indicate that the degree of market efficiency of state-owned companies is significantly different from the degree of market efficiency of private-owned companies in China. The market capitalization is one of the existing anomaly factors in Chinese stock markets, as well as it is correlated with degree of market efficiency to some extent. For state-owned enterprises, active management on stock market does not provide a better market efficiency compared to passively managed companies.

  • 112.
    Abdi, Akam
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Chen, Wei
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Intern kontroll: Används visselblåsning som mekanism i den interna kontrollenmot oegentligheter av ekonomisk brottslighet inom kreditinstituten?2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study is to examine the banks view of internalcontrol and further investigate what mechanisms are used tostreamline the internal controls. The study is directed into whetherthe whistle-blowing is used as one of the tools in the internalcontrol to enhance the ability to detect and prevent irregularities ofa financial character.

    The study use a inductive method to lead the collection of datamaterial. The study further use a qualitative method based on fourinterviews with different banks were this data material is comparedwith existing theories in the second chapter.

    The study shows that the view of internal control and whistleblowingis positive in the process to create a successful company inthe banks. Despite that the whistle- blowing is known as acomplicated function, it’s still used to detect and preventirregularities of crimes, such of financial character. Except whistleblowing,the banks are using more tools to streamline the internalcontrol. To urge employees to comply laws and other principles,education in different areas for employers but also to createdifferent work approaches in the company, to make internal checkupsand constant supervision of the organization work is some ofthe tools that are used.

  • 113.
    Abdi, Akam
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Chen, Wei
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Tystnads- och anmälningsplikten: Revisorns hantering av konflikter för ett oberoende ställning och vid misstanke om brott2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to create a deeper and also a better understanding about how each of the professional secrecy and obligation to report are perceived from auditors and further investigate how the potential conflicts based on independence and “can be suspect” are handled by the auditors. The purpose has been achieved through interviews with four different accounting firms.

    The interviews were conducted with Grant Thornton, BDO Mälardalen AB, PwC and KPMG to answer the research questions. Subsequently, a hermeneutic approach was used to since the interpretation of the interviews was considered as important to obtain knowledge of the respondent’s perception about the topic. In the analyze chapter have dataset from the reference framework and empirical part been used to implement the analyze of the thesis.

    The study shows that the professional secrecy is important for creating a good relationship with clients and is not considered as a rule that create conflicts for auditors. The obligation to report, however, is creating conflicts because of the lack of knowledge in assessment of economic crimes. The auditors therefore decide to investigate a situation that “can be suspect” beyond what is intended. To not become dependent on the clients, there are rules and profession practices that are used and also examples like not having friends or family members as clients.

  • 114.
    Abdi, Akam
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Chen, Wei
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Tystnads- och anmälningsplikten: Revisorns hantering av konflikter för ett oberoende ställning och vid misstanke om brott2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to create a deeper and also a better understanding about how each of the professional secrecy and obligation to report are perceived from auditors and further investigate how the potential conflicts based on independence and “can be suspect” are handled by the auditors. The purpose has been achieved through interviews with four different accounting firms.

    The interviews were conducted with Grant Thornton, BDO Mälardalen AB, PwC and KPMG to answer the research questions. Subsequently, a hermeneutic approach was used to since the interpretation of the interviews was considered as important to obtain knowledge of the respondent’s perception about the topic. In the analyze chapter have dataset from the reference framework and empirical part been used to implement the analyze of the thesis.

    The study shows that the professional secrecy is important for creating a good relationship with clients and is not considered as a rule that create conflicts for auditors. The obligation to report, however, is creating conflicts because of the lack of knowledge in assessment of economic crimes. The auditors therefore decide to investigate a situation that “can be suspect” beyond what is intended. To not become dependent on the clients, there are rules and profession practices that are used and also examples like not having friends or family members as clients.

  • 115.
    Abdi, Asal
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi. University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics.
    Laic, Daniella
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi. University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics.
    RE/MAX Sverige: En studie inom marknadsföring2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vårt syfte är att ta reda på vilka marknadsföringsstrategier och marknadsföringsmodeller som föreskrivs i teorin, som RE/MAX använder sig av i Sverige i dagsläget samt att komma fram till vilka marknadsföringsverktyg som de kan utveckla för att vinna större marknadsandelar.

  • 116.
    Abdi, Ikran
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Does equity volatility affect the corporate investment level?2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The paper studies the relation between valuation and corporate investment level. It provides an insight to the q-model and its implications for investment level. By acknowledge the q-model’s empirical shortcomings it questions whether adjustments for volatility will strengthen the q-model empirically. It argues: as volatility is a proxy for risk, stock market volatility would be related to firm behaviour and investment decisions.

  • 117.
    Abdi Mohamed, Aukar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Pantaléon, Song
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    The Process of Post-Merger Organizational Identification: An analysis of mergers and acquisitions2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today, mergers and acquisitions often grab headlines due to the large sums of money involved, and the number of stakeholders affected by it. Still, the increase in merger and acquisition activities, the capital involved, and the pervasiveness of these activities stand in sharp contrast to their high rates of failures. Scholars have attributed the failure of mergers and acquisitions to management failure when it comes to dealing with human aspects during the integration phase.

    The purpose of this paper was to examine how individual’s identities change overtime in a merger. More specifically, it examines the process of post-merger organizational identification in merger contexts through the lens of social identity theory. From this purpose, we formulated the following research question and two sub-questions:

    • • How can post-merger identification be managed and integrated in an organization?
    • o How can organizational identities transit from a pre-merger state to a post-merger state successfully?
    • o What is the outcome of the post-merger identification process?

    The method used in this study was qualitative with an interpretive approach, which allowed us to gain a deeper understanding regarding the purpose and to answer our research question. Primary data came from purposive sampling, where 14 semi-structured interviews with individuals with various managerial positions in post-merger integrations were conducted to gain an understanding of how they tackled the integration process. The secondary data used resulted from previous research, literature, articles and other internet sources. The interviews were qualitatively analyzed through a thematic coding procedure.

    The backbone of our theory consists of perspectives on mergers and acquisitions from the lens of social identity theory. Particularly, it was used to understand the post-merger organizational identification process. The theoretical components were used to understand group formations and intra- and intergroup relationships, the effects mergers have on individuals, and what the effects of the outcomes of post-merger identification have on group and organizational identity.

