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  • 101.
    Allmér, Gustaf
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Organization and management.
    Joakim, Svantesson
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Organization and management.
    How internal factors influence the work towards increased energy performance: A case study in a Swedish construction company2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    För  att  minska Europas klimatpåverkan ställer Sveriges regering och Europeiska Unionen allt högre krav på byggindustrin gällande energiprestandan i nybyggda flerbostadshus, då bostadssektorn idag står för en betydande del av Sveriges totala energiförbrukning. Byggföretagen jobbar numera för förbättrad energiprestanda i nybyggda bostäder, men skillnaden från projekt till projekt kan vara mycket stor. Man har i tidigare forskning studerat de externa faktorer som påverkar hur långt man är villig att gå energimässigt i bostadsprojekt, men lite forskning har bedrivits kring de interna faktorerna.

    Detta examensarbete har därför till syfte att identifiera dessa interna faktorer och även förklara varför de påverkar processen. För att studera detta har en fallstudie utförts på ett svenskt byggföretag där aktörer inom stora delar av den interna byggprocessen finns representerade. Semi strukturerade intervjuer genomfördes för att ge en så utförlig bild som  möjligt av processen och de faktorer som påverkar den. Intervjudatan sorterades, reducerades och analyserades genom stöd av ett teoretiskt ramverk. I detta ingår teorier från tidigare studier och olika Knowledge Managementteorier, vilka används för att tolka och förstå de faktorer som iakttagits. 

    Studiens resultat innefattar en redogörelse för viktiga observerade interna faktorer som påverkar processen i fallstudieföretaget mot mer energieffektiva flerbostadshus. Exempel på dessa är: individers kunskap och åsikt om ökad energiprestanda, tidpunkten i projektet då energifrågan lyfts upp, hur kunskap återvinns inom företaget, hur man följer upp energiberäkningar och val av medium för att dela kunskap. Många av de faktorer som identifierats är kopplade till vilken attityd och strategi  ledningen  väljer för energifrågan.  Den attityd som uppifrån förmedlas kommer också att antas av aktörerna i processen, och man har här möjligheten  att göra ett val i hur mycket man som företag vill satsa på fortsatt förbättrad energiprestanda.

  • 102.
    Alm, Ove
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Effects of water on the mechanical propreties and micro-strucures of granitic rock at high pressures and high temperatures1982In: Issues in rock mechanics: proceedings Twenty-Third Symposium on Rock Mechanics ; the University of California, Berkeley, California, August 25 - 27, 1982 / [ed] Richard E. Goodman, New York: Society of Mining Engineers of the American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical and Petroleum Engineers , 1982, 261-269 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 103.
    Alm, Ove
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Experimental deformation of granitic rocks1981In: Vol. 103, no 1, 134-136 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 104.
    Alm, Ove
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Experimental deformation of mylonitic rocks: results presented at the International Conference on the Effect of Deformation on Rocks, Göttingen, April 9-12, 19801980Report (Other academic)
  • 105.
    Alm, Ove
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Fine-grained granitic rocks experimentally deformed at high temperatures and high pressures1977Report (Other academic)
  • 106.
    Alm, Ove
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Influence of water on the strength and deformation properties of a granitic aplite at high pressures and temperatures1979Report (Other academic)
  • 107.
    Alm, Ove
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Mechanical testing of powders and powder compacts1983In: Scandinavian journal of metallurgy, ISSN 0371-0459, E-ISSN 1600-0692, Vol. 12, no 6, 302-311 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Results from standard triaxial, uniaxial and bending tests are presented. Triaxial tests were performed at pressures in the range 0-200 MPa. Both initial loose powder samples and cylindrical precompacted specimens were studied under hydrostatic conditions. Most of the total volume compaction occurred at pressures below 10 MPa. Triaxial tests with superimposed axial loads showed no softening despite a 30% shortening of the length of specimens which initially were 60 mm long. Specimens deformed in triaxial tests showed a higher density and a higher uniaxial compressive strength than specimens compacted under hydrostatic conditions

