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  • 101.
    Al-Jumaili, Mustafa
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Rauhala, Ville
    Kemi-Tornio University of Applied Science.
    Karim, Ramin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Jonsson, Katrin
    Department of Informatics, Umeå University.
    Parida, Aditya
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Aspects of data quality in eMaintenance: a case study of process industry in northern Europe2014In: Engineering Asset Management 2011: Proceedings of the Sixth World Congress on Engineering Asset Management / [ed] Jay Lee; Jun Ni; Jagnathan Sarangapani; Joseph Mathew, London: Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2014, p. 41-51Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased environmental awareness in the industry combined with the globalized market economy makes increasing demands for sustainable and efficient resource utilization. In this context, maintenance plays a critical role by linking business objectives to the strategic and operational activities aimed at retaining the system’s availability performance, cost-efficiency and sustainability. Performing maintenance effectively and efficiently requires corresponding infrastructure for decision-support provided through eMaintenance solutions. A proper eMaintenance solution needs to provide services for data acquisition, data processing, data aggregation, data analysis, data visualization, context-sensing etc. To en Quality of Service (QoS) in eMaintenance solutions, the performance of both system-of-interest, enabling systems and related processes have to be measured and managed. However, the QoS has to be considered on all aggregation levels and encompass the aspects of Content Quality (CQ), Data Quality (DQ) and Information Quality (IQ). Hence, the purpose of this paper is to study and describe some aspects of DQ in eMaintenance related to process industry in northern Europe

  • 102.
    Aljumaili, Mustafa
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Rauhala, Ville
    Kemi-Tornio University of Applied Science Technology.
    Tretten, Phillip
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Karim, Ramin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Data quality in eMaintenance: a call for research2011In: MPMM 2011: Maintenance Performance Measurement & Management: Conference Proceedings / [ed] Diego Galar; Aditya Parida; Håkan Schunnesson; Uday Kumar, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2011, p. 69-73Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Effective and efficient maintenance requires a proper information logistics, which can be delivered through eMaintenance solutions. Development of eMaintenance solutions faces extensive challenges. One of these challenges is how to ensure the quality of data used in different eMaintenance solutions. Data Quality (DQ) concerns all phases of the maintenance process. The purpose of this paper is to answer the research question: how should DQ be considered and managed when developing eMaintenance solutions. To deal with such challenges a case study was conducted at a mining company. Empirical data has been collected through interviews, observations, archival records and workshops. The data analysis has been based on an empirical framework that supports the identification of required information services. Conditions that support the DQ and the information logistics, along with that, support the maintenance process have been presented. These aspects have also been related to the phases of a generic maintenance process.

  • 103.
    Al-Jumaili, Mustafa
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Tretten, Phillip
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Karim, Ramin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Kumar, Uday
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Study of aspects of data quality in e-maintenance2012In: International Journal of COMADEM, ISSN 1363-7681, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 3-14Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 104.
    Al-Jumaili, Mustafa
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Wandt, Karina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Karim, Ramin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    eMaintenance ontologies and data production2012In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop & Congress on eMaintenance: Dec 12-14 Luleå, Sweden : eMaintenace: trends in technologies and methodologies, challenges, possibilities and applications / [ed] Ramin Karim; Aditya Parida; Uday Kumar, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2012, p. 191-196Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 105.
    Al-Jumaili, Mustafa
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Wandt, Karina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Karim, Ramin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    eMaintenance Related Ontologies2012Report (Other academic)
  • 106.
    Allahkarami, Zeynab
    et al.
    Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mining Engineering, University of Tarbiat.
    Sayadi, Ahmad Reza
    Tarbiat Modares University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mining Engineering, University of Tarbiat.
    Lanke, Amol
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Reliability Analysis of Motor System of Dump Truck for Maintenance Management2016In: Current Trends in Reliability, Availability, Maintainability and Safety: An Industry Perspective / [ed] Uday Kumar; Alireza Ahmadi; Ajit Kumar Verma; Prabhakar Varde, Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2016, p. 681-688Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dump truck is one of the main machinery in open pit mines. From an economic point of view, more than 50–60 % of production costs in open pit mines are allocated to hauling and loading costs, so it is important to keep equipment in good condition. Reliability is a useful tool for evaluating the performance of this machine. In this research, the reliability of motor subsystem of a dump truck in Miduk Copper Mine in Iran has been analyzed. The failure data were collected during 20 months of dump truck operation. Trend and serial correlation tests were used to validate the assumption of independent and identically distribution (IID). According to tests, the data are independent and identically distributed therefore the renewal process technique is used for modelling. For finding the best-fit distribution, different types of statistical distributions were tested using the Easyfit software. The analysis results indicated the time between failures (TBF) data obey the Weibull (3p) distribution. The developed model based on these data showed that the reliability of the motor subsystem decreases to a zero value after approximately 430 h of operation. Regarding to the obtained reliability plot, preventive reliability-based maintenance time interval for 90 % reliability levels for machine in the motor subsystem is 21 h.

