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  • 101.
    Essner, Ann
    et al.
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Sjöström, Rita
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Ahlgren, Erik
    Lindmark, Birgitta
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Validity and reliability of Polar® RS800CX heart rate monitor, measuring heart rate in dogs during standing position and at trot on a treadmil2013In: Physiology and Behavior, ISSN 0031-9384, E-ISSN 1873-507X, Vol. 114-115, p. 1-5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The aim of the present study was to assess criterion validity, and relative and absolute reliability of Polar® RS800CX heart rate monitor, compared to simultaneously recorded electrocardiogram (ECG) data, in measuring heart rate of dogs during standing position and at trot on a treadmill.

    Methods

    Heart beats from Polar® RS800CX and Cardiostore ECG were recorded simultaneously during seven continuous minutes in standing position and at trot, in 10 adult healthy dogs. Polar® data was statistically compared to ECG data for a variety of mean beats per minute (BPM), standard deviation and confidence interval. Criterion validity was calculated by Pearson product moment correlation method and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC2.1). Relative and absolute reliability were calculated by ICC2.1, the Bland and Altman analysis and standard error of measurement (SEM and SEM%).

    Results

    The correlation, criterion validity, between Polar® and ECG data in standing position was r = 0.99 (p < 0.0005) and at trot r = 0.97 (p < 0.0005). Polar® data was not significantly different from ECG data. Mean difference between ECG and uncorrected Polar® data was − 0.6 BPM in standing position and − 0.6 BPM at trot. Polar® was over- and underestimating ECG data. SEM and SEM% in standing were ± 2.6 BPM and 3.0%, at trot ± 3.8 BPM and 3.1%, indicating that measurement errors were low.

    Conclusion

    This study showed that the criterion validity and the instrument reliability were excellent in Polar® RS800CX heart rate measuring system. The equipment seemed to be valid and reliable in measuring BPM in the dogs studied during submaximal cardiovascular conditions such as in standing position and at trot on a treadmill.

  • 102.
    Essner, Ann
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience. Evidensia Djursjukvård.
    Sjöström, Rita
    Umeå Universitet, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering.
    Zetterberg, Lena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Hellström, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Gustås, Pia
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, Institutionen för kliniska vetenskaper.
    Högberg, Hans
    Högskolan i Gävle, Avdelningen för medicin- och vårdvetenskap.
    Test–retest reliability in a translated version of the Canine Brief Pain Inventory in canine osteoarthritis2016In: Proceedings of the 9th international symposium on veterinary rehabilitation and physical therapy: Test–retest reliability in a translated version of the Canine Brief Pain Inventory in canine osteoarthritis / [ed] Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, 2016, Vol. 58, p. A10:85-, article id Suppl 2Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 103.
    Essner, Ann
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiotherapy. Evidensia Djurkliniken Gefle, Gävle, Sweden.
    Zetterberg, Lena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiotherapy.
    Hellström, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiotherapy.
    Gustas, Pia
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Fac Vet Med & Anim Husb, Dept Clin Sci, Box 7054, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Högberg, Hans
    Univ Gavle, Fac Hlth & Occupat Studies, Dept Hlth & Caring Sci, S-80176 Gavle, Sweden..
    Sjöström, Rita
    Reg Jamtland Harjedalen, Unit Res Educ & Dev, Box 654, S-83127 Ostersund, Sweden.;Umea Univ, Fac Physiotherapy, Dept Community Med & Rehabil, S-90187 Umea, Sweden..
    Psychometric evaluation of the canine brief pain inventory in a Swedish sample of dogs with pain related to osteoarthritis2017In: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, ISSN 1751-0147, E-ISSN 1751-0147, Vol. 59, article id 44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: To evaluate intervention, implement evidence-based practice and enhance the welfare of dogs with naturally occurring osteoarthritis (OA), access to valid, reliable and clinically relevant outcome measures is crucial for researchers, veterinarians and rehabilitation practitioners. The objectives of the present study were to translate and evaluate psychometric properties, in terms of internal consistency and construct validity, of the owner-reported measure canine brief pain inventory (CBPI) in a Swedish sample of dogs with pain related to OA. Results: Twenty-one owners of clinically sound dogs and 58 owners of dogs with pain related to OA were included in this observational and cross-sectional study. After being translated according to the guidelines for patient-reported outcome measures, the CBPI was completed by the canine owners. Construct validity was assessed by confirmatory factor analysis, by repeating the principal component analysis and by assessing for differences between clinically sound dogs and dogs with pain related to OA. Internal consistency was estimated by Cronbach's a. Confirmatory factor analysis was not able to confirm the factor-structure models tested in our sample. Principal component analysis showed a two-component structure, pain severity and pain interference of function. Two components accounted for 76.8% of the total variance, suggesting an acceptable fit of a two-component structure. The ratings from the clinically sound dogs differed from OA dogs and showed significantly lower CBPI total sum. Cronbach's a was 0.94 for the total CBPI, 0.91 for the pain severity and 0.91 for the pain interference of function. Conclusions: The results indicate that the translated version of the CBPI is valid for use in the Swedish language. The findings suggest satisfying psychometric properties in terms of high internal consistencies and ability to discriminate clinically sound dogs from OA dogs. However, based on the confirmatory factor analysis, the original factor structure in the CBPI is not ideally suited to measure pain related to OA in our sample and the hypothesis of the presented two-factor structure was rejected. Further research needs to be conducted to determine whether the original psychometric results from CBPI can be replicated across different target groups and particularly with larger sample size.

  • 104. Essner, Ann
    et al.
    Zetterberg, Lena
    Hellström, Karin
    Gustås, Pia
    Högberg, Hans
    Sjöström, Rita
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Psychometric evaluation of the canine brief pain inventory in a Swedish sample of dogs with pain related to osteoarthritis2017In: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, ISSN 1751-0147, E-ISSN 1751-0147, Vol. 59, article id 44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: To evaluate intervention, implement evidence-based practice and enhance the welfare of dogs with naturally occurring osteoarthritis (OA), access to valid, reliable and clinically relevant outcome measures is crucial for researchers, veterinarians and rehabilitation practitioners. The objectives of the present study were to translate and evaluate psychometric properties, in terms of internal consistency and construct validity, of the owner-reported measure canine brief pain inventory (CBPI) in a Swedish sample of dogs with pain related to OA. Results: Twenty-one owners of clinically sound dogs and 58 owners of dogs with pain related to OA were included in this observational and cross-sectional study. After being translated according to the guidelines for patient-reported outcome measures, the CBPI was completed by the canine owners. Construct validity was assessed by confirmatory factor analysis, by repeating the principal component analysis and by assessing for differences between clinically sound dogs and dogs with pain related to OA. Internal consistency was estimated by Cronbach's a. Confirmatory factor analysis was not able to confirm the factor-structure models tested in our sample. Principal component analysis showed a two-component structure, pain severity and pain interference of function. Two components accounted for 76.8% of the total variance, suggesting an acceptable fit of a two-component structure. The ratings from the clinically sound dogs differed from OA dogs and showed significantly lower CBPI total sum. Cronbach's a was 0.94 for the total CBPI, 0.91 for the pain severity and 0.91 for the pain interference of function. Conclusions: The results indicate that the translated version of the CBPI is valid for use in the Swedish language. The findings suggest satisfying psychometric properties in terms of high internal consistencies and ability to discriminate clinically sound dogs from OA dogs. However, based on the confirmatory factor analysis, the original factor structure in the CBPI is not ideally suited to measure pain related to OA in our sample and the hypothesis of the presented two-factor structure was rejected. Further research needs to be conducted to determine whether the original psychometric results from CBPI can be replicated across different target groups and particularly with larger sample size.

  • 105.
    Essner, Ann
    et al.
    Department of Neuroscience, Faculty of Physiotherapy, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Evidensia Djurkliniken Gefle, Gävle, Sweden.
    Zetterberg, Lena
    Department of Neuroscience, Faculty of Physiotherapy, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hellström, Karin
    Department of Neuroscience, Faculty of Physiotherapy, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Gustås, Pia
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Husbandry, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Högberg, Hans
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Sjöström, Rita
    Unit of Research Education and Development, Region Jämtland Härjedalen, Östersund, Sweden; Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Psychometric evaluation of the canine brief pain inventory in a Swedish sample of dogs with pain related to osteoarthritis2017In: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, ISSN 1751-0147, E-ISSN 1751-0147, Vol. 59, no 1, article id 44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: To evaluate intervention, implement evidence-based practice and enhance the welfare of dogs with naturally occurring osteoarthritis (OA), access to valid, reliable and clinically relevant outcome measures is crucial for researchers, veterinarians and rehabilitation practitioners. The objectives of the present study were to translate and evaluate psychometric properties, in terms of internal consistency and construct validity, of the owner-reported measure canine brief pain inventory (CBPI) in a Swedish sample of dogs with pain related to OA.

    RESULTS: Twenty-one owners of clinically sound dogs and 58 owners of dogs with pain related to OA were included in this observational and cross-sectional study. After being translated according to the guidelines for patient-reported outcome measures, the CBPI was completed by the canine owners. Construct validity was assessed by confirmatory factor analysis, by repeating the principal component analysis and by assessing for differences between clinically sound dogs and dogs with pain related to OA. Internal consistency was estimated by Cronbach's α. Confirmatory factor analysis was not able to confirm the factor-structure models tested in our sample. Principal component analysis showed a two-component structure, pain severity and pain interference of function. Two components accounted for 76.8% of the total variance, suggesting an acceptable fit of a two-component structure. The ratings from the clinically sound dogs differed from OA dogs and showed significantly lower CBPI total sum. Cronbach's α was 0.94 for the total CBPI, 0.91 for the pain severity and 0.91 for the pain interference of function.

    CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that the translated version of the CBPI is valid for use in the Swedish language. The findings suggest satisfying psychometric properties in terms of high internal consistencies and ability to discriminate clinically sound dogs from OA dogs. However, based on the confirmatory factor analysis, the original factor structure in the CBPI is not ideally suited to measure pain related to OA in our sample and the hypothesis of the presented two-factor structure was rejected. Further research needs to be conducted to determine whether the original psychometric results from CBPI can be replicated across different target groups and particularly with larger sample size.

  • 106.
    Essner, Ann
    et al.
    Department of Neuroscience, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Evidensia Djurkliniken Gefle, Gävle, Sweden.
    Zetterberg, Lena
    Evidensia Djurkliniken Gefle, Gävle, Sweden.
    Hellström, Karin
    Evidensia Djurkliniken Gefle, Gävle, Sweden.
    Gustås, Pia
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Högberg, Hans
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Sjöström, Rita
    Region Jämtland Härjedalen, Unit of Research Education & Development, Östersund, Sweden.
    Validation of a translated version of the Canine Brief Pain Inventory for the measure of pain severity and functional movements in canine osteoarthritis2016In: Journal of Small Animal Practice, ISSN 0022-4510, E-ISSN 1748-5827, Vol. 57, no Suppl. 2, p. 8-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reasons for performing study: The Canine Brief Pain Inventory (CBPI) is a caregiver-reported questionnaire designed to assess pain severity and the impact of pain on activities, such as functional movements, in canine osteoarthritis (OA). The English version of CBPI has displayed satisfactory psychometric properties, in canine OA. To be used in another language the CBPI has to be properly translated and tested.

    Objectives: To report some psychometric properties of a translated version of the CBPI (CBPI-S), in a group of dogs diagnosed with OA.

    Study design: Observational, cross-sectional.