  • 108.
    Alm, Ove
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    The effect of water on the mechanical properties and microstructures of granitic rocks at high pressures and high temperatures1982In: Issues in rock mechanics: twenty-third Symposium on Rock Mechanics, the University of California, Berkeley, California, August 25-27, 1982 / [ed] Richard E. Goodman; Francois E Heuze, Society of Mining Engineers of the American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical and Petroleum Engineers , 1982, 261-269 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 109.
    Alm, Ove
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Alm, B.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Stephansson, Ove
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Experimental deformation of rocks from the Kiruna District, northern Sweden1988In: Proceedings of the seventh quadrennial IAGOD symposium: held in Luleå, Sweden, August 18-22, 1986 / [ed] Ebbe Zachrisson, Taylor and Francis Group , 1988, 75-82 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 110.
    Alm, Ove
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Bäckström, Gunnar
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Thermal conductivity of NaF at high pressures1979Report (Other academic)
  • 111.
    Alm, Ove
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Forslund, Josef
    Ljunggren, Christer
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Mattila, Ulf
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Mortensen, Tove-Heide
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Stephansson, Ove
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Bergmekaniska standardtester: en beskrivning av tester från Avdelningen för bergmekanik, Tekniska högskolan i Luleå1985Report (Other academic)
  • 112.
    Alm, Ove
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Jaktlund, Lise-Lotte
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Shaoquan, Kuo
    Academia Sinica.
    The influence of microcrack density on the elastic and fracture mechanical properties of Stripa granite1985In: Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, ISSN 0031-9201, E-ISSN 1872-7395, Vol. 40, no 3, 161-179 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Presents results from a great number of mechanical tests on Stripa granite containing various amounts of microcracks. Variations in the microcrack density were obtained by shock-heating the rock at different temperatures in the range 100-600°C for 3 h. The results presented are obtained from sound velocity measurements, uniaxial compression tests, Brazilian tests and three-point bending tests. The density of microcracks in the heated rock is studied by means of optical microscopy, SEM and differential strain analysis

  • 113.
    Alm, Ove
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Norin, Jonas
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Experimentella bestämningar av mekaniska egenskaper för hårdmetallpulver: slutrapport över pilotstudie1982Report (Other academic)
  • 114.
    Alm, Ove
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Attempt to make accurate measurements of deformations of compressible soilds at high pressure and different states of stress1982In: High pressure in research and industry: 8th AIRAPT Conference, 19th EHPRG Conference, 17 - 22 August 1981, Institte of Physical Chemistry, University of Uppsala, Sweden ; proceedings / [ed] C.-M. Backman, Uppsala: Fysikalisk-kemiska inst., Univ , 1982, 619-622 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 115.
    Alm, Ove
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Röshoff, Kennert
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Andersson, Göran
    Identification of thermally induced microcracks in rock materials1983In: Proceedings: Appendix / International Conference on Subsurface Heat Storage in Theory and Practice, Stockholm, June 6-8, 1983, Stockholm: Statens råd för byggnadsforskning , 1983, 338-342 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 116.
    Alm, Ove
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Röshoff, Kennert
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Stephansson, Ove
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Microstructures and mechanical characteristics of the Tannas augen gneiss, Swedish Caledonides1980In: Geologiska föreningens i Stockholm förhandlingar, ISSN 0016-786X, Vol. 102, no 4, 319-334 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mechanical behaviour, microstructure and substructure of the classic Tannas augen gneiss of the Swedish Caledonides are presented. Progressive deformation of granodiorite to augen gneiss and mylonite is shown to take place in an isochemical environment with redistribution of megacrysts to surrounding matrix. Experimental deformation of natural rocks from the Tannas Augen Gneiss Nappe has been carried out in the temperature range of 20-600oC and under confining pressure of 100-700MPa. The highest strength found is for the fine-grained mylonite. The augen of the gneiss show brittle behaviour under all test conditions, and temperature has a limited effect on the ultimate strength of the matrix of the augen gneiss. Microstructures have been analysed by means of optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The progressive deformation is brought about by dislocation glide and dislocation creep. Subgrain formation, recrystallization and straining of new grains are observed at all stages of the progressive deformation of the matrix while the augen behavior is brittle

  • 117.
    Alm, Ove
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Stephansson, Ove
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Experimental deformation of Augen-gneisses1979In: Mechanisms of deformation and fracture: proceedings of the interdisciplinary conference held at the University of Luleå, Luleå, Sweden, September 20-22, 1978 / [ed] Kenneth E. Easterling, Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1979, 173-186 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 118.
    Alm, Ove
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Stephansson, Ove
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Experimental Deformation of Augen-gneisses1978Report (Other academic)
  • 119.
    Almgren, Gunnar
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Bergsingenjörsutbildningen i Luleå under omprövning1990In: Bergsmannen med Jernkontorets Annaler, ISSN 0284-0448, no 6, 18-20, 23 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 120.
    Almgren, Gunnar
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Education in mining and rock excavation in Sweden1984In: The 12th Congress of World Mining Congress, New Delhi, November 19-23, 1984, Calcutta: American Institute of Chemical Engineers, 1984Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Education in Mining and Rock Excavation in Sweden can be subdivided into higher education, upper secondary school education and in-service training. Higher education is provided at the University of Lulea and leads to a Masters degree and to a Licentiate or Doctor of Engineering degree in mining. The higher education curriculum was replanned in connection with the move to Lulea in 1972 from the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm to involve higher specialization and to cover both the mining and the underground construction sectors. The upper secondary school education is given at the College of Mining and Metallurgy in Filipstad and leads to a secondary-school engineering degree. In-service training courses are given for working professionals by the Division of Advanced Vocational Training in Lulea and by equipment suppliers. Vocational training is pursued at some upper secondary schools in cooperation with the mining companies.

