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  • 101.
    af Klinteberg, Britt
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Johansson, Sven-Erik
    Gacono, Carl
    Alm, Per Olof
    Projective risk variables in early adolescence and subsequent disinhibitory psychopathology2008In: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, ISSN 0160-2527, E-ISSN 1873-6386, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 210-218Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective was to examine early adolescent projective risk indicators for the development of antisocial behaviour as related to adult personality traits, psychopathy, and violent behaviour over the life span. Assessment data included Rorschach (Rr) ratings (at age 11–14 years), personality inventories (EPQ-I and KSP scales), and a shortened Psychopathy Check List (PCL) (administered at age 32–40 years), obtained from a group of 199 male subjects; and smoking habits (at age 36–44 years) obtained from 125 of those subjects. Results, controlled for intelligence, indicated that the high and very high risk groups, as determined by level of total Rr risk scores, were (1) significantly higher on self-rated IVE Impulsiveness, the anxiety-related KSP Muscular Tension, and nonconformity traits, as compared to the low Rr risk group — the very high risk group also scoring significantly higher on the EPQ Psychoticism scale, related to aggressiveness and cruelty; (2) higher on clinically rated PCL total sum and factor scores; and (3) they were overrepresented among Ss with subsequent violent offence, and Ss with heavy smoking habits. The results are discussed in terms of the possible usefulness of psychodynamic oriented cognitive-emotional indicators in the search for underlying mechanisms in the development of disinhibitory psychopathology.

  • 102.
    af Klinteberg, Britt
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS). Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Johansson, Sven-Erik
    Levander, Maria
    Alm, Per Olof
    Oreland, Lars
    Smoking habits – Associations with personality/behavior, platelet monoamine oxidase activity and plasma thyroid hormone levels2017In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 118, p. 71-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective was to outline results from our scientific studies on the associations among childhood behavior, adult personality, and biochemical factors in smoking habits. The studies consisted of: (1) follow-up of young criminals and controls, subdivided into risk for antisocial behavior groups, based on childhood rating levels of a projective test; and adult smoking habit groups; and (2) a large group of young adults examined on the same inventories. Personality in terms of KSP and EPQ-I scale scores, controlled for intelligence, indicated that the high and very high risk groups displayed significantly higher self-rated impulsiveness, anxiety, and nonconformity, as compared to the low risk group. Further, the very high risk group subjects, found to be overrepresented among subjects with heavy smoking habits, displayed lower mean platelet MAO-B activity and higher thyroid hormone levels than the low risk group. Thus, the higher the childhood risk for antisocial behavior, the clearer the adult personality pattern making subjects more disposed for smoking appeared; and the higher smoking habits, the stronger the relationships with biochemical measures. Results are discussed in terms of possible underlying mechanisms influencing personality and smoking habits.

  • 103. af Wahlberg, A. E.
    et al.
    Poom, Leo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    An Empirical Test of Nonresponse Bias in Internet Surveys2015In: Basic and Applied Social Psychology, ISSN 0197-3533, E-ISSN 1532-4834, Vol. 37, no 6, p. 336-347Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In surveys, nonresponse is considered a source of possible bias, which increases with the size of the nonresponding group. Nonresponse bias was investigated in 3 samples of offending drivers who were required to respond to an online questionnaire before taking a driver improvement course, creating an initial 100% response rate. The next 2 questionnaire waves were voluntary, and response rates were much lower. Results (means, internal consistency, correlations, etc.) in the first wave were compared between those who responded twice or thrice and those who responded only to the first wave. No substantial differences were found. Compared to common method variance, the effects of nonresponse are very small.