    Methods: Twenty-one caregivers of clinically sound dogs and 61 caregivers of dogs with OA were prospectively included in this study. After being translated, according to recommendations for patient-reported outcome measures, the CBPI-S was completed by the caregivers. Construct validity (the ability to measure what it is supposed to measure) was assessed by repeating the principal component analysis and by assessing for differences between sound dogs and dogs with OA using Mann–Whitney U test. Internal consistency (the correlation among items) was estimated by Cronbach's α.

    Results: Principal component analysis showed a two-component structure (pain severity and impact of pain). Two components accounted for 76 · 8% of the total variance, suggesting an acceptable fit of a two-component structure. Inter-item correlations were good (overall > 0 · 39) and mean inter-item correlation was 0 · 79 for severity items and 0 · 62 for impact items. Clinically sound dogs differed from OA dogs and showed significantly lower CBPI-S total score. Cronbach's α was 0 · 94 for the total CBPI-S, 0 · 91 for the pain severity and 0 · 91 for the impact of pain.

    Conclusion: Our results supplement the knowledge with the CBPI by verifying the easy to use utility. Also, by repeating satisfying construct validity and high internal consistency of CBPI-S our results indicate that the translated version seems valid for use in another language.

    Ethical animal research: The study was approved by the Local Animal Ethics Committee in Uppsala. Informed client consent was obtained for all animals used in the study.

    Sources of funding: This study was funded by Evidensia Djursjukvård, Svelands Stiftelse, Jan Skogsborgs Stiftelse and Agria & Svenska Kennelklubbens Forskningsfond.

  • 107. Etterlin, P. E.
    et al.
    Ekman, S.
    Strand, Robin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Olstad, K.
    Ley, C. J.
    Osteochondrosis, Synovial Fossae, and Articular Indentations in the Talus and Distal Tibia of Growing Domestic Pigs and Wild Boars2017In: Veterinary pathology, ISSN 0300-9858, E-ISSN 1544-2217, Vol. 54, no 3, p. 445-456Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 108.
    Etterlin, Pernille Engelsen
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Dept Biomed Sci & Vet Publ Hlth, Sect Pathol, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Morrison, David A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Osterberg, Julia
    Natl Vet Inst SVA, S-75189 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Ytrehus, Bjornar
    Norwegian Inst Nat Res NINA, Terr Ecol Dept, N-7485 Trondheim, Norway..
    Heldmer, Eva
    Swedish Anim Hlth Serv SvDHV, S-46432 Mellerud, Sweden..
    Ekman, Stina
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Dept Biomed Sci & Vet Publ Hlth, Sect Pathol, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Osteochondrosis, but not lameness, is more frequent among free-range pigs than confined herd-mates2015In: ACTA VETERINARIA SCANDINAVICA, ISSN 0044-605X, Vol. 57, article id 63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Organic pig production is expanding and amongst the objectives of organic farming are enhancing animal health and welfare. However, some studies have reported a higher prevalence of lameness and joint condemnation at slaughter in free-range/organic pigs than in conventionally raised pigs. Organic slaughter pigs have free-range housing in which indoor and outdoor access is compulsory, while in conventional farming the pigs are commonly confined to indoor pens. The present study evaluated the effects of free-range and confined housing on lameness prevalence in a herd of 106 finisher pigs, and whether osteochondrosis and Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae associated arthritis influences these effects. We also evaluated the association between clinical lameness during the rearing period and joint condemnations at slaughter. Results: Seventy free-range and 36 confined housed fattener pigs were scored for their gait twice during the rearing period and 848 joints were evaluated post mortem. Osteochondrosis was more frequent among free-range than confined pigs (P < 0.05), and when present it was also more severe (P < 0.001). Pigs with more numerous and more severe osteochondral lesions had their gait affected more than did pigs with fewer such lesions (P < 0.05). Hence it was a paradox that we did not detect more lameness among the free-range pigs than the confined pigs. E. rhusiopathiae associated arthritis was not diagnosed. The association between gait remarks/clinical lameness and joint condemnations at slaughter was not significant. Conclusions: The results indicate that free-range housing may have both positive and negative effects on locomotory traits. Free-range pigs may be less clinically affected by osteochondrosis than are confined pigs. One explanation for this effect may be strengthening of joint supportive tissue and pain relief promoted by exercise. Visual gait scoring missed serious joint lesions that probably were harmful to the pigs, and should therefore not be used as a sole indicator of joint/leg health in welfare inspection of pigs. The association between gait scores and joint condemnation appeared to be poor. This study was limited to one herd, and so more and larger studies on the effects of free-range housing on lameness severity and osteochondrosis development in pigs are recommended.

  • 109. Eussen, Simone JPM
    et al.
    Vollset, Stein Emil
    Hustad, Steinar
    Midttun, Øivind
    Meyer, Klaus
    Fredriksen, Ase
    Ueland, Per Magne
    Jenab, Mazda
    Slimani, Nadia
    Boffetta, Paolo
    Overvad, Kim
    Thorlacius-Ussing, Ole
    Tjønneland, Anne
    Olsen, Anja
    Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise
    Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine
    Morois, Sophie
    Weikert, Cornelia
    Pischon, Tobias
    Linseisen, Jakob
    Kaaks, Rudolf
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Zilis, Demosthenes
    Katsoulis, Michael
    Palli, Domenico
    Pala, Valeria
    Vineis, Paolo
    Tumino, Rosario
    Panico, Salvatore
    Peeters, Petra HM
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas
    van Duijnhoven, Fränzel JB
    Skeie, Guri
    Muñoz, Xavier
    Martínez, Carmen
    Dorronsoro, Miren
    Ardanaz, Eva
    Navarro, Carmen
    Rodríguez, Laudina
    Van Guelpen, Bethany
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Palmqvist, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Manjer, Jonas
    Ericson, Ulrika
    Bingham, Sheila
    Khaw, Kay-Tee
    Norat, Teresa
    Riboli, Elio
    Plasma vitamins B2, B6, and B12, and related genetic variants as predictors of colorectal cancer risk2010In: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention, ISSN 1055-9965, E-ISSN 1538-7755, Vol. 19, no 10, p. 2549-2561Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This European population-based study is the first to indicate that vitamin B2 is inversely associated with colorectal cancer, and is in agreement with previously suggested inverse associations of vitamin B6 with colorectal cancer.

  • 110. Eussen, Simone JPM
    et al.
    Vollset, Stein Emil
    Igland, Jannicke
    Meyer, Klaus
    Fredriksen, Ase
    Ueland, Per Magne
    Jenab, Mazda
    Slimani, Nadia
    Boffetta, Paolo
    Overvad, Kim
    Tjønneland, Anne
    Olsen, Anja
    Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise
    Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine
    Morois, Sophie
    Weikert, Cornelia
    Pischon, Tobias
    Linseisen, Jakob
    Kaaks, Rudolf
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Zilis, Demosthenes
    Katsoulis, Michael
    Palli, Domenico
    Berrino, Franco
    Vineis, Paolo
    Tumino, Rosario
    Panico, Salvatore
    Peeters, Petra HM
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas
    van Duijnhoven, Fränzel JB
    Gram, Inger Torhild
    Skeie, Guri
    Lund, Eiliv
    González, Carlos A
    Martínez, Carmen
    Dorronsoro, Miren
    Ardanaz, Eva
    Navarro, Carmen
    Rodríguez, Laudina
    Van Guelpen, Bethany
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Palmqvist, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Manjer, Jonas
    Ericson, Ulrika
    Bingham, Sheila
    Khaw, Kay-Tee
    Norat, Teresa
    Riboli, Elio
    Plasma folate, related genetic variants, and colorectal cancer risk in EPIC2010In: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention, ISSN 1055-9965, E-ISSN 1538-7755, Vol. 19, no 5, p. 1328-1340Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Findings of the present study tend to weaken the evidence that folate plays an important role in CRC carcinogenesis. However, larger sample sizes are needed to adequately address potential gene-environment interactions.

  • 111.
    Evans, Alina L.
    et al.
    Department of Forestry and Wildlife Management, Hedmark University College, Evenstad, Norway; Section of Arctic Veterinary Medicine, Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, Tromsø, Norway.
    Sahlén, Veronica
    Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås, Norway.
    Stoen, Ole-Gunnar
    Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås, Norway; Department of Wildlife, Fish and Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Fahlman, Åsa
    Section of Anesthesiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden; Department of Veterinary Clinical and Diagnostic Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary AB, Canada.
    Brunberg, Sven
    Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås, Norway.
    Madslien, Knut
    Section for Wildlife Health, National Veterinary Institute, Oslo, Norway.
    Fröbert, Ole
    Örebro University Hospital. Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Cardiology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Swenson, Jon E.
    Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås, Norway; Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, Trondheim, Norway.
    Arnemo, Jon M.
    Department of Forestry and Wildlife Management, Hedmark University College, Campus Evenstad, Norway; Department of Wildlife, Fish and Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Capture, Anesthesia, and Disturbance of Free-Ranging Brown Bears (Ursus arctos) during Hibernation2012In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, no 7, article id e40520Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We conducted thirteen immobilizations of previously collared hibernating two-to four-year-old brown bears (Ursus arctos) weighing 21-66 kg in central Sweden in winter 2010 and 2011 for comparative physiology research. Here we report, for the first time, an effective protocol for the capture and anesthesia of free-ranging brown bears during hibernation and an assessment of the disturbance the captures caused. Bears were darted in anthill, soil, or uprooted tree dens on eleven occasions, but two bears in rock dens fled and were darted outside the den. We used medetomidine at 0.02-0.06 mg/kg and zolazepam-tiletamine at 0.9-2.8 mg/kg for anesthesia. In addition, ketamine at 1.5 mg/kg was hand-injected intramuscularly in four bears and in six it was included in the dart at 1.1-3.0 mg/kg. Once anesthetized, bears were removed from the dens. In nine bears, arterial blood samples were analyzed immediately with a portable blood gas analyzer. We corrected hypoxemia in seven bears (PaO2 57-74 mmHg) with supplemental oxygen. We placed the bears back into the dens and antagonized the effect of medetomidine with atipamezole. Capturing bears in the den significantly increased the risk of den abandonment. One of twelve collared bears that were captured remained at the original den until spring, and eleven, left their dens (mean +/- standard deviation) 3.2 +/- 3.6 (range 0.5-10.5) days after capture. They used 1.9 +/- 0.9 intermediate resting sites, during 6.2 +/- 7.8 days before entering a new permanent den. The eleven new permanent dens were located 730 +/- 589 m from the original dens. We documented that it was feasible and safe to capture hibernating brown bears, although they behaved differently than black bears. When doing so, researchers should use 25% of the doses used for helicopter darting during the active period and should consider increased energetic costs associated with den abandonment.

  • 112.
    Falkenberg Hansen, Kjetil
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    The acoustics and performance of DJ scratching, Analysis and modelling2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis focuses on the analysis and modeling of scratching, in other words, the DJ (disk jockey) practice of using the turntable as a musical instrument. There has been experimental use of turntables as musical instruments since their invention, but the use is now mainly ascribed to the musical genre hip-hop and the playing style known as scratching. Scratching has developed to become a skillful instrument-playing practice with complex musical output performed by DJs. The impact on popular music culture has been significant, and for many, the DJ set-up of turntables and a mixer is now a natural instrument choice for undertaking a creative music activity. Six papers are included in this thesis, where the first three approach the acoustics and performance of scratching, and the second three approach scratch modeling and the DJ interface. Additional studies included here expand on the scope of the papers.

