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  • 101.
    Alricsson, Marie
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Harms-Ringdahl, Karin
    Schüldt, Kristina
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Ekholm, Jan
    linder, Jürgen
    Mobility, muscular strength and endurance in the cervical spine in Swedish air force pilots2001In: Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 0095-6562, E-ISSN 1943-4448, Vol. 72, no 4, p. 336-342Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: Muscle strength, endurance and range of movement of the cervical spine in a group of Swedish Air Force jet pilots (AF) and in a reference group of conscripts doing their military service (RG) were compared. METHODS: We tested 30 (AF) 24-42 yr and 33 (RG) 19-22 yr. A questionnaire was used to document complaints. Maximum voluntary isometric muscle strength of the flexor and extensor muscles of the cervical spine and sub-maximum isometric endurance in the flexor and extensor muscles were measured. RESULTS: Eleven AF (37%) and four RG (12%) had experienced discomfort in the neck within the previous year. The pilots' flexor and extensor muscle strength (47 Nm and 65 Nm) was superior to that of the conscripts (36 Nm and 59 Nm) (p = 0.0001, p = < 0.05, respectively). However, the RG group had greater isometric endurance in the flexor muscles than AF (p = < 0.05) and greater neck rotation (p = <0.005). There was no difference between the two groups in the other variables. CONCLUSION: Differences between the groups with regard to muscle strength and endurance might depend on variations in work-related physical muscle strain, and/or differences in fiber composition in the muscles, which might be reflected by pilot selection procedures.

  • 102.
    Alricsson, Marie
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Harms-Ringdahl, Karin
    Werner, Suzanne
    Reliability of sports related functional tests with emphasis on speed and agility in young athletes.2001In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 229-232Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present investigation was to test the reliability of two sports related functional tests, a speed test (slalom-test) and an agility test (hurdle-test). Eleven athletes aged 11 years (8 boys, 3 girls) participated voluntarily in the study. All subjects completed four different test sessions for both the slalom-test and the hurdle-test using six standard track hurdles placed at 2-m intervals along a 12-m length of track. There were no significant differences between testing sessions for either the slalom-test (P=0.99) or the hurdle-test (P=0.96), showing no systematic variation between test times. The intraclass correlation coefficients were 0.96 and 0.90 respectively, indicating a good reliability. We conclude that the slalom-test and the hurdle-test are reliable sports related functional tests for measuring speed and agility in groups of young athletic individuals.

  • 103.
    Alricsson, Marie
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Harms-Ringdahl, Karin
    Werner, Suzanne
    Reliability of sports related functional tests with emphasis on speed and agility in young athletes.2001In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 229-232Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present investigation was to test the reliability of two sports related functional tests, a speed test (slalom-test) and an agility test (hurdle-test). Eleven athletes aged 11 years (8 boys, 3 girls) participated voluntarily in the study. All subjects completed four different test sessions for both the slalom-test and the hurdle-test using six standard track hurdles placed at 2-m intervals along a 12-m length of track. There were no significant differences between testing sessions for either the slalom-test (P=0.99) or the hurdle-test (P=0.96), showing no systematic variation between test times. The intraclass correlation coefficients were 0.96 and 0.90 respectively, indicating a good reliability. We conclude that the slalom-test and the hurdle-test are reliable sports related functional tests for measuring speed and agility in groups of young athletic individuals.

  • 104.
    Alricsson, Marie
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Landstad, Bodil
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Physical activity, self-related health and complaints in adolescents2007In: Adolescent behaviour research: International perspectives, New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2007, , p. 179p. 119-128Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 105.
    Alricsson, Marie
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University.
    Landstad, Bodil
    Mid Sweden University ; Griffith University, Australia ; Nord-Trøndelag University College, Norway.
    Physical activity, self-related health and complaints in adolescents2007In: Adolescent behaviour research: International perspectives / [ed] Joav Merrick, Hatim A. Omar, New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2007, p. 119-128Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 106.
    Alricsson, Marie
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet ; Griffith University Logan Campus, Australia.
    Landstad, Bodil
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Romild, Ulla
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Gundersen, KT
    University College Levanger, Norway.
    Physical activity, health, BMI and body complaints in high school students2008In: Minerva Pediatrica, ISSN 0026-4946, E-ISSN 1827-1715, Vol. 60, no 1, p. 19-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: Children and adolescents in the industrial world are becoming less

    physically active and are adopting a sedentary lifestyle in front of computers

    and TV. The aim of the present investigation was to determine self-related

    health, physical activity, prevalence of overweight and body complaints in

    high school students in Norway, and to compare students in academic

    programs with those in vocational programs. METHODS: Seven hundred and

    two high school students aged 16-19 years were included in the study. A

    questionnaire was completed in three high schools and included questions

    about weight and height, health, physical activity, type of physical

    activity/sport, intensity, possible injuries or complaints during the last three

    months. RESULTS: Twenty three percent of the students suffers from

    overweight/obesity are at risk of being overweight. Males reported better

    health than females (P<0.02). Sixty-six percent of the study group reported

    body complaints during the last three months, a higher number of females

    than males (P=0.001). Students in vocational programs reported poorer selfrelated

    health than those in academic programs and the males reported

    better self-related health generally than females. Furthermore, there were a

    higher level of prevalence of overweight students in vocational programs

    than academic programs (P=0.039). CONCLUSION: It is important to make it

    easy for school children and adolescents to do physical activity at school and

    during leisure time in order to prevent overweight and obesity as well as

    chronic diseases later in life.