  • 121.
    Almgren, Gunnar
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Large scale underground mining: proceedings of the International Symposium on Large Scale Underground Mining, Luleå 6-7 November 19851985Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 122.
    Almgren, Gunnar
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Luleå-högskolan och dess bergteknik1977In: JkA: Jernkontorets Annaler, ISSN 0280-4239, no 3, 58-60 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 123.
    Almgren, Gunnar
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Rock mechanics and the economics of cut and fill mining1981In: Application of rock mechanics to cut and fill mining: proceedings of the Conference on the application of rock mechanics to cut and fill mining, organized by the Departments of rock mechanics and soil mechanics, University of Luleå ... held at the University of Luleå, Sweden, from 1 to 3 June, 1980 / [ed] Ove Stephansson; Michael J. Jones, London: The Institution of Mining and Metallurgy , 1981, 28-35 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 124.
    Almgren, Gunnar
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Almgren, T.
    Kumar, Uday
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Just-in-time and right-in-space1996In: Minerals Industry International, ISSN 0955-2847, Vol. 1032, 26-29 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 125.
    Almgren, Gunnar
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Berge, IvarNorwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim.Matikainen, RaimoHelsinki University of Technology.
    Improvement of mine productivity and overall economy by modern technology1987Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The two volumes contain over 100 papers of which c40 are abstracted separately. The articles are organized into 6 sections (the first 2 in volume 1, the rest in 2): 1) effective use of geological and geomechanical information; 2) computers in mine planning and operations; 3) capital requirements, organization and productivity in mechanized mining; 4) developments in shaftsinking including alternative haulage systems; 5) mechanized scaling and rock support; 6) mining in arctic conditions (especially permafrost) including applications of artificial freezing.-M.A.Bass

  • 126.
    Almgren, Gunnar
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Kumar, UdayLuleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.Vagenas, NickLuleå tekniska universitet.
    Mine mechanization and automation: proceedings of the second International Symposium on Mine Mechanization and Automation, Luleå, Sweden, 7-10 June 19931993Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 127.
    Almgren, Torgny
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    An approach to long range production and development planning with application to the Kiruna Mine, Sweden1994Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The mining industry is increasingly oriented towards large scale mining and the planning concept of "Just in Time", which means activities starting and ending as late as possible without jeopardising production. The buffers, consisting of production blocks and development ahead of production, are then minimi. This, however, leads to a larger dependency on the quality of the output from the production systems. The Kiruna mine, Sweden, is a large scale mine and has a number of potential ore blocks with a content that varies in quality (Fe, P, K) and in quantity (ore tonnage). Ore production is restricted by operative and block sequencing constraints as well as by production requirements. A computerized planning model, based on operations research (multi period scheduling) has been developed to meet future demands on ore qualities and quantities. The model uses long range objectives, but can satisfy temporary short range demands without jeopardising the long range goals. A sub-optimal plan, made using the model, has been compared with a truly optimal plan. It is shown that, due to the unreliable information concerning the ore, the sub-optimal plan performs as well as the optimal one. The simulation process that was developed for this comparison is also used to estimate the need for production buffer blocks. Another buffer planning model is developed to determine when development work should take place in order to minimize the risk of additional costs, caused by an inability to start production on time. This algorithm considers the uncertainties in activity durations and is based on a Monte Carlo simulation using project networks and estimates the optimum development buffer.

  • 128.
    Almgren, Torgny
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Probabilistic time planning for underground mines1990In: International Journal of Mining and Geological Engineering, ISSN 0269-0136, Vol. 8, no 2, 91-109 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The advantages of probabilistic time planning techniques, compared to deterministic ones, are discussed and an approach to probabilistic planning is presented. The approach includes an analysis of disturbancy factors, and a method of estimating the distribution of project completion time by using Monte Carlo simulation. It is shown how this result may be used to calculate the need for development buffers, which also has been demonstrated on a particular case, the Oscar project, a sublevel stoping operation in the Kiruna mine, Sweden.

  • 129.
    Almgren, Torgny
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Time planning under uncertainty in a mining environment1989Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 130.
    Almqvist, Amanda
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    Nordström, Emma
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    Himmelstrand, Malin
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    Klassificeringssystem för hållbar stadsutveckling2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The urbanization is increasing while there is a comprehensive climate change in the world. The cities stands for 70 percent of the global carbon emissions and two-thirds of the world's energy use. Half the world's population live in cities. Because of this, it is necessary that cities are sustainable. Therefore, there are various classification systems for neighborhoods that facilitates the creation of a sustainable city. However, there is no Swedish system but Breeam Communities is adapted to Swedish conditions.

    The objective of the report is to contribute to the development of methods that support sustainable urban development. By first identifying the classification systems, these could be compared with each other to see which criteria’s recurred. Parallels could be drawn as to which was more important, as the majority made use of these criteria. A sketching was made to find out what criteria should be included in the Swedish system and the regular criteria of the investigated classification systems were also very helpful.