    For the acoustics and performance studies, DJs were recorded playing both demonstrations of standard performance techniques, and expressive performances on sensor-equipped instruments. Analysis of the data revealed that there are both differences and commonalities in playing strategies between musicians, and between expressive intentions. One characteristic feature of scratching is the range of standard playing techniques, but in performances it seems DJs vary the combination of playing techniques more than the rendering of these techniques. The third study describes some of the acoustic parameters of typical scratch improvisations and looks at which musical parameters are typically used for expressive performances. Extracted acoustic and performance parameters from the data show the functional ranges within which DJs normally play.

    Unlike traditional musical instruments, the equipment used for scratching was not intended to be used for creating music. The interface studies focus on traditional as well as new interfaces for DJs, where parameter mappings between input gestures and output signal are described. Standard performance techniques have been modeled in software called Skipproof, based on results from the first papers. Skipproof was used for testing other types of controllers than turntables, where complex DJ gestures could be manipulated using simplified control actions, enabling even non-experts to play expressively within the stylistic boundaries of DJ scratching. The last paper describes an experiment of using an existing hardware platform, the Reactable, to help designing and prototyping the interaction between different sound models and instrument interfaces, including scratching and Skipproof.

    In addition to the included papers, studies were conducted of expressivity, description of the emotional contents of scratching, DJ playing activities, and the coupling between playing techniques and sample. The physical affordances of the turntable, mixer and samples, as well as genre conventions of hip-hop, are assumed to explain some of the findings that distinguish scratching from other instrumental sounds or practices.

  • 113. Fall, T
    et al.
    Hedhammar, A
    Wallberg, A
    Fall, N
    Ahlgren, Kerstin M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Hamlin, H. H.
    Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Andersson, G.
    Kämpe, Olle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Diabetes Mellitus in Elkhounds Is Associated with Diestrus and Pregnancy2010In: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, ISSN 0891-6640, E-ISSN 1939-1676, Vol. 24, no 6, p. 1322-1328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Female Elkhounds are shown to be at increased risk for diabetes mellitus, and occurrence of diabetes during pregnancy has been described in several cases. Hypothesis: Onset of diabetes mellitus in Elkhounds is associated with diestrus. Animals: Sixty-three Elkhounds with diabetes mellitus and 26 healthy controls. Methods: Medical records from 63 Elkhounds with diabetes were reviewed and owners were contacted for follow-up information. Blood samples from the day of diagnosis were available for 26 dogs. Glucose, fructosamine, C-peptide, growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-1, progesterone, and glutamate decarboxylase isoform 65-autoantibodies were analyzed and compared with 26 healthy dogs. Logistic models were used to evaluate the association of clinical variables with the probability of diabetes and with permanent diabetes mellitus after ovariohysterectomy (OHE). Results: All dogs in the study were intact females and 7 dogs (11%) were pregnant at diagnosis. The 1st clinical signs of diabetes mellitus occurred at a median of 30 days (interquartile range [IQR], 3-45) after estrus, and diagnosis was made at a median of 46 days (IQR, 27-62) after estrus. Diabetes was associated with higher concentrations of GH and lower concentrations of progesterone compared with controls matched for time after estrus. Forty-six percent of dogs that underwent OHE recovered from diabetes with a lower probability of remission in dogs with higher glucose concentrations (odds ratio [OR], 1.2; P = .03) at diagnosis and longer time (weeks) from diagnosis to surgery (OR, 1.5; P = .05). Conclusions: Diabetes mellitus in Elkhounds develops mainly during diestrus and pregnancy. Immediate OHE improves the prognosis for remission of diabetes.

  • 114. Fall, T.
    et al.
    Holm, B.
    Karlsson, Å.
    Ahlgren, Kerstin M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Kämpe, Olle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    von Euler, H.
    Glucagon stimulation test for estimating endogenous insulin secretion in dogs2008In: The Veterinary Record, ISSN 0042-4900, E-ISSN 2042-7670, Vol. 163, no 9, p. 266-270Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fifty-one dogs (27 diabetic dogs, four that had recovered from diabetes and 20 healthy control dogs) were given 0.5 or 1.0 mg glucagon intravenously. Blood samples were taken before the injection and 10 and 20 minutes after it. Samples were analysed to determine C-peptide, insulin and glucose concentrations, and one sample from each dog was analysed for fructosamine. The median (interquartile range) concentrations of C-peptide in the samples taken at 10 minutes were 0.5 (0.3 to 0.8) nmol/l in the control dogs, 0.1 (0 to 0.2) nmol/l in the diabetic dogs, and 0.3 (0.2 to 0.4) nmol/l in the dogs that had recovered from diabetes. Seven of the 51 dogs showed mild adverse reactions after the injection of glucagon.

  • 115. Fall, Tove
    et al.
    Hamlin, Helene Hansson
    Hedhammar, Åke
    Kämpe, Olle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Egenvall, Agneta
    Diabetes mellitus in a population of 180,000 insured dogs: incidence, survival, and breed distribution2007In: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, ISSN 0891-6640, E-ISSN 1939-1676, Vol. 21, no 6, p. 1209-1216Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Canine diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common endocrinopathy with an unclear etiology. For a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms, there is a need for comprehensive epidermiologic studies. Earlier studies have shown that the risk of disease is higher in certain dog breeds. Hypothesis: Incidence, age of onset, survival and sex proportion of DM vary by breed. Animals: Data from a cohort of 182,087 insured dogs aged 5-12 years accounting for 652,898 dog-years at risk were studied retrospectively. Methods: Incidence rates by sex, breed, and geography were calculated with exact denominators. Age-specific incidence and survival after 1st DM claim were computed with Cox's regression and Kaplan-Meier survival function. Multivariable survival analysis was performed for the outcome diagnosis of DM with age, sex, and geography tested as fixed effects, previous endocrine or pancreatic diseases tested as time-dependent covariates, and breed tested as a random effect. Results: The mean age at 1st insurance claim for the 860 DM dogs (72% females) was 8.6 years. The incidence of DM was 13 cases per 10,000 dog-years at risk. Australian Terriers, Samoyeds, Swedish Elkhounds, and Swedish Lapphunds were found to have the highest incidence. The proportion of females with DM varied significantly among breeds. Swedish Elkhounds, Beagles, Norwegian Elkhounds, and Border Collies that developed DM were almost exclusively females. The multivariable model showed that breed, previous hyperadrenocorticism, and female sex were risk factors for developing DM. Median survival time was 57 days after 1st claim. Excluding the 223 dogs that died within I day, the median survival time was 2 years after 1st claim of DM. Conclusion: The significant breed-specific sex and age differences shown in this study indicate that genetic variation could make breeds more or less susceptible to different types of DM.

  • 116.
    Fegraeus, Kim Jäderkvist
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Anim Breeding & Genet, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Lawrence, Chameli
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Anim Breeding & Genet, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Petäjistö, Katrine
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Anim Breeding & Genet, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Johansson, Maria K.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Anim Breeding & Genet, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Wiklund, Maja
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Clin Sci, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Olsson, Christina
    Swedish Trotting Assoc, Bromma, Sweden..
    Andersson, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Anim Breeding & Genet, Uppsala, Sweden.;Texas A&M Univ, Dept Vet Integrat Biosci, College Stn, TX USA..
    Andersson, Lisa S.
    Capilet Genet AB, Vasteras, Sweden..
    Roed, Knut H.
    Norwegian Univ Life Sci, Dept Basic Sci & Aquat Med, Fac Vet Med, Oslo, Norway..
    Ihler, Carl-Fredrik
    Norwegian Univ Life Sci, Dept Compan Anim Clin Sci, Fac Vet Med, Oslo, Norway..
    Strand, Eric
    Norwegian Univ Life Sci, Dept Compan Anim Clin Sci, Fac Vet Med, Oslo, Norway..
    Lindgren, Gabriella
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Anim Breeding & Genet, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Velie, Brandon D.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Anim Breeding & Genet, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Lack of significant associations with early career performance suggest no link between the DMRT3 "Gait Keeper" mutation and precocity in Coldblooded trotters2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 5, article id e0177351Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish-Norwegian Coldblooded trotter (CBT) is a local breed in Sweden and Norway mainly used for harness racing. Previous studies have shown that a mutation from cytosine (C) to adenine (A) in the doublesex and mab-3 related transcription factor 3 (DMRT3) gene has a major impact on harness racing performance of different breeds. An association of the DMRT3 mutation with early career performance has also been suggested. The aim of the current study was to investigate this proposed association in a randomly selected group of CBTs. 769 CBTs (485 raced, 284 unraced) were genotyped for the DMRT3 mutation. The association with racing performance was investigated for 13 performance traits and three different age intervals: 3 years, 3 to 6 years, and 7 to 10 years of age, using the statistical software R. Each performance trait was analyzed for association with DMRT3 using linear models. The results suggest no association of the DMRT3 mutation with precocity (i.e. performance at 3 years of age). Only two traits (race time and number of disqualifications) were significantly different between the genotypes, with AA horses having the fastest times and CC horses having the highest number of disqualifications at 3 years of age. The frequency of the AA genotype was significantly lower in the raced CBT sample compared with the unraced sample and less than 50% of the AA horses participated in a race. For the age intervals 3 to 6 and 7 to 10 years the AA horses also failed to demonstrate significantly better performance than the other genotypes. Although suggested as the most favorable genotype for racing performance in Standardbreds and Finnhorses across all ages, the AA genotype does not appear to be associated with superior performance, early or late, in the racing career of CBTs.

  • 117. Fitchev, Philip P
    et al.
    Wcislak, Susan M
    Lee, Chung
    Bergh, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Brendler, Charles B
    Stellmach, Veronica M
    Crawford, Susan E
    Mavroudis, Constantine D
    Cornwell, Mona L
    Doll, Jennifer A
    Thrombospondin-1 regulates the normal prostate in vivo through angiogenesis and TGF-beta activation2010In: Laboratory Investigation, ISSN 0023-6837, E-ISSN 1530-0307, Vol. 90, no 7, p. 1078-1090Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Castration experiments in rodents show that the stromal vasculature is critical to the androgen-mediated prostate growth regulation. However, the role of angiogenesis inhibitors, such as thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), in this process is unclear. TSP-1 is a multifunctional glycoprotein that can function as a potent angiogenesis inhibitor and an in vivo activator of latent transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) in some tissues. On the basis of these observations, we hypothesized that TSP-1 regulated androgen withdrawal-induced prostate regression and that this process was mediated not only through antiangiogenic activity but also through TGF-beta activation. To test this, we evaluated angiogenic activity in human prostate epithelial and stromal cells treated with androgens and hypoxia in vitro. TSP-1 knockout mice were characterized to investigate the in vivo functions of TSP-1. In vitro, we found that androgens and hypoxia differentially regulated TSP-1 and angiogenic activity. Androgens stimulated normal epithelial cell, but inhibited normal stromal cell, angiogenic activity. Conversely, hypoxia stimulated stromal while inhibiting epithelial activity. Thus, in vivo, net angiogenic activity must reflect cellular interactions. And, we found that media conditioned by epithelial cells grown under normoxic conditions stimulated stromal cell angiogenic activity, and if epithelial cells were grown under hypoxic conditions, stromal activity was further increased. TSP-1 levels, however, were unchanged. In vivo, TSP-1 loss in a mouse model led to prostate epithelial hyperplasia by 3 months of age with only a modest stromal effect. Androgens suppressed TSP-1 as expression increased after castration both in normal mouse prostate and in human prostate cancer tissues. In addition, TSP-1 expression corresponded to increased TGF-beta activation in mouse tissues, specifically in the stromal compartment. These data show a critical role for TSP-1 in prostate epithelial and stromal growth regulation through angiogenic inhibition and activation of latent TGF-beta. Therefore, loss of TSP-1 during tumorigenesis would eliminate two barriers to cancer progression.