  • 107.
    Allard, Ingrid
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Achieving building energy performance: requirements and evaluation methods for residential buildings in Sweden, Norway, and Finland2015Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Building energy performance has always been important in the cold climate of Sweden, Norway and Finland. To meet the goal that all new buildings should be nearly zero-energy buildings by 2020, set in the EU directive 2010/31/EU [1] on the energy performance of buildings (EPBD recast), the building sector in Europe now faces a transition towards buildings with improved energy performance. In such a transition, a discussion is needed about the objective of the improvement – why, or to what end, the building energy performance should be improved. The objective of improving building energy performance is often a political decision, but scientific research can contribute with knowledge on how the objectives can be achieved.

    This thesis addresses how the indicators used in the requirements used to achieve building energy performance in Sweden, Norway, and Finland, and the methods used to evaluate these requirements, reflect building energy performance. It also addresses difficulties in achieving comparable and verifiable indicators in evaluations of building energy performance. The research objective has two parts: to review, compare, and discuss (i) requirements and (ii) evaluation methods used to achieve energy performance of residential buildings in Sweden, Norway and Finland. The work in this thesis includes reviews of the requirements used in national building codes and passive house criteria to achieve building energy performance, of methods used to evaluate compliance with such requirements, and of methods used specifically to evaluate the indicator Envelope Air Tightness.

    The results show that different sets of indicators are used to achieve building energy performance in the studied building codes and passive house criteria. The methods used to evaluate compliance with requirements used to achieve building energy performance are also different, but calculation methods are generally more often used than measurement methods. The calculation- and measurement methods used are often simple. A methodology to analyze the deviation between predictions- and measurements of building energy performance (the performance gap) was developed, to investigate the effects of different evaluation methods on different indicators used to achieve building energy performance. The methodology was tested in a case-study. This study indicated that the choice of method affects which parts of the performance gap reflected in the indicators Supplied Energy (see Terminology), Net Energy (see Terminology), and Overall U-value. Among the reviewed methods to evaluate air tightness, the Fan/Blower Door Pressurization is well known and preferred by professionals in the field. The results in this thesis may be useful when choosing indicators and evaluation methods to achieve different objectives of improving building energy performance and in the quest towards comparable and verifiable indicators used to achieve building energy performance.

  • 108.
    Allard, Ingrid
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Östin, Ronny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    A methodology to investigate the building energy performance gap2015In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to evaluate compliance with requirements on building energy performance, it is necessary to find strategies to process discrepancies from the results of forward simulations in the design stage and of measurements in the operated stage. The gap between designed performance and measured performance is referred to as the “performance gap”. It can be divided into a procurement gap (between intended design and verified performance) and an operational gap (between verified performance and non-normalized measurements).  

    In this work we introduced a methodology for performance gap analysis, based on separating the procurement- and operational gap. An important component to do this is calibrations of calculations using measured data. The suggested methodology allows for more detailed verifications of building energy performance and can be used to study how indicators reflect the performance gap. The proposed methodology is tested using data from a well-documented and measured operated single family building, in sub-arctic climate in Sweden.

    The indicators studied in the verification were carefully analyzed. The methodology was found reliable based on the obtained results and a sensitivity analysis. An overall observation is that the applicability of the methodology depends on the accuracy of the hybrid method. The accuracy of the performance gap analysis per definition depends on the available information of the operated building, and consequently to access to extensive measured data.

  • 109.
    Allmér, Gustaf
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Organization and management.
    Joakim, Svantesson
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Organization and management.
    How internal factors influence the work towards increased energy performance: A case study in a Swedish construction company2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    För  att  minska Europas klimatpåverkan ställer Sveriges regering och Europeiska Unionen allt högre krav på byggindustrin gällande energiprestandan i nybyggda flerbostadshus, då bostadssektorn idag står för en betydande del av Sveriges totala energiförbrukning. Byggföretagen jobbar numera för förbättrad energiprestanda i nybyggda bostäder, men skillnaden från projekt till projekt kan vara mycket stor. Man har i tidigare forskning studerat de externa faktorer som påverkar hur långt man är villig att gå energimässigt i bostadsprojekt, men lite forskning har bedrivits kring de interna faktorerna.

    Detta examensarbete har därför till syfte att identifiera dessa interna faktorer och även förklara varför de påverkar processen. För att studera detta har en fallstudie utförts på ett svenskt byggföretag där aktörer inom stora delar av den interna byggprocessen finns representerade. Semi strukturerade intervjuer genomfördes för att ge en så utförlig bild som  möjligt av processen och de faktorer som påverkar den. Intervjudatan sorterades, reducerades och analyserades genom stöd av ett teoretiskt ramverk. I detta ingår teorier från tidigare studier och olika Knowledge Managementteorier, vilka används för att tolka och förstå de faktorer som iakttagits. 