    Our findings disclose that organizational identities are exclusive by nature and that they remain in this state unless managerial actions are taken which triggers commitment from groups to change. These actions must combine communication efforts with managerial interventions which promote intergroup cooperation, prototypical norms and values. Depending on the actions and the goal of the merger, the nature of the post-merger identity is a combination of two identities which forms an overarching one, or an assimilation of one identity into another.

    The contributions from this study come in two forms: theoretical and managerial. The theoretical contributions come through our findings showing how organizational identity emerge, change and how they are formed. The managerial contributions provide recommendations on how practitioners should facilitate the process, the vital role the manager has in the process and approaches they could take based on our findings.

  • 118.
    Abdi Mohamed, Aukar
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Ramsey, Gabriel
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Ledarskap i den kreativa processen: En studie om små dataspelsföretag2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: Leadership in the creative process: A study about small computer game companies.

    Problem: Currently there is a lack of studies that focus on different leadership perspectives effect on creativity within groups. There is a lack of information about how leadership shapes and the leadership’s role in the creative process, especially in creative intensive industries. A big part of previous research focuses on countries like USA and Japan, but not Sweden. The computer game industry is a fast changing industry, therefore there are many challenges and business opportunities that organizations might lack knowledge about.

    Purpose: The purpose of this essay is to gain an understanding for what leadership in the creative process in small computer game companies look like. At the same time we want contribute knowledge and understanding about the leadership's influence on the creative process.

    Method: The study is based on a interpretive social science perspective with a qualitative research strategy. A phenomenological approach has been used to capture the respondent's’ experience of leadership in the creative process in the computer game industry with the help of semi structured interviews. The research approach was abductive due to the researchers constantly going between data and known theories when searching after the most probable explanations. During processing of data a phenomenographic data analysis model was used.

    Conclusion: Different leadership perspectives work differently under different circumstances. According to the theoretical framework leadership theories does not necessarily exclude one from another, rather aspects from different leadership theories are combinable. Since there are many kinds of computer game companies it is imperative to understand one’s own organization and to be open to pick aspects from different leadership theories to tailor a leadership perspective that fits the organization's context.

  • 119.
    Abdi, Naima
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    El-Sabee, Anna Fatima
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Hållbarhetsredovisning inom den finansiella branschen: En kvalitativ studie om hållbarhetsredovisning inom banker i Sverige2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 120.
    Abdillahi, Mohammed
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Ghayoomi, Khaled
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Anpassning av belöningssystem under konjunkturnedgångar: – En kvalitativ studie av Länsförsäkringar, Kalmar Bilcentrum AB, Goexcellent och Swedbank2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

     

    Bakgrund: I de flesta företag och organisationer finns det idag någon form av belöningssystem som har till syfte att motivera anställda till att prestera goda resultat men också att göra företaget till en både framgångsrik och attraktiv arbetsgivare. Belöningar kan vara av olika slag, materiella, immateriella, individuella, kollektiva, omedelbara eller långsiktiga. Företag och marknaders förutsättningar kan ändras under konjunkturnedgångar vilket påverkar företagens målsättningar och strategier.

    Syfte: Syftet med denna studie är att analysera hur företag anpassar sitt belöningssystem för att motivera sina anställda under konjunkturnedgångar.

    Metod: Studie är genomförd med kvalitativ forskningsmetod med en induktiv forskningsansats. Studien har genomförts av en semi–strukturerad intervjumetod då vi intervjuade fyra chefer från fyra olika företag.

    Slutsats: företagen väljer sitt belöningssystem av strategiskt syfte för att påverka relationen mellan företag och anställda. Vi kan även se att våra respondenter lägger stor tyngd på icke monetära belöningar för att ge anställda en inre belöning. Studien visar att tre av fyra företag som vi har studerat har blivit berörda av konjunkturnedgången vad gäller personalens motivationsnivå. Följden utav detta visar att två av dessa företag dessutom har anpassat sitt belöningssystem efter konjunkturläget.

  • 121.
    Abdlwafa, Lezan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Balci, Anita
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Safari, Awat
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Bokföringsbrott: Ett resultat av oaktsamhet i bokföring?2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Datum: 29 maj, 2013

    Nivå: Kandidatuppsats i företagsekonomi, 15 hp

    Institution: Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, ESTMälardalens Högskola

    Författare: Lezan Abdlwafa, Anita Balci & Awat Safari

    Titel: Bokföringsbrott – Ett resultat av oaktsamhet i bokföring?

    Handledare: Ulla Pettersson

    Nyckelord: Bokföringsbrott, oaktsamhet, bokföringsskyldighet, god redovisningssed, Ekobrottsmyndigheten, Skatteverket, konkursförvaltare

    Frågeställning: På vilket sätt leder näringsidkarens oaktsamhet i bokföring till bokföringsbrott? Vilka faktorer bidrar till detta?

    Syfte: Att undersöka hur näringsidkarens oaktsamhet i bokföringen kan vara en av orsakerna till bokföringsbrott.

    Metod: För att uppnå syftet så använde vi oss av en kvalitativ metod för att få en djupare förståelse av ämnet. Vi inhämtade vårt material till referensramen från litteratur samt lagar såsom bokföringslagen, årsredovisningslagen och brottsbalken. Material till empirin var hämtad från tre intervjuer med personer som besitter relevant kunskap, en skattebrottsutredare, en konkursförvaltare och en åklagare.

    Slutsats: Det vi har kommit fram till i vår uppsats är att oaktsamhet i bokföring är en orsak till bokföringsbrott, främst i mindre företag som inte har resurser till att upprätta bokföring på ett sätt som ger en rättvisande bild av företagets ekonomiska ställning.

  • 122.
    Abdo, Johanna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Gustavsson, Camilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Controllerns funktion en studie av business controllerns arbetsuppgifter2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Undersökningen visar att en business controller i större utsträckning arbetar med analys och omvärldsbevakning än tidigare, vilket kräver att de tar hänsyn till både intern och extern information. Samtidigt har de inte helt övergivit redovisningsrelaterade arbetsuppgifter eftersom att det är en viktig del av den ekonomiska verksamheten, som business controllern behöver en övergripande förståelse för. En aspekt som påverkar business controllerns arbetsuppgifter i stor utsträckning är personalansvar.