  • 107.
    Alricsson, Marie
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Werner, Suzanne
    Dansträning för längdskidåkare: får jag lov, Per Elofsson?2002In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 77-79Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 108.
    Alricsson, Marie
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Werner, Suzanne
    Dansträning för längdskidåkare: får jag lov, Per Elofsson?2002In: Svensk idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 77-79Article in journal (Other scientific)
  • 109.
    Alricsson, Marie
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Werner, Suzanne
    Dansträning ger längdskidåkare mindre ryggbesvär.2004In: Svensk Idrottsmedicin, ISSN 1103-7652, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 23-26Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 110.
    Alricsson, Marie
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Werner, Suzanne
    Dansträning ger längdskidåkare mindre ryggbesvär. 2004In: Svensk Idrottsmedicin, ISSN 1103-7652, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 23-26Article in journal (Other scientific)
  • 111.
    Alricsson, Marie
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Werner, Suzanne
    Hälsa, aktivitetsgrad och besvärsfrekvens bland längdskidåkare vid Sveriges riksskidgymnasier.2004In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 22-24Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 112.
    Alricsson, Marie
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Werner, Suzanne
    Hälsa, aktivitetsgrad och besvärsfrekvens bland längdskidåkare vid Sveriges riksskidgymnasier.2004In: Svensk idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 22-24Article in journal (Other scientific)
  • 113.
    Alricsson, Marie
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences. Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Werner, Suzanne
    Reliability tests of joint motion and muscle flexibility of the hip.2002In: Nordisk fysioterapi, ISSN 1402-3024, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 119-124Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 114.
    Alricsson, Marie
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Werner, Suzanne
    Reliability tests of joint motion and muscle flexibility of the hip. 2002In: Nordisk fysioterapi, ISSN 1402-3024, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 119-124Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 115.
    Alricsson, Marie
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet ; Karolinska Institute.
    Werner, Suzanne
    Karolinska Institute.
    Self-reported health, physical activity and prevalence of complaints in elite cross-country skiers and matched controls2005In: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, ISSN 0022-4707, E-ISSN 1827-1928, Vol. 45, no 4, p. 547-552Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim. The purpose of this study was to compare physical health, physical activity and location for possible symptoms in high school students with cross-country skiers of the same age from ski high schools. Another aim was to study back pain with regards to influence on skiing.Methods. The subjects studied were: 92% (n=120) of all Swedish cross-country skiers at ski high schools and 68% (n=993) of regular high school students from the North part of Sweden answered a reliable questionnaire (r=1) with regards to health, physical activity and location of possible symptoms/injuries during the last 3 months. Furthermore, the skiers answered questions on possible ski related back pain.Results. All skiers were active also in other sports compared with 26% of the controls and at considerably higher levels of physical effort than the controls; 92% of the skiers and 76% of the controls described themselves as healthy, meaning "very good" or "good" (P=0.0001); 55% of the skiers and 64% of the controls reported recent symptoms (P=0.06); 47% of the skiers reported previous or present complaints of back pain, mainly low back pain, which could be relieved by changing body position from a flexed to a more extended one while skiing, and 77% reported their back pain to disappear during rest.Conclusion. These results show the need for encouraging regular high school students to participate in sport. It also shows the importance of introducing preventative strategies regarding back pain to long-distance cross-country skiers, who are exposed to a prolonged flexed position of their back.

  • 116.
    Alricsson, Marie
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Section of Sports Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm.
    Werner, Suzanne
    Section of Sports Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm; Capio Artro Clinic, S:t Görans Hospital, Stockholm.
    Self-reported health, physical activity and prevalence of complaints in elite cross-country skiers and matched controls2005In: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, ISSN 0022-4707, E-ISSN 1827-1928, Vol. 45, no 4, p. 547-552Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim. The purpose of this study was to compare physical health, physical activity and location for possible symptoms in high school students with cross-country skiers of the same age from ski high schools. Another aim was to study back pain with regards to influence on skiing.Methods. The subjects studied were: 92% (n=120) of all Swedish cross-country skiers at ski high schools and 68% (n=993) of regular high school students from the North part of Sweden answered a reliable questionnaire (r=1) with regards to health, physical activity and location of possible symptoms/injuries during the last 3 months. Furthermore, the skiers answered questions on possible ski related back pain.Results. All skiers were active also in other sports compared with 26% of the controls and at considerably higher levels of physical effort than the controls; 92% of the skiers and 76% of the controls described themselves as healthy, meaning "very good" or "good" (P=0.0001); 55% of the skiers and 64% of the controls reported recent symptoms (P=0.06); 47% of the skiers reported previous or present complaints of back pain, mainly low back pain, which could be relieved by changing body position from a flexed to a more extended one while skiing, and 77% reported their back pain to disappear during rest.Conclusion. These results show the need for encouraging regular high school students to participate in sport. It also shows the importance of introducing preventative strategies regarding back pain to long-distance cross-country skiers, who are exposed to a prolonged flexed position of their back.

  • 117.
    Alricsson, Marie
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Werner, Suzanne
    The effect of pre-season dance training on physical indices and back pain in elite cross-country skiers: a prospective controlled intervention study2004In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 38, no 2, p. 148-153Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 118.
    Alricsson, Marie
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Werner, Suzanne
    The effect of pre-season dance training on physical indices and back pain in elite cross-country skiers: a prospective controlled intervention study2004In: British journal of sports medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, Vol. 38, no 2, p. 148-153Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 119.
    Alricsson, Marie
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Werner, Suzanne
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Young elite cross-country skiers and low back pain: A 5-year study2006In: Physical Therapy in Sport, ISSN 1466-853X, E-ISSN 1873-1600, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 181-184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives To evaluate possible changes in spinal curvature over a period of 5 years of an elite cross-country skiing squad, and to study whether there are any differences in this respect between individuals who report low back pain and those how do not. Participants Fifteen young cross-country skiers (M age=13.6±0.9) participated voluntarily throughout the entire study period. Main outcome measures Debrunner's kyphometer was used for measuring the difference between thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis of the spine. All subjects also answered a questionnaire including questions about ski-related low back pain, the amount of ski training, and participation in other sports. Results The results at the end of the 5-year period comprise data from 15 skiers (M age=18.5±0.9 years). The relationship between thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis increased from 3.5° to 13.1°, respectively (p=0.0001). Of the 15 elite cross-country skiers, seven reported low back pain at the 5-year examination. At the 5-year follow-up, skiers with low back pain showed significantly higher relationship between thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis than did those skiers without low back pain, 18.2° and 10.5°, respectively (p=0.035). Of the eight elite cross-country skiers without low back pain, seven were also involved in other sports (p=0.005). Conclusions Based on these findings, our advice is that adolescent cross-country skiers also should participate in other physical activities besides cross-country skiing.

  • 120.
    Alricsson, Marie
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Werner, Suzanne
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Young elite cross-country skiers and low back pain: A 5-year study2006In: Physical Therapy in Sport, ISSN 1466-853X, E-ISSN 1873-1600, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 181-184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives To evaluate possible changes in spinal curvature over a period of 5 years of an elite cross-country skiing squad, and to study whether there are any differences in this respect between individuals who report low back pain and those how do not. Participants Fifteen young cross-country skiers (M age=13.6±0.9) participated voluntarily throughout the entire study period. Main outcome measures Debrunner's kyphometer was used for measuring the difference between thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis of the spine. All subjects also answered a questionnaire including questions about ski-related low back pain, the amount of ski training, and participation in other sports. Results The results at the end of the 5-year period comprise data from 15 skiers (M age=18.5±0.9 years). The relationship between thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis increased from 3.5° to 13.1°, respectively (p=0.0001). Of the 15 elite cross-country skiers, seven reported low back pain at the 5-year examination. At the 5-year follow-up, skiers with low back pain showed significantly higher relationship between thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis than did those skiers without low back pain, 18.2° and 10.5°, respectively (p=0.035). Of the eight elite cross-country skiers without low back pain, seven were also involved in other sports (p=0.005). Conclusions Based on these findings, our advice is that adolescent cross-country skiers also should participate in other physical activities besides cross-country skiing.

