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  • 101.
    Behrendt, Marek
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Ivarsson, Tommy
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Hunger indikerar inte akut energistatus hos friska människor: En måltidsintervention2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The increasingly sedentary lifestyle of our society combined with a constantly rising caloric intake has elevated the risk of developing obesity and other metabolic diseases. There is a need to understand the underlying mechanisms of hunger regulation to effectively prevent and treat these diseases. The magnitude of which an active regulation of blood glucose has an influence on hunger regulation is rather controversial.

    Objective

    The objective of this study was to investigate how the changes in hunger and blood glucose levels may differ after a mixed meal compared to the fasting state. Research questions include: Does intermittent fasting reduce general hunger? How does an entrenched meal-pattern affect hunger? How does hunger and blood glucose change in anticipation of a meal?

    Method

    Twelve healthy subjects (7 men, 5 women), of which seven subjects regularly practiced intermittent fasting and the remaining five did not, were randomized into two groups, one group was eating pizza (Pi), and the other group was fasting (F). Blood glucose levels and hunger ratings were collected every 30 minutes, with exception of initial values that were collected 15 minutes prior to the serving of the pizzas. The subjects were unaware of which group they would be designated to until 10 minutes prior to the serving of the pizzas.

    Results

    Decline in blood glucose did not significantly differ between groups during the 5 hour window following the meal ingestion. Hunger ratings differed significantly between individuals but not between groups. However, only Pi had significantly elevated hunger ratings in the end of the test period compared to their initial ratings. In anticipation of the meal a significant change in blood glucose was observed between the groups (P = 0.05), where values dropped for Pi and rose for F. Four out of five subjects in F and one subject in Pi were considerably hungrier during time periods they reported as habitual eating occasion.

    Conclusion

    Correlations between absolute blood glucose levels and hunger could not be found. An equal rise in hunger appear regardless if subjects were fed or fasting, meaning significant hunger can appear although dietary energy still is absorbed into the blood stream. Thus our results indicate that the acute availability of dietary energy is only a relatively small part of the total hunger signaling process. A disrupted meal pattern seemed to affect hunger feelings more than the ingestion of the served meal. Thus we conclude that more research should focus on meal-pattern regulation to enable better hunger control.

  • 102.
    Beijer, Emelie
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Cerljen, Renate
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    LCHF - Low Carb High Fat: en experimentell studie av 3 veckors LCHF-kost på hälsomarkörer hos normalviktiga kvinnor2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Aim

    The aim of this study is to examine if LCHF (Low Carb High Fat) could be a healthy lifestyle based on how it affects various health markers in normal weight people where weight loss has not been pursued. Specific question: How does intake of a LCHF diet with a maximum of 30 grams of carbohydrates per day during 3 weeks affect normal-weight women´s BMR, blood lipids, blood glucose, blood pressure, body composition, waist and hip dimensions and body weight?

    Method

    An experimental study was performed on 8 normal-weight women aged 20 to 35 years old. All subject´s BMR, blood lipids, blood glucose, blood pressure, body composition, waist and hip dimensions and body weight were measured at normal living conditions before the study began. Each subject was put on a strict 3 week Low Carb High Fat diet consisting of only 30 grams of carbohydrates per day.

    Results

    BMR was reduced by an average of 4,4% which was significant (P<0,05). HDL, LDL and total cholesterol were increased significantly (P<0,01) by 21, 25 and 22%, respectively. There were no significant differences in LDL/HDL ratio, triglycerides or blood pressure. Blood glucose concentration was reduced by an average of 12%, however the reduction was not statistically significant. Percentage body fat was significantly lowered with 8,7% (P<0,01) and fat mass with 11% (P<0,01). The fat free mass showed no significant difference between pre- and post-tests. The waist circumference was significantly decreased by 2,3% (P<0,05) and average body weight of 1,24 kg (P<0,05). The hip dimension showed no significant difference between pre- and post-tests.

     

    Conclusion

    The results of this study indicate negative effects on the blood lipid profile after 3 weeks of LCHF diet, which could lead to serious consequences such as cardiovascular disease and depression provided that the effect is progressively enhanced.

  • 103. Bendinelli, B.
    et al.
    Palli, D.
    Masala, G.
    Sharp, S. J.
    Schulze, M. B.
    Guevara, M.
    van der A, D. L.
    Sera, F.
    Amiano, P.
    Balkau, B.
    Barricarte, A.
    Boeing, H.
    Crowe, F. L.
    Dahm, C. C.
    Dalmeijer, G.
    de Lauzon-Guillain, B.
    Egeberg, R.
    Fagherazzi, G.
    Franks, Paul W.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine. Department of Clinical Sciences, Skåne University Hospital, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Krogh, V.
    Huerta, J. M.
    Jakszyn, P.
    Khaw, K. T.
    Li, K.
    Mattiello, A.
    Nilsson, P. M.
    Overvad, K.
    Ricceri, F.
    Rodríguez-Suárez, L.
    Rolandsson, Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Sánchez, M. J.
    Slimani, N.
    Sluijs, I.
    Spijkerman, A. M. W.
    Teucher, B.
    Tjonneland, A.
    Tumino, R.
    van den Berg, S. W.
    Forouhi, N. G.
    Langenberg, C.
    Feskens, E. J. M.
    Riboli, E.
    Wareham, N. J.
    Association between dietary meat consumption and incident type 2 diabetes: the EPIC-InterAct study2013In: Diabetologia, ISSN 0012-186X, E-ISSN 1432-0428, Vol. 56, no 1, p. 47-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims/hypothesis: A diet rich in meat has been reported to contribute to the risk of type 2 diabetes. The present study aims to investigate the association between meat consumption and incident type 2 diabetes in the EPIC-InterAct study, a large prospective case-cohort study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study.

    Methods: During 11.7 years of follow-up, 12,403 incident cases of type 2 diabetes were identified among 340,234 adults from eight European countries. A centre-stratified random subsample of 16,835 individuals was selected in order to perform a case-cohort design. Prentice-weighted Cox regression analyses were used to estimate HR and 95% CI for incident diabetes according to meat consumption.

    Results: Overall, multivariate analyses showed significant positive associations with incident type 2 diabetes for increasing consumption of total meat (50 g increments: HR 1.08; 95% CI 1.05, 1.12), red meat (HR 1.08; 95% CI 1.03, 1.13) and processed meat (HR 1.12; 95% CI 1.05, 1.19), and a borderline positive association with meat iron intake. Effect modifications by sex and class of BMI were observed. In men, the results of the overall analyses were confirmed. In women, the association with total and red meat persisted, although attenuated, while an association with poultry consumption also emerged (HR 1.20; 95% CI 1.07, 1.34). These associations were not evident among obese participants.

    Conclusions/interpretation: This prospective study confirms a positive association between high consumption of total and red meat and incident type 2 diabetes in a large cohort of European adults.

  • 104. Benetou, Vassiliki
    et al.
    Orfanos, Philippos
    Feskanich, Diane
    Michaëlsson, Karl
    Pettersson-Kymmer, Ulrika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    Eriksson, Sture
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Grodstein, Francine
    Wolk, Alicja
    Bellavia, Andrea
    Ahmed, Luai A
    Boffeta, Paolo
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Hip Fracture Incidence in Older Men and Women: The CHANCES Project2016In: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, ISSN 0884-0431, E-ISSN 1523-4681, Vol. 31, no 9, p. 1743-1752Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of fruit and vegetable intake in relation to fracture prevention during adulthood and beyond is not adequately understood. We investigated the potential association between fruit and vegetable intake and hip fracture incidence in a large sample of elderly from Europe and United States. A total of 142,018 individuals (among which 116,509 women), aged ≥60 years old, from five cohorts, were followed-up prospectively for 1,911,482 person-years accumulating 5,552 hip fractures. Fruit and vegetable intake was assessed by validated, cohort-specific, food-frequency questionnaires. Ηip fractures were ascertained through national patient registers or telephone interviews/questionnaires. Adjusted hazard ratios (HR) derived by Cox proportional-hazards regression were estimated for each cohort and subsequently pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. Intake of ≤ 1 servings/day of fruit and vegetables combined was associated with 39% higher hip fracture risk [pooled adjusted HR:1.39, 95% Confidence Intervals (CIs): 1.20, 1.58] in comparison to moderate intake (>3 and ≤5 servings/day) (pfor heterogeneity  = 0.505), whereas higher intakes (>5 servings/day) were not associated with lower risk in comparison to the same reference. Associations were more evident among women. We concluded that a daily intake of one or less servings of fruits and vegetables was associated with increased hip fracture risk in relation to moderate daily intakes. Older adults with such low fruit and vegetable consumption may benefit from raising their intakes to moderate amounts in order to reduce their hip fracture risk. 

  • 105.
    Bengtsson Tops, Anita
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap.
    Hansson, Lars
    Landlords experiences of tenants sufferingfrom severe mental illness2013In: Recovery-Oriented Mental Health Services: Therapeutic, Organisational and Economic challenges, 2013, p. 194-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background/Objectives

    Persons suffering from severe mental illness (SMI) live – and prefer to live – independently, in either private or public apartment blocks without on-site services. Living in own apartments increase feelings of safety and well-being and function as a robust social status marker. Landlords are important actors in gaining stability and sustainability and it has been found that landlords have a plethora of preconceptions, attitudes, emotions as well as well as ethical dilemmas in offering apartments to this group of persons. Today there is a lack systematic knowledge about the role landlords have come play in providing sustainable housing for these persons. The main aim of this qualitative study was to describe landlords’ experiences of having tenant suffering from SMI

    Methods

    Sixteen landlords in various parts of Sweden participated in open in-depth interviews three years after the government proclaimed a vision zero regarding homelessness among individuals with SMI. Data was subjected to thematic latent content analysis.

    Results

    Landlords experienced being confronted with difficult circumstances such as mismanagement of apartments, sensitivity and provocative behaviors in relation to both tenants with SMI and neighbors. In acute situations landlords tried to collaborate with the community based psychiatric service system but were neglected. As a result and without the knowledge of how to best help they started to provide support to tenants with SMI involving going beyond professional boarders.