  • 123.
    Abdo, Johanna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Gustavsson, Camilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Hur ser revisorn på sitt oberoende?: En caseundersökning utifrån analysmodellen2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En förutsättning för att revisorer ska kunna säkra tilltron till de granskande företagen är att de uppfattas som oberoende. En av anledningarna till att det är intressant att undersöka revisorns oberoende är att analysmodellen, som är ett verktyg för att säkra detta, lagstadgades för fyra år sedan, och vi förutsätter att den nu har förankrats bland revisorerna i Sverige. Frågor som tittas närmare på i undersökningen är om det är möjligt för en revisor att uppehålla sitt oberoende samtidigt som denne uppfyller kundernas krav, och hur revisorerna tolkar regleringen kring oberoende i sitt arbete. Undersökningen baseras på analysmodellens fem huvudsakliga oberoendehot. Studien genomförs genom att presentera ett case för godkända och auktoriserade revisorer, som efterföljs av en diskussion.

    Resultaten av undersökningen visar att revisorernas verklighet skiljer sig från befintliga regelverk i vissa hänseenden. I många situationer är en revisor mer överseende än vad lagens riktlinjer är. I slutändan är det upp till revisorn själv att avgöra vart gränserna går för revisorns oberoende, vilket kan ifrågasätta analysmodellens existens.

  • 124.
    ABDOLMOHAMMAD, BANAFSHE
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Industrial Economics.
    Internationalization Process of Born Global Firms in IRAN2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 125. Abdoulkarim, Karima
    et al.
    Abdi Dirieh, Hamda
    Corporate Social Responsibility  in Supply Chain Management: A case Study of Volvo Group2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of corporate social responsibility has become integral part of businesses´ strategy and communication. Under pressure or voluntary, social responsibility is neglected by any company, and at least definitely not by big corporations. That said, there is a difference between the determination of businesses in being responsibly and their efforts in acting responsibly. This thesis aims at investigating the reasons that motivate a company to address CSR issues and also to understand how CSR can influence the specific area of the supply chain management. To apprehend these questions a single case study was conducted in order to empirically study an important company -Volvo Group- and analyse the way it approaches and integrates CSR. The data used during this writing is mostly made of interviews with supply chain’s staff. When the findings are discussed in the light of the theory, the authors could conclude that Volvo group’s motivation -showed or hidden- behind CSR is to gain more reputation and visibility. The level of CSR integration in Volvo Group’s supply chain management shows a partial determination in fully addressing CSR. However a study of the others department of Volvo Group could maybe lead to different result.

  • 126.
    Abdu, Akrem
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business.
    Företagsamt förhållningssätt genom entreprenörskapsutbildning?: En kvalitativ studie om hur elevers företagsamma förhållningssätt kan utvecklas genom entreprenörskapsutbildning på gymnasieskolan2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det har på senare tid växt fram en rad olika entreprenörskapsutbildningar i det svenska utbildningsväsendet och det verkar som att satsningarna på den här typen av utbildningar kommer att fortsätta att öka. Detta relativt nya sociala fenomen i det svenska utbildningsväsendet innebär att många elever och lärare i dagsläget har genomgått någon formav entreprenörskapsutbildning. Frågan som jag vill kasta ljus på i den här studien är: Hur utvecklas elevers företagsamma förhållningssätt genom entreprenörskapsutbildning?

    Till min hjälp har jag använt mig av en kvalitativ metod där jag har intervjuat elever och lärare som genomgått entreprenörskapsutbildningen Ung Företagsamhet. Jag har fördjupat mig i tre av dessa elever och en av lärarna. Ett aktörssynsätt utifrån ett bottom-up perspektiv används för att besvara studiens forskningsfråga och syfte. Vidare används en multipel fallstudie där jag analyserar varje fall var för sig och avslutar sedan med en jämförande analys mellan fallen från vilken slutsatserna dras.

    Det teoretiska ramverket fungerar som teoretiska utgångspunkter och innehåller begrepp och modeller från teorier om entreprenörskap och lärande. Dessa teoretiska utgångspunkter har utvecklats utifrån studiens angreppssätt som är abduktion eller den gyllene medelvägen. Centrala teoretiska begrepp som används i studien är lärandesituation, lärandeprocesser och lärandenivåer vilka sammanfattar studiens teoretiska referensram.

    Det huvudsakliga syftet med studien är att baserat på det teoretiska ramverket bidra med djupare förståelse för hur elevers företagsamma förhållningssätt kan utvecklas genom entreprenörskapsutbildning. Slutsatserna för denna studie är att utvecklingen av ett företagsamt förhållningssätt bestäms av olika inre och yttre lärvillkor i lärandesituationen. Lärandeprocesserna för de olika aktörerna kategoriserades som kognitiva (kunskapsmässiga), psykodynamiska (emotionella) och sociala (samarbetsmässiga). Lärandenivåerna som berördes av eleverna kategoriserades som: know-me, know-what, know-when, know-how, know-who och know-why.

  • 127.
    Abdu, Akrem
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business.
    Johansson, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business.
    Social Entrepreneurship: A Case Study of SIFE Umeå University2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today the world faces a lot of societal challenges in the economical, social and environmental spheres that needs to be overcome. Global warming, poverty and increasing economic inequality are only some of these challenges. The public debate has been focused on finding solutions to them and one of these has been addressed as social entrepreneurship. This phenomenon is about the era of the new type of entrepreneurs – social entrepreneurs – that recognize these challenges as opportunities that can be exploited in a both profitable and sustainable manner. Social entrepreneurship has in this way emerged as an interesting phenomenon and a new area in the entrepreneurship research.

     

    This study examines the phenomenon of social entrepreneurship by scrutinizing the concept SIFE - Students In Free Enterprise. SIFE is a non-profit organization that claims to be actively engaged in working with social entrepreneurship. The general purpose of this study is to bring a deeper understanding of the social entrepreneurship phenomenon, by describing the particular purpose, the case of SIFE Umeå University as a social entrepreneurship model. Our study is a qualitative case study using semi-structured interviews. Six respondents have been interviewed from different levels of the organization - SIFE Umeå University - in order to reflect the entire organization. We have used a deductive approach by establishing a theoretical framework that guided the interviews and has been used in the analysis of the empirical data.

     

    The main conclusions in this study show that SIFE Umeå University’s work with social entrepreneurship is mainly about socioeconomic and personal development. Another conclusion is that cooperation with partners from different sectors of the society is an important fundament in their work with social entrepreneurship. Furthermore, SIFE Umeå University can be considered as hybrid of a voluntary organization and social enterprise since it includes similarities of both organizational forms. Moreover, the study shows that entrepreneurial skills play an important role in SIFE Umeå University’s work with social entrepreneurship. Finally, we can from this study draw the conclusion that SIFE Umeå University’s work with social entrepreneurship can be divided in six steps: Target group, Job/life training, Commercial enterprises, Personal development, Socioeconomic development, Partnership Network.