  • 121.
    Alsarve, Daniel
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Addressing gender equality: enactments of gender and hegemony in the educational textbooks used in Swedish sports coaching and educational programmes2017In: Sport, Education and Society, ISSN 1357-3322, E-ISSN 1470-1243Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sport is often described as a field containing competitive and hierarchy shaping activities. However, in Sweden and elsewhere, this field is also permeated by democratic principles where, for example, everybody has the right to participate in children’s and youth sports regardless of gender, ethnicity or physical ability. In Sweden, there are distinct objectives for gender equality, where women/girls and men/boys should ideally be treated and recognised equally. The aim of this paper is twofold: to examine how gender is enacted in the textbooks used in Swedish sports coaching and educational programmes and to identify whether any of the enactments reflect a hegemonic masculinity. The textbooks used in two of the most extensive courses arranged by the Swedish Sports Confederation, ‘The Platform’ [Plattformen] and ‘Basic Coach Education’ [Grundtränarutbildning] are in focus. The theoretical framework and methodological approach are inspired by research on sport, gender and the hegemonic masculinity thesis. In the process of analysis, the hegemonic perspective is central. During the analysis, four themes are identified as expressions of a hegemonic masculinity and, thus, as obstacles to gender equality. Firstly, the binary sex norm poses a real challenge for the implementation of gender equality because it helps to shape a hierarchy that privileges men and masculinities. Secondly and thirdly, the themes ‘puberty’ and ‘the coach’ appear to be important, in that they support and contest a gendered hierarchy. Finally, there are examples of men, like sport coaches, appearing as genderless, which is interpreted as a hegemonic acceptance of the category of men (as universal and genderless subjects). By critically illuminating these themes, the paper adds to the wider research field of sport, coaching and education programmes and the complexity of gender mainstreaming in sport.

  • 122.
    Alsarve, Daniel
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Föreställningar om maskuliniteter och feminiteter i idrottens ledarskapslitteratur2015In: Program SVEBI 2015 / [ed] Håkan Larsson och Marie Öhman, Växjö: Linnéuniversitet , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion: Trots att svensk idrott länge har haft ett övergripande jämställdhetsmål där kvinnor och män, pojkar och flickor ska ha samma villkor (RF, 1989, 2005, 2011) så går förändringsarbetet trögt. Detta förklaras ofta av att många idrottsgrenar bär en tradition där män dominerat med följden att normer och handlingar som förknippas med ”kvinnliga” egenskaper värderas lägre (se t ex Fundberg, 2003; Messner, 1992). Ett viktigt incitament för förändring är utbildning och inom idrottens (SISU:s) ledar-skapsutbildningar finns två ”grundutbildningar”: Plattformen och grundtränarutbildningen. Men möjliggör eller förhindrar innehållet i dessa utbildningar förändringar mot en mer jämställd idrott?

    Syfte & teoretisk ram: I detta paper studeras hur kön/genus represente-ras i litteraturen i dessa utbildningar med fokus på att synliggöra komplexiteter/motsägelsefullheter. Syftet är att utreda om och i så fall hur litteraturens innehåll utmanar eller bekräftar en traditionell, ste-reotypisk föreställning om mäns och manligheters dominans över kvinnor och kvinnligheter och om innehållet således bidrar till eller hindrar möjligheterna för en mer jämställd idrott. Teoretiskt bildar forskning om hegemoniska maskuliniteter (Connell 1983, 1996) och mäns hegemonier (Hearn, 2004) ramverk för analysen.

    Metod: Genom textanalys och ett diskursivt perspektiv studeras fyra böcker inom de ovan nämnda natio-nella utbildningarna. Dessutom används i viss utsträckning även kursernas powerpoint-presentatio-ner som underlag för analysen.

    Resultat: De preliminära resultaten visar att män skildras både stereotypiskt och som normbrytare genom att till exempel trösta och hålla om barn. Samtidigt reproducerar texterna ett binärt könssystem som tenderar att underordna kvinnor och kvinnlighet. Kvinnans kropp beskrivs som mindre kapabel och sämre utrustad för fysisk ansträngning. Detta gör också att attityden till kvinnor som kunskapsbärande och kunskapsproducerande subjekt påverkas.

    Diskussion: Diskussionen fokuserar på hur innehållet i denna litteratur tenderar att både reproducera och i viss mån utmana mäns och manligheters dominans inom idrotten. Samtidigt finns det något motsägelsefullt i att män bryter mot en traditionellt manlig norm eftersom detta snarare tenderar att omskapa en ny form av hegemoni (Connell 1983, 1996). Detta kan förklara trögföränderligheten hos hegemoniska mas-kuliniteter och ger således ny kunskap om jämställdhetsarbetets utmaningar.

  • 123.
    Alsarve, Daniel
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    In The Name of Democracy: Varieties and continuities of associative sports masculinities at club level during the 20th century2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the first half of the 20th century the Swedish Sports Confederation became the dominant sports organisation in Sweden. In short, the organisation adapted a representative democratic principle and argued that it fostered its members to democratic citizens. In turn, this legitimised annual state grants but did not prevent long-time male domination within Swedish sports. This paper deals with the contradictive contents of sports masculinity (e. g. being similarly democratic and exclusionary) and, more specific, it focuses the long-time duration of masculine domination in a Swedish, voluntary sports club and how different visual and textual strategies were used to strengthen the masculine hegemony in the organisation.

       The method draws inspiration from the concept of hegemonic masculinity, understood as something restraining and contradictive, and Wetherell & Edley´s (1999) more fine-grained analytical tool called “imaginary positions”. The source materials are texts and photos in members reviews of Örebro Sports Club and the chronological period is two-folded divided from the foundation of the club in 1908 to 1933 and from 1967 up until 1989 when the club was dissolved into different juridical persons.

       The results show that masculine positions were not only about winning and expressing a successful, active and struggling masculinity. The hegemonic (and heroic) position offered a range of possibilities to express and visualize masculinity but the very same position, on the other hand, contained plain borders towards deviant sexuality, functionality, ethnicity and gender. The discussion involves an approach to understand the results in relation to the difficulties of challenging patriarchy and male domination in sports.

  • 124.
    Alsarve, Daniel
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Jakobsson, Johan
    Örebro universitet, Örebro, Sweden.
    Helgesson, Jens
    Örebro universitet, Örebro, Sweden.
    Idrottsundervisning och maskulinitetens hegemoni: Genus och inflytande i gymnasieskolans ämne ”Idrott och hälsa”2017In: Scandinavian Sport Studies Forum, ISSN 2000-088X, E-ISSN 2000-088X, Vol. 8, p. 197-219Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish upper secondary school and its physical education (PE) should, according to the Lgy11 (the 2011 curriculum of upper secondary school in Sweden), raise aware- ness about and challenge stereotypes of masculinity and femininity. Previous research, however, has concluded that there is an upholding of traditional, hegemonic masculinity ideals through PE. The purpose of this article is to highlight how gender and power influence the outcome of a just education. Theoretical inspiration is taken from Irish Marion Young’s and Raewyn Connell’s work on gender and hegemonic masculinity, and the method involves interviews with PE teachers and observations of PE classes. Dance, ball games, competition, socializing violence, performance of heterosexual norms are identified as key points, which are discussed in terms of norms and power linked to men and masculinity ideals. The results show that the making of masculinity is constantly oc- curring in PE, both in active elements but also during “inactive” breaks. Although strong ideals linked to men and masculinity were identified, there were usually also alternative representations. In other words, the educational gender practices were not identified as unambiguous, but rather as ambiguous and contradictory. However, most respondents showed decided views on how boys and girls naturally “are” in certain ways, which con- ditions a counter-stereotypical approach to education. 