  • 104.
    af Wåhlberg, A. E.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Att mäta effekter av utbildning i sparsam körning2002In: Transportforum 2002, Väg- och transportforskningsinstitutet , 2002Conference paper (Other scientific)
  • 105.
    af, Wåhlberg. A. E.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Fuel efficient driving training - state of the art and quantification of effects2002In: Proceedings of Soric'02, Center for Transport and Road Studies, University of Bahrain, Kingdom of Bahrain , 2002Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 106.
    af Wåhlberg, A. E.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    On the validity of self-reported traffic accident data2002In: E140 Proceedings of Soric'02, Center for Transport and Road Studies, University of Bahrain, Kingdom of Bahrain , 2002Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 107.
    af Wåhlberg, A.E.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Göthe, Johan
    Fuel wasting behaviors of truck drivers2007In: Industrial Psychology Research Trends, New York: Nova Science Publishers , 2007, p. 73-87Chapter in book (Other scientific)
  • 108.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Changes in Driver Celeration Behavior over Time: do Drivers Learn from Collisions?2012In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 15, no 5, p. 471-479Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although it is well known that drivers’ accident risk changes with experience, it has never been specified exactly how this comes about in terms of changes of behaviour, or what features of their experiences are important for this change. One possibility is that drivers learn from their collision involvement, and change their behaviour after such events, as some studies indicate. However, relative accident involvement tends to be very stable over time, which indicates the opposite. Repeated measurements of celeration (speed change) behaviour of bus drivers were compared between two groups; drivers without accidents within the measurement period (about 3 years), and drivers with at least one crash. For the crash group, there was a steady decline in their celeration values over time, but this was not related to their crashes. A similar reduction was also present for the non-crash sample. The results would seem to be in agreement with the theory of accident proneness; there exist stability in driver behaviour over time, despite accident involvement. However, this stability is relative within the sample, and not absolute. The reduction in celeration values for both groups over time would seem to indicate that drivers learn from their experiences in general, but not specifically from accidents. The present study seems to indicate that daily experience of driving situations is the strongest factor for changes in driving behaviour.

  • 109.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Characteristics of low speed accidents with buses in public transport. Part II.2004In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol. 36, p. 63-71Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 110.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Differential accident involvement of bus drivers2005In: Driver Behaviour and Training: Volume II / [ed] Lisa Dorn, Aldershot: Ashgate , 2005, p. 383-391Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The relations between 552 bus drivers' low-speed traffic incidents (without consideration of culpability) and their age, exposure (hours of work) and experience (years as a bus driver) were calculated using bus company data from the Swedish city of Uppsala for the years 1999-2003. It was found that risk decreases with age and experience, with experience as the strongest factor, carrying the effect. Exposure (hours worked) had a curvilinear association to accidents. Also, the use of accidents per work hour yielded more easily interpreted results than the absolute number, indicating the importance of taking exposure into account when predicting accidents. These results are mainly in agreement with previous studies on other road user groups. However, two different ways of calculating age effects (individual and group level) gave somewhat different results, indicating that a fairly popular method of calculating risk indexes may be faulty. Furthermore, time for holding a car driver's license did not influence bus accident liability, despite being strongly correlated with age, indicating that bus driving is separate from car driving experience. Also, the extremely small amount of variance accounted for by experience and age point to the importance of other factors, although there seem to be a strong effect during the first years of driving, which thereafter levels off.

  • 111.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Driver Behaviour and Accident Research Methodology: Unresolved Problems2009Book (Other academic)
  • 112.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hourly changes in accident risk for bus drivers2009In: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 187-197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traffic accident risk has in some studies been found to change with the time of day, after controlling for exposure, probably due to diurnal changes in the human body, which changes alertness. However, exposure data are not always of good quality, and culpability for accidents is not always taken into account. The change in culpable accident risk over the day for bus drivers was therefore investigated, with single accidents analysed separately, using induced exposure (non-culpable bus accidents) as well as general traffic density and number of buses on the road as controlling factors. It was found that the risk distribution was fairly similar to some previous results before controlling for exposure, but dissimilar to other, probably indicating that bus drivers have a somewhat different risk profile, but also that previous studies may not have controlled for exposure in a reliable way. When exposure was held constant, the risk distribution was different from all other studies. The three different exposure measures correlated strongly between themselves, and each would seem to be adequate for a basic control. However, although general traffic density was most strongly correlated with culpable bus accidents, the induced exposure parameter added some explained variance. Single accidents had a very different risk distribution as compared to other culpable accidents when exposure had been held constant. A number of unexpected effects were also noted, mainly that single accidents were associated most strongly with general traffic density.