  • 118.
    Forslund, Kerstin
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Quell, Robin
    Centrum för omvårdnadsvetenskap, Universitetssjukhuset, Örebro.
    Sørlie, Venke
    Bodö högskola, Bodö, Norge.
    Acute chest pain emergencies: spouses' prehospital experiences2008In: International emergency nursing, ISSN 1878-013X, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 233-240Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The call to the Emergency Medical Dispatch Centre is often a person's first contact with the health-care system in cases of acute illness or injury and acute chest pain is a common reason for calling. The aim was to illuminate how spouses to persons with acute chest pain experienced the alarm situation, the emergency call and the prehospital emergency care. Interviews were conducted with nineteen spouses. A phenomenological-hermeneutic approach was used for the analyses. The themes responsibility and uneasiness emerged as well as an overall theme of aloneness. Being a spouse to a person in need of acute medical and nursing assistance was interpreted as "Being responsible and trying to preserve life" and "Being able to manage the uneasiness and having trust in an uncertain situation." When their partners' life was at risk the spouses were in an escalating spiral of worry, uncertainty, stress, fear of loss, feeling of loneliness and desperation. They had to manage emotional distress and felt compelled to act to preserve life, a challenging situation.

  • 119.
    Foyer, Pernilla
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division, Swedish Defence University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Svedberg, Anna-Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nilsson, Emma
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wilsson, Erik
    Swedish Armed Forces Dog Training Unit, Märsta, Sweden.
    Olsen Faresjö, Åshild
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Jensen, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Behavior and cortisol responses of dogs evaluated in a standardized temperament test for military working dogs2016In: Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research, ISSN 1558-7878, E-ISSN 1878-7517, Vol. 11, p. 7-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Military and police working dogs are often exposed to stressful or threatening events, and an improper response, e.g., fear, may implicate both reduced working efficiency and welfare. Therefore, identifying individuals that display a favorable response to potentially threatening situations is of great interest. In the present study, we investigated behavior responses of 85 prospective military working dogs in 4 subtests in a standardized temperament test used to select working dogs for the Swedish Armed Forces. Our goal was to evaluate behavioral responses in specific subtests and cortisol responses of candidate dogs. After dogs were rated as approved or nonapproved based on the test leader’s assessment of the full test result, we independently analyzed video recordings of 4 subtests. In addition, for 37 dogs, we analyzed pretest and posttest salivary cortisol levels. Dogs which were approved by the test leader for further training scored higher in the video recordings on emotionality and, in particular, fear-related behavior during a subset of the test and had higher levels of cortisol both before and after the test, than nonapproved dogs. Although this may actually reflect the desired traits, it could also indicate a bias in the selection procedure, which may pose limitations on the attempts to recruit the most suitable working dogs.

  • 120.
    Foyer, Pernilla
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division. Linköpings universitet, Biologi.
    Svedberg, Anna-Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Biologi.
    Nilsson, Emma
    Linköpings universitet, Biologi.
    Wilsson, Erik
    Swedish Armed Forces Dog Training Unit, Märsta, Sweden.
    Olsen Faresjö, Åshild
    Linköpings universitet, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin.
    Jensen, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Biologi.
    Behavior and cortisol responses of dogs evaluated in a standardized temperament test for military working dogs2016In: Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research, ISSN 1558-7878, E-ISSN 1878-7517, Vol. 11, p. 7-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Military and police working dogs are often exposed to stressful or threatening events, and an improper response, e.g., fear, may implicate both reduced working efficiency and welfare. Therefore, identifying individuals that display a favorable response to potentially threatening situations is of great interest. In the present study, we investigated behavior responses of 85 prospective military working dogs in 4 subtests in a standardized temperament test used to select working dogs for the Swedish Armed Forces. Our goal was to evaluate behavioral responses in specific subtests and cortisol responses of candidate dogs. After dogs were rated as approved or nonapproved based on the test leader’s assessment of the full test result, we independently analyzed video recordings of 4 subtests. In addition, for 37 dogs, we analyzed pretest and posttest salivary cortisol levels. Dogs which were approved by the test leader for further training scored higher in the video recordings on emotionality and, in particular, fear-related behavior during a subset of the test and had higher levels of cortisol both before and after the test, than nonapproved dogs. Although this may actually reflect the desired traits, it could also indicate a bias in the selection procedure, which may pose limitations on the attempts to recruit the most suitable working dogs.

  • 121.
    Fuchs, Dieter
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Novel Treatment Modalities for High-Risk Neuroblastoma: Studies in Animal Models2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Neuroblastoma, the most common extracranial solid tumor of childhood, is a heterogeneous tumor. In some patients, the tumor can go into spontaneous regression and disappear whereas other patients have rapidly growing tumors with a poor prognosis. The overall long-term survival rate in patients with high-risk neuroblastoma is less than 30%, indicating the need for new treatment strategies.

    Angiogenesis inhibition hampers the formation of new blood vessels, thereby limiting the tumors’ metabolic exchange. Neuroblastoma is rapidly growing and high tumor angiogenesis has been associated with poor outcome. Therefore, the aim of this thesis was to investigate the effect of novel treatment modalities for angiogenesis inhibition on high-risk neuroblastoma xenografts. For that purpose, we used subcutaneous mouse models and characterized orthotopic mouse models for high-risk neuroblastoma.

    We found that xenotransplantation of neuroblastoma cells into the adrenal gland of SCID and SCID beige mice resulted in orthotopic tumors resembling clinical neuroblastoma in respect to tumor site, growth and spread. Using contrast-enhanced ultrasound, we observed that the receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor SU11248 reduced orthotopic neuroblastoma growth and spread by reducing tumor angiogenesis.

    In subcutaneous xenografts for high-risk neuroblastoma, valuable for studies requiring continuous assessment of tumor volume, we demonstrated that immune-neutralizing VEGF with the anti-VEGF antibody bevacizumab significantly reduced neuroblastoma growth.

    Finally, we found that formulations of the chemotherapeutic drug GMX1778 inhibited angiogenesis and induced tumor regression in a dose dependent manner without host toxicity. We showed that relapsing tumors remained responsive to GMX-therapy without accelerated growth or induced drug resistance.

    In conclusion, SU11248, bevacizumab, and formulations of the active compound GMX1778 may become useful for treating high-risk neuroblastoma.

  • 122.
    Gallwitz, Maike
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular Immunology. Molekylär immunologi.
    Hellman, Lars
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular Immunology. Molekylär immunologi.
    Rapid species-specific diversification of the mast cell chymase locus during mammalian evolution.2006In: Immunogenetics, Vol. 58, p. 641-654Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 123.
    Garcia, Emanuell
    et al.
    Department of Animal Environment and Health, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skara, Sweden.
    Hultgren, Jan
    Department of Animal Environment and Health, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skara, Sweden.
    Fällman, Pontus
    Department of Animal Environment and Health, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skara, Sweden.
    Geust, Johanna
    Nötcenter Viken, Vikens Egendom, Falköping, Sweden.
    Algers, Bo
    Department of Animal Environment and Health, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skara, Sweden.
    Stilwell, George
    Centro de Investigação Interdisciplinar em Sanidade Animal, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal.
    Gunnarsson, Stefan
    Department of Animal Environment and Health, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skara, Sweden.
    Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Developmental Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Department of Animal Environment and Health, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skara, Sweden.
    Intensity of Oestrus Signalling Is the Most Relevant Indicator for Animal Well-Being in High-Producing Dairy Cows2011In: Veterinary Medicine International, ISSN 2090-8113, E-ISSN 2042-0048, Vol. 2011, article id 540830Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Full signalling of oestrous behaviour is vital for proper timing of AI and good reproductive performance, currently jeopardized by shorter observations of oestrus behaviour. Alternative indicators including progesterone (P4) recordings on-farm are tested. Oestrous intensity of 37 heifers (H) and 30 1st-parity dairy cows (C1) either Swedish Red (32) or Swedish Holstein (35) with high genetic potential for milk production, was studied in relation to AI. P4-levels in blood or milk were monitored on-farm at 0, 7, and 20 d post-AI with a portable ELISA reader (eProCheck800). Avoidance distance and body condition were scored at day 7, and pregnancy diagnosed by P4 (day 20) and trans-rectal palpation (day 50). More heifers (46%) than C1-cows (10%) showed standing oestrus (strongest intensity, 𝑃<0.05), leading to higher pregnancy rate at d50 (72% versus 37% for C1, 𝑃<0.01) and calving rate (H: 64%, C1: 33%, 𝑃<0.05). Avoidance distances were short (<1 m), reflecting good human-animal interaction. Visually-recorded standing oestrus yielded 4.8 fold higher odds of pregnancy, respectively 4.6-fold higher odds of calving. On-farm P4-recordings had complementary value yet less accuracy. Intensity of oestrus signalling relates to animal well-being, reflected in pregnancy-to-term being a good indicator for optimal welfare in high-producing dairy cattle.

  • 124.
    Ghareh Baghi, Ghareh Baghi
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Assessment of Valvular Aortic Stenosis by Signal Analysis of the Phonocardiogram2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Aortic stenosis (AS) is one of the most prevalent valvular heart diseases in elderly people. According to the recommendations of both the American Heart Association and the European Society of Cardiology, severity assessment of AS is primarily based on echocardiographic findings. The experience of the investigator here play important roles in the accuracy of the assessment, and therefore in the disease management. However, access to the expert physicians could be limited, especially in rural health care centers of developing countries.

    This thesis aims to develop processing algorithms tailored for phonocardiographic signal with the intension to obtain a noninvasive diagnostic tool for AS assessment and severity grading. The algorithms employ a phonocardiogram as input signal and perform analysis for screening and diagnostics. Such a decision support system, which we call “the intelligent phonocardiography”, can be widely used in primary healthcare centers.

    The main contribution of the thesis is to present innovative models for the phonocardiographic analysis by taking the segmental characteristics of the signal into consideration. Three novel methodologies are described, based on the presented models, to perform robust classification. In the first attempt, a novel pattern recognition framework is presented for screening of AS-related murmurs. The framework offers a hybrid model for classifying cyclic time series in general, but is tailored to detect the murmurs as a special case study. The time growing neural network is another method that we use to classify short time signals with abrupt frequency transition. The idea of the growing frames is extended to the cyclic signals with stochastic properties for the screening purposes. Finally, a combined statistical and artificial intelligent classifier is proposed for grading the severity of AS.

    The study suggests comprehensive statistical validations not only for the evaluation and representation of systolic murmurs but also for setting the methodology design parameters, which can be considered as one of the significant features of the study. The resulting methodologies can be implemented by using web and mobile technologies to be utilized in distributed healthcare system.

  • 125.
    Ghebresus, Awet Ambesaghir
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences. Division for Clinical Pharmacology,Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institutet .
    Pharmacodynamic, Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacogenetic Studies of Nandrolone Decanoate2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Nandrolone is one of the most abused androgenic anabolic steroid. Nandrolone is, inside the body, primarily metabolized into 19-norandrosterone (19-NA) and 19-noretiocholanolone (19-NE). Nandrolone abuse has been shown to cause alterations in the lipid- and endocrine profile, also to induce endothelial dysfunction. The mechanisms behind the alterations in these endogenous substances are not known, but one might speculate that alteration in gene expression may partly play a role.

    Aim: To analyze how a single dose of nandrolone affect the oxidative stress, the cholesterol and endocrine profile in healthy volunteers, and to analyze the androgenic effect as determined by testosterone and LH/FS levels in relation to genetic variations, in order to increase the knowledge on nandrolone side effects in humans.