  • 125.
    Alsarve, Daniel
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Wallin, Sofie
    SISU Örebro, Örebro, Sweden.
    Bergvall Virtanen, Peter
    Örebro Läns Idrottsförbund, Örebro, Sweden.
    Managing Progression: Örebro Sports County´s Efforts to Reduce Gender Gap and Increase Gender Equality2016In: SVEBI 2016 / [ed] Håkan Larsson, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: An overall ambition with the gender equality objectives of Swedish sports is that gender mainstreaming should permeate every decision, in all activities, and at every level of the sports movement. Despite the fact that modern sports, to a large extent, have privileged (some) men and (some) masculinities, increasing female participation has, since the 1970s, also characterized Swedish modern sports. However, in the county of Örebro, male participation in associative sports, among 7- to 25-year-olds, is approximately 67 per cent according to LOK-statistics (Lokalt aktivitetsstöd – Local Activity Support). This unequal representation has initiated a work of that includes structural as well as individual factors.

    Aim and Theoretical Frames: This paper presents an ongoing gender equality project enacting a double-focus on, firstly, recruiting and empowering women/girls in sports and secondly, making visible privileges for men and masculinities in sports and educating participative clubs (i.e. coaches, leaders and board members) in issues concerning gender, norms and masculine domination.

    Theoretically the project is inspired from critical perspectives on gender, men and masculinities and the hegemonic masculinity thesis (HMT).

    Method: Methodologically this project draws on mixed governing methods which explores the dilemma of implementing a policy in a self-autonomous, voluntary culture. More precisely, participating clubs has applied for economical backing (from Idrottslyftet) for one-year, financing gender equality projects aiming to, on one hand, empower or recruit a disadvantaged social group or, on the other hand, to raise awareness of the existing norms in club’s culture (e.g. masculinity or heterosexual norms). The clubs’ specific projects vary greatly depending on sport genre, number of members/volunteers in the club and other conditions regarding work efforts and access to sport facilities etcetera. Diverse cooperation with local governments in the county of Örebro has also been employed involving financial support and other “structural” target areas. Since knowledge of gender equality and gender awareness is vital for a change management, the participating clubs must partake in educational meetings and, at the end of the year, also give a presentation for all participative clubs at joint forum about their project and its concrete results. Beside these strategical efforts, interviews and observations have also been utilized.

    Findings: Changing a rigid structure, such as sports, is a challenge and must, as a suggestion, involve several institutions as well as motivated agents. One central finding is the importance of raising awareness about budgets, facilities and investments from a gender perspective. In some cases, these kind of questions have not been raised before. In other words, the motivation among politicians and club members vary, which causes a reproductive potential of the gender gap. In the work, we have also found different techniques for reproducing men’s power advantage through, for example, the planning and placing of training sessions, the non-encouragement for girls to become “professional” athletes but also how women, themselves, support structures that discriminate themselves.

    Discussion: Tentatively, the discussion focuses on dilemmas and the complexities of measuring and managing sports’ gender equality. Several issues for discussion return throughout the project, such as: what should be measured and how and why? Identifying such essential factors leads to the issue of how to manage a change of these factors. What institutions should be involved? What demands could, on one hand, be placed on a local club (with a right of self-determination) and, on the other hand, the governing sports bodies (that should implement government policies)?

  • 126.
    Althage, Stefan
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Lundberg, Peter
    Örebro University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Jämförelse av två olika fälttest för fotbollsspelare på olika tävlingsnivåer2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Olika fälttest är flitigt använda för att utvärdera fotbollsspelares fysiska uthållighet, däribland Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1) och Coopers löptest. Ytterst lite är dock känt om Coopertestets lämplighet som mätmetod i en sport med intermittent arbete som fotboll. Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka prestation i Coopertestet i förhållande till Yo-Yo IR1 testet hos fotbollsspelare på olika tävlingsnivåer. Under försäsongen testades 19 manliga fotbollsspelare (23 ± 4 år, 181 ± 9 cm, 77 ± 9 kg) från svensk division 1 (hög-nivå, n=5), division 3 (mellan-nivå, n=6) och division 5 (låg-nivå, n=8). Coopertestet består av oavbruten löpning så långt som möjligt under 12 minuter på löparbana. Yo-Yo IR1 testet består av upprepade 2x20 meters löpningar i ökande hastighet, med 10 sekunder aktiv vila mellan varje omgång. Testerna utfördes under standardiserade former på kvällstid med minst 72 timmars mellanrum. Resultatet för Coopertestet var; hög-nivå 3056 ± 194m, mellan-nivå 2950 ± 188m och låg-nivå 2916 ± 203m, utan signifikanta skillnader mellan grupperna (p>0,05). Yo-Yo IR1 resultaten var; hög-nivå 2264 ± 286m, mellan-nivå 1933 ± 395m och låg-nivå 1615 ± 496m. Det fanns en signifikant skillnad i testresultaten mellan hög-nivå och låg-nivå (p<0,05). Förhållandet mellan de två testerna för hela populationen var r=0,89 (p<0,001), och inom grupperna; hög-nivå r=0,69 (p=0,2), mellan-nivå r=0,99 (p<0,001) och låg-nivå r=0,98 (p<0,001). I motsats till övriga grupper visade resultaten att hög-nivå gruppen, som har större mängd fotbollsspecifik träning, inte hade något signifikant samband mellan de två testen. Coopertestets utformning med oavbruten löpning, tillsammans med dess oförmåga att särskilja mellan olika tävlingsnivåer, medför att Yo-Yo IR1 testet bör användas framför Coopertestet i syfte att få tydligare information om en fotbollsspelares fysiska uthållighet under matchsituation.

  • 127.
    Alvarsson, Evelina
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Lorentzson, Moa
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Mobbning på arbetsplatsen: En litteraturstudie om mobbningens konsekvenser ur ett folkhälsoperspektiv2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion: Eftersom det inte finns någon riktig benämning på vad vuxenmobbning innefattar är detta område inte särskilt belyst. Det som på senare år tagits fram är att mobbing som förekommer på arbetsplatsen är orsaken till många sjukskrivningar. 

    Syftet: Syftet med studien var att beskriva hälsokonsekvenserna av mobbning på arbetsplatsen.     