    The systems that have been investigated are Breeam Communities, Casbee for Cities, One Planet Communities, Green Star Communities and Leed for Neighborhood Development. The systems measure sustainability usually infactors/criteria of social, economic and ecological aspects. Classification systems have different requirements or goals of what needs to be achieved within each factor. The systems are very different designed which complicated the comparison process.

    The regular criteria in all systems are carbon, water consumption, water pollution, food, wildlife and nature, floods, waste management, developed land, physicalactivity, accessibility, health and welfare, culture and heritage, transport, greenspaces, community involvement, light pollution, local economy and employment.

    Since Sweden has its own climate and its own standards, a foreign system is not adapted so easily to Swedish conditions. The criteria that should be part of a Swedish system is partly based on the global and national goals for Sweden as wellas those returned in the analyzed systems. In addition to the criteria that reappeared in the systems (some of the criteria has been renamed) it should also contain noise, nature, traffic, mixed development, security, maintenance and education.T

    There are many factors within the three perspectives to be analyzed and utilized to achieve a well-organized and good classification system of neighborhoods. There are many benefits of a classification system. For example, it facilitates informed choice, collaboration and communication between actors, but most of all a better society to live in.

  • 131.
    Almén, Lena
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Projekteringens möjligheter att minska risken för arbetsskador i byggproduktionen.: En fallstudie av säkerhetsstyrning i två byggprojekt.2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Arbetsolycksfrekvensen bland bygg ‐ och anläggningsarbetare är högre, och pensionsåldern lägre, än genomsnittet i det svenska arbetslivet.

    Tidigare studier visar att projektörer har möjligheter att påverka arbetsmiljön i produktionen, ju tidigare i byggprocessen desto större är påverkansmöjligheterna.

    Enligt svensk lag har projektörer och byggherrar ansvar för arbetsmiljön i produktion. Den 1 januari 2009 skärptes Arbetsmiljölagen så att deras ansvar blev tydligare.

    Två byggprojekt, båda projekterade för januari 2009, studerades. I båda projekten var det en totalentreprenör som ansvarade för att projektera och producera flerbostadshus.

    Syftet med studien var att finna samband mellan arbetsmiljörisker i produktionen och beslut tagna under projekteringsskedet.

    Hantverkare och tjänstemän i produktionen identifierade riskfyllda arbetsmoment, vilka eventuellt hade varit möjliga att förebygga under projekteringsfasen. Fallen dokumenterades och presenterades för dem som hade deltagit i projekteringen av byggnaden. För vart och ett av fallen, ombads projektörerna att beskriva bakgrunden, vilka beslut som hade tagits och varför. I föreliggande rapport presenteras de riskfyllda arbetsmomenten och varför dessa uppstod. Analyser av fallen gjorde det möjligt att förstå vad projektörer kan göra för att förhindra arbetsskador i produktionen, och varför det ibland inte är möjligt.

    Studien visar att projektörer i många fall, inte var medvetna om arbetsmiljökonsekvenserna, och saknade rutiner för att identifiera, eliminera och hantera arbetsmiljörisker under projekteringsskedet. Krav från byggherre, lagar, stadsbyggnadskontor och bransch har begränsat projektörernas handlingsutrymme. Det har även funnits begränsningar vid inköp av produkter, på grund av svårigheter att få tag i produkter och material som är bra ur arbetsmiljösynpunkt samt restriktioner kopplade till avtal. Det har också varit problem med samordning och styrning av konsulter och underentreprenörer.

    Byggherren har ett viktigt ansvar för arbetsmiljön i byggprojekt. Det är av stor vikt att byggherren prioriterar säker arbetsmiljö genom hela byggprojektet, från det tidiga projekteringsskedet tills byggnaden är färdigställd.

    I varje skede av ett byggprojekt behövs rutiner för att samtliga aktörer ska beakta arbetsmiljökonsekvenser av sina beslut, parallellt med konsekvenser för produktivitet och produkt.

    För att åstadkomma förbättrad säkerhetsstyrning i byggprocessen, måste byggföretagen prioritera arbetsmiljöfrågan. Totalentreprenörer har, genom sitt ansvar för både projektering och produktion, goda möjligheter till arbetsmiljöstyrning. Det behövs rutiner för riskanalys i projekteringen, liksom på företagets olika avdelningar, och tillräcklig kompetens inom företaget. Centrala riktlinjer bör tas fram för att stimulera att erfarenheter och säkerhetsinsikter hos individer i hela produktionskedjan tas till vara inför framtida projekt.

    Projekteringens möjligheter att minska risken för arbetsskador i byggproduktionen 2009 6

    För att kunna identifiera, eliminera och hantera arbetsmiljörisker krävs både arbetsmiljökompetens och kompetens om produktionsmetoder. Kunniga hantverkare och tjänstemän från produktionen bör delta under projekteringen och i förberedelserna inför produktionsstart.

    Tillverkare av byggprodukter och byggelement behöver ta arbetsmiljöfrågan i beaktande i högre grad, för att utveckla produkter som är lätta att hantera och möjliga att montera utan risk för arbetsskada.