    Studiens resultat innefattar en redogörelse för viktiga observerade interna faktorer som påverkar processen i fallstudieföretaget mot mer energieffektiva flerbostadshus. Exempel på dessa är: individers kunskap och åsikt om ökad energiprestanda, tidpunkten i projektet då energifrågan lyfts upp, hur kunskap återvinns inom företaget, hur man följer upp energiberäkningar och val av medium för att dela kunskap. Många av de faktorer som identifierats är kopplade till vilken attityd och strategi  ledningen  väljer för energifrågan.  Den attityd som uppifrån förmedlas kommer också att antas av aktörerna i processen, och man har här möjligheten  att göra ett val i hur mycket man som företag vill satsa på fortsatt förbättrad energiprestanda.

  • 110.
    Allouche, Elias
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Spatial Planning.
    Einarsson, David
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Spatial Planning.
    Den Förarlösa Staden: gestaltningsprinciper för eldrivna autonoma fordon - en vision om brunnshögs framtida utveckling2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    ”I could either watch it happen or be a part of it.” - Elon Musk

    De autonoma fordonens intåg på svenska vägar är ett stundande faktum med utblick mot 2030. Med dessa förs även förhoppningar om säkrare trafikmiljöer, större utrymme och prioritering av fotgängare och cyklister, mindre trängsel, reducerad miljöpåverkan och förenklade livsmönster. För att dessa positiva konsekvenser ska infalla krävs dock en förebyggande och långsiktig planering. Majoriteten av svenska kommuner har i dagsläget en reaktiv inställning till planering för autonoma fordon, det vill säga att först se utvecklingen äga rum och därefter tillämpa åtgärder. För att utvecklingen ska få ett önskvärt utfall måste kommunerna börja föra en proaktiv planering för autonoma fordons introduktion på marknaden.

    Det som hittills hämmat planeringen är framförallt bristen på konkreta förslag och principer för hur trafik och gatumiljöerna bör anpassas efter de nya förutsättningar som autonoma fordon medför. Samhället står just nu på kanten inför en storskalig omställning av fordonsflottan, där eldrivna autonoma fordon i slutändan förmodligen utgör en majoritet. Syftet med detta projekt är inte att förespråka en omedelbar implementering av åtgärder för fordon som ännu inte existerar, men fenomenet måste börja betänkas, diskuteras och konkretiseras på det långsiktiga planeringsstadiet. År 2050 ses som en relativt säker tidpunkt där autonoma fordon utgör en absolut majoritet av fordonsflottan, under en lång period kommer dock vanliga fordon och autonoma fordon behöva samsas om trafikutrymmet. Inom detta tidsspann råder många oklarheter över hur den fysiska planeringen ska positionera sig.

    De planeringsåtgärder som produceras i detta projekt är menade att utgöra ett första underlagsmaterial som kan börja lappa igen den kunskapslucka som existerar idag. Om kommunerna fortsätter med en reaktiv inställning ökar risken för att de negativa konsekvenser som autonoma fordon kan medföra infaller, såsom kapacitetsbrist i trafikinfrastrukturen på grund av ökade trafikmängder samt ett ökat parkeringsbehov. Sveriges kommuner bör vara med och styra utvecklingen för att privata aktörer och marknadskrafter inte anskaffar enväldig kontroll, och för att målsättningarna ska forma den teknologiska utvecklingen och inte vice versa. Vilket utfall som är mest sannolikt att inträffa beror till stor del på två faktorer; graden av proaktiv planering som bedrivs av de samhällsbyggande institutionerna samt i vilken grad delade lösningar av autonoma fordon anammas av allmänheten. Det är således omotiverat att inte bedriva en proaktiv planering på grund av de osäkerheter kring vilken typ av genomslag de autonoma fordonen får, för att institutionernas arbete kan påverka utvecklingen i den riktning som anses önskvärd.

    Detta projekt bidrar med något nytt till forskningen kring autonoma fordons påverkan på stadsplaneringen inom urbana miljöer, genom att konkretisera nödvändiga åtgärder som behöver tas med hänsyn till denna utveckling. Projektet resulterar i gestaltningsprinciper och förslag på lämplig utformning med hänsyn till autonoma fordon. Förhoppningen är att detta arbete är ett första steg i att möjliggöra en mer proaktiv planering, vilket är ett kriterium för att skapa en framtid med gång- och cykelprioriterade miljöer där delade autonoma fordon har ett reducerat anspråk i det offentliga rummet.