    Metod: Studien genomfördes som en litteraturstudie där 15 vetenskapliga artiklar utgjorde grunden. Artiklarna granskades och därefter skapades två teman. 

    Resultat: De psykiska hälsoeffekterna av mobbning kan vara kort- och långsiktiga. De psykiska hälsoproblemen som ångest och depression kan övergå till fysiska åkommor så som sömnproblem, muskelsmärta och infektioner. 

    Implikation: Kunskap om mobbning kan användas till att utveckla trygga arbetsmiljöer för att motverka mobbning. 

  • 128.
    Alvehus, Malin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Boman, Niklas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
    Söderlund, Karin
    Svensson, Michael B.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
    Buren, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Metabolic adaptations in skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, and whole-body oxidative capacity in response to resistance training2014In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 114, no 7, p. 1463-1471Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of resistance training on mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative capacity in skeletal muscle are not fully characterized, and even less is known about alterations in adipose tissue. We aimed to investigate adaptations in oxidative metabolism in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue after 8 weeks of heavy resistance training in apparently healthy young men. Expression of genes linked to oxidative metabolism in the skeletal muscle and adipose tissue was assessed before and after the training program. Body composition, peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak), fat oxidation, activity of mitochondrial enzyme in muscle, and serum adiponectin levels were also determined before and after resistance training. In muscle, the expression of the genes AdipoR1 and COX4 increased after resistance training (9 and 13 %, respectively), whereas the expression levels of the genes PGC-1 alpha, SIRT1, TFAM, CPT1b, and FNDC5 did not change. In adipose tissue, the expression of the genes SIRT1 and CPT1b decreased after training (20 and 23 %, respectively). There was an increase in lean mass (from 59.7 +/- A 6.1 to 61.9 +/- A 6.2 kg), VO2 peak (from 49.7 +/- A 5.5 to 56.3 +/- A 5.0 ml/kg/min), and fat oxidation (from 6.8 +/- A 2.1 to 9.1 +/- A 2.7 mg/kg fat-free mass/min) after training, whereas serum adiponectin levels decreased significantly and enzyme activity of citrate synthase and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase did not change. Despite significant increases in VO2 peak, fat oxidation, and lean mass following resistance training, the total effect on gene expression and enzyme activity linked to oxidative metabolism was moderate.

  • 129.
    Alverdes, Lukas
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Short-term effects of 90/90 breathing with ball and balloon on core stability2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background Breathing is a life preserving mechanism that can influence muscles of the core and its stabilizing mechanisms, especially by the function of the diaphragm and intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) build-up. The 90/90 bridge with ball and balloon (90/90 breathing) is one technique doing so, thereby affecting the core and core stability (CS). Both have been shown to influence injury, and in some studies performance, and are therefore deemed important. In the Functional Training branch exercises that influence CS are used as core activations in the warm-up to increase performance in the short-term, but scientific proof for that is lacking. Objective The aim of this study was therefore to investigate if a core activation in the form of the 90/90 breathing can increase the short-term CS. Methods To test this an intervention trial was designed where the subjects were divided into a control group (CG) and a breathing group (BG). Three CS-tests were done to assess the CS at two times, Pre and Post. The double-leg-lowering (DLL), the unilateral-hip-bridge (UHB) and the single-leg-stand (SLS). The BG did the 90/90 breathing in between Pre and Post, whereas the CG did nothing. The data was checked for group differences at Pre and Post as well as the difference in the performance change from Pre to Post between groups using Independent t-test and Mann-Whitney U test. Improvements from Pre to Post within groups were calculated with Pared Samples t-test and Wilcoxon tests. Results No consistent effect of the intervention was found. The DLL showed the most positive results with a performance improvement in the BG and a greater performance change for the BG than for the CG. The UHB showed mixed results with a better performance at Post for the BG in both legs but only an improvement for the non-dominant leg in the BG. The SLS showed no improvement for the BG in any test. Conclusion The inconsistent results show no general positive effect of the 90/90 breathing on CS. However, the positive effects in the DLL make a position and task specific effect of the 90/90 breathing on CS possible. Practitioners and coaches should consider this task specificity when planning warm-ups. Future research should also choose CS tests and training exercises more task specific to the studied objectives to obtain more distinct results. More research on the short-term effects of CS interventions is needed for a clearer understanding of the subject.

  • 130. Aman, Malin
    et al.
    Forssblad, Magnus
    Henriksson-Larsén, Karin
    Insurance claims data: a possible solution for a national sports injury surveillance system? An evaluation of data information against ASIDD and consensus statements on sports injury surveillance2014In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 4, no 6, article id e005056Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Before preventive actions can be suggested for sports injuries at the national level, a solid surveillance system is required in order to study their epidemiology, risk factors and mechanisms. There are guidelines for sports injury data collection and classifications in the literature for that purpose. In Sweden, 90% of all athletes (57/70 sports federations) are insured with the same insurance company and data from their database could be a foundation for studies on acute sports injuries at the national level.

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the usefulness of sports injury insurance claims data in sports injury surveillance at the national level.

    METHOD: A database with 27 947 injuries was exported to an Excel file. Access to the corresponding text files was also obtained. Data were reviewed on available information, missing information and dropouts. Comparison with ASIDD (Australian Sports Injury Data Dictionary) and existing consensus statements in the literature (football (soccer), rugby union, tennis, cricket and thoroughbred horse racing) was performed in a structured manner.

    RESULT: Comparison with ASIDD showed that 93% of the suggested data items were present in the database to at least some extent. Compliance with the consensus statements was generally high (13/18). Almost all claims (83%) contained text information concerning the injury.

    CONCLUSIONS: Relatively high-quality sports injury data can be obtained from a specific insurance company at the national level in Sweden. The database has the potential to be a solid base for research on acute sports injuries in different sports at the national level.

  • 131. Ambrosio, Fabrisia
    et al.
    Kadi, Fawzi
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Lexell, Jan
    Fitzgerald, G. Kelley
    Boninger, Michael L.
    Huard, Johnny
    The effect of muscle loading on skeletal muscle regenerative potential: an update of current research findings relating to aging and neuromuscular pathology2009In: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, ISSN 0894-9115, E-ISSN 1537-7385, Vol. 88, no 2, p. 145-155Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Skeletal muscle is a dynamic tissue with a remarkable ability to continuously respond to environmental stimuli. Among its adaptive responses is the widely investigated ability of skeletal muscle to regenerate after loading or injury or both. Although significant basic science efforts have been dedicated to better understand the underlying mechanism controlling skeletal muscle regeneration, there has been relatively little impact in the clinical approaches used to treat skeletal muscle injuries and wasting. The purpose of this review article is to provide an overview of the basic biology of satellite cell function in response to muscle loading and to relate these findings in the context of aging and neuromuscular pathology for the rehabilitation medicine specialist.