    Discussion/Conclusion

    The findings give reasons to conclude that community-based psychiatric services need to be more pro-active in their collaboration with landlords. Also education interventions with a focus on how to best help tenants with SMI need to be developed and implemented.

  • 106.
    Benhammou, Samira
    et al.
    Research Group Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment, Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Heras-González, Leticia
    Research Group Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment, Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Ibáñez-Peinado, Diana
    Research Group Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment, Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Barceló, Carla
    Research Group Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment, Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Hamdan, May
    Department of Human Nutrition & Food Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, An-Najah National University, Nablus, Palestine.
    Rivas, Ana
    Research Group Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment, Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Mariscal-Arcas, Miguel
    Research Group Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment, Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada, Granada, Spain; Department of Food Technology, Nutrition and Food Science, University of Murcia, Campus de Lorca, Lorca, Spain.
    Olea-Serrano, Fatima
    Research Group Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment, Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Monteagudo, Celia
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science. Research Group Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment, Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Comparison of Mediterranean diet compliance between European and non-European populations in the Mediterranean basin2016In: Appetite, ISSN 0195-6663, E-ISSN 1095-8304, Vol. 107, p. 521-526Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fruit, vegetables, cereals, and olive oil are common elements of the Mediterranean diet (MD), but each country in the Mediterranean basin has its own gastronomic customs influenced by socio-cultural, religious, and economic factors. This study compared the dietary habits of three Mediterranean populations with different cultures and lifestyles, a total of 600 adults (61.9% females) between 25 and 70 yrs from Spain, Morocco, and Palestine. All participants completed a self administered questionnaire, including sociodemographic and anthropometric items, a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire adapted to the foods consumed in each country, and three 24-h recalls. MD adherence was estimated with the MD Serving Score (MDSS). All populations showed a moderate adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern. In comparison to the Palestine population, MDSS-assessed adherence to the MD was 6.36-fold higher in the Spanish population and 3.88-fold higher in the Moroccan population. Besides the country of origin, age was another predictive factor of MD adherence, which was greater (higher MDSS) in participants aged over 50 yrs than in those aged 30 yrs or younger. This preliminary study contributes initial data on dietary differences between European and non-European countries in the Mediterranean basin. The Spanish diet was shown to be closer to MD recommendations than the diet of Morocco or Palestine. Given the impact of good dietary habits on the prevention of chronic non-transmittable diseases, health policies should focus on adherence to a healthy diet, supporting traditional dietary patterns in an era of intense commercial pressures for change.

  • 107. Berendsen, Agnes A M
    et al.
    Kang, Jae H
    van de Rest, Ondine
    Jankovic, Nicole
    Kampman, Ellen
    Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C
    Franco, Oscar H
    Ikram, M Arfan
    Pikhart, Hynek
    Nilsson, Lena Maria
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research.
    Brenner, Hermann
    Boffetta, Paolo
    Rafnsson, Snorri Bjorn
    Gustafson, Deborah
    Kyrozis, Andreas
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Feskens, Edith J M
    Grodstein, Francine
    de Groot, Lisette C P G M
    Association of Adherence to a Healthy Diet with Cognitive Decline in European and American Older Adults: A Meta-Analysis within the CHANCES Consortium2017In: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, ISSN 1420-8008, E-ISSN 1421-9824, Vol. 43, no 3-4, p. 215-227Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: To examine the association between a healthy diet, assessed by the Healthy Diet Indicator (HDI), and cognitive decline in older adults. METHODS: Data from 21,837 participants aged ≥55 years from 3 cohorts (Survey in Europe on Nutrition and the Elderly, a Concerted Action [SENECA], Rotterdam Study [RS], Nurses' Health Study [NHS]) were analyzed. HDI scores were based on intakes of saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, mono- and disaccharides, protein, cholesterol, fruits and vegetables, and fiber. The Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status in NHS and Mini-Mental State Examination in RS and SENECA were used to assess cognitive function from multiple repeated measures. Using multivariable-adjusted, mixed linear regression, mean differences in annual rates of cognitive decline by HDI quintiles were estimated. RESULTS: Multivariable-adjusted differences in rates in the highest versus the lowest HDI quintile were 0.01 (95% CI -0.01, 0.02) in NHS, 0.00 (95% CI -0.02, 0.01) in RS, and 0.00 (95% CI -0.05, 0.05) in SENECA with a pooled estimate of 0.00 (95% CI -0.01, 0.01), I2 = 0%. CONCLUSIONS: A higher HDI score was not related to reduced rates of cognitive decline in European and American older adults.

  • 108.
    Berggren, Linda
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Talvia, Sanna
    Child and Youth Research institute, Turku, Finland,.
    Fossgard, Eldbjørg
    Faculty of Education, Bergen University College, Bergren, Norway,.
    Björk Arnfjörð, Unnur
    School of Education, University of Iceland.
    Hörnell, Agneta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Ólafsdóttir, Anna
    School of Education, University of Iceland.
    Gunnarsdóttir, Ingibjörg
    The National University Hospital of Iceland , Unit for Nutrition Research, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Wergedahl, Hege
    Faculty of Education, Bergen University College, Bergren, Norway,.
    Lagström, Hanna
    University of Turku, Turku Institute of Child and Youth Research, Turku, Finland.
    Waling, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Olsson, Cecilia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Perspectives about health outcomes related to food among Nordic children2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Perspectives about health outcomes related to food among Nordic children

    Linda Berggren* 1, Sanna Talvia2, Eldbjørg Fossgard3, Unnur Björk Arnfjörð4, Agneta Hörnell 1, Anna Ólafsdóttir 4,Ingibjörg Gunnarsdóttir 5, Hege Wergedahl 3, Hanna Lagström 6, Maria Waling1, Cecilia Olsson1

    1Umeå University, Department of food and nutrition, Umeå, Sweden, 2Child and Youth Research institute, Turku, Finland,3Faculty of Education, Bergen University College, Bergren, Norway, 4School of Education, University of Iceland, 5TheNational University Hospital of Iceland , Unit for Nutrition Research, Reykjavik, Iceland, 6University of Turku, TurkuInstitute of Child and Youth Research, Turku, Finland

    Preferred presentation type: Only Poster

    Background and aims: Dietary intake in school has previously been studied but little is known about Nordic children’sperspectives on food healthiness in the school lunch context. This study aims to explore 10-year-old Nordic children’sperspectives on outcomes of healthy eating in the school lunch context.

    Methods: Seventy-two focus groups were conducted in Sweden, Finland, Norway and Iceland with a total of 423participants. A flexible topic guide and 14 preselected photos displaying different school lunch contexts were used asstimuli material. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using thematic analysis.

    Results: Children reasoned that school lunch are and should be healthy since the food eaten at school has short andlong term outcomes related to cognitive and physical health. It was commonly expressed that food eaten in school affectsschool work and functioning in learning activities. It was also stated that food eaten in school can have negative andpositive effects on your mood, e.g. eating unhealthy food or an insufficient amount of food, puts you in a bad mood whichcan affect the rest of the school day. The discussions mainly relied on negative short term effects such as feeling ill andreduced stamina. Some food and food groups such as vegetables, milk and fish, were mentioned in a more positivesense highlighting the positive short- and long term outcomes on health. When describing the long-term outcomes ofeating, children mentioned that healthy eating helps to build muscles, grow and prevent diseases, such as cancer anddiabetes. Sugar and fat was frequently mentioned as being the cause of overweight and some other diseases.

    Conclusion: In general, Nordic children have an adequate understanding of established relations between food andhealth. Yet, we know that many pupils do not eat according to recommendations. This highlights the importance of takingthe complexity of food choice into consideration in nutritional education.

    Disclosure of Interest: None to declare

  • 109.
    Bergh, Kurt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Kost, gener och träning är nyckeln till ökad prestation2005In: Svensk idrottsmedicin, ISSN 1103-7652, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 4-9Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Kosten kan liksom fysisk aktivitet påverka våra gener. Gentranskriptionen påverkas olika beroende på kostens sammansättning och med rätt kunskap kan kosten öka den fysiska prestationsförmågan och göra återhämtningen mer effektiv.

  • 110.
    Berglund, Birgitta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Höglund, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Esfandabad, Hassan Shams
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    A bisensory method for odor and irritation detection of formaldehyde and pyridine2012In: CHEMOSENS PERCEPT, ISSN 1936-5802, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 146-157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A bisensory method was developed for determining the psychometric functions and absolute thresholds for odor and sensory irritation of two odorous irritants. Individual and group thresholds for formaldehyde or pyridine were measured for 31 age-matched subjects (18-35 years old). P (50) absolute thresholds were for formaldehyde odor 110 ppb (range 23-505), for pyridine odor 77 ppb (range 20-613), and for pyridine irritation 620 ppb (range 90-3,656); too few subjects' formaldehyde irritation thresholds were possible to determine (human exposures limited to 1 ppm). In spite of large interindividual differences, all thresholds for irritation were higher than for odor. The average slopes of the 62 psychometric functions for odor and the 32 possible for sensory irritation were highest for formaldehyde odor (83% per log ppb) and equal for pyridine odor and irritation (68% per log ppb). The bisensory method for measuring odor and sensory irritation jointly produced detection functions and absolute thresholds compatible with those earlier published; however, a steeper slope for sensory irritation than odor was expected for pyridine. The bisensory method is intended for measuring odor and sensory irritation to broadband mixtures and dynamic exposures, like indoor air.