  • 111.
    Alm, Ove
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Effects of water on the mechanical propreties and micro-strucures of granitic rock at high pressures and high temperatures1982In: Issues in rock mechanics: proceedings Twenty-Third Symposium on Rock Mechanics ; the University of California, Berkeley, California, August 25 - 27, 1982 / [ed] Richard E. Goodman, New York: Society of Mining Engineers of the American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical and Petroleum Engineers , 1982, p. 261-269Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 112.
    Alm, Ove
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Experimental deformation of granitic rocks1981In: Vol. 103, no 1, p. 134-136Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 113.
    Alm, Ove
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Experimental deformation of mylonitic rocks: results presented at the International Conference on the Effect of Deformation on Rocks, Göttingen, April 9-12, 19801980Report (Other academic)
  • 114.
    Alm, Ove
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Fine-grained granitic rocks experimentally deformed at high temperatures and high pressures1977Report (Other academic)
  • 115.
    Alm, Ove
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Influence of water on the strength and deformation properties of a granitic aplite at high pressures and temperatures1979Report (Other academic)
  • 116.
    Alm, Ove
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Mechanical testing of powders and powder compacts1983In: Scandinavian journal of metallurgy, ISSN 0371-0459, E-ISSN 1600-0692, Vol. 12, no 6, p. 302-311Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Results from standard triaxial, uniaxial and bending tests are presented. Triaxial tests were performed at pressures in the range 0-200 MPa. Both initial loose powder samples and cylindrical precompacted specimens were studied under hydrostatic conditions. Most of the total volume compaction occurred at pressures below 10 MPa. Triaxial tests with superimposed axial loads showed no softening despite a 30% shortening of the length of specimens which initially were 60 mm long. Specimens deformed in triaxial tests showed a higher density and a higher uniaxial compressive strength than specimens compacted under hydrostatic conditions

  • 117.
    Alm, Ove
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    The effect of water on the mechanical properties and microstructures of granitic rocks at high pressures and high temperatures1982In: Issues in rock mechanics: twenty-third Symposium on Rock Mechanics, the University of California, Berkeley, California, August 25-27, 1982 / [ed] Richard E. Goodman; Francois E Heuze, Society of Mining Engineers of the American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical and Petroleum Engineers , 1982, p. 261-269Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 118.
    Alm, Ove
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Alm, B.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Stephansson, Ove
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Experimental deformation of rocks from the Kiruna District, northern Sweden1988In: Proceedings of the seventh quadrennial IAGOD symposium: held in Luleå, Sweden, August 18-22, 1986 / [ed] Ebbe Zachrisson, Taylor and Francis Group , 1988, p. 75-82Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 119.
    Alm, Ove
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Bäckström, Gunnar
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Thermal conductivity of NaF at high pressures1979Report (Other academic)
  • 120.
    Alm, Ove
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Forslund, Josef
    Ljunggren, Christer
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Mattila, Ulf
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Mortensen, Tove-Heide
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Stephansson, Ove
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Bergmekaniska standardtester: en beskrivning av tester från Avdelningen för bergmekanik, Tekniska högskolan i Luleå1985Report (Other academic)
  • 121.
    Alm, Ove
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Jaktlund, Lise-Lotte
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Shaoquan, Kuo
    Academia Sinica.
    The influence of microcrack density on the elastic and fracture mechanical properties of Stripa granite1985In: Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, ISSN 0031-9201, E-ISSN 1872-7395, Vol. 40, no 3, p. 161-179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Presents results from a great number of mechanical tests on Stripa granite containing various amounts of microcracks. Variations in the microcrack density were obtained by shock-heating the rock at different temperatures in the range 100-600°C for 3 h. The results presented are obtained from sound velocity measurements, uniaxial compression tests, Brazilian tests and three-point bending tests. The density of microcracks in the heated rock is studied by means of optical microscopy, SEM and differential strain analysis