  • 132.
    Amini, Ali
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, For Sports Coaches (Tränarlänken).
    Forsberg, Henrik
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, For Sports Coaches (Tränarlänken).
    Ishak, Jonny
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, For Sports Coaches (Tränarlänken).
    Rasmussen, Simon
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, For Sports Coaches (Tränarlänken).
    Framtidens tränare - ur ett föreningsperspektiv2010Student paper other, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte & Frågeställningar

    Syftet med detta projekt är att undersöka vilken bakgrund en tränare i svenska idrottsföreningar förväntas ha i framtiden.

    Målsättningen är att kartlägga vilken typ av krav och förväntningar som kommer att finnas på framtidens anställda tränare inom svenska idrottsföreningar.

    Utifrån ovan syfte och målsättning skall projektet ge svar på följande två frågeställningar:

    • Vilken inriktning avseende verksamhet och syfte har framtidens svenska idrottsföreningar?
    • Vilken kravbild kommer svenska idrottsföreningar i framtiden att ha på anställda tränare avseende utbildningsnivå och professionsgrad?
  • 133.
    Amu Holmqvist, Fernando
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Desport, Samuel
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Belastning med svänghjulsprincipen innan maximalt anaerobt arbete.: Ökar hopphöjd och förbättras sprinttid med hjälp av postaktiveringspotentiering?2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med studien var att undersöka om man kan öka hopphöjd och förbättra sprinttid med hjälp av postaktiveringspotential (PAP) där träning med svänghjulsprincipen används som preaktivering.

    Metod                                                          

    Totalt deltog 8 personer i denna studie. Medelvärde ± standardavvikelser för ålder, vikt, och längd var 23,6  ± 1,4 år, 69,9 ± 13 kg, 167,8 ± 9,2 cm. Försökspersonerna (fp) rekryterades under förutsättningarna att de bedrev styrketräning minst 4 dagar i veckan samt att de inte hade några skador. Utöver detta skulle fp ha tillräcklig erfarenhet för att kunna utföra övningen knäböj korrekt.

    Träningsapparaturen som användes var kBox och trögheten i svänghjulet (0,025 kgm2, 0,05 kgm2 och 0,07 kgm2) användes som belastning. Varje försöksperson genomförde fyra tester totalt vid två olika tillfällen. Vid första tillfället genomfördes endast sprint- och hopptest med 15 min vila mellan testerna. Vid testtillfälle 2 genomfördes 4 repetitioner knäböj i kBox 8min före både sprint- och hopptest. Mellan knäböj-sprinten och knäböj-counter movement jump (CMJ) vilade fp 30min.

    Resultat

    Vid den första testomgången hoppade fp 37,5 cm ± 4,7. Vid den andra testomgången, som även innehöll knäböj innan hoppen, hoppade de 36,4cm ± 5,4. Skillnaden i medelvärdet var här 1,1 cm. Det fanns ingen signifikant skillnad (p ≤ 0,05) mellan de olika testtillfällena. Det fanns signifikant skillnad vid 10 m sprint. Även vid 30 m sprint visade resultatet på en signifikant skillnad (p≤0,05) p=0,026. Vid testtillfälle 1 var resultatet för 30 m sprint 4,76 sekunder respektive 4,68 sekunder för tillfälle 2. Vid testtillfälle 1 var resultatet för 10 m sprint 1,98 sekunder respektive 1,92 sekunder för tillfälle 2

    Slutsats

    Denna studie visar på att genom tung träning med svänghjulsprincipen som belastning kan en viss PAP uppnås på sprintförmågan. Dock visade studien inte på någon signifikant skillnad gällande tung träning med svänghjulsprincipen före CMJ.

  • 134.
    Anckarman, Erika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Den framgångsrika personliga tränaren: En kvalitativ studie om klienters upplevelse av vilka egenskaper och faktorer som är viktiga för personliga tränare2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: During the last years the fitness industry has expanded fast. Today PT is offered at almost every health club. Training with a PT have positive physical effects but it has also shown an influence on behaviour associated with training. A good relation between client and coach is needed for a positive outcome of the training.

    Purpose: The aim of the study was to investigate what the clients that are training or has trained with at personal trainer during the last year consider as important factors and personal qualities related to personal trainers.

    Design and method: A qualitative descriptive design was used. Data collection was done by semi-structured interviews. Data was analysed with qualitative content analysis.

    Results: The analyses resulted in 3 themes, 6 categories and 17 sub categories. The themes and categories were: To appear as competent: Appearance and displayed experience ,Give a feeling of a broad knowledge.

    Coaching style: To be present here and now, To personalize Pedagogical strategies: Tools to reach results, To create a secure feeling,

    Conclusion: Background information of the PT should always be available at the health club or on the website. The client should have the opportunity to choose a PT based on their personal requests. This may result in good preconditions for a strong and effective working alliance. Reserach in this area are limited therefor further studies are needed. 

  • 135.
    Anderback, Nanny-Maja
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Öling, Kajsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Kan fysisk aktivitet under graviditeten reducera graviditetsrelaterade besvär?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Many women are pregnant for one or more periods of their lives. During this time, studies have shown that women tend to become physically inactive. With a pregnancy, there is also an increased risk of other diseases and disorders such as pregnancy diabetes and obesity. Studies have shown that physical activity can prevent some of these disorders. Traditionally, the general opinion on physical activity during pregnancy has been that it could be dangerous for both the pregnant woman and the fetus. Today, there is a more liberal view of physical activity during pregnancy, but research is still inadequate.Aim: Our purpose with this literature study is to examine the effects of physical activity during pregnancy in pregnancy-related disorders, and look into the current recommendations on physical activity during pregnancy.Results: Our study has seen positive effects of physical activity during pregnancy especially in pregnancy-related disorders such as lumbar pain, pelvic floor dysfunction, fatigue, gestational diabetes and weight gain, as well as some positive trends in preeclampsia, edema and pelvic girdle pain. The research on nausea and rectus diastasis is too inadequate to draw any conclusions about possible effects.Conclusion: More RCT studies on pregnancy-related disorders are needed to reach consensus about what type of physical activity, duration, intensity and frequency during pregnancy that are beneficial for these disorders. From this knowledge we can then work out more specific recommendations.

  • 136.
    Andersen, Jon Aarum
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Lillehammer University College, Lillehammer, Norway.
    A new sports manager does not make a better team2011In: International journal of sports science & coaching, ISSN 1747-9541, E-ISSN 2048-397X, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 167-178Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article surveys the literature on the impact of managerial successions on team performance in professional sports and assesses ten studies on the effect of managerial succession. They cover 80 years (1920-2000) with data from four different sports and two countries. From these studies, three lessons emerge when teams perform poorly: (i) a change of coach or manager during the season is not helpful; (ii) if succession is deemed necessary, change the manager between seasons; and (iii) if the choice is between a manager from inside the organization and one from the outside, choose the former. What is critical is that whichever manager is replaced or for whatever reason, the performance of the team will most likely not improve for that reason alone. In short, a new manager does not make a better team.