  • 111.
    Berglund, Staffan K.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics. EURISTIKOS Excellence Centre for Paediatric Research, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Torres-Espinola, Francisco J.
    Garcia-Valdes, Luz
    Teresa Segura, Ma
    Martinez-Zaldivar, Cristina
    Padilla, Carmen
    Rueda, Ricardo
    Petez Garcia, Miguel
    McArdle, Harry J.
    Campoy, Cristina
    The impacts of maternal iron deficiency and being overweight during pregnancy on neurodevelopment of the offspring2017In: British Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0007-1145, E-ISSN 1475-2662, Vol. 118, no 7, p. 533-540Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Both maternal Fe deficiency (ID) and being overweight or obese (Ow/Ob, BMI >= 25 kg/m(2)) may negatively affect offspring brain development. However, the two risk factors correlate and their independent effects on infant neurodevelopment are unclear. PREOBE is a prospective observational study that included 331 pregnant Spanish women, of whom 166 had pre-gestational Ow/Ob. Fe status was analysed at 34 weeks and at delivery, and babies were assessed using Bayley III scales of neurodevelopment at 18 months. In confounder-adjusted analyses, maternal ID at 34 weeks was associated with lower composite motor scores at 18 months (mean 113.3 (SD 9.9) v. 117.1 (SD 9.2), P=0.039). Further, the offspring of mothers with ID at delivery had lower cognitive scores (114.0 (SD 9.7) v. 121.5 (SD 10.9), P = 0.039) and lower receptive, expressive and composite (99.5 (SD 8.6) v. 107.6 (SD 8.3), P= 0.004) language scores. The negative associations between maternal ID at delivery and Bayley scores remained even when adjusting for maternal Ow/Ob and gestational diabetes. Similarly, maternal Ow/Ob correlated with lower gross motor scores in the offspring (12.3 (SD 2.0) v. 13.0 (SD 2.1), P = 0.037), a correlation that remained when adjusting for maternal ID. In conclusion, maternal ID and pre-gestational Ow/Ob are both negatively associated with Bayley scores at 18 months, but independently and on different subscales. These results should be taken into account when considering Fe supplementation for pregnant women.

  • 112.
    Berglund, Staffan K
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Westrup, Björn
    Domellöf, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Iron Supplementation Until 6 Months Protects Marginally Low-Birth-Weight Infants From Iron Deficiency During Their First Year of Life2015In: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition - JPGN, ISSN 0277-2116, E-ISSN 1536-4801, Vol. 60, no 3, p. 390-395Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Low-birth-weight (LBW) infants (<2500 g) have an increased risk of iron deficiency (ID) during their first 6 months of life. The optimal dose and duration of iron supplementation to LBW infants are, however, unknown. The objective of the present study was to investigate the long-term effect on iron status and growth in marginally LBW (2000-2500 g) infants, of iron supplements given until 6 months of life. Methods: In a randomized controlled trial, 285 healthy marginally LBW infants received 0, 1, or 2 mg . kg(-1).day(-1) of iron supplements from 6 weeks to 6 months of age: At 12 months and 3.5 years of life we measured length, weight, head circumference, and indicators of iron status (hemoglobin, ferritin, mean corpuscular volume, and transferrin saturation) and assessed the prevalence of iron depletion, functional ID, and ID anemia. Results: At 12 months of age, there was a significant difference in ferritin between the groups (P = 0.00 6). Furthermore, there was a significant difference in the prevalence of iron depletion (23.7%, 10.6%, and 6.8%, respectively, in the placebo, 1-mg, and 2-mg groups, P = 0.009) and similar nonsignificant trends for functional ID and ID anemia. At 3.5 years of life there were no significant differences in iron status and the mean prevalence of iron depletion was 3.2%. Anthropometric data were not affected by the intervention. Conclusions: Iron supplements with 2 mg . kg(-1) . day(-1) until 6 months of life effectively reduces the risk of ID during the first 12 months of life and is an effective intervention for preventing early ID in marginally LBW infants.

  • 113. Berkius, P.
    et al.
    Rehnby, B.
    Rothenberg, Elisabet
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Mat, måltid, hälsa i 24-timmarsperspektivet. Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Praktisk-estetiska ämnen. Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Undernäring en fråga om patientsäkerhet2015In: Dagens medicin, ISSN 1402-1943Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 114.
    Bermon, Stephane
    et al.
    Monaco Inst Sports Med & Surg, Monaco.
    Castell, Lindy M
    Univ Oxford, Green Templeton Coll, Oxford, England.
    Calder, Philip C
    Bishop, Nicolette C
    Univ Southampton, Fac Med, Human Dev & Hlth Acad Unit, Southampton, Hants, England.
    Blomstrand, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Mooren, Frank C
    Justus Liebig Univ, Dept Sports Med, Giessen, Germany.
    Krüger, Karsten
    Justus Liebig Univ, Dept Sports Med, Giessen, Germany.
    Kavazis, Andreas N
    Auburn Univ, Sch Kinesiol, Auburn, AL 36849 USA.
    Quindry, John C
    Univ Montana, Hlth & Human Performance, Missoula, MT 59812 USA.
    Senchina, David S
    Drake Univ, Dept Biol, Kinesiol Program, Des Moines, IA 50311 USA.
    Nieman, David C
    Appalachian State Univ, Human Performance Lab, North Carolina Res Campus, Kannapolis, NC USA.
    Gleeson, Michael
    Univ Loughborough, Sch Sport Exercise & Hlth Sci, Loughborough, Leics, England.
    Pyne, David B
    Australian Inst Sport, Bruce, Australia.
    Kitic, Cecilia M
    Univ Tasmania, Sch Hlth Sci, Sport Performance Optimisat Res Team, Launceston, Tas, Australia.
    Close, Graeme L
    Liverpool John Moores Univ, Res Inst Sport & Exercise Sci, Liverpool, Merseyside, England.
    Larson-Meyer, D Enette
    Univ Wyoming, Dept Family & Consumer Sci, Nutr & Exercise Lab, Laramie, WY 82071 USA.
    Marcos, Ascension
    CSIC, Spanish Natl Res Council, Inst Food Sci Technol & Nutr ICTAN, Madrid, Spain.
    Meydani, Simin N
    Tufts Univ, Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutr Res Ctr Aging, Boston, MA 02111 USA.
    Wu, Dayong
    Tufts Univ, Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutr Res Ctr Aging, Boston, MA 02111 USA.
    Walsh, Neil P
    Bangor Univ, Sch Sport Hlth & Exercise Sci, Bangor, Gwynedd, Wales.
    Nagatomi, Ryochi
    Tohoku Univ, Grad Sch Biomed Engn, Lab Hlth & Sports Sci, Sendai, Miyagi, Japan.
    Consensus Statement Immunonutrition and Exercise.2017In: Exercise immunology review, ISSN 1077-5552, Vol. 23, p. 8-50Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this consensus statement on immunonutrition and exercise, a panel of knowledgeable contributors from across the globe provides a consensus of updated science, including the background, the aspects for which a consensus actually exists, the controversies and, when possible, suggested directions for future research.

  • 115.
    Berthelson, Helén
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Näringstillstånd och näringstillförsel vid svår sepsis och septisk chock: Personalens dokumentation och patientens upplevelse under och efter intensivvård2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Assessment of nutritional status and support are complicated in the care of patients with severe sepsis and septic chock due to complexity of disease. Patient opinions on food and food intake may serve as important parameters when deciding the amount and kind of nutritional support but are sparsely investigated. The purpose was to describe assessment of nutritional status and nutritional support in patients with severe sepsis and septic chock and to investigate patient experiences of food, drinking and eating during and after intensive care. Method: A case study design was conducted using mixed methods. Assessment of nutritional status and support in medical record were investigated quantitatively in five patients. Experiences and memories were analysed qualitatively using content analysis. Result: Diverse results emerged from detailed to sparse and fragmented judgements, planning and measures taken. Established assessment tools didn´t capture nutritional problems. ICU documentation was detailed while documentation during ordinary ward care was scanty. The patients had unique experiences and memories of thirst, weight, loss of hunger and astonishment of quick loss and return of energy. Conclusion: A systematic and regular control of nutritional support and individual care is required to understand the uniqueness of patient status incritical disease. Further investigation is needed concerning tools for detection of nutritional problems during and after intensive care.

  • 116. Bischoff, Stephan C
    et al.
    Boirie, Yves
    Cederholm, Tommy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Chourdakis, Michael
    Cuerda, Cristina
    Delzenne, Nathalie M
    Deutz, Nicolaas E
    Fouque, Denis
    Genton, Laurence
    Gil, Carmen
    Koletzko, Berthold
    Leon-Sanz, Miguel
    Shamir, Raanan
    Singer, Joelle
    Singer, Pierre
    Stroebele-Benschop, Nanette
    Thorell, Anders
    Weimann, Arved
    Barazzoni, Rocco
    Towards a multidisciplinary approach to understand and manage obesity and related diseases2017In: Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0261-5614, E-ISSN 1532-1983, Vol. 36, no 4, p. 917-938, article id S0261-5614(16)31323-1Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Overnutrition and sedentary lifestyle result in overweight or obesity defined as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that may impair health. According to the WHO, the worldwide prevalence of obesity nearly doubled between 1980 and 2008. In 2008, over 50% of both men and women in the WHO European Region were overweight, and approximately 23% of women and 20% of men were obese. Comprehensive diagnostic and therapeutic approaches should include nutritional treatment to favor the best metabolic and nutritional outcome, as well as to induce potential disease-specific benefits from selected nutritional regimens. Obesity is usually accompanied by an increased muscle mass. This might explain why obesity, under particular circumstances such as cancer or high age, might have protective effects, a phenomenon named the 'obesity paradox'. However, loss of muscle mass or function can also occur, which is associated with poor prognosis and termed 'sarcopenic obesity'. Therefore, treatment recommendations may need to be individualized and adapted to co-morbidities. Since obesity is a chronic systemic disease it requires a multidisciplinary approach, both at the level of prevention and therapy including weight loss and maintenance. In the present personal review and position paper, authors from different disciplines including endocrinology, gastroenterology, nephrology, pediatrics, surgery, geriatrics, intensive care medicine, psychology and psychiatry, sports medicine and rheumatology, both at the basic science and clinical level, present their view on the topic and underline the necessity to provide a multidisciplinary approach, to address this epidemic.