    Lagstiftningen har initierat förbättringar av säkerhetsstyrningen i byggprocessen. Genom användande av säkerhetsledningssystem kan det ske en ytterligare utveckling mot en säkrare arbetsmiljö i byggproduktionen. Riskfaktorerna som har identifierats i studien kan utgöra en grund för relevanta bedömningskriterier för intern och extern arbetsmiljörevision.

  • 132.
    Alquist, Kerstin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Klimatanpassning av det svenska vägtransportsystemet: En diskussion om vilka åtgärder som kan vara samhällsekonomiskt lönsamma för att förhindra naturolyckor och deras konsekvenser2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Klimatförändringarna är idag ett faktum och klimatanpassning har identifierats som en av transportsektorns stora framtida utmaningar. Antalet naturolyckor, som översvämningar och bortspolade vägar, som påverkar transportinfrastrukturen väntas öka i ett förändrat klimat. Sådana olyckor förekommer också redan idag. T ex i samband med snösmältningen i Norrland 2010 översvämmades älvar, åar och mindre vattendrag och vägar underminerades eller spolades bort. 150 vägpartier skadades och 64 vägar stängdes av. Återställningskostnaderna uppskattades till 100 miljoner kronor.

    Trafikverket behöver anpassa väginfrastrukturen för att klara det ökande antalet naturolyckor. Samtidigt finns begränsade resurser, varför anpassningen behöver vara så kostnadseffektiv som möjligt. Verket saknar idag kunskap om vilka typer av åtgärder respektive vilka platser som är lönsammast att implementera/åtgärda för att förhindra eller minska konsekvenserna av naturolyckor. Eftersom denna typ av kunskap saknas syftar examensarbetet till att öka kunskapen om vilka åtgärder som är mest lönsamma genom att studera ett antal fall med översvämningar och bortspolad väg. Fallen är dels två hypotetiska fall med bortspolad väg, dels tre verkliga fall med översvämningar. Konsekvensen av en naturolycka beskrivs av skador på tillgångar (person, egendom, finans, miljö och immateriell) som definieras av Trafikverkets metod Riskanalys Vald Vägsträcka. Det finns två typer av åtgärder för att minska risken för naturolyckor; sannolikhetsreducerande åtgärder som minskar sannolikheten för en olycka och konsekvensminskande åtgärder som minskar konsekvensen av en olycka. Nettomervärdeskvoten används för att beräkna lönsamheten med olika åtgärder för de olika fallen. Utifrån fallen förs sedan en diskussion om vilka typer av åtgärder som är mest samhällsekonomiskt lönsamma. I denna är klimatförändringarnas konsekvenser i Sverige hela tiden en central faktor.

    Examensarbetet visar att en åtgärds lönsamhet bestäms av åtgärdskostnaden och vilka tillgångar den minskar eller förhindrar skada på. De vanligaste och därför viktigaste skadekostnaderna är avstängningskostnad (finans) och återställningskostnad (egendom) för vägen. I de studerade översvämningsfallen bestäms lönsamheten för alla åtgärdstyper av avstängningskostnaden för vägen. I räkneexemplen för bortspolad väg finns tre skadade tillgångstyper; person, egendom och finans (avstängningskostnad). Sannolikhetsreducerande åtgärder beror på alla dessa medan konsekvensminskande åtgärder beror på avstängningskostnad. Konsekvensminskande åtgärder framstår alltid som lite mindre lönsamma än vad de är, eftersom indirekta vägavstängningskostnader inte finns med i någon av Trafikverkets modeller.

    I ett förändrat klimat blir översvämningar och bortspolningar vanligare och därmed blir alla typer av åtgärder lönsammare. Åtgärder som idag är olönsamma kan bli nödvändiga för att lyckas reducera framtida risker. Existerande klimatmodeller är inte tillräckligt exakta för att kunna säga precis hur sannolikheten för naturolycka ändras från en plats till en annan. För att kunna prioritera optimalt behöver också riskerna i dagens klimat vara kända. Köpenhamnsdiagnosens slutsatser samt att utsläppen av växthusgaser är värre än i A2-scenariot gör att naturolyckor är sannolikare än vad som beskrivs i rapporterna som citeras i examensarbetet. Framtida skadekostnader är alltså större än Trafikverket räknat med och åtgärder blir därför både angelägnare och lönsammare. En viktig riskaspekt vad gäller klimatförändringarna är att ingen vet exakt vad som kommer hända. Om extremväder får nya förlopp, är det inte rimligt att räkna med att saker kommer fungera på samma som tidigare. T ex skulle det kunna innebära att frekvensen personskador ändras, om inga nya åtgärder för att förhindra dem vidtas.