  • 128.
    Abdu, Ramadan
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Zerhouni, Jonas
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Värdering av elitlicenser inom fotbollsallsvenskan: Hur gör man och hur påverkar variationsmöjligheterna jämförbarheten?2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Accounting in companies has for a long time been a good way to show profitability for external people. Accounting has become more legitimate over time and is being drown towards more secure numbers that show the real performance of the company. This is an important matter because of the large amount of investors ready to invest in a company with good profitability. The matter of correct accounting has become a serious deal over the years for the companies and associations that are bound with accounting obligations. This has become such a big deal that even the whole football world has been dragged into it. Since the football clubs receive an immense amount of attention regarding their accounting we believed it would be an interesting objective for our study. The factor that adds to the interest is specifically how Swedish football clubs adapt to the accounting rules that are set.The type of approach we have chosen for this study is a qualitative research. We therefore assumed the hermeneutic interpretation doctrine would be a good tool to achieve our aim with the study, since it will increase the knowledge and interpretation of our research topic (Wallen, 1996), (Bryman & Bell, 2013).The result of the study shows that the Swedish football association has given football clubs two alternatives to report new player signings. These two ways are either to expense play acquisitions in the balance sheet as a direct cost or to activate the play acquisition in the balance sheet (Svenska fotbollsförbundet, 2013). Among the football clubs in the league the majority of the football clubs activates the play acquisitions in the balance sheet, there were only two clubs who expensed play acquisitions as a direct cost. All the football clubs will be doing linear depreciations along the lease term (Svenska fotbollsförbundet, 2013).

  • 129.
    Abdubaliev, Ulukbek
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Akysheva, Aizhan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Storytelling Practices in Project Management: Exploratory study in new business process implementation in Information and Communication Technology projects2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Stories have always been present in the life of people as a part of their culture, it is a rather ancient narrative technique. The message delivered in a form of a story is specifically appealing to listeners, which makes it a powerful communication tool. The thesis explores storytelling practices in project management by answering the question: “How project managers use storytelling in new business process implementation in ICT projects?” The choice of the topic was driven by the gap in the literature and the choice of context was chosen by the level of maturity of project management in ICT industry. Within the framework of interpretivist research paradigm, the data was collected by interviewing ten project managers of new business process implementation in ICT projects.

    The thesis findings suggest that storytelling in implementation of new business processes in ICT projects is used in formal and informal forums in written and verbal format. Project managers use storytelling to pursue several goals: making sense of ICT projects, human resource management, promoting adaptation to new business processes, knowledge management and attracting new customers and investments into ICT projects. Storytelling in ICT projects is also limited by storytelling conditions, such as organizational culture, extent of change, governance structure. Storytelling in projects is subject to challenges, such as logistics and timeliness of practices.

    From the practical point of view, the thesis explores storytelling as an effective communication tool that can be used for multiple goals in project management. It allows adding storytelling to the requirement list of new soft competences of project managers. The thesis has bridged a literature gap between storytelling and project management, which opens new theoretical perspective of interpreting the reality in projects and creates space for further research.

  • 130.
    Abdul Kader, Hale
    et al.
    Centre for Risk and Insurance Studies, University of Nottingham, Nottingham,.
    Adams, Michael
    Swansea University, UK.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    The determinants of reinsurance in the Swedish property fire insurance market during the interwar years, 1919–392010In: Business History, ISSN 0007-6791, E-ISSN 1743-7938, Vol. 52, no 2, p. 268-284Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing a framework from agency theory, we use a panel data design to examine the factors motivating the level of demand for reinsurance in the rapidly developing Swedish property fire insurance market during the interwar period 1919–39. We find that as hypothesised, reinsurance enabled Swedish fire insurers to mitigate underwriting and solvency risks and thus increased their capacity to underwrite new business in uncertain economic times. This in turn helped to increase the supply of indemnity coverage for property (buildings) fire risks in the Swedish insurance market. We also find that as expected, investment earnings are inversely related to reinsurance purchases. However, contrary to what was hypothesised, reinsurance appears to be positively related to liquidity levels, suggesting that over our period of analysis, fire insurers could have been reinsuring to ‘protect’ earnings and accumulated cash reserves therefore enabling investment opportunities to be realised. Analysis of the sub-period 1919–28 further supports this contention, while our results for the economic depression years after 1929 show that reinsurance helped mitigate underwriting and insolvency risks, suggesting that the reinsurance decision of fire insurance companies could be motivated by macroeconomic factors.

  • 131.
    Abdul Malek, Nurul Aida
    et al.
    Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM), Malaysia / Department of Production, University of Vaasa, Finland.
    Shahzad, Khuram
    Department of Production, University of Vaasa, Finland.
    Takala, Josu
    Department of Production, University of Vaasa, Finland.
    Bojnec, Stefan
    Faculty of Management, University of Primorska, Slovenia.
    Papler, Drago
    Faculty of Management, University of Primorska, Slovenia.
    Liu, Yang
    Department of Production, University of Vaasa, Finland.
    Analyzing Sustainable Competitive Advantage: Strategically Managing Resource Allocations to Achieve Operational Competitiveness2015In: Management and Production Engineering Review, ISSN 2080-8208, E-ISSN 2082-1344, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 70-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In today’s dynamic business environment, a key challenge for all companies is to make adaptive adjustments to their manufacturing strategy. This study demonstrates the competitive priorities of manufacturing strategy in hydro-power case company to evaluate the level of sustainable competitive advantage and also to further analyze how business strategies are aligned with manufacturing strategies. This research is based on new holistic analytical evaluation of manufacturing strategy index, sense and respond, and sustainable competitive advantage models. These models help to describe, evaluate, and optimize resource allocation to meet the performance requirements in dynamic decision making. Furthermore, these models evaluate operational competitiveness for manufacturing strategies according to the multi-criteria priority. The results show that the adjustments of competitive priorities in manufacturing strategies by implementing the proposed holistic analytical models are helpful in strategically managing business operations. The discussion derives the most critical attributes in business operations while alignment of resource allocation with competitive priorities help to strategically focus those attributes. In conclusion, we argue that resource allocation and manufacturing strategies have become the most important capabilities in a business environment where companies focus to get a sustainable competitive advantage.