  • 117. Bischoff, Stephan C
    et al.
    Singer, Pierre
    Koller, Michael
    Barazzoni, Rocco
    Cederholm, Tommy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    van Gossum, André
    Standard operating procedures for ESPEN guidelines and consensus papers2015In: Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0261-5614, E-ISSN 1532-1983, Vol. 34, no 6, p. 1043-1051Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ESPEN Guideline standard operating procedures (SOP) is based on the methodology provided by the Association of Scientific Medical Societies of Germany (AWMF), the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN), and the Centre for Evidence-based Medicine at the University of Oxford. The SOP is valid and obligatory for all future ESPEN-sponsored guideline projects aiming to generate high-quality guidelines on a regular basis. The SOP aims to facilitate the preparation of guideline projects, to streamline the consensus process, to ensure quality and transparency, and to facilitate the dissemination and publication of ESPEN guidelines. To achieve this goal, the ESPEN Guidelines Editorial board (GEB) has been established headed by two chairmen. The GEB will support and supervise the guideline processes and is responsible for the strategic planning of ESPEN guideline activities. Key elements of the SOP are the generation of well-built clinical questions according to the PICO system, a systemic literature search, a classification of the selected literature according to the SIGN evidence levels providing an evidence table, and a clear and straight-forward consensus procedure consisting of online voting's and a consensus conference. Only experts who meet the obligation to disclosure any potential conflict of interests and who are not employed by the Industry can participate in the guideline process. All recommendations will be graded according to the SIGN grading and novel outcome models besides biomedical endpoints. This approach will further extent the leadership of ESPEN in creating up-to-date and suitable for implementation guidelines and in sharing knowledge on malnutrition and clinical nutrition.

  • 118.
    Biskup, Izabela
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Food Sci, Bioctr, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Kyro, Cecilie
    Danish Canc Soc, Res Ctr, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Marklund, Matti
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Olsen, Anja
    Danish Canc Soc, Res Ctr, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    van Dam, Rob M.
    Natl Univ Singapore, Saw Swee Hock Sch Publ Hlth, Singapore, Singapore..
    Tjonneland, Anne
    Danish Canc Soc, Res Ctr, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Lindahl, Beret
    Umea Univ, Dept Publ Hlth & Clin Med, Umea, Sweden..
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umea Univ, Dept Odontol & Cariol, Umea, Sweden..
    Landberg, Rikard
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Food Sci, Bioctr, Uppsala, Sweden..
    The role of nutritional biomarkers in prediction and understanding the etiology of type 2 diabetes Reply2016In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 104, no 6, p. 1725-1726Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 119.
    Biskup, Izabela
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, BioCtr, Dept Food Sci, Uppsala, Sweden.;Wroclaw Med Univ, Dept Pharmacognosy, Wroclaw, Poland..
    Kyro, Cecilie
    Danish Canc Soc, Res Ctr, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Marklund, Matti
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Olsen, Anja
    Danish Canc Soc, Res Ctr, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    van Dam, Rob M.
    Natl Univ Singapore, Saw Swee Hock Sch Publ Hlth, Singapore, Singapore.;Natl Univ Singapore, Yong Loo Lin Sch Med, Dept Med, Singapore, Singapore.;Natl Univ Hlth Syst, Singapore, Singapore.;Harvard Univ, Harvard TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Nutr, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
    Tjonneland, Anne
    Danish Canc Soc, Res Ctr, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Overvad, Kim
    Aarhus Univ, Dept Publ Hlth, Epidemiol Sect, Aarhus, Denmark..
    Lindahl, Bernt
    Umea Univ, Dept Publ Hlth, Umea, Sweden.;Umea Univ, Dept Clin Med, Umea, Sweden..
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umea Univ, Dept Odontol & Cariol, Umea, Sweden..
    Landberg, Rikard
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, BioCtr, Dept Food Sci, Uppsala, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Nutr Epidemiol Unit, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Plasma alkylresorcinols, biomarkers of whole-grain wheat and rye intake, and risk of type 2 diabetes in Scandinavian men and women2016In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 104, no 1, p. 88-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Studies that use dietary biomarkers to investigate the association between whole-grain intake and the risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D) are lacking. Objective: We examined the association between plasma total alkylresorcinols and the alkylresorcinol C17:0-to-C21:0 ratio, biomarkers of whole-grain wheat and rye intake and relative whole grain rye over whole-grain wheat intake, respectively, and the risk of T2D among Scandinavian men and women. Design: A nested case-control study was established within the Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study and the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort. Alkylresorcinol concentrations and the ratios of C17:0 to C21:0 were determined in plasma samples from 931 case-control pairs. ORs for T2D were calculated for plasma total alkylresorcinol concentration or C17:0-to-C21:0 ratio in quartiles with the use of conditional logistic regression that was adjusted for potential confounders. Additional analyses with whole-grain wheat and rye intake estimated from food-frequency questionnaires (FFQs) as exposures were also performed. Results: The plasma total alkylresorcinol concentration was not associated with T2D risk (OR: 1.34; 95% CI: 0.95, 1.88) for the highest compared with the lowest quartiles in multivariable adjusted models. However, the C17:0-to-C21:0 ratio was associated with a lower diabetes risk (OR: 0.54; 95% CI: 0.37, 0.78). Analyses with whole-grain intake estimated from FFQs yielded similar results. Conclusions: Total whole-grain wheat and rye intake, reflected by alkylresorcinols in plasma, was not associated with a lower risk of T2D in a population with high whole-grain intake. In contrast, the proportion of whole-grain rye to whole-grain wheat intake, indicated by the plasma C17:0-to-C21:0 ratio, was inversely associated with T2D. This suggests that whole-grain intake dominated by rye may be favorable for T2D prevention.

  • 120.
    Biskup, Izabela
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Bioctr, Dept Food Sci, Uppsala, Sweden.;Wroclaw Med Univ, Dept Pharmacognosy, Wroclaw, Poland..
    Kyro, Cecilie
    Danish Canc Soc, Res Ctr, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Marklund, Matti
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Olsen, Anja
    Danish Canc Soc, Res Ctr, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    van Dam, Rob M.
    Natl Univ Singapore, Saw Swee Hock Sch Publ Hlth, Singapore, Singapore.;Natl Univ Singapore, Yong Loo Lin Sch Med, Dept Med, Singapore, Singapore.;Natl Univ Hlth Syst, Singapore, Singapore.;Harvard Univ, Dept Nutr, Harvard TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
    Tjonneland, Anne
    Danish Canc Soc, Res Ctr, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Overvad, Kim
    Aarhus Univ, Epidemiol Sect, Dept Publ Hlth, Aarhus, Denmark..
    Lindahl, Bernt
    Umea Univ, Dept Publ Hlth & Clin Med, Umea, Sweden..
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umea Univ, Dept Odontol & Cariol, Umea, Sweden..
    Landberg, Rikard
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Bioctr, Dept Food Sci, Uppsala, Sweden.;Karolinska Insitutet, Inst Environm Med, Nutr Epidemiol Unit, Stockholm, Sweden.;Chalmers, Dept Biol & Biol Engn, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Whole-grain intake and risk of type 2 diabetes Reply2016In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 104, no 6, p. 1723-1724Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 121. Biskup, Izabela
    et al.
    Kyrø, Cecilie
    Marklund, Matti
    Olsen, Anja
    van Dam, Rob M.
    Tjonneland, Anne
    Overvad, Kim
    Lindahl, Bernt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Landberg, Rikard
    Plasma alkylresorcinols, biomarkers of whole-grain wheat and rye intake, and risk of type 2 diabetes in Scandinavian men and women2016In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 104, no 1, p. 88-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Studies that use dietary biomarkers to investigate the association between whole-grain intake and the risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D) are lacking. Objective: We examined the association between plasma total alkylresorcinols and the alkylresorcinol C17:0-to-C21:0 ratio, biomarkers of whole-grain wheat and rye intake and relative whole grain rye over whole-grain wheat intake, respectively, and the risk of T2D among Scandinavian men and women. Design: A nested case-control study was established within the Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study and the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort. Alkylresorcinol concentrations and the ratios of C17:0 to C21:0 were determined in plasma samples from 931 case-control pairs. ORs for T2D were calculated for plasma total alkylresorcinol concentration or C17:0-to-C21:0 ratio in quartiles with the use of conditional logistic regression that was adjusted for potential confounders. Additional analyses with whole-grain wheat and rye intake estimated from food-frequency questionnaires (FFQs) as exposures were also performed. Results: The plasma total alkylresorcinol concentration was not associated with T2D risk (OR: 1.34; 95% CI: 0.95, 1.88) for the highest compared with the lowest quartiles in multivariable adjusted models. However, the C17:0-to-C21:0 ratio was associated with a lower diabetes risk (OR: 0.54; 95% CI: 0.37, 0.78). Analyses with whole-grain intake estimated from FFQs yielded similar results. Conclusions: Total whole-grain wheat and rye intake, reflected by alkylresorcinols in plasma, was not associated with a lower risk of T2D in a population with high whole-grain intake. In contrast, the proportion of whole-grain rye to whole-grain wheat intake, indicated by the plasma C17:0-to-C21:0 ratio, was inversely associated with T2D. This suggests that whole-grain intake dominated by rye may be favorable for T2D prevention.