  • 122.
    Alm, Ove
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Norin, Jonas
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Experimentella bestämningar av mekaniska egenskaper för hårdmetallpulver: slutrapport över pilotstudie1982Report (Other academic)
  • 123.
    Alm, Ove
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Attempt to make accurate measurements of deformations of compressible soilds at high pressure and different states of stress1982In: High pressure in research and industry: 8th AIRAPT Conference, 19th EHPRG Conference, 17 - 22 August 1981, Institte of Physical Chemistry, University of Uppsala, Sweden ; proceedings / [ed] C.-M. Backman, Uppsala: Fysikalisk-kemiska inst., Univ , 1982, p. 619-622Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 124.
    Alm, Ove
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Röshoff, Kennert
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Andersson, Göran
    Identification of thermally induced microcracks in rock materials1983In: Proceedings: Appendix / International Conference on Subsurface Heat Storage in Theory and Practice, Stockholm, June 6-8, 1983, Stockholm: Statens råd för byggnadsforskning , 1983, p. 338-342Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 125.
    Alm, Ove
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Röshoff, Kennert
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Stephansson, Ove
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Microstructures and mechanical characteristics of the Tannas augen gneiss, Swedish Caledonides1980In: Geologiska föreningens i Stockholm förhandlingar, ISSN 0016-786X, Vol. 102, no 4, p. 319-334Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mechanical behaviour, microstructure and substructure of the classic Tannas augen gneiss of the Swedish Caledonides are presented. Progressive deformation of granodiorite to augen gneiss and mylonite is shown to take place in an isochemical environment with redistribution of megacrysts to surrounding matrix. Experimental deformation of natural rocks from the Tannas Augen Gneiss Nappe has been carried out in the temperature range of 20-600oC and under confining pressure of 100-700MPa. The highest strength found is for the fine-grained mylonite. The augen of the gneiss show brittle behaviour under all test conditions, and temperature has a limited effect on the ultimate strength of the matrix of the augen gneiss. Microstructures have been analysed by means of optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The progressive deformation is brought about by dislocation glide and dislocation creep. Subgrain formation, recrystallization and straining of new grains are observed at all stages of the progressive deformation of the matrix while the augen behavior is brittle

  • 126.
    Alm, Ove
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Stephansson, Ove
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Experimental deformation of Augen-gneisses1979In: Mechanisms of deformation and fracture: proceedings of the interdisciplinary conference held at the University of Luleå, Luleå, Sweden, September 20-22, 1978 / [ed] Kenneth E. Easterling, Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1979, p. 173-186Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 127.
    Alm, Ove
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Stephansson, Ove
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Experimental Deformation of Augen-gneisses1978Report (Other academic)
  • 128.
    Almgren, Gunnar
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Bergsingenjörsutbildningen i Luleå under omprövning1990In: Bergsmannen med Jernkontorets Annaler, ISSN 0284-0448, no 6, p. 18-20, 23Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 129.
    Almgren, Gunnar
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Education in mining and rock excavation in Sweden1984In: The 12th Congress of World Mining Congress, New Delhi, November 19-23, 1984, Calcutta: American Institute of Chemical Engineers, 1984Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Education in Mining and Rock Excavation in Sweden can be subdivided into higher education, upper secondary school education and in-service training. Higher education is provided at the University of Lulea and leads to a Masters degree and to a Licentiate or Doctor of Engineering degree in mining. The higher education curriculum was replanned in connection with the move to Lulea in 1972 from the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm to involve higher specialization and to cover both the mining and the underground construction sectors. The upper secondary school education is given at the College of Mining and Metallurgy in Filipstad and leads to a secondary-school engineering degree. In-service training courses are given for working professionals by the Division of Advanced Vocational Training in Lulea and by equipment suppliers. Vocational training is pursued at some upper secondary schools in cooperation with the mining companies.

  • 130.
    Almgren, Gunnar
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Large scale underground mining: proceedings of the International Symposium on Large Scale Underground Mining, Luleå 6-7 November 19851985Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 131.
    Almgren, Gunnar
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Luleå-högskolan och dess bergteknik1977In: JkA: Jernkontorets Annaler, ISSN 0280-4239, no 3, p. 58-60Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 132.
    Almgren, Gunnar
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Rock mechanics and the economics of cut and fill mining1981In: Application of rock mechanics to cut and fill mining: proceedings of the Conference on the application of rock mechanics to cut and fill mining, organized by the Departments of rock mechanics and soil mechanics, University of Luleå ... held at the University of Luleå, Sweden, from 1 to 3 June, 1980 / [ed] Ove Stephansson; Michael J. Jones, London: The Institution of Mining and Metallurgy , 1981, p. 28-35Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 133.
    Almgren, Gunnar
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Almgren, T.
    Kumar, Uday
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Just-in-time and right-in-space1996In: Minerals Industry International, ISSN 0955-2847, Vol. 1032, p. 26-29Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 134.
    Almgren, Gunnar
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Berge, IvarNorwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim.Matikainen, RaimoHelsinki University of Technology.
    Improvement of mine productivity and overall economy by modern technology1987Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The two volumes contain over 100 papers of which c40 are abstracted separately. The articles are organized into 6 sections (the first 2 in volume 1, the rest in 2): 1) effective use of geological and geomechanical information; 2) computers in mine planning and operations; 3) capital requirements, organization and productivity in mechanized mining; 4) developments in shaftsinking including alternative haulage systems; 5) mechanized scaling and rock support; 6) mining in arctic conditions (especially permafrost) including applications of artificial freezing.-M.A.Bass