  • 137.
    Andersen, Jon Aarum
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Ekonomihögskolan (ELNU), Linnéuniversitetet, Växjö, Sweden.
    Seven pitfalls in organisation literature2012In: Dynamic relationships management journal, ISSN 2232-5867, E-ISSN 2350-367X, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 48-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current organisation literature is rife with several incorrect and confusing assertions which continually create problems for students and researchers alike. Seven of these unfortunate beliefs are presented here and provocatively called ‘pitfalls’. The aim of this article is to draw attention to some of these theoretically incorrect assertions and how they can be avoided in scholarly work. The implications for managers are also presented.

  • 138.
    Andersen, Jon Aarum
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Lillehammer University College, Lillehammer, Norway.
    Kovac, Jure
    University of Maribor, Maribor, Slovenia.
    Why European subordinates trust their managers2012In: Organizacija, ISSN 1318-5454, E-ISSN 1581-1832, Vol. 45, no 6, p. 300-309Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article addresses the problem of why subordinates trust their managers based on the responses from 108 subordinatesof seven Slovenian managers and from 138 subordinates of eight Swedish managers. The subordinates of these managersresponded to a 20-item instrument tested for reliability and validity. In both samples the managers enjoyed different degreesof trust. The level of trust vested in Slovenian managers was higher than in Swedish ones. The kinds of managers’ actions thatenhanced trust were similar amongst Swedish and Slovenian subordinates. Different socio-cultural contexts may theoreticallyexplain why some other kinds of actions had contrasting effects between the samples. On the whole, the actions of managersexplain trust in both countries. Subordinates’ trust in managers declines with the increasing hierarchical distance in bothnational samples. Managers need to show in action that they trust their subordinates, promote their interests, demonstrateappreciation of their subordinates, and solve problems.

  • 139.
    Anderson, Cheryl B
    et al.
    epartment of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA.
    Hagströmer, Maria
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Biosciences at Novum, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Biosciences at Novum, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Validation of the PDPAR as an adolescent diary: effect of accelerometer cut points2005In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 37, no 7, p. 1224-1230Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the validity of the Previous Day Physical Activity Recall (PDPAR) as a physical activity diary in adolescents using two accelerometer intensity classifications.

    METHODS: One hundred eighth graders (47 boys, 53 girls) used the PDPAR as a daily diary and wore MTI accelerometers for four consecutive days. Measured time spent in moderate (> or = 3 METs) and vigorous (> or = 6 METs) activity was based on two published MTI cut-point limits (that of Freedson et al./Trost et al. and that of Puyau et al.). Spearman rank order correlations and Bland-Altman plots were used to examine agreement between MTI and PDPAR diary estimates of activity.

    RESULTS: MTI estimates of mean minutes per day of total moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were 65.2 (+/-43.2) using the Freedson et al./Trost et al. cutoffs and 17.5 (+/-18.5) using those of Puyau et al., while students self-reported 105.1 (+/-80.1) min.d(-1). Significant relationships were observed between the diary and MTI for total MVPA using either the Freedson et al./Trost et al. (r = 0.42) or Puyau et al. (r = 0.41) cutoff as well as raw counts (r = 0.44). Plots showed reasonable agreement between the diary and Freedson et al./Trost et al. MTI estimates of MVPA for daily totals of < or = 60 min, but the Puyau et al. estimates were consistently lower. Diaries overestimated activity as time increased when compared to either MTI cut point, especially on vigorous activity.

    CONCLUSIONS: Time estimates of MVPA differed by assessment tool, but diary estimates showed adequate association with the MTI. Diaries reflected intensity-specific activity, corresponding most closely with the Freedson et al./Trost et al. classification of moderate, but substantially overestimated vigorous activity regardless of cut-point method. This is likely due to the measurement characteristics of the PDPAR, which classifies activities in 30-min blocks, as well as the nature of common activities in which high levels of intensity are not sustained.

  • 140.
    Anderson, Cheryl B
    et al.
    epartment of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA.
    Hagströmer, Maria
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Biosciences at Novum, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Biosciences at Novum, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Validation of the PDPAR as an adolescent diary: effect of accelerometer cut points2005In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 37, no 7, p. 1224-1230Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the validity of the Previous Day Physical Activity Recall (PDPAR) as a physical activity diary in adolescents using two accelerometer intensity classifications.

    METHODS: One hundred eighth graders (47 boys, 53 girls) used the PDPAR as a daily diary and wore MTI accelerometers for four consecutive days. Measured time spent in moderate (> or = 3 METs) and vigorous (> or = 6 METs) activity was based on two published MTI cut-point limits (that of Freedson et al./Trost et al. and that of Puyau et al.). Spearman rank order correlations and Bland-Altman plots were used to examine agreement between MTI and PDPAR diary estimates of activity.

    RESULTS: MTI estimates of mean minutes per day of total moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were 65.2 (+/-43.2) using the Freedson et al./Trost et al. cutoffs and 17.5 (+/-18.5) using those of Puyau et al., while students self-reported 105.1 (+/-80.1) min.d(-1). Significant relationships were observed between the diary and MTI for total MVPA using either the Freedson et al./Trost et al. (r = 0.42) or Puyau et al. (r = 0.41) cutoff as well as raw counts (r = 0.44). Plots showed reasonable agreement between the diary and Freedson et al./Trost et al. MTI estimates of MVPA for daily totals of < or = 60 min, but the Puyau et al. estimates were consistently lower. Diaries overestimated activity as time increased when compared to either MTI cut point, especially on vigorous activity.

    CONCLUSIONS: Time estimates of MVPA differed by assessment tool, but diary estimates showed adequate association with the MTI. Diaries reflected intensity-specific activity, corresponding most closely with the Freedson et al./Trost et al. classification of moderate, but substantially overestimated vigorous activity regardless of cut-point method. This is likely due to the measurement characteristics of the PDPAR, which classifies activities in 30-min blocks, as well as the nature of common activities in which high levels of intensity are not sustained.