  • 133.
    Altgärde, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    Andreasson, Joel
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    En utredning av kommunala markanvisningspolicyer: Påverkan av lag 2014:8992016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det är sedan tidigare tydligt att det funnits problem och delade åsikter kring arbetet med markanvisningar innan lag 2014:899 trädde i kraft. Arbetets syfte var att undersöka om arbetet har förändrats efter att lag 2014:899 trädde i kraft. Målet med arbetet är att utreda de valda kommunernas markanvisningspolicyer och deras erfarenheter av arbetet med dessa. Förbättringsåtgärder föreslås efter att ha belyst svagheter i de markanvisningspolicyer som undersöktes, med utgångspunkt i lag 2014:899 samt punkter specificerade av Caesar et al. (2013). 

    Ett dokument med förslag till vad en markanvisningspolicy bör innehålla har tagits fram. Dokumentet kan underlätta kommuners arbete med markanvisningspolicyer i fortsättningen.

  • 134.
    Althén Bergman, Felix
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Geoinformatics.
    Improving the location of existing recycling stations using GIS2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 135.
    Alverbro, Karin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Environmental and ethical aspects of destruction of ammunition2010Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many decision-making situations today affect the safety of individuals and the environment,for instance hazardous waste management. In practice, many of these decisions are madewithout an overall view and with the focus on either the environment or safety. Now and then the areas of regulation are in conflict, i.e. the best alternative according to environmental considerations is not always the safest way and vice versa.A tool for taking an overall view within the areas of safety and environment would simplify matters and provide authorities and industry with a better basis for their work. This thesis forms part of a project which aims to develop a framework tool giving this overall view and supporting decision-making in which the issues (areas) of environment, safety, ethics and costs are all integrated. By developing a framework tool, different areas of interest could be taken into consideration more easily when a decision is to be made and could also help develop legislation and policy locally (at an industry or company), nationally and internationally. The project also aims to provide knowledge about different destruction/decommission methods, their good and bad points and their consequences, in order to provide different actors with a better basis for decision-making. This thesis focuses on development of the framework. The scope of the studies was restricted to environment, ethics and personnel safety due to the extent of the work and time limitations. In the next part of the project, the areas of costs and evaluation will be studied and a first draft of the framework tool will be presented. In order to develop the framework tool, two case studies were carried out here: an environmental analysis involving a life cycle assessment and an ethical analysis. With the help of these analyses, three different methods of destruction of ammunition were compared: Open detonation, modelled both with and without recovery and recycling of metals; incineration in a static kiln with air pollution control combined with recycling of metals, modelled with two different levels of air emissions; and a combination of incineration with air pollution control, open burning, recovery of some energetic material and recycling of metals, giving a total of five options. Every method of destruction of energetic material, i.e. explosive waste or ammunition, results in environmental impacts in both the short and long term. These environmental impacts have direct or indirect impacts on safety, quality of life, the economy, etc., now and in the future, locally and globally. Life cycle assessment revealed two factors of importance for reducing the environmental impacts: Recycling the metals and air pollution control. As a consequence of controlling these potential negative environmental impacts, safety problems might also be controlled. Ethical analysis revealed that future generations and people in foreign countries will be affected by the destruction of ammunition. When choosing a method for destruction of ammunition, this group (the general public) should thus be given special attention.

     

  • 136.
    Alverbro, Karin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Hochschorner, Elisabeth
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Hagvall, J.
    A life cycle assessment of destruction of ammunition2009In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 170, no 2-3, 1101-1109 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Armed Forces have large stocks of ammunition that were produced at a time when decommissioning was not considered. This ammunition will eventually become obsolete and must be destroyed, preferably with minimal impact on the environment and in a safe way for personnel. The aim of this paper is to make a comparison of the environmental impacts in a life cycle perspective of three different methods of decommissioning/destruction of ammunition, and to identify the environmental advantages and disadvantages of each of these destruction methods: open detonation; static kiln incineration with air pollution control combined with metal recycling, and a combination of incineration with air pollution control, open burning, recovery of some energetic material and metal recycling. Data used are for the specific processes and from established LCA databases. Recycling the materials in the ammunition and minimising the spread of airborne pollutants during incineration were found to be the most important factors affecting the life cycle environmental performance of the compared destruction methods. Open detonation with or without metal recycling proved to be the overall worst alternative from a life cycle perspective. The results for the static kiln and combination treatment indicate that the kind of ammunition and location of the destruction plant might determine the choice of method, since the environmental impacts from these methods are of little difference in the case of this specific grenade. Different methods for destruction of ammunition have previously been discussed from a risk and safety perspective. This is however to our knowledge the first study looking specifically on environmentally aspect in a life cycle perspective.