  • 122. Biskup, Izabela
    et al.
    Kyrø, Cecilie
    Marklund, Matti
    Olsen, Anja
    van Dam, Rob M.
    Tjønneland, Anne
    Lindahl, Bernt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Landberg, Rikard
    Reply to A Abbasi2016In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 104, no 6, p. 1725-1726Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 123. Biskup, Izabela
    et al.
    Kyrø, Cecilie
    Marklund, Matti
    Olsen, Anja
    van Dam, Rob M.
    Tjønneland, Anne
    Overvad, Kim
    Lindahl, Bernt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Landberg, Rikard
    Reply to J-B Qin et al2016In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 104, no 6, p. 1723-1724Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 124. Bisschop, Charlotte N. Steins
    et al.
    van Gils, Carla H.
    Emaus, Marleen J.
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas
    Monninkhof, Evelyn M.
    Boeing, Heiner
    Aleksandrova, Krasmira
    Jenab, Mazda
    Norat, Teresa
    Riboli, Elio
    Boutron-Rualt, Marie-Christine
    Fagherazzi, Guy
    Racine, Antoine
    Palli, Domenico
    Krogh, Vittorio
    Tumino, Rosario
    Naccarati, Alessio
    Mattiello, Amalia
    Vicente Argueeles, Marcial
    Jose Sanchez, Maria
    Jose Tormo, Maria
    Ardanaz, Eva
    Dorronsoro, Miren
    Bonet, Catalina
    Khaw, Kay-Tee
    Key, Tim
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Orfanos, Philippos
    Naska, Androniki
    Kaaks, Rudolph R.
    Lukanova, Annekatrin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Pischon, Tobias
    Ljuslinder, Ingrid
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
    Jirstrom, Karin
    Ohlsson, Bodil
    Overvad, Kim
    Berentzen, Tina Landsvig
    Halkjaer, Jytte
    Tjonneland, Anne
    Weiderpass, Elisabete
    Skeie, Guri
    Braaten, Tonje
    Siersema, Peter D.
    Freisling, Heinz
    Ferrari, Pietro
    Peeters, Petra H. M.
    May, Anne M.
    Weight change later in life and colon and rectal cancer risk in participants in the EPIC-PANACEA study2014In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 99, no 1, p. 139-147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A moderate association exists between body mass index (BMI) and colorectal cancer. Less is known about the effect of weight change. Objective: We investigated the relation between BMI and weight change and subsequent colon and rectal cancer risk. Design: This was studied among 328,781 participants in the prospective European Prospective Investigation into Cancer Physical Activity, Nutrition, Alcohol, Cessation of Smoking, Eating study (mean age: 50 y). Body weight was assessed at recruitment and on average 5 y later. Self-reported weight change (kg/y) was categorized in sex-specific quintiles, with quintiles 2 and 3 combined as the reference category (men: -0.6 to 0.3 kg/y; women: -0.4 to 0.4 kg/y). In the subsequent years, participants were followed for the occurrence of colon and rectal cancer (median period: 6.8 y). Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were used to study the association. Results: A total of 1261 incident colon cancer and 747 rectal cancer cases were identified. ME at recruitment was statistically significantly associated with colon cancer risk in men (HR: 1.04; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.07). Moderate weight gain (quintile 4) in men increased risk further (HR: 1.32; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.68), but this relation did not show a clear trend. In women, BMI or weight gain was not related to subsequent risk of colon cancer. No statistically significant associations for weight loss and colon cancer or for BMI and weight changes and rectal cancer were found. Conclusions: BMI attained at adulthood was associated with colon cancer risk. Subsequent weight gain or loss was not related to colon or rectal cancer risk in men or women.

  • 125.
    Bjarnholt, Christel
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Kugelberg, Susanna
    Karolinska Inst, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Hughes, Roger
    Univ Sunshine Coast, Maroochydore, Qld, Australia.
    Stockley, Lynn
    Stockley Associates, Nr Chepstow, England.
    Margetts, Barrie M.
    Univ Southampton, Southampton, England.
    Thorsdottir, Inga
    Univ Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Perez Rodrigo, Carmen
    Bilbao Dept Publ Hlth, Bilbao, Spain.
    Kennedy, Nick
    Trinity Coll Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Karolinska Inst, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Public health nutrition workforce development missing in european nutrition policies: the JOBNUT project2009In: Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, ISSN 0250-6807, E-ISSN 1421-9697, Vol. 55, p. 185-185Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 126.
    Bjarnholt, Christel
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Karolinska Inst, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Krawinkel, Michael
    Univ Giessen, Giessen, Germany.
    Kristjansdottir, Asa G.
    Univ Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Hlastan Ribic, Cirila
    Ctr Community Hlth, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Vaz de Almeida, Maria Daniel
    Univ Porto, Fac Ciencias Nutr & Alimentacao, P-4100 Oporto, Portugal.
    Francini, Bela
    Univ Porto, Fac Ciencias Nutr & Alimentacao, Oporto, Portugal.
    Papadaki, Alina
    Univ Crete, Iraklion, Greece.
    Karlsson, Christina
    ICA AB, Solna, Sweden.
    Brug, Johannes
    EMGO Inst Hlth & Care Res, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Maucec-Zakotnik, Jozica
    Ctr Community Hlth, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Ehrenblad, Bettina
    Karolinska Inst, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Duleva, Vesselka
    Natl Ctr Publ Hlth Protect, Sofia, Bulgaria.
    Lien, Nanna
    Univ Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    te Velde, Saskia
    EMGO Inst Hlth & Care Res, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Izquierdo de Santiago, Raquel
    Freshfel Europe, Brussels, Belgium.
    Roos, Eva
    Folkhalsan, Helsinki, Finland.
    Klepp, Knut-Inge
    Univ Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Binard, Philippe
    Freshfel Europe, Brussels, Belgium.
    Petrova, Stefka
    Natl Ctr Publ Hlth Protect, Sofia, Bulgaria.
    Thorsdottir, Inga
    Univ Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Progreens: promotion of fruit and vegetable intake in school children across Europe2009In: Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, ISSN 0250-6807, E-ISSN 1421-9697, Vol. 55, p. 504-504Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 127.
    Bjermo, Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Dietary Fatty Acids and Inflammation: Observational and Interventional Studies2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Dietary fat quality influences the risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. A low-grade inflammation is suggested to contribute to the disease development, often accompanied by obesity. Whereas n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have been considered anti-inflammatory, n-6 PUFA have been proposed to act pro-inflammatory. Saturated fatty acids (SFA) act pro-inflammatory in vitro.

    This thesis aimed to investigate effects of different fatty acids on low-grade inflammation in observational and interventional studies. In Paper I and II, fatty acid composition in serum cholesterol esters was used as objective marker of dietary fat quality and related to serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and other circulating inflammatory markers in two population-based cohorts, conducted in middle-aged men and elderly men and women, respectively. In Paper III and IV, the impact of diets differing in fat quality on inflammation and oxidative stress was investigated in randomised controlled studies, in subjects with metabolic syndrome and abdominal obesity.

    In Paper I and II, a low proportion of linoleic acid (18:2 n-6) in serum was associated with higher CRP concentrations, indicating that a low intake of vegetable fats may be related to low-grade inflammation. High CRP concentrations were also associated with high proportions of palmitoleic (16:1) and oleic (18:1) acids and high stearoyl coenzymeA desaturase index, possibly reflecting altered fat metabolism and/or high SFA intake in this population. When comparing two high-fat diets rich in either saturated or monounsaturated fat, and two low-fat diets with or without long-chain n-3 PUFA supplementation during 12 weeks (Paper III), no differences in inflammation or oxidative stress markers were observed. Moreover, a 10-week intervention (Paper IV) with high linoleic acid intake showed no adverse effects on inflammation or oxidative stress. Instead, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist and tumor necrosis factor receptor-2 decreased after linoleic acid intake compared with a diet high in SFA.

    The results in this thesis indicate that dietary n-6 PUFA found in vegetable fats is associated with lower inflammation marker levels, and to some extent reduces systemic inflammation when compared with SFA. Supplementation of n-3 PUFA did not exert any systemic anti-inflammatory effects, maybe due to a relatively low dose.

  • 128.
    Björklund, Johanna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Framgångsrika recept för hållbara måltider i offentliga kök: Erfarenheter baserade på utvärderingen av projektet Hållbara måltider i Örebro län 2014-20162016Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 129.
    Björklund, Johanna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Hållbara måltider i Örebro län 1.0: Ett bra exempel på lärande för hållbar utveckling2014Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 130.
    Björklund, Johanna
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Morfeldt, Peter
    Att använda skolmåltiden som pedagogiskt redskap: Erfarenheter från en forskningscirkel med lärare i åk 5-­62015Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 131. Blain, H.
    et al.
    Masud, T.
    Dargent-Molina, P.
    Martin, F. C.
    Rosendahl, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    van der Velde, N.
    Bousquet, J.
    Benetos, A.
    Cooper, C.
    Kanis, J. A.
    Reginster, J. Y.
    Rizzoli, R.
    Cortet, B.
    Barbagallo, M.
    Dreinhofer, K. E.
    Vellas, B.
    Maggi, S.
    Strandberg, T.
    A comprehensive fracture prevention strategy in older adults: the European Union Geriatric Medicine Society (EUGMS) statement2016In: The Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging, ISSN 1279-7707, E-ISSN 1760-4788, Vol. 20, no 6, p. 647-652Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prevention of fragility fractures in older people has become a public health priority, although the most appropriate and cost-effective strategy remains unclear. In the present statement, the Interest Group on Falls and Fracture Prevention of the European Union Geriatric Medicine Society (EUGMS), in collaboration with the International Association of Gerontology and Geriatrics for the European Region (IAGG-ER), the European Union of Medical Specialists (EUMS), the International Osteoporosis Foundation - European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis, outlines its views on the main points in the current debate in relation to the primary and secondary prevention of falls, the diagnosis and treatment of bone fragility, and the place of combined falls and fracture liaison services for fracture prevention in older people.

  • 132. Blankenau, I.
    et al.
    Dahlin-Ivanoff, S.
    Rothenberg, Elisabet
    Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Mat, måltid, hälsa i 24-timmarsperspektivet. Kristianstad University, Resrarch environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    A comparison of body height estimated by different proxy measures in Swedish older adults2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Approximately 40 per cent of older adults living at home are at risk of malnutrition. To detect this condition, body mass index is often used as a tool. The standard way of measuring body height is in a standing position. Height decreases with age and further, many older adults are not physically capable to undergo standing height measures. As height is one of the components in BMI it can be affected by body height decrease which in turn will affect the estimated prevalence of malnutrition risk. There are many different ways to estimate height by proxy measures. The aim of this study was to investigate whether proxy measurements could prove to be useful when estimating height in Swedish community-dwelling older adults. Home visits were made to 51 men and 51 women, who had participated in the randomized, single-blinded health-promoting intervention study, Elderly in the Risk Zone, living in the urban district Örgryte-Härlanda in Gothenburg, Sweden. Body weight, standing height, recumbent height, knee-height and demi-span was measured. An interview was also conducted, retrieving information regarding e.g. height around 20 years of age. T-test and Wilcoxon rank tests were performed and to further examine the results regression analyses and Bland & Altman-plots were conducted. The result showed that between 20 years of age to present age the men had decreased, in body height, on average 3,8 cm and the women 4,9 cm. In both the regression analysis and in the Bland & Altman plots, recumbent height and youth height seem to best conform to standing measured height. In the men, a negative correlation was found between the difference standing and knee-height measure of body height compared to mean values of the two measures in the Bland & Altman plots, though it was the only measurement that did not show any group mean statistical significant difference from standing height by t-test. No negative or positive correlation was seen in the women by the Bland & Altman plots. Demi-span gave an underestimation of body height in both genders. The present results show that body height seems to decrease with age and that besides standing, the best proxy measure is recumbent height otherwise that right knee-height could be used. Different height measurements could affect the BMI classification. Though we need to learn more about what affects the height decrease with age and what proxy measures are reliable. It would be desirable that a larger study would be conducted.