  • 135.
    Almgren, Gunnar
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Kumar, UdayLuleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.Vagenas, NickLuleå tekniska universitet.
    Mine mechanization and automation: proceedings of the second International Symposium on Mine Mechanization and Automation, Luleå, Sweden, 7-10 June 19931993Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 136.
    Almgren, Torgny
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    An approach to long range production and development planning with application to the Kiruna Mine, Sweden1994Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The mining industry is increasingly oriented towards large scale mining and the planning concept of "Just in Time", which means activities starting and ending as late as possible without jeopardising production. The buffers, consisting of production blocks and development ahead of production, are then minimi. This, however, leads to a larger dependency on the quality of the output from the production systems. The Kiruna mine, Sweden, is a large scale mine and has a number of potential ore blocks with a content that varies in quality (Fe, P, K) and in quantity (ore tonnage). Ore production is restricted by operative and block sequencing constraints as well as by production requirements. A computerized planning model, based on operations research (multi period scheduling) has been developed to meet future demands on ore qualities and quantities. The model uses long range objectives, but can satisfy temporary short range demands without jeopardising the long range goals. A sub-optimal plan, made using the model, has been compared with a truly optimal plan. It is shown that, due to the unreliable information concerning the ore, the sub-optimal plan performs as well as the optimal one. The simulation process that was developed for this comparison is also used to estimate the need for production buffer blocks. Another buffer planning model is developed to determine when development work should take place in order to minimize the risk of additional costs, caused by an inability to start production on time. This algorithm considers the uncertainties in activity durations and is based on a Monte Carlo simulation using project networks and estimates the optimum development buffer.

  • 137.
    Almgren, Torgny
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Probabilistic time planning for underground mines1990In: International Journal of Mining and Geological Engineering, ISSN 0269-0136, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 91-109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The advantages of probabilistic time planning techniques, compared to deterministic ones, are discussed and an approach to probabilistic planning is presented. The approach includes an analysis of disturbancy factors, and a method of estimating the distribution of project completion time by using Monte Carlo simulation. It is shown how this result may be used to calculate the need for development buffers, which also has been demonstrated on a particular case, the Oscar project, a sublevel stoping operation in the Kiruna mine, Sweden.

  • 138.
    Almgren, Torgny
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Time planning under uncertainty in a mining environment1989Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 139.
    Almqvist, Amanda
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    Nordström, Emma
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    Himmelstrand, Malin
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    Klassificeringssystem för hållbar stadsutveckling2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The urbanization is increasing while there is a comprehensive climate change in the world. The cities stands for 70 percent of the global carbon emissions and two-thirds of the world's energy use. Half the world's population live in cities. Because of this, it is necessary that cities are sustainable. Therefore, there are various classification systems for neighborhoods that facilitates the creation of a sustainable city. However, there is no Swedish system but Breeam Communities is adapted to Swedish conditions.

    The objective of the report is to contribute to the development of methods that support sustainable urban development. By first identifying the classification systems, these could be compared with each other to see which criteria’s recurred. Parallels could be drawn as to which was more important, as the majority made use of these criteria. A sketching was made to find out what criteria should be included in the Swedish system and the regular criteria of the investigated classification systems were also very helpful.

    The systems that have been investigated are Breeam Communities, Casbee for Cities, One Planet Communities, Green Star Communities and Leed for Neighborhood Development. The systems measure sustainability usually infactors/criteria of social, economic and ecological aspects. Classification systems have different requirements or goals of what needs to be achieved within each factor. The systems are very different designed which complicated the comparison process.

    The regular criteria in all systems are carbon, water consumption, water pollution, food, wildlife and nature, floods, waste management, developed land, physicalactivity, accessibility, health and welfare, culture and heritage, transport, greenspaces, community involvement, light pollution, local economy and employment.

    Since Sweden has its own climate and its own standards, a foreign system is not adapted so easily to Swedish conditions. The criteria that should be part of a Swedish system is partly based on the global and national goals for Sweden as wellas those returned in the analyzed systems. In addition to the criteria that reappeared in the systems (some of the criteria has been renamed) it should also contain noise, nature, traffic, mixed development, security, maintenance and education.T

    There are many factors within the three perspectives to be analyzed and utilized to achieve a well-organized and good classification system of neighborhoods. There are many benefits of a classification system. For example, it facilitates informed choice, collaboration and communication between actors, but most of all a better society to live in.

  • 140.
    Almén, Lena
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Projekteringens möjligheter att minska risken för arbetsskador i byggproduktionen.: En fallstudie av säkerhetsstyrning i två byggprojekt.2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Arbetsolycksfrekvensen bland bygg ‐ och anläggningsarbetare är högre, och pensionsåldern lägre, än genomsnittet i det svenska arbetslivet.

    Tidigare studier visar att projektörer har möjligheter att påverka arbetsmiljön i produktionen, ju tidigare i byggprocessen desto större är påverkansmöjligheterna.

    Enligt svensk lag har projektörer och byggherrar ansvar för arbetsmiljön i produktion. Den 1 januari 2009 skärptes Arbetsmiljölagen så att deras ansvar blev tydligare.