  • 113.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Memory effects in self-reports of crashes2012In: Driver Behaviour and Training, Volume V / [ed] L. Dorn, 2012, Vol. V, p. 283-288Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 114.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Social desirability effects in driver behavior inventories2010In: Journal of Safety Research, ISSN 0022-4375, E-ISSN 1879-1247, Vol. 41, no 2, p. 99-106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Problem: The use of lie scales to control for common method variance in driver behavior inventories has been very limited. Given that such questionnaires often use self-reported safety variables as criteria, and have social implications, the risk of artefactual associations is high. Method: A questionnaire containing scales from several well known driver inventories that have been claimed to predict traffic accident involvement was distributed three times to a group of young drivers in a driver education program, as well as a random group twice. The Driver Impression Management scale (DIM) was used to control for socially desirable responding. Results: For all behavior scales, the correlation with the DIM scale was substantial. If a scale correlated with self-reported crashes, the amount of predictive power was more than halved when social desirability was controlled for. Results were similar for both samples and all waves. The predictive power of the behavior scales was not increased when values were averaged over questionnaire waves, as should have been the case if the measurement and predictive power were valid. Results were similar for self-reported penalty points. The present results indicate that even the most well-known and accepted psychometric scales used in driver research are susceptible to social desirability bias. Discussion: As social desirability is only one of a number of common method variance mechanisms that can create artefactual associations, and the great popularity of the self-report methodology, the problem for traffic research is grave. Impact on industry: Organizations that fund traffic safety research need to re-evaluate their policies regarding what methods are acceptable. The use of self-reported independent and dependent variables can lead to directly misleading results, with negative effects on traffic safety.

  • 115.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Some methodological deficiencies in studies on traffic accident predictors2003In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol. 35, p. 473-486Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 116.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stability and correlates of driver acceleration behaviour2003In: Driver Behaviour and Training. First International Conference on Driver Behaviour and Training. Stratford-upon-Avon 11-12 November, 2003., 2003, p. 45-54Conference paper (Other scientific)
  • 117.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The Prediction of Traffic Accident Involvement from Driving Behavior2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the studies was to predict individual traffic accident involvement by the quantification of driving style in terms of speed changes, using bus drivers as subjects. An accident database was constructed from the archives of the bus company whose drivers were used as subjects. The dependent variable was also discussed regarding whether responsibility for crashes should be included, and what time period to use for optimal prediction. A new theory was constructed about how accidents are caused by driver behavior, more specifically the control movements of the driver, i.e. all actions taken which influence the relative motion of the vehicle in a level plane when v>0. This theory states that all traffic safety related behavior can be measured as celerations (change of speed of the vehicle in any direction of a level plane) and summed. This theoretical total sum is a measure of a person's liability to cause accidents over the same time period within a homogenous traffic environment and a similarly homogenous driving population. Empirically, the theory predicts a positive correlation between mean driver celeration behavior and accident record. The theory was tested in three empirical studies. The first tested equipment and methods, the second studied the question whether driver celeration behavior is stable over time. Celeration behavior turned out to be rather variable between days, and repeated measurements were therefore needed to stabilize the measure. In the third study, a much larger amount of data brought out correlations of sizes sufficient to lend some credibility to the theory. However, the predictive power did not extend beyond two years of time. The reported results would seem to imply that the celeration variable can predict accident involvement (at least for bus drivers), and is practical to use, as it is easily and objectively measured and semi-stable over time.

  • 118.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The relation of acceleration force to traffic accident frequency: A pilot study2000In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, Vol. 3, p. 29-38Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 119.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The relation of non-culpable traffic incidents to bus drivers' celeration behavior2008In: Journal of Safety Research, ISSN 0022-4375, E-ISSN 1879-1247, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 41-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Problem: The driver celeration behavior theory predicts that celerations are associated with incidents for which the driver has some responsibility in causing, but not other incidents. Method: The hypothesis was tested in 25 samples of repeated measurements of bus drivers' celeration behavior against their incidents for two years. Results: The results confirmed the prediction; in 18 samples, the correlation for culpable incidents only was higher than for all incidents, despite the higher means of the latter. Non-culpable incidents had correlations close to zero with celeration. Discussion: It was pointed out that most individual crash prediction studies have not made this differentiation, and thus probably yielded underestimates of the associations sought, although the effect is not strong, due to non-culpable accident involvements being few (less than a third of the total). The methods for correct identification of culpable incident involvements were discussed.