  • 133.
    Blaznik, Urška
    et al.
    National Institute of Public Health, Ljubljana, Slovenija.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Örebro universitet, Restaurang- och hotellhögskolan.
    Eržen, Ivan
    National Institute of Public Health, Ljubljana, Slovenija; Department of the Public Health, Medical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Hlastan Ribič, Cirila
    National Institute of Public Health, Ljubljana, Slovenija; Department of the Public Health, Medical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Consumption of fruits and vegetables and probabilistic assessment of the cumulative acute exposure to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides of schoolchildren in Slovenia2016In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 557-563Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Adequate consumption of fruits and vegetables is a part of recommendations for a healthy diet. The aim of the present study was to assess acute cumulative dietary exposure to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides via fruit and vegetable consumption by the population of schoolchildren aged 11-12 years and the level of risk for their health.

    Design: Cumulative probabilistic risk assessment methodology with the index compound approach was applied.

    Setting: Slovenia, primary schools.

    Subjects: Schoolchildren (n 1145) from thirty-one primary schools in Slovenia. Children were part of the PRO GREENS study 2009/10 which assessed 11-year-olds' consumption of fruit and vegetables in ten European countries.

    Results: The cumulative acute exposure amounted to 8·3 (95 % CI 7·7, 10·6) % of the acute reference dose (ARfD) for acephate as index compound (100 µg/kg body weight per d) at the 99·9th percentile for daily intake and to 4·5 (95 % CI 3·5, 4·7) % of the ARfD at the 99·9th percentile for intakes during school time and at lunch. Apples, bananas, oranges and lettuce contributed most to the total acute pesticides intake.

    Conclusions: The estimations showed that acute dietary exposure to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides is not a health concern for schoolchildren with the assessed dietary patterns of fruit and vegetable consumption.

  • 134.
    Blaznik, Urška
    et al.
    National Institute of Public Health, Ljubljana, Slovenija.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science.
    Eržen, Ivan
    National Institute of Public Health, Ljubljana, Slovenija; Department of the Public Health, Medical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Hlastan Ribič, Cirila
    National Institute of Public Health, Ljubljana, Slovenija; Department of the Public Health, Medical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Consumption of fruits and vegetables and probabilistic assessment of the cumulative acute exposure to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides of schoolchildren in Slovenia2016In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 557-563Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Adequate consumption of fruits and vegetables is a part of recommendations for a healthy diet. The aim of the present study was to assess acute cumulative dietary exposure to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides via fruit and vegetable consumption by the population of schoolchildren aged 11-12 years and the level of risk for their health.

    Design: Cumulative probabilistic risk assessment methodology with the index compound approach was applied.

    Setting: Slovenia, primary schools.

    Subjects: Schoolchildren (n 1145) from thirty-one primary schools in Slovenia. Children were part of the PRO GREENS study 2009/10 which assessed 11-year-olds' consumption of fruit and vegetables in ten European countries.

    Results: The cumulative acute exposure amounted to 8·3 (95 % CI 7·7, 10·6) % of the acute reference dose (ARfD) for acephate as index compound (100 µg/kg body weight per d) at the 99·9th percentile for daily intake and to 4·5 (95 % CI 3·5, 4·7) % of the ARfD at the 99·9th percentile for intakes during school time and at lunch. Apples, bananas, oranges and lettuce contributed most to the total acute pesticides intake.

    Conclusions: The estimations showed that acute dietary exposure to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides is not a health concern for schoolchildren with the assessed dietary patterns of fruit and vegetable consumption.

  • 135.
    Blixt, Christina
    et al.
    Dept of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, Sweden; Dept of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology (CLINTEC), Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Ahlstedt, Christian
    Dept of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, Sweden; Dept of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology (CLINTEC), Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Ljungqvist, Olle
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Örebro University Hospital. Department of Surgery, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Isaksson, Bengt
    Dept of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology (CLINTEC), Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden; Division of Surgery, Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Kalman, Sigridur
    Dept of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, Sweden; Dept of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology (CLINTEC), Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Rooyackers, Olav
    Dept of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, Sweden; Dept of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology (CLINTEC), Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Corrigendum to ‘The effect of perioperative glucose control on postoperative insulin resistance’ [Clin Nutr 31 (5) (2012) 676–681]2018In: Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0261-5614, E-ISSN 1532-1983, Vol. 37, no 3, p. 1091-1091Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 136. Blixt, Christina
    et al.
    Ahlstedt, Christian
    Ljungqvist, Olle
    Örebro University, School of Medicine, Örebro University, Sweden. Dept of Surgery, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Isaksson, Bengt
    Kalman, Sigridur
    Rooyackers, Olav
    The effect of perioperative glucose control on postoperative insulin resistance2012In: Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0261-5614, E-ISSN 1532-1983, Vol. 31, no 5, p. 676-681Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Postoperative insulin resistance and the consequent hyperglycemia affects clinical outcome. Insulin sensitivity may be modulated by preoperative nutrition, adequate pain management and minimal invasive surgery. This study aims to disclose the impact of perioperative glucose control on postoperative insulin resistance.

    METHODS: Twenty patients scheduled for elective open hepatectomy were enrolled in this prospective, randomized study. In the treatment group (n = 9) insulin was administered intravenously to keep blood glucose between 6 and 8 mmol/l during surgery. The control group (n = 8) received insulin if blood glucose >14 mmol/l. Insulin sensitivity was measured by a hyperinsulinemic normoglycemic clamp (0.8 mU/kg/min), performed on all patients both on the day before surgery and immediately postoperatively. Plasma cortisol, insulin and C-peptide were measured.

    RESULTS: There was a significant difference in mean glucose value during surgery. In the control group 8.8 mmol/l (SD 1.5) vs. 6.9 mmol/l (SD 0.4) in the treated group, p = 0.003. In the control group insulin sensitivity decreased to 21.9% ± 16.2% of the preoperative value and in the insulin treated group to 46.8 ± 15.5%, p < 0.005. Insulin levels were significantly higher in the treatment group as well as consequently lower C-peptide levels.

    CONCLUSIONS: This trial revealed a significant difference in postoperative insulin resistance in the group treated with insulin during surgery.

  • 137.
    Blomquist, Caroline
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Alvehus, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Burén, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Ryberg, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Larsson, Christel
    Department of Food and Nutrition and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Lindahl, Bernt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Mellberg, Caroline
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Söderström, Ingegerd
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Chorell, Elin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Olsson, Tommy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Attenuated Low-Grade Inflammation Following Long-Term Dietary Intervention in Postmenopausal Women with Obesity2017In: Obesity, ISSN 1930-7381, E-ISSN 1930-739X, Vol. 25, no 5, p. 892-900Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Abdominal fat accumulation after menopause is associated with low-grade inflammation and increased risk of metabolic disorders. Effective long-term lifestyle treatment is therefore needed.

    METHODS: Seventy healthy postmenopausal women (age 60 ± 5.6 years) with BMI 32.5 ± 5.5 were randomized to a Paleolithic-type diet (PD) or a prudent control diet (CD) for 24 months. Blood samples and fat biopsies were collected at baseline, 6 months, and 24 months to analyze inflammation-related parameters.

    RESULTS: Android fat decreased significantly more in the PD group (P = 0.009) during the first 6 months with weight maintenance at 24 months in both groups. Long-term significant effects (P < 0.001) on adipose gene expression were found for toll-like receptor 4 (decreased at 24 months) and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (increased at 24 months) in both groups. Serum interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor α levels were decreased at 24 months in both groups (P < 0.001) with a significant diet-by-time interaction for serum IL-6 (P = 0.022). High-sensitivity C-reactive protein was decreased in the PD group at 24 months (P = 0.001).

    CONCLUSIONS: A reduction of abdominal obesity in postmenopausal women is linked to specific changes in inflammation-related adipose gene expression.

  • 138.
    Blomquist, Caroline
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Chorell, Elin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Ryberg, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Mellberg, Caroline
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Worrsjö, Evelina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Makoveichuk, Elena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Larsson, Christel
    Lindahl, Bernt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Olivecrona, Gunilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences.
    Olsson, Tommy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Decreased lipogenesis-promoting factors in adipose tissue in postmenopausal women with overweight on a Paleolithic-type diet2018In: European Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 1436-6207, E-ISSN 1436-6215, Vol. 57, no 8, p. 2877-2886Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: We studied effects of diet-induced postmenopausal weight loss on gene expression and activity of proteins involved in lipogenesis and lipolysis in adipose tissue.

    Methods: Fifty-eight postmenopausal women with overweight (BMI 32.5 ± 5.5) were randomized to eat an ad libitum Paleolithic-type diet (PD) aiming for a high intake of protein and unsaturated fatty acids or a prudent control diet (CD) for 24 months. Anthropometry, plasma adipokines, gene expression of proteins involved in fat metabolism in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity and mass in SAT were measured at baseline and after 6 months. LPL mass and activity were also measured after 24 months.

    Results: The PD led to improved insulin sensitivity (P < 0.01) and decreased circulating triglycerides (P < 0.001), lipogenesis-related factors, including LPL mRNA (P < 0.05), mass (P < 0.01), and activity (P < 0.001); as well as gene expressions of CD36 (P < 0.05), fatty acid synthase, FAS (P < 0.001) and diglyceride acyltransferase 2, DGAT2 (P < 0.001). The LPL activity (P < 0.05) and gene expression of DGAT2 (P < 0.05) and FAS (P < 0.05) were significantly lowered in the PD group versus the CD group at 6 months and the LPL activity (P < 0.05) remained significantly lowered in the PD group compared to the CD group at 24 months.