    Materials and Methods: Elevenhealthy subjects were included. Genotyping was done using TaqMan allelic discrimination method and quantitative PCR. Real-time PCR was conducted to quantify the gene expression of HMGCR and the SOD’s. The cholesterol profile and hormone levels were analyzed at the Division of Clinical Chemistry and the hematocrit profile were measured at the Anti-Doping Laboratory according to WADA’s technical document TD2014 BAR.

    Results: Several correlations between lipoproteins and hormones were found. The gene expression of HMGCR was induced but showed no correlation with other results. Significant alterations were found on the serum levels of LH, FSH, testosterone, total cholesterol, LDL, ApoB and SHBG. Association between UGT2B17 ins/del polymorphism and a slower decrease of serum testosterone showed significance. The hematocrit profile was not altered whereas an increase in lymphocyte count was noted.

    Conclusions: One single dose of nandrolone causes a perturbation in the blood lipid- and endocrine profile. Genetic polymorphism may partly affect the serum levels of testosterone post nandrolone administration.

  • 126.
    Gillespie, Thomas
    Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA.
    24. Habitat Fragmentation and Species Barriers2012In: Ecology and Animal Health / [ed] Leif Norrgren and Jeffrey Levengood, Uppsala: Baltic University Press , 2012, 1, p. 199-200Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 127.
    Gisslén, Karl
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Surgical and Perioperative Sciences.
    The patellar tendon in junior elite volleyball players and an Olympic elite weightlifter2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The principal aim of the present thesis was to prospectively follow (clinical status and ultrasound + Doppler findings) the patellar tendons in the young elite volleyball players at the Swedish National Centre for high school volleyball in Falköping. In an Olympic weightlifter with chronic painful jumper´s knee, the effects of treatment with sclerosing injections followed by early instituted very heavy weightlifting training, was also evaluated.

    First, in a prevalence study, we demonstrated that the clinical diagnosis patellar tendinopathy-jumper’s knee, together with structural tendon changes and vascularisation in the painful area of the tendon, was demonstrated in 12/114 tendons in Swedish junior elite volleyball players, but not in any tendons of individually matched (age, height and weight) not regularly sports active controls. Structural tendon changes alone was demonstrated among the volleyball players but also among the controls.

    In a 7 months prospective study of a total of 120 tendons, we demonstrated that the clinical diagnosis patellar tendinopathy-jumper’s knee was associated with neovessels/vascularity in the area with structural tendon changes in 17/19 tendons. Seventy tendons that at start were clinically normal, and had normal ultrasound + Doppler findings, remained clinically normal after 7 months with intensive training and playing volleyball.

    In a 3-year prospective study it was demonstrated that normal clinical tests and normal ultrasound + Doppler findings at school start, indicated a low risk (8%) for these players to sustain patellar tendinopathy-jumper’s knee during the 3 school years with intensive training and playing.

    In a case study, involving an Olympic elite weightlifter with chronic painful patellar tendinopathy-jumper’s knee, successful treatment with ultrasound and Doppler-guided injection of the sclerosing agent polidocanol, allowed for pain-free very heavy weight training two weeks after treatment. Further heavy weightlifting training on a daily basis, preparing for European Championships, was done without causing tendon rupture and/or pain.

    Key words: Jumper’s knee, Patellar tendinopathy, Chronic pain, Ultrasonography, Doppler, Neovascularisation, Volleyball, Weightlifting

  • 128.
    Gizejewski, Z
    et al.
    Institute of Animal Breeding and Food Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Olsztyn, Poland.
    Söderquist, L
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, SLU, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Developmental Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Genital and sperm characteristics of wild, free rangingred deer stags (Cervus elaphus L) hunted in different regions of Poland2010In: Wildlife Biology in Practice, ISSN 1646-1509, E-ISSN 1646-2742, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 81-94Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In an attempt to establish reference values for sperm morphology in wild red deer, genital tracts were collected from thirty-six 3-11 years old free-ranging, wild red deer stags (Cervus elaphus L) shot down during 3 consecutive mating seasons (1996-1998) at three different environmental regions of Poland, defining two major ecotypes: (i) highland (outer eastern Carpathian range, Bieszczady mountains) and, (ii) lowland (Mazuria and Pomerania) and studied within 4.5h-49h after death for testis (T), epididymides (E) and vesicular gland (VG) variables. Spermatozoa collected from the E-cauda were examined for motility and morphology (light and electron microscopy levels). Both T size and weight and VS-weight differed with age (P<0.05-0.01) while habitat influenced T size and weight (P<0.01) a well as sperm motility (P<0.05). Neither sperm numbers nor morphology showed significant differences, mostly owing to

    the large variation recorded among stags (range 1-72%). Domain-grouped sperm morphological deviations were <5%, the mean total proportion of abnormal spermatozoa ranging 7.2-17.5%. Although variation was present, the values ought to be used as reference for spermiogrammes.

  • 129. Griekspoor, Petra
    et al.
    Engvall, Eva Olsson
    Olsen, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Multilocus sequence typing of Campylobacter jejuni from broilers2010In: Veterinary Microbiology, ISSN 0378-1135, E-ISSN 1873-2542, Vol. 140, no 1-2, p. 180-185Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Campylobacter jejuni isolates from a national Swedish Campylobacter monitoring in broilers were characterized by multilocus sequencing typing (MLST) in order to study the genetic diversity of this bacterial population. Isolates were initially characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). One hundred were chosen for MLST genotyping. PFGE identified 69 distinct types compared to 44 different sequence types (STs) identified with MLST. Eighteen STs had not been described previously, while the remaining 26 STs were assigned to previously known clonal complexes. The majority of isolates were of genotypes noted in broilers and in humans in earlier studies. However, three clonal complexes, ST-206 complex, ST-677 complex and ST-1034 complex, previously associated with wild bird and environmental samples, were among the genotypes found. This study shows that most of the Swedish broiler isolates were of genotypes noted as common in broilers. However, it also highlights the potential influence of environmental sources on the broiler C jejuni genotypes. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 130. Grubb, Tamara
    et al.
    Frendin, Jan H. M.
    Edner, Anna
    Funkquist, Pia
    Hedenstierna, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Nyman, Gorel
    The effects of pulse-delivered inhaled nitric oxide on arterial oxygenation, ventilation-perfusion distribution and plasma endothelin-1 concentration in laterally recumbent isoflurane-anaesthetized horses2013In: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia, ISSN 1467-2987, E-ISSN 1467-2995, Vol. 40, no 6, p. E19-E30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives Anaesthetized horses commonly become hypoxaemic due to ventilation/perfusion ((V) over dot(A)/(Q) over dot) mismatch and increased pulmonary shunt fraction ((Q) over dots/(Q) over dott). Pulse-delivered inhaled nitric oxide may improve oxygenation but may increase plasma concentration of the potent vasoconstrictor, endothelin-1 (ET-1). Objectives: Study 1) compare arterial oxygen concentration (PaO2) and saturation (SaO(2)), calculated ((Q) over dots/(Q) over dott) and ET-1 concentration; and Study 2) assess ((V) over dot(A)/(Q) over dot) matching and measured ((Q) over dots/(Q) over dott) in isoflurane-anaesthetized horses in left lateral recumbency receiving pulse-delivered inhaled nitric oxide (PiNO group) or inhalant gas only (C group). Study design Prospective research trial. Animals Ten Healthy adult Standardbred horses. Two horses were anaesthestized in both groups in a random cross-over design with >4 weeks between studies. Methods Study 1) Cardiopulmonary data including PaO2, SaO(2), ((Q) over dots/(Q) over dott) and ET-1 concentration were measured or calculated prior to and at various points during PiNO administration in 6PiNO and 6C horses. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA with Bonferroni significant difference test was used for data analysis with p < 0.05 considered significant. Study 2) ((V) over dot(A)/(Q) over dot) matching and ((Q) over dots/(Q) over dott) were determined using the multiple inert gas elimination technique in 3 horses. Data were collected after 60 minutes of anaesthesia without PiNO (baseline) and 15 minutes after PiNO was pulsed during the first 30%, and then the first 60%, of inspiration. Data were descriptive only. Results Study 1) PaO2 and SaO2 were higher and calculated ((Q) over dots/(Q) over dott) was lower in the PiNO group than the C group at most time points. ET-1 was not different over time or between groups. Study 2) ((V) over dot(A)/(Q) over dot) matching and measured ((Q) over dots/(Q) over dott) were improved from baseline in all horses but PiNO60% provided no improvement when compared to PiNO30%. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance PiNO delivered in the initial portion of the inspiration effectively relieves hypoxaemia in anaesthetized horses by improving ((V) over dot(A)/(Q) over dot) matching and decreasing ((Q) over dots/(Q) over dott) without affecting ET-1.

  • 131.
    Guez, Michel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Surgical and Perioperative Sciences.
    Chronic neck pain: An epidemiological, psychological and SPECT study with emphasis on whiplash-associated disorders2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Chronic neck pain, a common cause of disability, seems to be the result of several interacting mechanisms. In addition to degenerative and inflammatory changes and trauma, psychological and psychosocial factors are also involved. One common type of trauma associated with chronic neck pain is whiplash injury; this sometimes results in whiplash-associated disorder (WAD), a controversial condition with largely unknown pathogenetic mechanisms. We studied the prevalence of chronic neck pain of traumatic and non-traumatic origin and compared the prevalence of, sociodemographic data, self-perceived health, workload and chronic lowback pain in these groups. In a ready-made questionnaire (MONICA study), we added questions about cervical spine and low-back complaints. 6,000 (72%) completed a self-administered questionnaire. 43% reported neck pain: 48% of women and 38% of men. Women of working age had more neck pain than retired women, a phenomenon not seen in men. 19% of the studied population suffered from chronic neck pain and it was more frequent in women. A history of neck trauma was common in those with chronic neck pain. Those with a history of neck trauma perceived their health worse and were more often on sick-leave. About 50% of those with traumatic and non-traumatic chronic neck pain also had chronic low-back pain.

    We assessed the subjective and objective neuropsychological functioning in 42 patients with chronic neck pain, 21 with a whiplash trauma, and 21 without previous neck trauma. Despite cognitive complaints, the WAD patients had normal neuropsychological functioning, but the WAD group especially had deviant MMPI results—indicating impaired coping ability and somatization.WAD patients had no alterations in cerebral blood-flow pattern, as measured by rCBF-SPECT and SPM analysis, compared to healthy controls. This contrasts with the non-traumatic group with chronic neck pain, which showed marked blood-flow changes. The blood-flow changes in the non-traumatic group were similar to those described earlier in pain patients but— remarkably enough—were different from those in the WAD group. Chronic neck pain of whiplash and non-traumatic origin appears to be unique in some respects. A better understanding of the underlying pathological mechanisms is a prerequisite for prevention of the development of such chronic pain syndromes and for improvement of the treatment of patients with severe symptoms.