  • 120.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The stability of driver acceleration behavior, and a replication of its relation to bus accidents2004In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol. 36, p. 83-92Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 121.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Dorn, L
    "The Driver Behaviour Questionnaire as a predictor of accidents: A meta-analysis" Comments.2012In: Journal of Safety Research, ISSN 0022-4375, E-ISSN 1879-1247, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 83-85Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 122.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Dorn, L
    Kline, T
    The effect of social desirability on self reported and recorded road traffic accidents2010In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 106-114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of lie scales has a fairly long history in psychometrics, with the intention of identifying and correcting for socially desirable answers. This represents one type of common method variance (bias introduced when both predictors and predicted variables are gathered from the same source), which may lead to spurious associations in self-reports. Within traffic safety research, where self-report methods are used abundantly, it is uncommon to control for social desirability artifacts, or reporting associations between lie scales, crashes and driver behaviour scales. In the present study, it was shown that self-reports of traffic accidents were negatively associated with a lie scale for driving, while recorded ones were not, as could be expected if the scale was valid and a self-report bias existed. We conclude that whenever self-reported crashes are used as an outcome variable and predicted by other self-report measures, a lie scale should be included and used for correcting the associations. However, the only existing lie scale for traffic safety is not likely to catch all socially desirable responding, because traffic safety may not be desirable for all demographic groups. New lie scales should be developed specifically for driver behaviour questionnaires, to counter potential bias and artifactual results. Alternatively, the use of a single source of data should be discontinued.

  • 123. Af Wåhlberg, Anders
    et al.
    Dorn, Lisa
    Freeman, James
    Commentary on the rebuttal by de Winter and Dodou.2012In: Journal of Safety Research, ISSN 0022-4375, E-ISSN 1879-1247, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 90-3Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 124.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Dorn, Lisa
    Cranfield University.
    Kline, Theresa
    University of Calgary.
    The Manchester Driver Behaviour Questionnaire as predictor of road traffic accidents2011In: Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science, ISSN 1463-922X, E-ISSN 1464-536X, Vol. 12, p. 66-86Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 125.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    A reporting guide for studies on individual differences in traffic safety2010In: Journal of Safety Research, ISSN 0022-4375, E-ISSN 1879-1247, Vol. 41, no 4, p. 381-383Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Problem: Studies on individual differences in traffic safety report differently on their methodologies, and use different statistics, and these are therefore difficult to compare and meta-analyze. Method: Based upon a previous, extensive review and meta-analysis of the traffic safety literature, several recommendations are made about what features of the methodology of studies on individual differences (including evaluations) in safety need to be reported to facilitate interpretation and meta-analysis. Similarly, some basic types of statistical values are recommended. Impact on Industry: The accumulation of knowledge about individual differences in traffic safety would be facilitated if scientific authors and journals adhered to these guidelines.

  • 126.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Aggregation of driver celeration behavior data: Effects on stability and accident prediction2007In: Safety Science, ISSN 0925-7535, E-ISSN 1879-1042, Vol. 45, no 4, p. 487-500Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Predictions about effects of aggregating driver celeration data were tested in a set of data where bus drivers' behavior had been measured repeatedly over three years in a city environment. For drivers with many measurements, this data was correlated with the drivers' accident record at various levels of aggregation over measurements. A single measurement (one sample) was seldom a significant predictor, but for each drive added to a mean, the variation explained in accident record was increased by about 1%. Also, correlations between measurements increased when these were aggregated, and the association with number of passengers (a proxy for traffic density) decreased somewhat, all as predicted. These results show that although driver celeration behavior is only semi-stable across time and environments, aggregating measurements increases both stability and predictive power versus accidents considerably. The celeration variable is therefore promising as a tool for identifying dangerous drivers, if these can be measured repeatedly, or, even better, continuously.

  • 127.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Effects of passengers on bus driver celeration behavior and incident prediction2007In: Journal of Safety Research, ISSN 0022-4375, E-ISSN 1879-1247, Vol. 38, no 1, p. 9-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Problem: Driver celeration (speed change) behavior of bus drivers has previously been found to predict their traffic incident involvement, but it has also been ascertained that the level of celeration is influenced by the number of passengers carried as well as other traffic density variables. This means that the individual level of celeration is not as well estimated as could be the case. Another hypothesized influence of the number of passengers is that of differential quality of measurements, where high passenger density cirrcumstances are supposed to yield better estimates of the individual driver component of celeration behavior. Method: Comparisons were made between different variants of the celeration as predictor of traffic incidents of bus drivers. The number of bus passengers was held constant, and cases identified by their number of passengers per kilometer during measurement were excluded (in 12 samples of repeated measurements). Results: After holding passengers constant, the correlations between celeration behavior and incident record increased very slightly. Also, the selective prediction of incident record of those drivers who had had many passengers when measured increased the correlations even more. Conclusions: The influence of traffic density variables like the number of passengers have little direct influence on the predictive power of celeration behavior, despite the impact upon absolute celeration level. Selective prediction on the other hand increased correlations substantially. This unusual effect was probably due to how the individual propensity for high or low celeration driving was affected by the number of stops made and general traffic density; differences between drivers in this respect were probably enhanced by the denser traffic, thus creating a better estimate of the theoretical celeration behavior parameter C. The new concept of selective prediction was discussed in terms of making estimates of the systematic differences in quality of the individual driver data.