  • 137.
    Alverbro, Karin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Sandin, P.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Plant Physiology and Forest Genetics, Uppsala.
    Ethical analysis of three methods for destruction of ammunition2011In: Risk Management: An International Journal, ISSN 1460-3799, E-ISSN 1743-4637, Vol. 13, no 1-2, 63-79 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A comparative ethical analysis of three different methods for destroying ammunition was performed using a three-party model for ethical risk analysis presented by Hermansson and Hansson. The model was also evaluated by applying it for the case of destruction of a 40-mm grenade in Sweden. A general observation is that future generations and people in foreign countries will be negatively affected by the destruction of ammunition, although they quite often receive no benefit or compensation. A number of groups exposed to risks or environmental impacts will have some benefits from the destruction. However, it is difficult to determine the extent of this benefit or the fairness of the distribution of risks and benefits. This highlights some important limitations of the Hermansson and Hansson model.

  • 138.
    Alverbro, Karin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Nevhage, Björn
    Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI).
    Erdeniz, Robert
    Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI).
    Methods for risk analysis2010Report (Other academic)
  • 139. Amadei, Bernard
    et al.
    Stephansson, Ove
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Rock stress and its measurements1997 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
  • 140. Ames, Alicia
    et al.
    Mateo-Babiano, Iderlina B.
    Susilo, Yusak O.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport planning, economics and engineering.
    Transport Workers' Perspective on Indigenous Transport and Climate Change Adaptation2014In: Transportation Research Record, ISSN 0361-1981, E-ISSN 2169-4052, no 2451, 1-9 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the potential role of indigenous transport for increasing the adaptive capacity of selected cities in developing Asia. Indigenous transport drivers were surveyed face-to-face in Bandung, Indonesia, and in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, to gain an understanding of how transport workers, specifically drivers-operators, characterize transport modes considered as indigenous and perceive their potential role in increasing the adaptive capacity of these cities. The main finding was that indigenous transport modes in the two cities in the case study had evolved to fit a niche market influenced by differing urban scales and divergent demographic and geographic characteristics. Thus, the experiences and the perceptions of transport workers on indigenous transport were highly contextualized in relation to service and route characteristics. Operating conditions for drivers were indicative of the regulatory status of indigenous transport modes in the informal landscape. This analysis contributes to an increased understanding of the role and the operation of indigenous transport modes within the transport system. The analysis also contributes policy-relevant insights to improve an understanding of the potential role of indigenous transport in climate change adaptation, as well as to increase awareness and to anticipate a shift to a more environmentally sustainable transport mode.

  • 141.
    Anand, Adarsh
    et al.
    Department of Operational Research, University of Delhi.
    Agarwal, Mohini
    University of Delhi.
    Bansal, Gunjan
    Department of Operational Research, University of Delhi.
    Garmabaki, Amir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Studying product diffusion based on market coverage2016In: Journal of Marketing Analytics, ISSN 2050-3326, Vol. 4, no 4, 135-146 p., 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Market coverage is an important attribute for determining the success of a product. The larger the market covered by a product is, the higher the amount of sales for that product will be. Market coverage strategies thus contribute to the success of a product in tapping the market. In this study, we emphasize the impact of market coverage on the rate of adoption in determining product sales. New product diffusion models based on the market covered are proposed. A methodological approach of weighted criteria is implemented to evaluate and rank the proposed models. The analysis is conducted on real-life sales datasets

  • 142.
    Anderson, Anne Lee
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Assessment of thermal radiation arithmetic's for jet flames: A study involving generic calculation methods concerning radiation from jet flames with the purpose to determine the safety distance for flame effects2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Jet flames are commonly used as flame effects in pyrotechnical shows, and are also a possible risk in industries that uses pressurised flammable gas. For these users it is important to  make fire safety engineering calculations to minimise the risks. This project focus on jet flames that are used in pyrotechnic shows where, e.g. it is important to determine the safety distance to the audience. Up to now most studies made concerning jet flames regards jet flames in subsonic regiments, whilst there is a lack of studies concerning sonic jet flames and mathematical formulations for radiation from these cases are limited. This makes pre-determination of temperatures, safety distances, flame heights etc. a challenge. Based on information found, and assumptions when needed, calculations of the safety distance were made. 

  • 143.
    Andersson, Alexandra
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Green Building: Ett företags energieffektiviseringsarbete i ett byggprojekt samt de krav som ställs för att få byggnaden Green Building klassad.2009Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The examination has been performed at Bjerking AB, which is an architectural and engineering company. Bjerking AB has the ambition to be a member of Green Building.

    The Green Building program developed in year 2005 by The European Commission, the program is an environmental system with the aim to improving energy efficiency within the sectors of non-residential buildings. The minimum requirements to participate the program are following: in new-built buildings the calculated energy consumption must be 25 % lower than the requirements in the BBR (Building regulations) and in refurbishment the reduction must be 25 % lower than before the optimization.

    The aim of this study has been to examine and review the company Bjerking AB's energy efficiency work in the project of building the school/kindergarten S:ta Maria Alsike, where the goal is to get this building Green Building classed. A description of requirements to become a member of the Green Building has also accomplished in the thesis.

    The methods performed in this study are literature review, searches on the Internet, studies on the project database for facts/values, calculation of energy consumption and interviews of members of the Green Building. 