  • 132.
    Gunnarsson, Ulrika
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Kerje, Susanne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Bed'hom, Bertrand
    Sahlqvist, Anna-Stina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Ekwall, Olov
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Tixier-Boichard, Michele
    Kämpe, Olle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Andersson, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    The Dark brown plumage color in chickens is caused by an 8.3-kb deletion upstream of SOX102011In: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research, ISSN 1755-1471, E-ISSN 1755-148X, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 268-274Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Dark brown (DB) mutation in chickens reduces expression of black eumelanin and enhances expression of red pheomelanin, but only in certain parts of the plumage. Here, we present genetic evidence that an 8.3-kb deletion upstream of the SOX10 transcription start site is the causal mutation underlying the DB phenotype. The SOX10 transcription factor has a well-established role in melanocyte biology and is essential for melanocyte migration and survival. Previous studies have demonstrated that the mouse homolog of a highly conserved element within the deleted region is a SOX10 enhancer. The mechanism of action of this mutation remains to be established, but one possible scenario is that the deletion leads to reduced SOX10 expression which in turn down-regulates expression of key enzymes in pigment synthesis such as tyrosinase. Lower tyrosinase activity leads to a shift toward a more pheomelanistic (reddish) plumage color, which is the characteristic feature of the DB phenotype.

  • 133.
    Guo, Yongzhi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Medical Biochemistry and Biophsyics.
    Plasmin: a potent pro-inflammatory factor2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Plasmin, the central molecule of the plasminogen activator system, is a broad-spectrum serine protease. Plasmin is important for the degradation of fibrin and other components of the extracellular matrix (ECM) during a number of physiological and pathological processes. The aim of this thesis was to elucidate the functional roles of plasmin during pathological inflammation and infection in autoimmune and non-autoimmune diseases. For this purpose, mouse models of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), bacterial arthritis, infection, and sepsis have been used.

    Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that plasminogen-deficient mice are resistant to the development of collagen type II-induced arthritis (CIA). In contrast, others have shown that plasmin plays a protective role in antigen-induced arthritis (AIA). To investigate the contrasting roles of plasminogen deficiency in models of CIA and AIA, a new animal model of arthritis called local injection-induced arthritis (LIA) was developed. In this model, we replaced methylated bovine serum albumin, which is normally used as an immunogen in the AIA model, with collagen type II (CII) to induce arthritis. When wild-type and plasminogen-deficient mice were injected intra-articularly with CII or 0.9% NaCl following CIA induction, plasminogen-deficient mice developed typical CIA, but the disease was less severe than in wild-type mice and was restricted to the injected joints. When the AIA model was used, plasminogen-deficient mice developed a much more severe arthritis than the wild-type mice. These results indicate that both the antigen and joint trauma caused by the local injection are critical to explaining the contrasting roles of plasminogen deficiency in CIA and AIA. This indicates that CIA and AIA have distinct pathogenic mechanisms and plasmin plays contrasting roles in different types of arthritis models.

    To study the functional roles of plasmin in the host inflammatory response during infectious arthritis, a Staphylococcus aureus-induced bacterial arthritis model was established. When wild-type mice were injected intra-articularly with 1 × 106 colony-forming units (CFU) of S. aureus per joint, all the bacteria were completely eliminated from the injected joints in 28 days. However, in the plasminogen-deficient mice, the S. aureus counts were 27-fold higher at day 28 than at day 0. When human plasminogen was given to the plasminogen-deficient mice daily for 7 days, the bacterial clearance was greatly improved and the necrotic tissue in the joint cavity was also completely eliminated. Supplementation of plasminogen-deficient mice with plasminogen also restored the expression level of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the arthritic joints. In summary, plasmin has protective roles during S. aureus-induced arthritis by enhancing cytokine expression, removing necrotic tissue, and mediating bacterial killing and inflammatory cell activation.

    The functional roles of plasmin during infection and sepsis were also studied in mice. Infection was induced by injecting 1 × 107 CFU of S. aureus intravenously and the sepsis model was induced by injecting 1.6 × 108 CFU of S. aureus. In the infection model, the wild-type mice had a 25-day survival rate of 86.7%, as compared to 50% in the plasminogen-deficient group. However, when sepsis was induced, the average survival for plasminogen-deficient mice was 3 days longer than for wild-type mice. Twenty-four hours after the induction of sepsis, the serum levels of IL-6 and IL-10 as well as the bacterial counts in all organs investigated were significantly higher in wild-type mice than in plasminogen-deficient mice. In wild-type mice, blockade of IL-6 by intravenous injection of anti-IL-6 antibodies significantly prolonged the onset of mortality and improved the survival rate during sepsis. These data indicate that plasmin plays different roles during infection and sepsis. Furthermore, plasmin appears to be involved in the regulation of inflammatory cytokine expression during sepsis.

    Taken together, our data indicate that plasmin plays multifunctional pro-inflammatory roles in different autoimmune and non-autoimmune diseases. The pro-inflammatory roles of plasmin include activation of inflammatory cells, regulation of cytokine expression, and enhancement of the bacterial killing ability of the host.

  • 134.
    Gustafsson, Mattias
    Örebro University, Department of Clinical Medicine.
    Vilken betydelse har skelettscintigrafi vid diagnos av scaphoideumfraktur?2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En scaphoideumfraktur är den vanligaste frakturen bland karpalbenen i handen. Frakturen orsakas vanligen av ett kraftigt extensionsvåld mot handleden.

    Scaphoideums stora rörlighet i handen och dess begränsade blodförsörjning bidrar till att scaphoideumfrakturer kan vara svårläkta.

    Scaphoideumfrakturer kan vara svåra att påvisa på konventionell röntgen, även vid upprepade undersökningar. Visar konventionell röntgen ett negativt resultat, men klinisk misstanke om fraktur kvarstår, finns olika undersökningsmetoder att tillgå för att en säker diagnos ska kunna ställas.

    Syftet med den här litteraturstudien var att undersöka betydelsen av skelettscintigrafi som undersökningsmetod vid diagnos av scaphoideumfraktur.

    Resultatet visar att skelettscintigrafi har stor betydelse vid diagnos av en scaphoideumfraktur.

    Kan inte en säker diagnos ställas på konventionell röntgen är skelettscintigrafi en metod som båda kan påvisa och exkludera en scaphoideumfraktur.

  • 135.
    Haftor, Darek
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    Mirijamdotter, AnitaLinnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    Information and Communication Technologies, Society and Human Beings: Theory and Framework (Festschrift in honor of Gunilla Bradley)2011Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Information and Communication Technologies, Society and Human Beings: Theory and Framework addresses the extensive area of effects of ICT on human beings and the interaction between ICT, individuals, organizations, and society. This premier reference source features contributions from over 45 distinguished researchers from around the world, each presenting high quality research on social informatics, human computer interaction, organizational behavior, and macro-ergonomics. This unique publication is perfect for students, teachers, researchers, engineers, practitioners, managers, policy-makers, and media alike.

  • 136.
    Hagelin, Joakim
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Comparative Medicine.
    Hau, J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Comparative Medicine.
    Carlsson, Hans-Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Comparative Medicine.
    Attitude of Swedish veterinary and medical students to animal experimentation2000In: The Veterinary Record, ISSN 0042-4900, E-ISSN 2042-7670, Vol. 146, no 26, p. 757-760Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nearly all veterinary and medical students (94 per cent) found it morally acceptable to use animals in research and believed it to be a necessity in order to treat human diseases. In contrast with the medical students a substantial proportion ofveterinary students (40 per cent) considered themselves animal rights activists. Unlike themedical curriculum, the veterinary curriculum contains a two-week course in laboratoryanimal medicine, and a higher proportion of the students who had not been through this course was opposed to the use of animals in research than of the students who had completed the course. The course modified the views of half the students; more than 26 per cent of them became more positive towards animal use in research after the courser whereas 3 per cent became more negative.

  • 137. Hagglund, Sara
    et al.
    Hu, Kefei
    Blodorn, Krister
    Makabi-Panzu, Boby
    Gaillard, Anne-Laure
    Ellencrona, Karin
    Chevret, Didier
    Hellman, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Chemical Biology.
    Bengtsson, Karin Lovgren
    Riffault, Sabine
    Taylor, Geraldine
    Valarcher, Jean Francois
    Eleouet, Jean-Francois
    Characterization of an Experimental Vaccine for Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus2014In: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology, ISSN 1556-6811, E-ISSN 1556-679X, Vol. 21, no 7, p. 997-1004Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) and human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) are major causes of respiratory disease in calves and children, respectively, and are priorities for vaccine development. We previously demonstrated that an experimental vaccine, BRSV-immunostimulating complex (ISCOM), is effective in calves with maternal antibodies. The present study focuses on the antigenic characterization of this vaccine for the design of new-generation subunit vaccines. The results of our study confirmed the presence of membrane glycoprotein (G), fusion glycoprotein (F), and nucleoprotein (N) proteins in the ISCOMs, and this knowledge was extended by the identification of matrix (M), M2-1, phosphoprotein (P), small hydrophobic protein (SH) and of cellular membrane proteins, such as the integrins alpha(V)beta(1), alpha(V)beta(3), and alpha(3)beta(1). The quantity of the major protein F was 4- to 5-fold greater than that of N (similar to 77 mu g versus similar to 17 mu g/calf dose), whereas G, M, M2-1, P, and SH were likely present in smaller amounts. The polymerase (L), M2-2, nonstructural 1 (NS1), and NS2 proteins were not detected, suggesting that they are not essential for protection. Sera from the BRSV-ISCOM-immunized calves contained high titers of IgG antibody specific for F, G, N, and SH. Antibody responses against M and P were not detected; however, this does not exclude their role in protective T-cell responses. The absence of immunopathological effects of the cellular proteins, such as integrins, needs to be further confirmed, and their possible contribution to adjuvant functions requires elucidation. This work suggests that a combination of several surface and internal proteins should be included in subunit RSV vaccines and identifies absent proteins as potential candidates for differentiating infected from vaccinated animals.

  • 138.
    Hahn-Strömberg, Victoria
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Cell adhesion proteins in different invasive patterns of colon carcinomas: a morphometric and molecular genetic study2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Colorectal carcinoma is the second most common type of cancer in both men and women in Sweden. Cancer of the colon and rectum are often considered together and their ten year survival rate is approximately 50 – 60 % depending on sex and location. Different histopathological characteristics of such cancers, including the complexity of growth, are of importance for prognosis.

    This thesis has compared different morphometric methods in order to achieve a quantitative and objective measurement of the invasive front of colon carcinoma. Since the growth pattern is dependent on the cell adhesiveness of different proteins we studied the distribution and localization of E-cadherin, Beta-catenin, Claudin 1,2,7 and Occludin as well as screened the genes for mutations.

    We found a perturbed protein expression of E-cadherin, Beta-catenin, Claudin 1,2,7 and Occludin in tumor sections compared to normal mucosa, but no relation to tumor volume or growth pattern could be seen. The tumor volume was found to be correlated to the growth pattern but not responsible to the perturbed protein expression. In the mutation screening we found a SNP in exon 13 the E-cadherin gene in the tumor, as well as in exon 2 of Claudin 1 and exon 4 of Claudin 7 in both tumor and normal mucosa. No correlation between mutations and growth pattern or tumor volume was found.

    In conclusion, this thesis shows that the computer image analysis with estimation of fractal dimension and number of free tumor cell clusters is superior to the semi quantitative visual grading of tumor invasive complexity. The aberrant expression of cell adhesion proteins in the tumor compared to normal mucosa as well as polymorphisms in the cell adhesion genes CLDN1 and CLDN7 in both tumor and normal mucosa can suggest that these aberrations are important in the tumorigenesis of colon carcinoma.