    Två byggprojekt, båda projekterade för januari 2009, studerades. I båda projekten var det en totalentreprenör som ansvarade för att projektera och producera flerbostadshus.

    Syftet med studien var att finna samband mellan arbetsmiljörisker i produktionen och beslut tagna under projekteringsskedet.

    Hantverkare och tjänstemän i produktionen identifierade riskfyllda arbetsmoment, vilka eventuellt hade varit möjliga att förebygga under projekteringsfasen. Fallen dokumenterades och presenterades för dem som hade deltagit i projekteringen av byggnaden. För vart och ett av fallen, ombads projektörerna att beskriva bakgrunden, vilka beslut som hade tagits och varför. I föreliggande rapport presenteras de riskfyllda arbetsmomenten och varför dessa uppstod. Analyser av fallen gjorde det möjligt att förstå vad projektörer kan göra för att förhindra arbetsskador i produktionen, och varför det ibland inte är möjligt.

    Studien visar att projektörer i många fall, inte var medvetna om arbetsmiljökonsekvenserna, och saknade rutiner för att identifiera, eliminera och hantera arbetsmiljörisker under projekteringsskedet. Krav från byggherre, lagar, stadsbyggnadskontor och bransch har begränsat projektörernas handlingsutrymme. Det har även funnits begränsningar vid inköp av produkter, på grund av svårigheter att få tag i produkter och material som är bra ur arbetsmiljösynpunkt samt restriktioner kopplade till avtal. Det har också varit problem med samordning och styrning av konsulter och underentreprenörer.

    Byggherren har ett viktigt ansvar för arbetsmiljön i byggprojekt. Det är av stor vikt att byggherren prioriterar säker arbetsmiljö genom hela byggprojektet, från det tidiga projekteringsskedet tills byggnaden är färdigställd.

    I varje skede av ett byggprojekt behövs rutiner för att samtliga aktörer ska beakta arbetsmiljökonsekvenser av sina beslut, parallellt med konsekvenser för produktivitet och produkt.

    För att åstadkomma förbättrad säkerhetsstyrning i byggprocessen, måste byggföretagen prioritera arbetsmiljöfrågan. Totalentreprenörer har, genom sitt ansvar för både projektering och produktion, goda möjligheter till arbetsmiljöstyrning. Det behövs rutiner för riskanalys i projekteringen, liksom på företagets olika avdelningar, och tillräcklig kompetens inom företaget. Centrala riktlinjer bör tas fram för att stimulera att erfarenheter och säkerhetsinsikter hos individer i hela produktionskedjan tas till vara inför framtida projekt.

    Projekteringens möjligheter att minska risken för arbetsskador i byggproduktionen 2009 6

    För att kunna identifiera, eliminera och hantera arbetsmiljörisker krävs både arbetsmiljökompetens och kompetens om produktionsmetoder. Kunniga hantverkare och tjänstemän från produktionen bör delta under projekteringen och i förberedelserna inför produktionsstart.

    Tillverkare av byggprodukter och byggelement behöver ta arbetsmiljöfrågan i beaktande i högre grad, för att utveckla produkter som är lätta att hantera och möjliga att montera utan risk för arbetsskada.

    Lagstiftningen har initierat förbättringar av säkerhetsstyrningen i byggprocessen. Genom användande av säkerhetsledningssystem kan det ske en ytterligare utveckling mot en säkrare arbetsmiljö i byggproduktionen. Riskfaktorerna som har identifierats i studien kan utgöra en grund för relevanta bedömningskriterier för intern och extern arbetsmiljörevision.

  • 141.
    Alquist, Kerstin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Klimatanpassning av det svenska vägtransportsystemet: En diskussion om vilka åtgärder som kan vara samhällsekonomiskt lönsamma för att förhindra naturolyckor och deras konsekvenser2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Klimatförändringarna är idag ett faktum och klimatanpassning har identifierats som en av transportsektorns stora framtida utmaningar. Antalet naturolyckor, som översvämningar och bortspolade vägar, som påverkar transportinfrastrukturen väntas öka i ett förändrat klimat. Sådana olyckor förekommer också redan idag. T ex i samband med snösmältningen i Norrland 2010 översvämmades älvar, åar och mindre vattendrag och vägar underminerades eller spolades bort. 150 vägpartier skadades och 64 vägar stängdes av. Återställningskostnaderna uppskattades till 100 miljoner kronor.