  • 128.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Environmental determinants of celeration behaviour2015In: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 71-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Celeration (speed change) behaviour of drivers has been posited to be the best predictor of their traffic accident involvement. The origins of this behaviour, however, have not been specified. A model is therefore introduced, where celeration is partly due to the individual disposition of the driver (i.e., driving style), and partly to the environment (road layout, rules and traffic density). Three measurement problems for celeration were studied; the effect of traffic density, of regular versus irregular routes, and weight of the vehicle (loaded/unloaded) on celeration behaviour. Two small samples of truck drivers in Sweden were measured for several months each. There was a strong effect of vehicle load, with behaviour being more cautious with increased weight. Driving on different roads also yielded differences in behaviour, although the design used did not permit conclusions about what caused these. Traffic volume was not found to have any reliable effect on celeration.

  • 129.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    If you can’t take the heat: Influences of temperature on bus accident rates2008In: Safety Science, ISSN 0925-7535, E-ISSN 1879-1042, Vol. 46, no 1, p. 66-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influences of heat and rain upon accident risk of city buses in a Swedish town were studied for a 10-year time period, but no reliable effects found, despite the fact that the temperature might be as high as 30 degrees C outside the vehicles. As the use of single accidents with buses bypasses many of the methodological problems inherent in the study of weather effects on accident rates, for example changes in general traffic density, the present study was a rather strict test of the hypothesis of increased accident risk due to these factors. It was therefore concluded that rain and high temperatures do not increase the risk of accident for low-speed buses in Sweden. However, there could still be an effect of hot weather on bus accidents at higher temperatures than those normally found in Sweden.

  • 130.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Long-term prediction of traffic accident record from bus driver celeration behavior2007In: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 159-171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Driver celeration (speed change) behavior of bus drivers measured a number of times was used to predict their culpable accidents over increasing time periods. It was found that predictive power was considerable (>.30 correlation) over 5 years of time with aggregated celeration (mean of repeated measurements) as independent variables, and there were also indications that power reached even further, although too low Ns made these results unreliable. Similarly, there were indications of even stronger correlations with increased aggregation of celeration values. The results were discussed in terms of the methodology needed to bring out such results, and the stability of accident-causing behavior over time.

  • 131.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Re-education of young driving offenders: Effects on self-reports of driver behavior2010In: Journal of Safety Research, ISSN 0022-4375, E-ISSN 1879-1247, Vol. 41, no 4, p. 331-338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Offending drivers are often re-educated, but these courses have seldom been shown to have any safety effects. Method: An on-line improvement course for offending drivers below the age of 25 was evaluated with several driver inventories. Results: The drivers reported higher levels of aggression, stress, sensation seeking, drunk driving, and driving violations, six months after the course than before. However, these levels were lower than those of controls, indicating that the initially low levels for the education group were due to socially desirable responding, as measured by a lie scale, an effect that waned after the course. Discussion: The results can be interpreted as a positive effect of the education, although this conclusion is tentative and not in agreement with all effects in the data. Impact on industry: The results are in disagreement with previous evaluation studies using the same or similar instruments, and show the need to include controls for social desirability in self-report studies.

  • 132.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The theoretical features of some current approaches to risk perception2001In: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 237-250Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Three approaches to risk perception (RP), the psychometric, the Basic Risk Perception Model, and the social amplification of risk, are evaluated using four common criteria for scientific theories. All approaches are found to meet the criterion of describing a large set of data, and for the psychometric approach and the Basic Risk Perception Model, the criterion of parsimony is fulfilled. The criteria of falsifiability and generating testable hypotheses are not met by any of these approaches. It is concluded that there is not as much theory available in RP research as could be expected at face value, if theory is defined as statements about causal mechanisms generating testable hypotheses. These three approaches instead qualifies as models (here defined as mathematical descriptions of data).