  • 132.
    Abdul, Renas
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Khorram, Shaga
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Ledarskap och motivation: En kvalitativ studie om monetära belöningar2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The need to motivate and reward employees to increase their motivation has been important for organizations and companies at all times. By having highly motivated employees, companies can compete in the labor market and achieve their goals. Previous research has shown various aspects of monetary reward and its impact on employees. Depending on how the monetary reward systems are designed, it can have different outcomes on the employees' motivation and performance. The leaders have a great role in finding out how to best motivate their employees.

    Our study aims to find out why monetary reward is used by leaders and how employee motivation is affected by it.

    We have, through a qualitative method in the form of interviews, examined the phenomenon of monetary reward and its use in the construction industry. In the theoretical frame of reference, various motivational theories and leadership styles are highlighted as support for interpreting the acquired empirical data.

    From our acquired empirical evidence it emerged that the leader's role is important in how employees are motivated, what impact monetary reward has on employees' motivation and why managers choose to use monetary reward. It also emerged that monetary reward system works well in the construction industry.

    We conclude that employee motivation is positively affected and the leader uses monetary reward as it results in good results for the company as they meet their goals. The cost of monetary reward is weighed up by the fact that the company receives satisfied customers.

  • 133.
    Abdul, Shakoor
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Management.
    Electronic Customer Relationship Management (eCRM) from the Perspective of Two Banks with Online Marketing in Pakistan: case of HSBC PK and Standard Chartered Bank PK2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study observes an approach which is known as explorative because it aims to evaluate and examine online media as a tool for e-CRM. In addition, this involves the approach known as iterative also depends on the data, which is qualitative in congestion with observational information. This study builds on the existing literature and theories within customer relationship marketing (CRM). The subfield to CRM, called e-CRM, is further studied the phenomenon of online marketing and online CRM (customer relationship management) in a banking business context. The study builds upon empirical studies of two banks using online banking on a daily basis. The empirical material was collected through face-to-face interviews in order to gain knowledge and understanding of how corporations use e-CRM. Moreover, observations were conducted in order to gain a deeper understanding of how differently e-CRM was used by the two banks, and to see how customers reacted to their initiatives. e-CRM is a new way to interact, it involves rapid interactions that are spread faster and can be visible to anyone using the Internet. It comes along with many challenges as well as great opportunities. It is vital that managers can direct the employees to use online sources and e-CRM in a correct way in accordance with the brand values to avoid contradicting messages. It needs to be used by employees with social competence, as it involves interaction with customers. Organizations need to be involved in e-CRM and online media to be able to influence what people write about the corporation. It is a valuable channel in order to gain customer knowledge and customers' opinions about the business and their offerings. Its also a way to acknowledge complaints and thus be able to handle them. An adequate complaint handling can in turn enhance customer relationships. As e-CRM is a relatively new and constantly evolving phenomenon, it requires curiosity and courage. Further, it can be used to create emotional bonds with customers by providing a personalization.

  • 134.
    Abdulah, Sandra
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Dini, Rahma
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Business Studies.
    Kulturell mångfald inom företag: En fallstudie om kulturell mångfaldsarbete inom transportsektorn2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund​: En ökad globalisering, internationalisering och invandring runt om i världen idag har påverkat näringslivet på olika sätt. Effekterna av detta har haft en kulturell inverkan på Sveriges organisationer. År 1945 ersattes arbetskraftsinvandringen med flykting- och anhöriginvandring. Invandringen har inneburit att den kulturella och religiösa heterogeniteteni det svenska samhället har ökat jämfört med åren innan, vilket har bland annat skapat kulturella utmaningar för företagen i Sverige.

    Problemdiskussion:​ Kulturell mångfald har bidragit till olikheter på arbetsplatsen som har skapat utmaningar för företagen. Olikheterna är allt ifrån sättet man tänker, hur man utför sitt jobb, språket man talar till sättet man klär sig och de symboler man bär. Det är inte alltid de kulturella värderingarna går i enlighet med företagets värderingar och normer. Frågan är hurföretagen ser på dessa utmaningar och hur de hanterar dem.

    Forskningsfråga:​ Hur arbetar företag inom transportbranschen med kulturell mångfald och hur definierar dem utmaningarna som kommer med mångfald bland de anställda?

    Syfte: ​Studien syftar till att undersöka hur företag inom persontransportsektorn arbetar med kulturell mångfald bland de anställda samt hur de hanterar utmaningarna kring den.

    Metod:​ Vi har valt att använda den kvalitativa metoden för att samla information. I vår kvalitativa forskningsmetod har vi använt oss utav semistrukturerade intervjuer bestående av öppna frågor med ledningen för att förstå hur de valda företagen arbetar med mångfald.

    Resultat:​ De fyra företag som undersökts i studien har alla sitt sätt att arbeta med den kulturella mångfalden, men inget av företagen har i dagsläget en medveten strategi som specificerar arbetet med kulturell mångfald på en djupare nivå. Därmed hanterar företagen de utmaningar som uppkommer i samband med detta först när diskriminering eller händelser som strider mot jämställdheten uppstår

  • 135.
    Abdulahad, Jennifer
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Nordling, Lisa
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Inget vågat, inget vunnet: En kvantitativ studie om skillnader i riskbenägenhet mellan män och kvinnor utifrån demografiska faktorer och geografiska områden2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Problem: This study aims to examine the factors that influence the individual's different choice of risk level. Demographic characteristics are the underlying factors being analyzed in the study with a special emphasis on geographic factors – this in order to analyze and explain the Swedish individual’s approach to risk. Based on certified private advisers’ perspective, the study will also examine their approach to manage individuals’ risk.

    Purpose: Studying the differences in risk aversion among individuals when making investment decisions, based on demographic factors and geographical areas.

    Theory: The essay’s theoretical framework deals with theories covering behavioral finance, the risk appetite development in individuals at a demographic and geographic way, and an overview of previous research on the subject.

    Method: We conducted a quantitative study in which 340 respondents were asked to answer a survey. We also interviewed three certified counselors from three different banks in Sweden.

    Conclusions: In line with behavioral finance theory, people are not rational when making investment decisions. The study concludes that people in big cities tend to be more risk-averse than people in smaller cities. Sex is shown to be a differentiating factor with men having a higher risk-aversion than women. A higher income and level of education leads to a higher risk attitude and marital status affects the risk appetite where a married person has a higher risk appetite than a person who is single. Age and education, showed to have no relationship to the level of risk.