     

  • 139.
    Halin Bergström, Sofia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Rudolfsson, Stina H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Bergh, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Rat Prostate Tumor Cells Progress in the Bone Microenvironment to a Highly Aggressive Phenotype2016In: Neoplasia, ISSN 1522-8002, E-ISSN 1476-5586, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 152-161Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prostate cancer generally metastasizes to bone, and most patients have tumor cells in their bone marrow already at diagnosis. Tumor cells at the metastatic site may therefore progress in parallel with those in the primary tumor. Androgen deprivation therapy is often the first-line treatment for clinically detectable prostate cancer bone metastases. Although the treatment is effective, most metastases progress to a castration-resistant and lethal state. To examine metastatic progression in the bone microenvironment, we implanted androgen-sensitive, androgen receptor-positive, and relatively slow-growing Dunning G (G) rat prostate tumor cells into the tibial bone marrow of fully immune-competent Copenhagen rats. We show that tumor establishment in the bone marrow was reduced compared with the prostate, and whereas androgen deprivation did not affect tumor establishment or growth in the bone, this was markedly reduced in the prostate. Moreover, we found that, with time, G tumor cells in the bone microenvironment progress to a more aggressive phenotype with increased growth rate, reduced androgen sensitivity, and increased metastatic capacity. Tumor cells in the bone marrow encounter lower androgen levels and a higher degree of hypoxia than at the primary site, which may cause high selective pressures and eventually contribute to the development of a new and highly aggressive tumor cell phenotype. It is therefore important to specifically study progression in bone metastases. This tumor model could be used to increase our understanding of how tumor cells adapt in the bone microenvironment and may subsequently improve therapy strategies for prostate metastases in bone.

  • 140.
    Hammarberg, Karl-Erik
    et al.
    Hushållningssällskapet Dalarna Gävleborg, Storvik, Sverige.
    Danielsson-Tham, Marie-LouiseÖrebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science.
    Bakteriologi, hygien och egenkontroll vid ystning i småskalig produktion: Kompendium Juni 20042004Collection (editor) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 141.
    Hammarsten, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Androgen controlled regulatory systems in prostate cancer: potential new therapeutic targets and prognostic markers2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer is by far the most common cancer among Swedish men. Some patients have an aggressive lethal disease, but the majority of affected men have long expected survival. Unfortunately, the diagnostic tools available are insufficient in predicting disease aggressiveness. Novel prognostic markers are therefore urgently needed. Furthermore, metastatic prostate cancer is generally treated with castration, but the long-term effects are insufficient. Additional studies are therefore needed to explore how the effects of this therapy can be enhanced. Prostate growth and regression is beside testosterone controlled by locally produced regulators. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) are two of the major regulators in the normal prostate and in prostate tumours.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: VEGF and EGFR were explored in the prostate, by treating rats with either anti-VEGF or anti-EGFR treatment during castration and testosterone-stimulated prostate growth. Rats with implanted androgen-independent prostate tumours were treated with an inhibitor of both VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) and EGFR. Stereological techniques, immunohistochemistry, western blotting and quantitative real-time PCR were used to evaluate these experiments. Furthermore, prostate tissue from untreated prostate cancer patients was used to retrospectively explore the expression of phosphorylated-EGFR (pEGFR) in relation to outcome.

    RESULTS: Anti-VEGF treatment during testosterone-stimulated prostate growth, inhibited vascular and prostate growth. Anti-EGFR treatment during castration and testosterone-stimulated prostate growth resulted in enhanced castration effects and inhibited prostate growth. Anti-vascular treatment of androgen-independent prostate cancer with an inhibitor of VEGFR-2 and EGFR, that targets the normal and tumour vasculature, enhanced the effects of castration. Low immunoreactivity for pEGFR in prostate epithelial cells, both in the tumour and also in the surrounding non-malignant tissue, was associated with good prognosis.

    CONCLUSIONS: Anti-vascular treatment, with an inhibitor of VEGFR-2 and EGFR, in combination with castration could be an effective way to treat androgen-insensitive prostate tumours. VEGF and EGFR signalling are necessary components in testosterone-stimulated prostate growth. Phosphorylation of EGFR could be a useful prognostic marker for prostate cancer patients. Tumours may affect the surrounding non-malignant tissue and pEGFR immunoreactivity in the morphologically normal prostate tissue can be used to retrieve prognostic information.

  • 142.
    Hasan, Badrul
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Association between Hospital Waste and the House Crow (Corvus splendens) in the Dissemination of Antibiotic Resistance and the Epidemic Escherichia coli Clone O25b-ST131 in BangladeshManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Multiresistant bacteria constitute a serious health risk. In order to investigate the environmental contamination of antibiotic resistance in areas with poor waste management in Bangladesh, fecal samples from 238 house crows living in the surroundings of two major hospitals were screened for members of the Enterobacteriaceae family with extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-production. These were compared with 31 ESBL-producing patient isolates, and the susceptibility of E. coli isolates was tested. Without selective pressure, 65.8% of the E. coli isolates from crows were resistant to one or more of 13 antibiotics, and 39.1% were multiresistant. The highest resistance rates were against tetracycline (52.2%), trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (43.5%), nalidixic acid (39.8%) and ampicillin (33.5% ). Fifty-nine percent of the crows were ESBL-carriers, and the isolates harbored CTX-M-1, CTX-M-15, CTX-M-55, CTX-M-79 or CTX-M-14-like genes. Two thirds of these ESBL-producers were multi-drug resistant. The ESBL-producing isolates from patients showed a higher rate of resistance compared with the ESBL-producers from crows. One hundred percent were multi-drug resistant, and most common was resistance to ciprofloxacin (93.3%) and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (60%). The corresponding figures for ESBL-producing crow isolates were 41.3% and 57.3%. The crows and patients shared the epidemic E. coli clone O25b-ST131, which carried CTX-M-15 and CTX-M-14-like enzymes. Dissemination of ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae was also observed among the crows. In conclusion, the Bangladeshi house crow is the bird with the highest carriage rate of ESBL-producing bacteria observed so far. Their scavenging behavior at poorly managed hospital waste dumps, makes them into both reservoirs and active spreaders of antibiotic resistance into the environment. Nationwide programs are necessary to both improve the management of hospital waste and sewage and the control of the antibiotic usage to prevent further environmental contamination. 

  • 143.
    Hasan, Badrul
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine.
    Melhus, Åsa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine.
    Sandegren, Linus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Alam, Munirul
    Olsen, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    The Gull (Chroicocephalus brunnicephalus) as an Environmental Bioindicator and Reservoir for Antibiotic Resistance on the Coastlines of the Bay of Bengal2014In: Microbial Drug Resistance, ISSN 1076-6294, E-ISSN 1931-8448, Vol. 20, no 5, p. 466-471Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The presence and frequency of multiresistant bacteria in wild birds act as indicators of the environmental contamination of antibiotic resistance. To explore the rate of contamination mediated by Escherichia coli, 150 fecal samples from the brown-headed gull (Chroicocephalus brunnicephalus) and 8 water samples from the Bay of Bengal area were collected, cultured, and tested for antibiotic susceptibility. Special attention was paid to extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing isolates, which were further characterized genetically. Antibiotic resistance was found in 42.3% (36/85) of the E. coli isolates and multidrug resistance in 11.8%. Isolates from the area with a higher human activity were more resistant than those from an area with a lower level of activity. Most frequent was resistance to ampicillin (29.4%), followed by trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (24.7%) and quinolones (22.4%). Carriage of ESBL-producing E. coli was relatively high (17.3%) in the gulls, whereas no ESBL producers were found in the water. All ESBL-producing E. coli isolates, but one, carried blaCTX-M-15 or blaCTX-M-15-like genes. A blaCTX-M-14-like enzyme was found as an exception. Gulls from two different colonies shared E. coli clones and harbored the clinically relevant sequence types ST10, ST48, and ST131. The high frequency of antibiotic resistance and ESBL production among E. coli isolates from gulls indicates that the environmental contamination of antibiotic resistance has already gone far on the coastlines of the Bay of Bengal. Considering the limited control over the antibiotic consumption and waste from human activities in Bangladesh, there is no easy solution in sight.

  • 144. Hauffe, Heidi C
    et al.
    Niklasson, Bo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Olsson, Therese
    Bianchi, Alessandro
    Rizzoli, Annapaola
    Klitz, William
    Ljungan Virus Detected in Bank Voles (Myodes glareolus) and Yellow-Necked Mice (Apodemus flavicollis) from Northern Italy2010In: Journal of Wildlife Diseases, ISSN 0090-3558, E-ISSN 1943-3700, Vol. 46, no 1, p. 262-266Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Identified in 1998, Ljungan virus (LV; Picornaviridae) causes type 1 diabetes-like symptoms and myocarditis in bank voles (Myodes glareolus) from Sweden and Denmark, and may be a zoonotic agent of several important diseases (e.g., intrauterine fetal death, I diabetes, Guillain-Barre syndrome, and myocarditis). Using a real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay and sequence anlalysis, we detected LV in bank voles, and for the first time, in yellow-necked mice collected during 2006 from a site in northern Italy. The global distribution of LV and its role as a mammalian pathogen deserve further attention.

  • 145.
    Havarinasab, Said
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Molecular and Immunological Pathology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Effect of thimerosal on the murine immune system: especially induction of systemic autoimmunity2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The organic mercury compound ethylmercurithiosalicylate (thimerosal), an antiseptic and a preservative, has recently raised public health concern due to its presence in vaccines globally. Thimerosal dissociates in the body to thiosalicylate and ethyl mercury (EtHg), which is partly converted to inorganic mercuric mercury (Hg2+). The immunosuppressive, immunostimulatory, and de novo autoimmunogen effect of thimerosal in mice, as well as the accelerating/aggravating effect on spontaneous systemic autoimmunity including dose-response aspects were the subject of this thesis.

    Thimerosal perorally (590 μg Hg/kg body weight (bw)/day) to genetically susceptible (H-2s) mice caused immunosuppression during the first week with reduction of the total number of splenocytes, T- and B-cells. The suppression lasted 2 weeks for CD4+ cells, but was superseded by a strong immunostimulation/proliferation including T- as well as B-cells, and polyclonal B-cell activation (PBA). Antinuclear antibodies targeting the 34-kDa nucleolar protein fibrillarin (AFA) appeared after 10 days, followed by renal mesangial and systemic vessel wall immune-complex (IC) deposits. The Lowest Observed Adverse Effect Level (LOAEL) was in the order AFA = glomerular and splenic vessel wall deposits < hyperimmunoglobulinemia < PBA. The LOAEL for AFA was 118 μg Hg/kg bw/day. The LOAEL for the different parameters of this thimerosal-induced systemic autoimmune condition (HgIA) was 3-11-fold higher compared with HgIA induced by HgCl2. The thimerosal-induced HgIA shared with HgCl2 a significant dose-response relationship, and requirement for: T-cells, the costimulatory factor CD28, the IFN-γ/IFN-γ-receptor pathway,but not IL-4. The mRNA expression in lymph nodes of IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-15 was significantly increased but not delayed compared with HgCl2.

    Treatment with the ubiquitous organic Hg compound methyl Hg using equimolar doses of Hg (533 μg Hg/kg bw/day) caused a transient immunosuppression, followed by a weak immunostimulation and AFA. The IgG AFA isotypes induced by the organic Hg compounds MeHg and EtHg were stable and dominated by a Th1-like pattern over a broad time- and dose range. Treatment with inorganic HgCl2 caused a dose- and time-dependent pattern of IgG AFA isotypes. Low doses favored a Th1-like pattern, a high dose a balanced or Th2-like pattern. Middle-range doses showed initially a Th1-like pattern which gradually evolved into a balanced or Th2-like pattern. The qualitative difference in IgG AFA isotypes between organic and inorganic Hg may be due to differences in activation and/or suppression of T-helper cell subsets or factors influencing the Th1/Th2-function. Speciation of the renal Hg2+ concentration and comparison with the threshold dose for induction of AFA by HgCl2 showed that even with the lowest doses of thimerosal and MeHg used in this thesis, the AFA response might from a dose threshold point of view have been caused by conversion of the organic Hg species to Hg2+.