  • 133.
    Agahi, Neda
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Fors, Stefan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Fritzell, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Shaw, Benjamin A.
    Smoking and Physical Inactivity as Predictors of Mobility Impairment During Late Life: Exploring Differential Vulnerability Across Education Level in Sweden2018In: The journals of gerontology. Series B, Psychological sciences and social sciences, ISSN 1079-5014, E-ISSN 1758-5368, Vol. 73, no 4, p. 675-683Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To test whether older adults from high and low educational groups are differentially vulnerable to the impact of smoking and physical inactivity on the progression of mobility impairment during old age.

    Methods: A nationally representative sample of older Swedish adults (n = 1,311), aged 57-76 years at baseline (1991), were followed for up to 23 years (2014). Multilevel regression was used to estimate individual trajectories of mobility impairment over the study period and to test for differences in the progression of mobility impairment on the basis of smoking status, physical activity status, and level of education.

    Results: Compared to nonsmokers, heavy smokers had higher levels and steeper increases in mobility impairment with advancing age. However, there were only small and statistically nonsignificant differences in the impact of heavy smoking on mobility impairment in high versus low education groups. A similar pattern of results was found for physical inactivity.

    Discussion: Differential vulnerability to unhealthy behaviors may vary across populations, age, time-periods, and health outcomes. In this study of older adults in Sweden, low and high education groups did not differ significantly in their associations between heavy smoking or physical inactivity, and the progression of mobility impairment.

  • 134. Agdal, Maren Lillehaug
    et al.
    Raadal, Magne
    Öst, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Skaret, Erik
    Quality-of-life before and after cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in patients with intra-oral injection phobia2012In: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6357, E-ISSN 1502-3850, Vol. 70, no 6, p. 463-470Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. To evaluate quality-of-life (QoL), before and after cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in patients diagnosed with intra-oral injection phobia according to DSM-IV and to compare with the general population. This study also aimed to evaluate if QoL was associated with self-reported injection anxiety, dental anxiety, time since last dental treatment and oral health. Materials and methods. Subjects were 55 patients (mean age 35.5 +/- 12.2, 78.2% women) who participated in a treatment study in which 89% managed an intra-oral injection at 1 year follow-up. The patients completed a set of questionnaires including Quality of Life Inventory (QOLI), Injection Phobia Scale-Anxiety, Dental Anxiety Scale and a single-item question assessing self-perceived oral health. Objective measures of oral health and treatment needs were based on clinical examination. QOLI-scores from a non-clinical sample were used for comparison. Results. Before treatment the general and health specific QoL were lower among intra-oral injection phobics than in the non-clinical sample. At 1 year follow-up the QoL in general had improved significantly and was similar to that of the non-clinical sample. Poor self-reported oral health and long-term avoidance of dental treatment were associated with lower general and health-specific QoL. Self-reported injection anxiety and dental anxiety were not associated with QoL. Conclusions. Patients with intra-oral injection phobia report lower QoL compared with a general population. Phobia treatment seems to increase QoL to normative levels. Self-perceived poor oral health is associated with reduced QoL in these patients.

  • 135.
    Ageborg, Emma
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Thorsén, Camilla
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    22 juli 2011, kommer du ihåg den dagen?: Könsskillnader i uppskattning av självförtroende - och event minne för terrorattacken på Utøya, Norge2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 136.
    Agebäck, Åsa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    HUR LÄR MAN SIG OM SIN SVENSKA IDENTITET I ETT INTERKULTURELLT MÖTE?2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Eftersom det i dagens samhälle blivit allt vanligare att bosätta sig utomlands ökar behoven av kunskap om kulturella möten och kontraster. Möten med andra kulturer är sällan oproblematiska då alla individer är färgade av sin ursprungskultur. En stor fördel för integrering i en ny kultur är dock att ha kunskap om sig själv och sin egna kulturella identitet. Denna kunskap kan förvärvas innan kulturmötet men uppstår även som en konsekvens av det. Syftet med denna studie var att klargöra hur man lär sig om sin svenska identitet i ett interkulturellt möte. Femton svenskar bosatta i Norge, Kina och Israel intervjuades med den situationsbeskrivande metoden ”Critical incident”. Resultatet visade att lärande uppstod efter möten med bl.a. kulturkontraster och likhetssituationer. Reflektionerna kring dessa upplevelser följde vissa mönster så att reaktionerna var starkast i början och sedan avtog med tid. Öppenhet, erfarenhet, kön och ålder verkade påverka graden av lärande.