  • 136.
    Abdulahad, Naim
    et al.
    Södertörn University College, School of Business Studies.
    Akdemir, Liliane
    Södertörn University College, School of Business Studies.
    Ekonomistyrning i Sigtuna Kommun: Förbättringsförslag på gymnasieverksamheten2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Gymnasieskolan är för eleverna en avgiftsfri och frivillig skolform. Kommunerna är skyldiga att erbjuda folkbokförda elever som avslutat grundskolan en gymnasieutbildning. Allt fler väljer dock att läsa på andra skolors kommuner. Elever som väljer att läsa på andra skolor har andra ersättningskostnader. Detta gör det svårt att budgetera för hur fördelningen av resurser blir för året. Sigtuna kommun förväntar sig ett underskott i en av nämnderna under kommunfullmäktige under året. Denna prognos baseras på ett delårsbokslut den sista augusti för Arlandagymnasiet där ett underskott på 2.5 miljoner kronor upptäcktes. Underskottet väntas bli 10 miljoner kronor till årsslutet. 6 Problemet idag börjar när kommunernasövergripande strategier, mål och visioner bryts ned på verksamhetsnivå. En modell för den ekonomiska styrningen inom nämnden är idag avsaknad eller inte fullgod.

    Frågan som ställs i denna uppsats är; hur kan den strategiska ekonomistyrningen för gymnasieverksamheten i utbildnings- och arbetsmarknadsnämnden i Sigtuna kommun förbättras utifrån givna ekonomiska ramar från kommunfullmäktige? KSL(Kommunförbundet Stockholms län) har tagit fram en kalkylmodell för beräkning av programkostnader inom gymnasieskolan. Syftet med modellen är att alla kommuner ska beräkna interkommunala ersättningar på samma sätt. Sigtuna kommunen blandar även den interkommunala ersättningen med anslagen gymnasieledningen får. Dessa ska och bör vara uppdelade då detta inte ger en rättvisande bild, eller något att bygga utifrån enligt gymnasiechefen. Det främsta styrverktyget de använder sig av är budgeten, som man enligt kommunallagen måste upprätta. Ett förslag är att använda sig av riktade resultatkrav ibudgetarbetet, detta vilket ger en bättre överblick över vilka enheter som behöver komma i ekonomisk balans. Ett annat förslag är att jobba mer med fler nyckeltal som implementeras och följs upp på verksamhetsnivå.

  • 137.
    Abdulahi, Adan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Invandrarföretagares möjlighet till ekonomiskt stöd från statliga institutioner2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vid slutet av 80-talet ökade invandringen till Sverige samtidigt som dess karaktär förändrades. Idag pratar man om flyktinginvandring till skillnad från 80-talet då arbetskraftsinvandring dominerade de invandrare som fanns i Sverige. Det har blivit svårare för invandrare som kom till Sverige som flyktingar att integrera sig eftersom det råder hög arbetslöshet.

  • 138.
    Abdulbaqi, Dana M.
    et al.
    Saudi Aramco, Dhahran.
    Dahl, Carol
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences. Mineral and Energy Economics Program and Payne Institute of Earth Resources, Division of Economics and Business, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO .
    Al-Shaikh, Mohammed
    Saudi Aramco, Dhahran.
    Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) as a Stepping Stone to Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS)2018In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 31, no 1-2, p. 239-251Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental concerns about carbon emissions coupled with the oil industry’s need to secure additional CO2 for enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) projects have sparked interest in the potential that CO2-EOR may have in jumpstarting carbon capture and sequestration (CCS). However, existing studies on the viability of coupling CO2-EOR with CCS have generally placed more focus on either the engineering or economic aspects of the problem. Most engineering studies focus on the technical aspects of the CO2-EOR project to produce the maximum amount of oil, while simultaneously storing the most CO2 during the production process with the economics as an afterthought, while most economic studies found have focused on a singular aspect of the issue such as impacts of exogenously varying injection rates. Furthermore, modelling efforts have stopped at the end of the productive life of the field. We build a unique two-stage dynamic optimization model, which simultaneously addresses engineering and economic policy aspects, to study the viability of coupling CO2-EOR transitioning into CCS. Our model includes a carbon tax for emissions, which becomes a subsidy for full scale sequestration after oil production has ceased; this allows us to explore the transition from CO2-EOR, our first stage, to sole CO2 sequestration in our second stage for a single field. We maximize the operator’s profits across both stages, while tracking the responsiveness of oil production and total carbon movements to both price and policy changes. We pair our optimization model with a reservoir simulation model, allowing us to mimic actual field behavior, giving our work a more realistic representation of both production and sequestration profiles. Our results suggest that small increases in the level of carbon tax can have large and discontinuous impacts on net sequestration. This stems from the observed transition from limited natural sources of CO2 to more expensive captured CO2 resulting from the implemented policy. With appropriate taxes, total volumes of captured CO2 sequestered across both stages are equivalent to 30 to 40% of the emissions from the use of the oil produced. With the credits oil producers receive from sequestering CO2, which equate to the tax, relatively high carbon taxes incentivize additional sequestration without significantly impacting the supply of oil. This, alongside maintaining a steady stream of profits, is a win-win situation for energy security and the climate.

  • 139.
    Abdulkadir, Muna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Bozhko, Kristina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Driving university towards change and innovation: Impact of national culture and environmental factors2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To investigate the impact of national culture on the process of managing change and innovation in the sector of higher education and identify what kind of environmental factors could produce a moderating effect on the cultural impact.

    Method: Inductive method and qualitative approach were used. With the purpose of collecting qualitative data, 15 in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with employees of Faculty of Education and Business Studies in University of Gävle, Sweden.

    Results & Conclusions: The study suggests that any innovation is a change, while change is always a process and, thus, should be managed as such. Authors draw attention from the process of management of innovation itself towards managing through manipulating by such an influencer as national culture. At the same time authors point out that not everything can be explained on the basis of culture providing a range of potential factors that can strongly moderate the impact of culture.

    Suggestions for future research: Current research is limited by the choice of country, sector of economy, number of studied cases, etc. Investigation of cultural impact on change and innovation management in universities of other countries or the choice of another economic sector would open opportunities for further research.