    Primary treatment with inorganic Hg (HgCl2) accelerates/aggravates murine systemic autoimmunity, both spontaneous (genetic) and induced by other means. This capacity was assessed for thimerosal over a broad dose range using the (NZB X NZW)F1 hybrid mouse model. Significantly increased antinuclear antibodies (ANA) was seen after 4-7 weeks treatment (LOAEL 147 μg Hg/kg bw/day), and the response was dose-dependent up to 13 weeks. Renal mesangial and systemic vessel walls deposits similar to those in de novo HgIA were present after 7 weeks treatment. Twenty-two to 25 weeks treatment with thimerosal caused, in a dose-dependent fashion (LOAEL 295 μg Hg/kg bw/day), relocalization of the spontaneously developing glomerular IC deposits from the capillary vessel walls to the mesangium, which attenuated histological kidney damage and proteinuria, and increased survival. Thimerosal caused systemic vessel wall IC-deposits over a broad dose range: the Low Observed Adverse Effect Level (LOAEL) for renal and splenic vessel wall IC deposits was 18 and 9 μg Hg/kg bw/day, respectively. The No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) could not be determined for the latter, since deposits were present even with the lowest dose used.

    Thimerosal causes in genetically susceptible mice an initial, transient immunosuppression which is superseded by a strong immunostimulation and systemic autoimmunity, sharing many characteristics with the HgIA induced by inorganic HgCl2. The IgG AFA isotype pattern is however qualitatively different, and the threshold dose substantially higher. In contrast, long-term treatment with thimerosal induces systemic vessel wall IC-deposits also using doses below those needed to induce HgIA de novo in H-2s mice.

  • 146. Hecker, Yanina P.
    et al.
    Coceres, Veronica
    Wilkowsky, Silvina E.
    Jaramillo Ortiz, Jose M.
    Morrell, Eleonora L.
    Verna, Andrea E.
    Ganuza, Agustina
    Cano, Dora B.
    Lischinsky, Lilian
    Angel, Sergio O.
    Zamorano, Patricia
    Odeon, Anselmo C.
    Leunda, Maria R.
    Campero, Carlos M.
    Morein, Bror
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Moore, Dadin P.
    A Neospora caninum vaccine using recombinant proteins fails to prevent foetal infection in pregnant cattle after experimental intravenous challenge2014In: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology, ISSN 0165-2427, E-ISSN 1873-2534, Vol. 162, no 3-4, p. 142-153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of rNcSAG1, rNcHSP20 and rNcGRA7 recombinant proteins formulated with immune stimulating complexes (ISCOMs) in pregnant heifers against vertical transmission of Neospora caninum. Twelve pregnant heifers were divided into 3 groups of 4 heifers each, receiving different formulations before mating. Immunogens were administered twice subcutaneously: group A animals were inoculated with three recombinant proteins (rNcSAG1, rNcHSP20, rNcGRA7) formulated with ISCOMs; group B animals received ISCOM-MATRIX (without antigen) and group C received sterile phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) only. The recombinant proteins were expressed in Escherichia coil and purified nickel resin. All groups were intravenously challenged with the NC-1 strain of N. caninum at Day 70 of gestation and dams slaughtered at week 17 of the experiment. Heifers from group A developed specific antibodies against rNcSAG1, rNcHSP20 and rNcGRA7 prior to the challenge. Following immunization, an statistically significant increase of antibodies against rNcSAG1 and rNcHSP20 in all animals of group A was detected compared to animals in groups B and C at weeks 5, 13 and 16 (P< 0.001). Levels of antibodies against rNcGRA7 were statistical higher in group A animals when compared with groups B and Cat weeks 5 and 16 (P> 0.001). There were no differences in IFN-gamma production among the experimental groups at any time point (P> 0.05). Transplacental transmission was determined in all foetuses of groups A, B and C by Western blot, immunohistochemistry and nested PCR. This work showed that rNcSAG1, rNcHSP20 and rNcGRA7 proteins while immunogenic in cattle failed to prevent the foetal infection in pregnant cattle challenged at Day 70 of gestation. 

  • 147.
    Hedberg, Carina
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Kyhlstedt, Madeleine
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Samvarierar frukostfrekvens och betyg?: En kvantitativ studie om sambandet mellan frukostfrekvens och betyg hos gymnasieelever på samhälls- och naturvetenskapliga programmen2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka om det hos gymnasieelever på samhälls- och naturvetenskapliga programmen finns ett samband mellan frukostfrekvens och prestation mätt i betyg. För att kunna uppnå syftet användes följande frågeställningar:

    • Finns det en korrelation mellan frukostfrekvens och betyg (betyg mäts i medelpoäng för svenska, engelska, matematik och samhällskunskap)?

    • Kan potentiella confounders förklara detta eventuella samband?

    Metod

    Den undersökta populationen bestod av 238 gymnasieelever i åldrarna 15-19 år. 122 av dessa var flickor och 116 var pojkar. På tre valda gymnasieskolor i Stockholms län gjordes ett riktat slumpmässigt urval bland eleverna. Studien byggde på självrapporterad data som inhämtades genom en enkät. Vi ställde frågor om exempelvis kroppsstorlek, frukostfrekvens, betyg, föräldrarnas postgymnasiala studienivå, studietid utanför lektionstid och boendeform.

    Resultat

    Könsfördelningen var jämn – 51,3 % var flickor och 48,7 % var pojkar. För båda könen gällde att drygt två tredjedelar åt frukost samtliga veckans skoldagar. Anmärkningsvärt är att en av tio flickor aldrig åt frukost under en skolvecka. En stor andel elever hade betyget MVG och särskilt utmärkande var flickornas betyg i engelska där hela tre fjärdedelar hade det högsta betyget. Gällande programmen var både antalet elever och kön relativt jämnt fördelade. Medianmedelpoängen utifrån de fyra betygen i matematik, svenska, engelska och samhällskunskap var för flickor 17,5 (sd 2,5) och för pojkar 16,8 (sd 2,7). Det fanns en positiv korrelation (Spearman’s) mellan frukostfrekvens och medianmedelpoäng. För att ta hänsyn till möjliga confounders gjordes en logistisk regression. Av de oberoende variablerna visade sig endast frukostfrekvens och vilket program eleven gick vara signifikanta prediktorer för medelpoängen. Således hade de som åt frukost bättre betyg än de som inte gjorde det och de som gick naturvetenskapliga programmet hade bättre betyg än de som gick samhälls-vetenskapliga programmet. 20 % av variationen i medelpoäng förklaras alltså av de två variablerna frukostfrekvens och gymnasieprogram.

    Slutsats

    Slutsatsen är att det finns ett positivt samband mellan frukostfrekvens och prestation mätt i betyg. Även efter kontroll för confounders var denna korrelation signifikant. Även vilket gymnasieprogram eleven studerade korrelerade med medelpoäng.

  • 148.
    Hedenqvist, Patricia
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Clin Sci, VHC POB 7054, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Trbakovic, Amela
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery.
    Thor, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery.
    Ley, Cecilia
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Biomed Sci & Vet Publ Hlth, Div Pathol, POB 7028, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Ekman, Stina
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Biomed Sci & Vet Publ Hlth, Div Pathol, POB 7028, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Jensen-Waern, Marianne
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Clin Sci, VHC POB 7054, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Carprofen neither reduces postoperative facial expression scores in rabbits treated with buprenorphine nor alters long term bone formation after maxillary sinus grafting2016In: Research in Veterinary Science, ISSN 0034-5288, E-ISSN 1532-2661, Vol. 107, p. 123-131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In connection with bilateral maxillary sinus augmentation, the acute effects of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug carprofen on facial expressions and long-term effects on bone formation were evaluated in 18 male New Zealand White rabbits. A 10 x 10 mm bone window was drilled in the maxilla, the sinus membrane elevated and a titanium mini-implant inserted. One of two test materials was randomly inserted unilaterally and bovine bone chips (control) on the contralateral side in the created space. Rabbits were randomly allocated to receive buprenorphine plus carprofen (n = 9) or buprenorphine plus saline (n = 9) postoperatively. Buprenorphine was administered subcutaneously every 6 h for 3 days in a tapered dose (0.05-0.01 mg/kg) and carprofen (5 mg/kg) or saline administered subcutaneously 1 h before, and daily for 4 days postoperatively. To assess pain, clinical examination, body weight recording and scoring of facial expressions from photos taken before, and 6-13 h after surgery were performed. Twelve weeks after surgery the rabbits were euthanized and sections of maxillary bones and sinuses were analysed with histomorphometry and by qualitative histology. Carprofen had no effect on mean facial expression scores, which increased from 0.0 to 3.6 (carprofen) and 43 (saline), of a maximum of 8.0. Neither did carprofen have an effect on bone formation or implant incorporation, whereas the test materials had. In conclusion, treatment with 5 mg/kg carprofen once daily for 5 days did not reduce facial expression scores after maxillary sinus augmentation in buprenorphine treated rabbits and did not affect long term bone formation.

  • 149.
    Heiene, Reidun
    et al.
    University of Utrecht.
    Bergquist, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Analytical Chemistry.
    Neusüß, Christian
    Aalen University.
    Hedeland, Ylva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Carbamylated hemoglobin project AKI vs CKD- or the magnitude of the chronic component2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 150.
    Hellander-Edman, Anna
    et al.
    Department of Animal Environment & Health, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skara, Sweden.
    Makdoumi, Karim
    Örebro University Hospital. Department of Ophthalmology.
    Mortensen, Jes
    Department of Ophthalmology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Ekesten, Bjorn
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Corneal cross-linking in 9 horses with ulcerative keratitis2013In: BMC Veterinary Research, ISSN 1746-6148, E-ISSN 1746-6148, Vol. 9, p. 128-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Corneal ulcers are one of the most common eye problems in the horse and can cause varying degrees of visual impairment. Secondary infection and protease activity causing melting of the corneal stroma are always concerns in patients with corneal ulcers. Corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL), induced by illumination of the corneal stroma with ultraviolet light (UVA) after instillation of riboflavin (vitamin B2) eye drops, introduces crosslinks which stabilize melting corneas, and has been used to successfully treat infectious ulcerative keratitis in human patients. Therefore we decided to study if CXL can be performed in sedated, standing horses with ulcerative keratitis with or without stromal melting.

    Results: Nine horses, aged 1 month to 16 years (median 5 years) were treated with a combination of CXL and medical therapy. Two horses were diagnosed with mycotic, 5 with bacterial and 2 with aseptic ulcerative keratitis. A modified Dresden-protocol for CXL could readily be performed in all 9 horses after sedation. Stromal melting, diagnosed in 4 horses, stopped within 24 h. Eight of nine eyes became fluorescein negative in 13.5 days (median time; range 4-26 days) days after CXL. One horse developed a bacterial conjunctivitis the day after CXL, which was successfully treated with topical antibiotics. One horse with fungal ulcerative keratitis and severe uveitis was enucleated 4 days after treatment due to panophthalmitis.

    Conclusions: CXL can be performed in standing, sedated horses. We did not observe any deleterious effects attributed to riboflavin or UVA irradiation per se during the follow-up, neither in horses with infectious nor aseptic ulcerative keratitis. These data support that CXL can be performed in the standing horse, but further studies are required to compare CXL to conventional medical treatment in equine keratitis and to optimize the CXL protocol in this species.

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