  • 137.
    Agergård Kareliusson, Charlotte
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Lärares kunskap om ADHD: Finns det ett samband mellan kunskap, attityder inför och bemötande av elever med diagnosen?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to map out if there were a relation between teachers knowledge about ADHD and their emotionell attitudes towards students with the diagnosis and to map out if there were a relation between teachers knowledge about ADHD and their choice of strategy used in the classroom to meet students with ADHD. The study was conducted as a survey study among teachers in grade 1 – 9. The teachers where to answear knowledge questions and self-rated questions about emotionell attitude and their choice of strategy. A link to a web survey was emailed to 400 principals in Swedish elementary schools. If the principal approved that the school participated in the survey he/she forwarded the email to the teachers. The survey was a remodeled version of the survey used by Kos (2004). The result of the survey was then processed as six linear regression analysis. The result shows a significant relation between teachers knowledge about ADHD, their emotionell attitude towards students with ADHD and their self-rated choice of strategy. 

  • 138.
    Agerström, Jens
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Implicit obesity bias predicts real hiring discrimination in the labor market2011In: Annual meeting of The Society for Personality and Social Psychology, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 139.
    Agerström, Jens
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Lunds universitet.
    Moral concerns are greater for temporally distant events and are moderated by value strength2009In: Social cognition, ISSN 0278-016X, E-ISSN 1943-2798, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 261-282Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present research examines the impact of temporal distance on moral concerns in situations where selfish motives clash with altruistic considerations. Drawing upon Construal Level Theory (Trope & Liberman, 2003) which posits that abstract, high-level features of events and social values take on more weight with greater temporal distance, we hypothesized that moral concerns should be higher for temporally distant situations. The results from five experiments supported this conjecture. People indicated they would be more likely to choose altruistic over selfish behaviors, reported they would feel more guilty about engaging in selfish behavior, thought acting selfishly would be more immoral, and were more likely to commit to altruistic behavior when thinking about distant versus near future events. Moreover, as predicted, temporal distance primarily enhanced moral concerns among individuals with high moral value strength. Support was also obtained in favor of the assumption that value salience was responsible for the temporal distance effect on moral concerns. Practical and theoretical implications are discussed.

  • 140.
    Agerström, Jens
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Temporal construal and moral motivation2013In: Handbook of Moral Motivation: Theories, Models, Applications / [ed] K. Heinrichs, F. Oser & T Lovat, Rotterdam: Sense Publishers, 2013, p. 181-196Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 141.
    Agerström, Jens
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Lunds universitet.
    Temporal Distance and Moral Concerns: Future Morally Questionable Behavior is Perceived as More Wrong and Evokes Stronger Prosocial Intentions2009In: Basic and Applied Social Psychology, ISSN 0197-3533, E-ISSN 1532-4834, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 49-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prior research on temporal construal has shown that core values become more salient when people think about distant- as compared to near-future events. The present research shows that greater temporal distance of an event also results in greater moral concern. More specifically, it was found that people make harsher moral judgments of others' distant-future morally questionable behavior than near-future morally questionable behavior. Moreover, it was shown that people increasingly attribute distant vs. near future behavior to abstract dispositional relative to concrete situational causes, and that this attribution bias is partially responsible for the temporal distance effect on moral judgments.

  • 142.
    Agerström, Jens
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Why people with an eye toward the future are more moral: The role of abstract thinking2013In: Basic and Applied Social Psychology, ISSN 0197-3533, E-ISSN 1532-4834, Vol. 35, no 4, p. 373-381Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Why do future-oriented people show greater moral concern than present-oriented people? Consistent with construal level theory (CLT; Trope & Liberman, 2003), we find that future-oriented people construe morally relevant actions at a higher level of abstraction, which clarifies their larger implications. Moreover, we show that level of construal partially explains the relationship between individual differences in temporal orientation and moral judgments. These findings support CLT and contribute to our understanding of moral psychology, as they are the first to show how individual differences pertaining to psychological distance relate to abstract thinking and moral judgments.