    Contribution of the thesis: During the study the authors verified a part of the suggested hypotheses demonstrating the strength of the impact that national culture produces on management of change and innovation. Moderating effect of different environmental factors such as employee’s age and position within organizational structure, governmental policies in the sphere of higher education, type of organizational structure and type of leadership, was demonstrated. Authors come up with implications of managing the process of change and innovation through manipulation of cultural impact.

  • 140.
    Abdulkarim, Zahra
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Malmstedt, Annelie
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Segmentation model for strategic decision-making to increase customer value: A study of absentee proprietors in the Swedishforest industry as a result of urbanization2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Urbanization is a major factor causing unsupported perceptions within the traditional vision offorest management. Urbanization has led to a reconstruction on forest owners’ economicdependency on the forestry. This contributes in emigration from rural areas to bigger cities.To understand how distant forest owners, manage their forest they need to be segmentedaccording to specific criteria. The purpose of the study is to create a segmentation model thatis theoretically anchored and empirically verified, to increase the customer value and maptheir different needs. Through the purpose a research question was developed: How can asegmentation model for absentee proprietors within the forest industry be developed toincrease the customer value? A segmentation model provides comprehensive knowledge andinsights about forest owners’ different needs. The empirical data, collected through surveys,was presented individually and some connections could be found. Through these connectionsproperty area and distance were chosen as factors that are appropriate for segmentation. Basedon the segmentation factors a correlation analysis was made to create four demographicsegmentations. The visitors: small area, small distance. Conservationists: small area, largedistance. Investors: large area, small distance. Specifiers: large area, large distance. Theconclusion shows that a segmentation model over absentee proprietors is necessary for thestrategic management in forest companies, when it comes to decisions regarding sales criteria,communication and recommended approaches.

  • 141.
    Abdullaev, Shuhrat
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Management.
    Abdurahmonov, Sharof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Management.
    Title: Potentials of Insurance Market Development in Jizzak region2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: Potentials of Insurance Market Development in Jizzak region Authors: Shuhrat Abdulaev, Sharof Abdurahmonov Supervisor: Anders Hederstierna Department: Business Administration, Blekinge Technology Institute Course: Master’s thesis in Business Administration, 10 credits Background and Problem Discussion: The main reasons why we have chosen this topic “Potentials of insurance market development in Jizzak region” for our thesis are the followings: 1) Strong and Competitive insurance market is one of the essential parts of well-developed market economy. How to reach well-developed insurance market is a complex problem that the economy of Uzbekistan is facing now. 2) Having studied previous researches regarding insurance market of Uzbekistan and the role of marketing in development of companies we concluded that there are huge potentials for growing in insurance market which have not learned yet. Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to find the answers to following questions: How is the current situation in the insurance market of Uzbekistan? What kind of insurance services are there and what is the demand for them? The determination of main clientele of insurance companies; The determination of factors that can affect on insurance services The analysis of proportion of population who do not apply for insurance services and the reasons; The role of marketing research in companies’ growth; Method: This research used Quantitative method. Survey technique used to conduct a quantitative study. Primary data collected through questionnaire. Secondary data collected from banks and department of Statistics of the local government. This research can be seen as deductive research since it begins by examining theories related to insurance and consumer behavior to insurance services. Following hypothesis were developed by the assumption that • Person’s insurance expenditure dependent of their annual income • Person’s positive opinion about insurance dependent of their gender • Person’s positive opinion about insurance dependent of their age • Person’s positive opinion about insurance dependent of their education • Person’s who is insured dependent of their income Theory: The theory section contains a review of theories concerning in economic nature and functions of insurance, marketing in insurance, insurance market in Uzbekistan. Analysis: Statistical program SPSS 14v.(Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) - is used to compute the correlation values and the regression coefficients. The results presented in appropriate table and graph. We divided our analysis into three parts: 1) Using the secondary data, we analyzed accidents that happened during the last two years, obligatory insurance, insurance companies in Jizzak. 2) We analyzed dependence of respondents’ annual insurance expenditure on their annual income using the multiple regression analysis. 3) Based on the primary data and using Chi-square statistical test, we analyzed consumer behavior to insurance service interviewing people individually. Conclusion: Analysis showed that insurance premiums mostly come from obligatory insurance. We discovered that banks are the main clients of insurance agencies at the present and insurance market undeveloped yet, the main reasons are low level of insurance culture, low level of citizens income, lack of understanding by the population and legal entities the need in insurance services; undeveloped economy of country, which doesn’t allow the insurance market to develop as a whole; lack of brokerage companies to work with insurance agencies; lack of skilled specialists and prepared insurance managers.

  • 142.
    Abdullah Asif, Farazee Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    Rashid, Amir
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering, Machine and Process Technology.
    Bianchi, C.
    Nicolescu, Cornel Mihai
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    System dynamics models for decision making in product multiple lifecycles2015In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 101, p. 20-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main drivers for adopting product multiple lifecycles are to gain ecological and economic advantages. However, in most of the cases it is not straight forward to estimate the potential ecological and economic gain that may result from adopting product multiple lifecycles. Even though many researchers have concluded that product multiple lifecycles result in gain, there are examples which indicate that the gain is often marginal or even none in many cases. The purpose of this research is to develop system dynamics models that can assist decision makers in assessing and analysing the potential gain of product multiple lifecycles considering the dynamics of material scarcity. The foundation of the research presented in this paper is laid based on literature review. System dynamics principles have been used for modelling and simulations have been done on Stella iThink platform. The data used in the models have been extracted from different reports published by World Steel Association and U.S. Geological Survey. Some of the data have been assumed based on expert estimation. The data on iron ore reserves, iron and steel productions and consumptions have been used in the models. This research presents the first system dynamics model for decision making in product multiple lifecycles which takes into consideration the dynamics of material scarcity. Physical unavailability and price of material are the two main factors that would drive product multiple lifecycles approach and more sustainable decisions can be made if it is done by taking holistic system approach over longer time horizon. For an enterprise it is perhaps not attractive to conserve a particular type of material through product multiple lifecycles approach which is naturally abundant but extremely important if the material becomes critical. An enterprise could through engineering, proper business model and marketing may increase the share of multiple lifecycle products which eventually would help the enterprise to reduce its dependency on critical materials.

  • 143.
    Abdullah, Tazhan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation.
    Suppl-SideRiskMitigationinManufacturingCompany2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Supply chain risk is a challenge, because they can disrupt the supply of components and raw

    material to the company. The Supply Chain Risk Management (SCRM) is reality in today’s

    resource-optimized supply systems. Disruption can cause an increase of production cost. In more

    serious production breaks it can jeopardize the fulfillment of contracts.