    Conclusions: Compared to the CD, the PD led to a more pronounced reduction of lipogenesis-promoting factors in SAT among postmenopausal women with overweight. This could have mediated the favorable metabolic effects of the PD on triglyceride levels and insulin sensitivity.

  • 139.
    Blomstrand, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Utilisation of different energy sources during exercise and nutritional strategies for effective recovery2014In: Women and sport, Stockholm: SISU idrottsböcker , 2014Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this text, we will examine how the body uses the nutrients in food to produce energy during exercise, and whether these processes differ between the sexes. If they do, does this mean that the nutritional requirements should be different for men and women? We will also present current knowledge on the effects of nutrition on recovery after physical activity, a topic that has attracted much interest in the sports world. finally, we will briefl y discuss the nutritional requirements of physically active women and the common nutritional problems they encounter.

  • 140. Boccardi, Virginia
    et al.
    Calvani, Riccardo
    Limongi, Federica
    Marseglia, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Mason, Alexandra
    Noale, Marianna
    Rogoli, Domenico
    Veronese, Nicola
    Crepaldi, Gaetano
    Maggi, Stefania
    Consensus paper on the executive summary of the international conference on Mediterranean diet and health: a lifelong approach an Italian initiative supported by the Mediterranean Diet Foundation and the Menarini Foundation2018In: Nutrition, ISSN 0899-9007, Vol. 51-52, p. 38-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Mediterranean Diet Foundation, in collaboration with the International Menarini Foundation, organized the International Conference on Mediterranean Diet and Health: A Lifelong Approach. The Conference was held in Ostuni (Puglia, Italy) from March 30 to April 1, 2017. The event received the endorsement of the American Federation for Aging Research, the Research Consortium Luigi Amaducci, the European Nutrition for Health Alliance, the European Union Geriatric Medicine Society, the Clinical Section of the International Association of Gerontology and Geriatrics European Region, the National Research Council Research Project on Aging, the Italian Society of Gerontology and Geriatrics, and the Italian Society of Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.During the conference, results were presented from major studies on dietary interventions aiming to assess the efficacy of the Mediterranean diet in the prevention of chronic diseases and the potential underlying mechanisms. Twenty-six international speakers, in seven different sessions, discussed the biological basis, clinical impact, health policy, and behavioral implications of the Mediterranean diet, and its use in potential interventions for health promotion.

  • 141.
    Bodén, Stina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
    Wennberg, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research.
    Van Guelpen, Bethany
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research.
    Lindahl, Bernt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Andersson, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Shivappa, Nitin
    Hebert, James R
    Nilsson, Lena Maria
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research.
    Dietary inflammatory index and risk of first myocardial infarction: a prospective population-based study2017In: Nutrition Journal, ISSN 1475-2891, E-ISSN 1475-2891, Vol. 16, article id 21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Chronic, low-grade inflammation is an established risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The inflammatory impact of diet can be reflected by concentrations of inflammatory markers in the bloodstream and the inflammatory potential of diet can be estimated by the dietary inflammatory index (DII(TM)), which has been associated with cardiovascular disease risk in some previous studies. We aimed to examine the association between the DII and the risk of first myocardial infarction (MI) in a population-based study with long follow-up.

    METHOD: We conducted a prospective case-control study of 1389 verified cases of first MI and 5555 matched controls nested within the population-based cohorts of the Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study (NSHDS), of which the largest is the ongoing Västerbotten Intervention Programme (VIP) with nearly 100 000 participants during the study period. Median follow-up from recruitment to MI diagnosis was 6.4 years (6.2 for men and 7.2 for women). DII scores were derived from a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) administered in 1986-2006. Multivariable conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), using quartile 1 (most anti-inflammatory diet) as the reference category. For validation, general linear models were used to estimate the association between the DII scores and two inflammatory markers, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) in a subset (n = 605) of the study population.

    RESULTS: Male participants with the most pro-inflammatory DII scores had an increased risk of MI [ORQ4vsQ1 = 1.57 (95% CI 1.21-2.02) P trend = 0.02], which was essentially unchanged after adjustment for potential confounders, including cardiovascular risk factors [ORQ4vsQ1 = 1.50 (95% CI 1.14-1.99), P trend = 0.10]. No association was found between DII and MI in women. An increase of one DII score unit was associated with 9% higher hsCRP (95% CI 0.03-0.14) and 6% higher IL-6 (95% CI 0.02-0.11) in 605 controls with biomarker data available.

    CONCLUSION: A pro-inflammatory diet was associated with an elevated risk of first myocardial infarction in men; whereas for women the relationship was null. Consideration of the inflammatory impact of diet could improve prevention of cardiovascular disease.

  • 142.
    Bohm, Ingela
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Lindblom, Cecilia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Åbacka, Gun
    Vasa Faculty of Education, Åbo Akademi University, Vasa, Finland.
    Bengs, Carita
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Hörnell, Agneta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    "He just has to like ham": the centrality of meat in home and consumer studies2015In: Appetite, ISSN 0195-6663, E-ISSN 1095-8304, Vol. 95, p. 101-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to describe Discourses on meat in the school subject Home and Consumer Studies in five different northern Swedish schools. Fifty-nine students and five teachers from five different schools were recorded and in some cases video-taped during lessons. Results indicate that meat was seen as central to nutritional health, sensory experience, culture and social relationships. This positive view was challenged by an alternative Discourse where meat was threatening to health, sensory experience and psychological comfort, but this was not strong enough to affect centrality. Even when participants sought to promote the health advantages of reducing meat consumption, the dominant centrality Discourse was strengthened. This implies that the possible tension between physical and psychosocial/emotional health can make the benefits of a reduction difficult both to convey and accept. A form of critical food literacy may help teachers deconstruct the arbitrary power of the centrality Discourse, but it may also strengthen meat-eater identities because the social norms that guide food choice become salient. A redesign of Discourses might facilitate a reduction in meat consumption, but such a paradigm shift is dependent on the development of society as a whole, and can only be briefly touched upon within the limited timeframes and resources of Home and Consumer Studies.

  • 143.
    Bohm, Ingela
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Lindblom, Cecilia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Åbacka, Gun
    Hörnell, Agneta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    'Don't give us an assignment where we have to use spinach!': food choice and discourse in home and consumer studies2016In: International Journal of Consumer Studies, ISSN 1470-6423, E-ISSN 1470-6431, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 57-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to describe classroom Discourses about vegetables during the planning, cooking, eating and evaluation of meals in the Swedish school subject Home and Consumer Studies. Fifty-nine students and five teachers were recruited from five northern Swedish villages and towns, and then observed, recorded and in some cases video-taped during lessons that took place between 2010 and 2012. Based on 56 instances of talk about vegetables, four Discourses were identified and related to the three aspects of Belasco's culinary triangle of contradictions: identity, responsibility and convenience. The results indicated that the identity-based sensory and cultural Discourses sometimes clashed with the more responsibility-oriented health and evaluation Discourses. The health Discourse was only used when there was an element of evaluation, with assignments connected to grades. In all other cases, the sensory and cultural Discourses guided vegetable use. Sometimes different sensory or cultural assumptions could clash with each other, for example when the teacher insisted on the use of a specific recipe regardless of a student's taste preferences. Since these preferences did not always harmonize with curricular demands for responsibility, there might be a risk of basing grades on aspects of students' identity. Alternatively, students might feel constrained to argue against their own identity in order to be favourably evaluated. Then again, if teachers always bow to student tastes, this limits their chances of learning about food and physical health. Viewing the dilemma through the lens of the culinary triangle of contradictions may help teachers and researchers develop teaching methods that take all aspects of food choice into account.

  • 144.
    Boman, Sara
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Kost, näring, hälsa- studenters kostvanor under åren 2001-2013: En studie över sammanställd kostdata från kursen Kost, näring, hälsa 7,5 hp, Linnéuniversitet, Kalmar2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study is based on a dietary survey conducted by Håkan Andersson and Anna Blücher with the help of students in conjunction with the course Food, Nutrition and health, 7.5 credits at the Linnaeus University Kalmar. The study covers the years 2001-2013 and explores whether, and if so how, the students' dietary intake changed during the period, and discusses potential environmental factors underlying potential changes in dietary habits. The study also investigates whether the students follow the Swedish Food Administration guidelines and if their dietary habits are consistent with other surveys from the same interval. The results indicate that there has been a redistribution of macronutrients, e.g. carbohydrates has partly been replaced with fat, but the intake still remains within the nutritional recommendations. This observation is in agreement with other dietary surveys for the same period. However, BMI appears unchanged in this study, in contrast to what has been observed elsewhere. The reasons for the reduced intake of carbohydrates and increased fat intake may be linked to the increased interest in popular diets such as LCHF.

  • 145.
    Boman, Sara
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Bergström, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Blücher, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Håkansson, Andreas
    Kristianstad university.
    Andersson, Håkan S.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Dietary habits of Swedish university students in nutrition science between 2001 and 20162016In: Abstracts. The 11th NORDIC NUTRITION CONFERENCE NNC2016. “Bridging nutrition sciences for better health in the Nordic countries”, 2016, article id P470Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    While the Swedish nutrition recommendations have been kept relatively constant in recent years, public attitudes to different diets have been swinging faster. The National food survey (Riksmaten), being performed in Sweden only once per decade, cannot identify any corresponding rapid changes in diets. Hence, our understanding of potential fluctuations is limited. During the last 15 years, nutrition students at the Linnaeus University (formerly University of Kalmar) have reported their food intake in the context of the course Diet, Nutrition and Health 7,5 hp. The result is an extensive data set comprising more than 1100 individuals and over 2500 days of food intake reports, and although not originally intended or designed as a study, it became apparent that these data could be of interest as an indicator for national dietary trends. Food intake was reported (by weighing or estimating the amounts) for two weekdays and one weekend day per student, along with age, length, sex and weight. Food intake was translated to nutrient intake using Dietist Net software (Kost & Näringsdata).  Admittedly, the data set has some validity problems: the students differ from the Riksmaten study groups in mean age and geographical distribution, and all data was collected during March-April. As students in a nutrition course, they can also be expected to be more interested and more knowledgeable in the nutrition subject than the average person. Nevertheless, the results clearly demonstrate a substantial change in nutrient intake from 2006 and onwards, where the energy from carbohydrates decreased from above 50% to below 40%, and where the energy intake from fat increased from about 25% to 36%. Further details, such as the effects on the intake of selected micronutrients, will be presented.