  • 141.
    Anderson, Lisa
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    COPINGS INNEHÅLL, EFFEKT OCH RELATION TILL PRESTATION INOM GOLF2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 142.
    Andersson, Agneta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
    Glykemiskt index: ett osäkert verktyg för idrottaren2009In: Nordisk nutrition, ISSN 1654-8337, no 4, p. 21-23Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 143.
    Andersson, Agneta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Domestic Sciences.
    Idrottsnutrition2006In: Näringslära för högskolan, Liber AB, Stockholm , 2006, p. 394-423Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 144.
    Andersson, Agneta
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
    Bakkman, Linda
    Berglund, Bo
    Reinebo, Peter
    Saltin, Bengt
    Kostrekommendationer för elitidrottare.: SOK:s kostpolicy för elitidrottare.2009Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 145.
    Andersson, Alfred
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Hur klär sig barn vid utomhusundervisning?: Ett kartläggning av femteklassares klädsel vid utomhusaktiviteter2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka vilka kläder barn har tillgång till hemma, och vilka kläder de väljer att använda i skolan.  Studien undersöker även hur mycket undervisning femteklassare har fått om klädsel vid utomhusaktiviteter, samt om detta går att koppla till deras val av kläder i skolan. Studien utgörs av en enkätundersökning med 116 elever i årskurs 5 i en medelstor stad i södra sverige. Enkäten var av formen gruppenkät och distribuerades till femteklassarna på fyra olika skolor i staden. Resultaten har redovisats i diagram och analyserats utifrån Maslows behovsteori. Resultatet visar att det inte är alla elever som har tillgång till lämplig utomhusklädsel, av de som har tillgång till lämplig klädsel är det inte alla som tar med den till skolan. Implikationerna av detta är att det finns elever som inte har möjlighet att delta i undervisningen på lika villkor om den utförs utomhus. Enstaka skillnader har hittats mellan stad och landsbygd gällande användandet av vissa utomhusplagg vid olika årstider. Studien har visat på att mindre än hälften av de tillfrågade eleverna säger sig ha haft undervisning om hur de ska klä sig utomhus, men ingen koppling har kunnat hittas mellan undervisningsgrad och vilka kläder eleverna faktiskt tar med sig till skolan.

  • 146.
    Andersson, Andreas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Big data - det nya hälsoverktyget?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En inblick i ett nytt och snabbt växande område. En studie som undersöker användningen av datainsamling och Big data inom hälsoföretag. Syftet grundas i att skapa en kunskap och medvetenhet om hur det i dagens hälsoföretag ser ut inom denna del. Genom en granskning av nio företags användarvillkor samt deras integritetspolicy finner vi att samtliga företag samlar och spar data om sina kunder. Insamlingen sker utan användarens vetskap och denna Big data delas sedan vidare till andra företag som har användning för den. 

  • 147.
    Andersson, Andreas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Prediktorer för sprintförmåga hos elitfotbollsspelare: Korrelerar styrke- och hopptest med sprintförmåga över 10 meter?2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 148.
    Andersson, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Jansson, Robert
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Vilka är Ni?: en undersökning om vilka som studerar på lärar- och tränarprogrammet på GIH i Stockholm2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med studien har varit att undersöka vilka som väljer att studera till lärare i idrott och hälsa samt till tränare på Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan i Stockholm.

    • Hur ser studenternas bakgrund (ålder, kön, bostadsort, social bakgrund, invandrarbakgrund och idrottslig bakgrund) ut?

    • Varför valde studenterna att studera på GIH i Stockholm, och på vilka antagningsgrunder blev de antagna?

    Metod

    I studien deltog 83 studenter, varav 35 stycken från tränarprogrammet och 48 stycken från lärarprogrammet. Studenterna svarade på en enkät som tog upp frågor rörande studenternas bakgrund och studieval. Enkätsvaren bearbetades sedan i SPSS där signifikansnivån sattes till p<0,05. De resultat vi fick fram i vår undersökning tolkades sedan med hjälp av tidigare forskning samt Pierre Bourdieus teori om habitus, kapital och fält.

    Resultat

    Medelåldern på lärarprogrammet var 24,5 år samt 25,2 år för studenter på tränarprogrammet. Kvinnorna utgjorde 48 procent av de svarande på lärarprogrammet mot 43 procent på tränarprogrammet. Resultatet visade att de båda studentgrupperna till största del bestod av personer födda i Sverige (96 procent för lärarstudenterna mot 94 procent för tränarstudenterna). Ett stort antal studenter (48 procent av lärarstudenterna mot 57 procent av tränarstudenterna) kom från Stockholm med omnejd. Tjänstemannafamilj på mellannivå är den vanligaste socioekonomiska bakgrunden där 33 procent av lärarstudenterna mot tränarstudenternas 31 procent. Tränarstudenterna hade i hög grad, 49 procent sysslat med idrottslig verksamhet på elitnivå under grundskoletiden, siffran för lärarstudenterna var 33 procent. Studenterna på de båda programmen hade enligt Bourdieus kultursociologiska teori ett stort symboliskt kapital i form av idrottslig bakgrund. De båda studentgrupperna ansåg att GIH hade bra lärare och god pedagogik vilket kan vara en av orsakerna till varför de valde att studera just på GIH. Antagningen för studenterna ser olika ut på programmen. 63 procent av lärarstudenterna kom in på betyg från avslutad gymnasieutbildning medan 88 procent av tränarstudenterna antogs på GIH genom intervjuer och särskild behörighet.

    Slutsats

    Studien visade att de som valt att studera till lärare och tränare på GIH var studenter med svenskt ursprung, är uppväxta i tjänstemannahem och till stor del bestod av relativt unga studenter som under sin skoltid själva varit idrottsligt aktiva. Studenternas syn på GIH och dess utbildning var god och vidare ansåg de att deras utbildning kommer att leda till ett yrke för framtiden.

  • 149.
    Andersson, Annie
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Björkén, Rebecca
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Kan fysisk aktivitet och kost ha en positiv inverkan på fysiska och psykiska subkliniska menstruella besvär?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Many women experience physical and psychological symptoms during their menstrual cycle. Research is scarce about how to ease subclinical menstrual disorders like dysmenorrhea, menorrhagia, premenstrual syndrome, premenstrual dysphoric syndrome, oligomenorrhea and amenorrhea without using medicines. Physical activity and diet is proved to have positive effects on several diseases and we therefore wanted to see if positive effects also could be seen on subclinical menstrual disorders.

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate if physical activity and diet could reduce physical and psychological subclinical menstrual disorders and lead to a better wellbeing.

    Method: Searching for subclinical menstrual disorders in relation to physical activity and diet in fertile, active and inactive women without the use of hormonal contraceptives was done using Pubmed.

    Results: The study has shown that physical activity and diet could reduce some of the problems associated with subclinical menstrual disorders. Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) could be eased through calm, meditative activities. Positive effects could be seen when eating more often but smaller meals containing complex carbohydrates and by taking additional vitamins and minerals. Yoga has been proved to reduce menstrual pain and there’s also an indication that physical activity could improve the regularity of the menstrual cycle. Adequate energy intake is needed to avoid oligomenorrhea and amenorrhea. No clear recommendations were found for the remaining subclinical menstrual disorders.

    Conclusion: The study has shown that physical activity and diet have positive effects on some subclinical menstrual disorders. Symptoms of PMS could be eased by calm, meditative activities. Yoga and physical activity have been shown to reduce dysmenorrhea. Adequate energy intake is essential to avoid oligomenorrhea and amenorrhea. Further research is needed to give general recommendations.

  • 150. Andersson, Anton
    et al.
    Ottosson, Gustav
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Den trettonde spelaren: En studie om kvinnligt supporterskap och dess avsaknad på de Allsvenska läktarna2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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