    The complexity of supply network increases risk as the rate of dependency on both single and

    dual sourcing increases either jointly or separately. When suppliers are placed far away, the risk

    of interference in time increases, which is the case of today’s global companies is a common

    issue.

    A framework has been developed in this study based on previous literature to investigate the

    sources of the supply-side risk and its categories, to implement the mitigation strategies the

    company can reduce the probability of occurrence of any undesired event and negative impacts.

    The proposed framework was applied, in form of a case study, on the global truck manufacturer

    Scania. Two managers of the company were interviewed by the author with this purpose.

    The main findings indicate that when the framework was applied, mitigation strategies were

    effective in truck manufacturing industry such as Scania. In the case of Scania, two more risk

    sources that were not included in the framework are monitored by the company, namely safety

    and health and security. In summarizing, the establishment of the risk mitigation strategiesmapping

    up, follow up, and continuous improvement, leads to improvement of the OEM. Formal

    training programs to achieve continuous improvement and the participation of the crossfunctional

    groups in the mapping and follow up practices to create a successful supply chain risk

    management.

  • 144.
    Abdullahi, Abdi Isamail
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Does Export Diversification Boosts Economic Growth in Sub SaharanAfrica Countries?2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Growth induced export has become a major concern for policy makers to transform and upgrade the export composition to achieve economic growth objectives; in this respect, export diversification become at the heart of growth induced export narrative. Nevertheless, this study attempts to find relationship between export diversification and economic growth. To investigate this relationship, a cross-section method is used with averaged data from the period 1991 to 2009 of 41 sub Saharan Africa countries; moreover, diagnostic tests were conducted to ensure the robustness of the model. The empirical result of this study shows positive correlation between export diversification and economic growth which can be concluded that export diversification promotes economic growth.

  • 145.
    Abdullayev, Muzaffar
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Decline in distance effect in international trade2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 146.
    Abdulrahim, Samara
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Kajsdottir, Lilja
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Redovisning av intressentgrupper i hållbarhetsrapporter: En jämförelse av hållbarhetsrapporter mellan företag med låg respektive hög andel kvinnor i styrelsen2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 147.
    Abdulreda, Alico
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Giba, Gabriela
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Generation Y: En studie om vad som motiverar yngre medarbetare2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Generation Y or Millennials are people born 1980-1999. They are raised with a more advanced technology like no other generation before them. The technology has affected the individuals from generation Y in a way which has led them to become impatience. Studies have shown that people in generation Y are very emotional compared to other generations before them. Individuals from generation Y are already entering the labour market. Studies have shown that if an organisation wants to have a bright future the employees are a very important access. A leader who knows how to motivate and lead his co-workers has a great asset which may have a positive impact on the organisation. The purpose of this study is to understand what motivates people who are included in generation Y and what kind of leadership suits them best. Most of the theoretical framework came from scientific articles with theories and models of motivation and leadership for generation Y. Semi-structured interviews were chosen for the research method to get right information. The result of the study showed that generation Y is mostly motivated by inner motivation and prefer a leader who can adapt to the many work situations that can occur in the organisations.

  • 148.
    Abdulsalam Osman, Dana
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Hamad, Ivan
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Hantering av styrande dokument: Hantering av styrande dokument i stora företag2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 149.
    Abebaw, Meron Kebede
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Matukuta, Willard Kingstone
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Technology and Customers’ Experiences in Fashion Physical Stores: The Case of Sweden2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: Technology and Consumers’ Experiences in Fashion Physical Stores: The Case of Sweden

    Level: Master Thesis in Business Administration

    Author: Meron Kebede Abebaw; Willard Kingstone Matukuta

    Supervisor: Agneta Sundström, PhD

    Examiner: Maria Fregidou-Malama, PhD

    Date: May, 2018 

    Aim: The aim of this study is to analyze whether in-store digital technology in fashion retailers are used to change the customers’ shopping experience and behavior.

    Method: This study chooses qualitative research and used both primary and secondary data collection as method.

    Results and conclusions: This study have reached to conclude that: with the current advances in technology, physical stores can use in-store technology to give customers a new experience; physical stores perceive that using in-store digital technology will change customers shopping experience. Also, marketing mix inputs and technology affect customers’ behavior.

    Suggestions for future research: For future research, how smart fitting rooms may influence the customer experience in the physical store will be important to study. Researchers can also consider understanding customer responses to in-store technology. Finally, a customer’s perspective to both suggestions should improve the knowledge on whether digital solutions are preferred in in-store shopping or not.

    Contributions of the thesis: This thesis contributes to the current state of theories on in-store technology by showing atmosphere has effect on customers’ experiences and behavior in addition to the marketing mix. On the managerial perspective, analyzing the installation of this technology will enable to identify its effect on customers’ experiences and behavior. In addition, on the societal perspective, the behavior of customers will help in motivating younger generation to utilize this in-store technology.

  • 150.
    Abebe, Meaza Eshetu
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration.
    Kalinina, Ekaterina
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration.
    Coordination of inter-organizational projects within creative industries: A contextual perspective2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Inter-organizational projects have become common forms of organizing in various industries such as construction, advertising, music, film making etc. The unique structural nature of Inter-organizational projects coupled with the fact that they carried out through the participation of multiple organizations, raises issues of coordination. Particularly when it comes to creative industries, coordination is challenged by demand and transactional uncertainties. In order to understand how inter-organizational projects achieve coordination in such situations, it is important to study their interior processes putting in consideration their environmental context. 

    The aim of this research is to study how network embeddedness enhances coordination in inter-organizational projects within creative industries.

    Inter-organizational projects: are projects that are carried out through the collaboration of multiple legally independent organizations

    Inter-organizational networks: refer to sets of long-term ties among independent organizations that are engaged in continuous exchange relations.

    Embeddedness: refers to the continuous interaction of individuals, organizations, projects etc. with their environmental context.

    Macrocultures: refer to the shared beliefs, norms values rules and practices with in inter- organizational networks that guide members on their actions.

    A qualitative approach using a multiple comparative case study was conducted. Accordingly four projects chosen from creative industries were studied using both primary and secondary data.

    Macrocultures that are embedded inter-organizational networks facilitate coordination within inter-organizational projects. Further projects that differ in their constituents task nature, time duration and team composition relied on different types of embeddedness for coordination.

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