  • 143.
    Agerström, Jens
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Lunds universitet.
    Allwood, Carl Martin
    Lunds universitet.
    The Effects of Time and Abstraction on Moral Concerns2009Report (Other academic)
  • 144.
    Agerström, Jens
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Allwood, Carl Martin
    Lund Universtity, Sweden.
    The Influence of Temporal Distance on Justice and Care Morality2010In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 51, no 1, p. 46-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The primary goal of this study was to examine whether changes in the temporal distance of a moral dilemma affect how it is perceived and subsequently resolved. Based on Construal Level Theory (Trope & Liberman, 2003), it was predicted that the relative weight of abstract justice features should increase and the relative weight of concrete care features should decrease with temporal distance. The results showed that females became increasingly justice-oriented with greater temporal distance. However, this was not the case for males who were unaffected by temporal distance. This interaction was conceptually replicated in a follow-up experiment in which abstraction was manipulated directly by a mindset manipulation. The present results suggest that temporal distance is a contextual factor that can alter the extent to which moral judgments and reasoning are based on justice and care, although this effect seems to be moderated by gender.

  • 145.
    Agerström, Jens
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Lunds universitet.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    Lunds universitet.
    Emotions in time: Moral emotions appear more intense with temporal distance2012In: Social cognition, ISSN 0278-016X, E-ISSN 1943-2798, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 181-198Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 146.
    Agerström, Jens
    et al.
    Kristianstad University.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Lund University.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    Lund University.
    Gender differences in implicit moral orientation associations: The justice and care debate revisited2011In: Current Research in Social Psychology, ISSN 1088-7423, E-ISSN 1088-7423, Vol. 17, p. 10-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Employing new measures (Implicit Association Test) to study the classic issue of moralorientations, we predicted and found gender differences in implicit associations to the conceptsof justice and care. Specifically, we found that men more strongly associate justice vs. care withimportance and with themselves than women. However, participants’ explicit ratings did notreveal any clear patterns of gender differences, which is consistent with previous studies.Implications for social psychological theory and research on morality are discussed.

  • 147.
    Agerström, Jens
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Lunds universitet.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    Lunds universitet.
    Look at yourself!: Visual perspective influences moral judgment by level of mental construal2013In: Social Psychology, ISSN 1864-9335, E-ISSN 2151-2590, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 42-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research (Libby, Shaeffer, & Eibach, 2009) has established that a third-person (external) visual perspective elicitsmore abstract processing than a first-person (inner) perspective. Because many moral principles constitute abstract psychological constructs,we predicted that they should weigh more heavily when people adopt a third-person visual perspective. In two experiments weshow that a third- (vs. first-) person visual perspective leads to harsher judgments of one’s own morally questionable actions. Moreover,we demonstrate that this effect can be partially explained by level of mental construal. The present research suggests that simple visualperspective techniques may be used to promote moral behavior.

  • 148.
    Agerström, Jens
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Lunds universitet.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    Lunds universitet.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Warm and Competent Hassan = Cold and Incompetent Eric: A harsh equation of real-life hiring discrimination2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 149.
    Agerström, Jens
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Lunds universitet.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    Lunds universitet.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Warm and Competent Hassan = Cold And Incompetent Eric: The Harsh Equation of Real-life Hiring Discrimination2012In: Basic and Applied Social Psychology, ISSN 0197-3533, E-ISSN 1532-4834, Vol. 34, no 4, p. 359-366Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a field experiment, we sent out 5,636 job applications varying how Swedish (in-group) and Arab (out-group) applicants presented themselves in terms of two fundamental dimensions of social judgment: warmth and competence. Results indicate substantial discrimination where Arab applicants receive fewer invitations to job interviews. Conveying a warmer or more competent personality increases invitations. However, appearing both warm and competent seems to be especially important for Arab applicants. Arab applicants need to appear warmer and more competent than Swedish applicants to be invited equally often. The practical importance of signaling warmth and competence in labor market contexts is discussed.

  • 150.
    Agerström, Jens
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Why does height matter in hiring?2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Although previous research has established that physical height matters in hiring contexts, it is less clear through which channels height exerts its effect. The current research examines several potential components of the height premium: warmth, competence, job competency for a leadership position, physical health, and attractiveness. We made target individuals taller or shorter by digitally manipulating photographs, and attached these to job applications that were evaluated by real recruiters. The results show that in the context of hiring a project leader, the height premium consists of increased perceptions of the candidate's general competence, job competency, and health, whereas warmth and attractiveness seem to matter less.

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