    The following issues have been dealt with in the report;

    -          Did the building in the project manage the requirement to achieve an   energy consumption that is 25% lower than the requirements in BBR?

    -          What technical measures/system was selected in the building?

    -          What kind of cooperation was the project based on?

    -          What is required for consultancy companies and real estate owners to become members of the Green Building?

    The study of the project and calculation of estimated energy consumption in the building, give the result 47 kWh/m2, year. This is 60 % lower than the requirements of BBR. The Green Building requirement is that the building's energy consumption should be at least 25% less than the requirements in BBR. The building fulfills this requirement by a significant margin. It can therefore be concluded that the technical solutions carried out in the building are energy efficient. The project consisted of the cooperation shape “partnering ", which can be assumed to be a good form of cooperation in order to achieve an energy efficient building. The consultancy company Bjerking AB and the landlord Knivsta Pastorat has the potential to become members of Green Building, as Green Building Endorser respective Green Building Partner.

    Keywords: energy efficiency, requirements of BBR, technical systems, cooperation, consultancy companies, real estate owners, estimated energy consumption, partnering, Green Building Partner, Green Building Endorser.

  • 144.
    Andersson, Andreas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Design and Bridges.
    Gamla Årstabron, FEM-beräkning av förstärkningsåtgärders inverkan på betongbågarna2006Report (Other academic)
  • 145.
    Andersson, Andreas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Design and Bridges (name changed 20110630).
    Gamla Årstabron, FEM-beräkningar av 3-ledsbågarnas verkningssätt och inverkan på förstärkningsåtgärder2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport redovisar brottgränsberäkningar av gamla Årstabrons 3-ledsbågar. Beräkningarna är till stor del utförda med FEM och är gjorda på liknande sätt som tidigare rapport avseende nolledsbågarna.

  • 146.
    Andersson, Andreas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Design and Bridges.
    Gamla Årstabron, Sammanställning av beräkningar avseende förstärkningar av betongbågarna2007Report (Other academic)
  • 147.
    Andersson, Andreas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Design and Bridges.
    Sundquist, Håkan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Design and Bridges.
    Gamla Årstabron, Utvärdering av verkningssätt hos betongvalv genom mätning och FEM-modellering – Etapp 12005Report (Other academic)
  • 148.
    Andersson, Andreas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Design and Bridges.
    Sundquist, Håkan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Design and Bridges.
    Utvärdering av krafter i Älvsborgsbron genom dynamisk mätning och analys2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Föreliggande rapport behandlar mätning och analys av krafter i Älvsborgsbron i Göteborgsom underlag för klassningsberäkning. Den metod som används för bestämning av krafternaär den s.k. vibrationsmetoden där konstruktionselement sätts i svängning och dessas egenfrekvenserbestäms med hjälp av accelerometrar. Med kända egenfrekvenser för t.ex. kablaroch hängare kan krafterna i dessa analyseras fram. Eftersom flera av de aktuella elementenhar egenskaper som inte är enkla att beskriva med hjälp av faktorer som geometriska mått,massa, styvhet och inspänningsförhållanden, har möda lagts ner på att använda så noggrannametoder som möjligt för att kunna bestämma krafter och kraftfördelning. Metoderna beskrivsi rapporten och resultat och noggrannhet diskuteras och bedöms.De resultat som presenteras beträffande krafter bedöms ha en så god noggrannhet som det f.n.går att analysera fram med idag kända någorlunda enkla metoder.

  • 149.
    Andersson, Andreas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Design and Bridges.
    Sundquist, Håkan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Design and Bridges.
    Karoumi, Raid
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Design and Bridges.
    Evaluating cable forces in cable supported bridges using ambient vibration method2006In: The International Conference on Bridge Engineering – Challenges in the 21st Century , November 1-3, 2006, Hong Kong, Hong Kong, 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with the assessment of cable forces in existing cable supported bridges using the ambient vibration method. A case study of the Älvsborg suspension bridge in Sweden is presented. Dynamic measurements of the backstays and hangers as well as on each strand in one of the splay chambers have been carried out. The measured frequencies are evaluated and calculations of corresponding axial force in the cable structures are performed taking into account the cable sag, boundary conditions and flexural rigidity. Modal analyses have been used to study the shape of vibration and for comparison with finite element models.

  • 150.
    Andersson, Anna
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Carlson, Eva-Sara
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Structures in underground facilities: Analysis of a Concrete Column’s Capacity to Withstand Extraordinary Fire Loads2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The report present a Master of Science in engineering work carried out at Mälardalen’s University, made this work within the research project METRO. The work is a part of the research project METRO. The focus of the METRO project is on the protection of underground rail mass transport systems e.g. tunnels and subways stations. The aim with this work was to determine if a concrete column placed close to the tracks at a subway station can withstand the effect and temperature of a fire in a burning train comparable to the effects and temperatures that showed at the full scale test carried out within the METRO project. A literature review was made previous to the following case study. The results from this show that the column is negligible affected by the fire.

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