  • 146.
    Bondia-Pons, Isabel
    et al.
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland; Department of Food Science and Physiology, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain.
    Maukonen, Johanna
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Mattila, Ismo
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Rissanen, Aila
    Obesity Research Unit, Research Programs Unit, Diabetes and Obesity, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; Department of Psychiatry, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.
    Saarela, Maria
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Kaprio, Jaakko
    Department of Public Health, Hjelt Institute, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland (FIMM), University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland.
    Hakkarainen, Antti
    Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.
    Lundbom, Jesper
    Department of Radiology, Hospital District of Helsinki and Uusimaa (HUS) Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.
    Lundbom, Nina
    Department of Radiology, Hospital District of Helsinki and Uusimaa (HUS) Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.
    Hyötyläinen, Tuulia
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland; Steno Diabetes Center, Gentofte, Denmark.
    Pietiläinen, Kirsi H.
    Obesity Research Unit, Research Programs Unit, Diabetes and Obesity, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland (FIMM), University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.
    Oresic, Matej
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland; Steno Diabetes Center, Gentofte, Denmark.
    Metabolome and fecal microbiota in monozygotic twin pairs discordant for weight: a Big Mac challenge2014In: The FASEB Journal, ISSN 0892-6638, E-ISSN 1530-6860, Vol. 28, no 9, p. 4169-4179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Postprandial responses to food are complex, involving both genetic and environmental factors. We studied postprandial responses to a Big Mac meal challenge in monozygotic co-twins highly discordant for body weight. This unique design allows assessment of the contribution of obesity, independent of genetic liability. Comprehensive metabolic profiling using 3 analytical platforms was applied to fasting and postprandial serum samples from 16 healthy monozygotic twin pairs discordant for weight (body mass index difference >3 kg/m(2)). Nine concordant monozygotic pairs were examined as control pairs. Fecal samples were analyzed to assess diversity of the major bacterial groups by using 5 different validated bacterial group specific denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis methods. No differences in fecal bacterial diversity were detected when comparing co-twins discordant for weight (ANOVA, P<0.05). We found that within-pair similarity is a dominant factor in the metabolic postprandial response, independent of acquired obesity. Branched chain amino acids were increased in heavier as compared with leaner co-twins in the fasting state, but their levels converged postprandially (paired t tests, FDR q<0.05). We also found that specific bacterial groups were associated with postprandial changes of specific metabolites. Our findings underline important roles of genetic and early life factors in the regulation of postprandial metabolite levels.

  • 147.
    Bondia-Pons, Isabel
    et al.
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, Clinical Nutrition, Food and Health Research Centre, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.
    Nordlund, Emilia
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Mattila, Ismo
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Katina, Kati
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Aura, Anna-Marja
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Kolehmainen, Marjukka
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, Clinical Nutrition, Food and Health Research Centre, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.
    Oresic, Matej
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Mykkänen, Hannu
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, Clinical Nutrition, Food and Health Research Centre, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.
    Poutanen, Kaisa
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, Clinical Nutrition, Food and Health Research Centre, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland; VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Postprandial differences in the plasma metabolome of healthy Finnish subjects after intake of a sourdough fermented endosperm rye bread versus white wheat bread2011In: Nutrition Journal, ISSN 1475-2891, E-ISSN 1475-2891, Vol. 10, article id 116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The mechanism behind the lowered postprandial insulin demand observed after rye bread intake compared to wheat bread is unknown. The aim of this study was to use the metabolomics approach to identify potential metabolites related to amino acid metabolism involved in this mechanism.

    METHODS: A sourdough fermented endosperm rye bread (RB) and a standard white wheat bread (WB) as a reference were served in random order to 16 healthy subjects. Test bread portions contained 50 g available carbohydrate. In vitro hydrolysis of starch and protein were performed for both test breads. Blood samples for measuring glucose and insulin concentrations were drawn over 4 h and gastric emptying rate (GER) was measured. Changes in the plasma metabolome were investigated by applying a comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry metabolomics platform (GC × GC-TOF-MS).

    RESULTS: Plasma insulin response to RB was lower than to WB at 30 min (P = 0.004), 45 min (P = 0.002) and 60 min (P < 0.001) after bread intake, and plasma glucose response was significantly higher at time point 90 min after RB than WB intake (P = 0.045). The starch hydrolysis rate was higher for RB than WB, contrary to the in vitro protein digestibility. There were no differences in GER between breads. From 255 metabolites identified by the metabolomics platform, 26 showed significant postprandial relative changes after 30 minutes of bread intake (p and q values < 0.05). Among them, there were changes in essential amino acids (phenylalanine, methionine, tyrosine and glutamic acid), metabolites involved in the tricarboxylic acid cycle (alpha-ketoglutaric, pyruvic acid and citric acid) and several organic acids. Interestingly, the levels of two compounds involved in the tryptophan metabolism (picolinic acid, ribitol) significantly changed depending on the different bread intake.

    CONCLUSIONS: A single meal of a low fibre sourdough rye bread producing low postprandial insulin response brings in several changes in plasma amino acids and their metabolites and some of these might have properties beneficial for health.

  • 148.
    Bondia-Pons, Isabel
    et al.
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland; Department of Food Science and Physiology, Research Building, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain.
    Pöhö, Päivi
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Bozzetto, Lutgarda
    Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University, Naples, Italy.
    Vetrani, Claudia
    Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University, Naples, Italy.
    Patti, Lidia
    Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University, Naples, Italy.
    Aura, Anna-Marja
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Annuzzi, Giovanni
    Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University, Naples, Italy.
    Hyötyläinen, Tuulia
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland; Steno Diabetes Center, Gentofte, Denmark.
    Rivellese, Angela Albarosa
    Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University, Naples, Italy.
    Oresic, Matej
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland; Steno Diabetes Center, Gentofte, Denmark.
    Isoenergetic diets differing in their n-3 fatty acid and polyphenol content reflect different plasma and HDL-fraction lipidomic profiles in subjects at high cardiovascular risk2014In: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, ISSN 1613-4125, E-ISSN 1613-4133, Vol. 58, no 9, p. 1873-1882Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    SCOPE: Dysregulation of lipid homeostasis is related to multiple major healthcare problems. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of n-3 fatty acid (FA) and polyphenol rich diets on plasma and HDL fraction lipidomic profiles in subjects at high cardiovascular risk.

    METHODS AND RESULTS: Ultra performance LC coupled to quadrupole TOF/MS mass spectrometry global lipidomic profiling was applied to plasma and HDL fraction from an 8 wk randomized intervention with four isoenergetic diets, differing in their natural n-3 FA and polyphenols content, in 78 subjects with a high BMI, abdominal obesity, and at least one other feature of the metabolic syndrome. Dependency network analysis showed a different pattern of associations between lipidomics, dietary, and clinical variables after the dietary interventions. The most remarkable associations between variables were observed after the diet high in n-3 FA and polyphenols, as the inverse association between gallic acid intake and LDL cholesterol levels, which was indirectly associated with a HDL cluster exclusively comprised lysophospholipids.

    CONCLUSION: This is the first human randomized controlled trial showing direct and indirect associations with lipid molecular species and clinical variables of interest in the evaluation of the metabolic syndrome after diets naturally rich in polyphenols.

  • 149.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Stomby, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Ryberg, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Lindahl, Bernt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Larsson, Christel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine. Göteborgs Universitet.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Olsson, Tommy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Diet-Induced Weight Loss alters Functional Brain Responses during an Episodic Memory Task2015In: Obesity Facts, ISSN 1662-4025, E-ISSN 1662-4033, Vol. 8, p. 261-272Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: It has been suggested that overweight is negatively associated with cognitive functions. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a reduction in body weight by dietary interventions could improve episodic memory performance and alter associated functional brain responses in overweight and obese women. Methods: 20 overweight postmenopausal women were randomized to either a modified paleolithic diet or a standard diet adhering to the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations for 6 months. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine brain function during an episodic memory task as well as anthropometric and biochemical data before and after the interventions. Results: Episodic memory performance improved significantly (p = 0.010) after the dietary interventions. Concomitantly, brain activity increased in the anterior part of the right hippocampus during memory encoding, without differences between diets. This was associated with decreased levels of plasma free fatty acids (FFA). Brain activity increased in pre-frontal cortex and superior/middle temporal gyri. The magnitude of increase correlated with waist circumference reduction. During episodic retrieval, brain activity decreased in inferior and middle frontal gyri, and increased in middle/superior temporal gyri. Conclusions: Diet-induced weight loss, associated with decreased levels of plasma FFA, improves episodic memory linked to increased hippocampal activity.

  • 150. Borg, Saskia
    et al.
    Seubert, Janina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Lipids in Eating and Appetite Regulation - A Neuro-Cognitive Perspective2017In: European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, ISSN 1438-7697, E-ISSN 1438-9312, Vol. 119, no 12, article id 1700106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Foods high in dietary fat provide a particularly energy-rich source of nutrition. A preferred food choice in humans, their intake is thought to contribute substantially to the current obesity epidemic. Fat has recently been proposed to constitute a basic taste; yet, its diverse sensory properties in the olfactory and somatosensory domain, as well as its postingestive effects have made the exact attributes that make its consumption so appealing difficult to disentangle. Recent scientific advances have shed light on the different molecular mechanisms underlying the sensory detection of fat in the periphery, and described their relevance for perceptual experience and eating behavior. However, these different analysis levels are to date poorly integrated, both within each sensory modality, and from a multisensory perspective.

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