    Trafikverket behöver anpassa väginfrastrukturen för att klara det ökande antalet naturolyckor. Samtidigt finns begränsade resurser, varför anpassningen behöver vara så kostnadseffektiv som möjligt. Verket saknar idag kunskap om vilka typer av åtgärder respektive vilka platser som är lönsammast att implementera/åtgärda för att förhindra eller minska konsekvenserna av naturolyckor. Eftersom denna typ av kunskap saknas syftar examensarbetet till att öka kunskapen om vilka åtgärder som är mest lönsamma genom att studera ett antal fall med översvämningar och bortspolad väg. Fallen är dels två hypotetiska fall med bortspolad väg, dels tre verkliga fall med översvämningar. Konsekvensen av en naturolycka beskrivs av skador på tillgångar (person, egendom, finans, miljö och immateriell) som definieras av Trafikverkets metod Riskanalys Vald Vägsträcka. Det finns två typer av åtgärder för att minska risken för naturolyckor; sannolikhetsreducerande åtgärder som minskar sannolikheten för en olycka och konsekvensminskande åtgärder som minskar konsekvensen av en olycka. Nettomervärdeskvoten används för att beräkna lönsamheten med olika åtgärder för de olika fallen. Utifrån fallen förs sedan en diskussion om vilka typer av åtgärder som är mest samhällsekonomiskt lönsamma. I denna är klimatförändringarnas konsekvenser i Sverige hela tiden en central faktor.

    Examensarbetet visar att en åtgärds lönsamhet bestäms av åtgärdskostnaden och vilka tillgångar den minskar eller förhindrar skada på. De vanligaste och därför viktigaste skadekostnaderna är avstängningskostnad (finans) och återställningskostnad (egendom) för vägen. I de studerade översvämningsfallen bestäms lönsamheten för alla åtgärdstyper av avstängningskostnaden för vägen. I räkneexemplen för bortspolad väg finns tre skadade tillgångstyper; person, egendom och finans (avstängningskostnad). Sannolikhetsreducerande åtgärder beror på alla dessa medan konsekvensminskande åtgärder beror på avstängningskostnad. Konsekvensminskande åtgärder framstår alltid som lite mindre lönsamma än vad de är, eftersom indirekta vägavstängningskostnader inte finns med i någon av Trafikverkets modeller.

    I ett förändrat klimat blir översvämningar och bortspolningar vanligare och därmed blir alla typer av åtgärder lönsammare. Åtgärder som idag är olönsamma kan bli nödvändiga för att lyckas reducera framtida risker. Existerande klimatmodeller är inte tillräckligt exakta för att kunna säga precis hur sannolikheten för naturolycka ändras från en plats till en annan. För att kunna prioritera optimalt behöver också riskerna i dagens klimat vara kända. Köpenhamnsdiagnosens slutsatser samt att utsläppen av växthusgaser är värre än i A2-scenariot gör att naturolyckor är sannolikare än vad som beskrivs i rapporterna som citeras i examensarbetet. Framtida skadekostnader är alltså större än Trafikverket räknat med och åtgärder blir därför både angelägnare och lönsammare. En viktig riskaspekt vad gäller klimatförändringarna är att ingen vet exakt vad som kommer hända. Om extremväder får nya förlopp, är det inte rimligt att räkna med att saker kommer fungera på samma som tidigare. T ex skulle det kunna innebära att frekvensen personskador ändras, om inga nya åtgärder för att förhindra dem vidtas.

  • 142.
    Alstäde, Victoria
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Spatial Planning.
    Att mötas på mitten - En studie om stadsläkning för ökad integration2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I Stockholms ytterstad präglas många stadsdelar av områdessegregation, där de socioekonomiska förutsättningarna till stor omfattning skiljer sig från område till område. I den fysiska planeringen har få storskaliga insatser genomförts för att förändra denna struktur, då arkitektur och sociala frågor har kopplats samman först på senare tid. Fältet är fortfarande relativt outforskat.

    Denna studie undersöker hur riktlinjer för stadsläkning kan utformas och tillämpas för minskad områdessegregation. Utifrån kvalitativa textanalyser och kategorisering har studien identifierat 6 riktlinjer som bedöms viktiga för att kunna öka områdesintegration på en nivå mellan översiktsplanering och detaljplanering.Riktlinjernas som studien utgår från är:

    • Prioritera det performativa
    • Förändra stadsleder till stadsgator
    • Omlokalisering av skolor
    • Satsa på grön- och rekreationsområden för möten
    • Skapa genomströmning
    • Skapa siktlinjer

    Dessa riktlinjer för stadsläkning har testats genom att de appliceras på två stadsdelar, Tensta och Solhem/Spånga, som har stora socioekonomiska skillnader men enbart ligger ett par hundra meter ifrån varandra. Konceptet ”Vi möts på mitten” gestaltas för att synliggöra och förtydliga hur riktlinjerna kan förändra i städerna. Genom Space Syntax och funktionsanalyser har resultatet från åtgärderna analyserats och visat på hur stadsform och det grundläggande nätverkets förändringar skapar möjligheter för en mer integrerad stadsform.

    Studiens slutsats är att planeraren bör arbeta mer med det performativa i stadsform för att skapa långsiktigt integrerade strukturer. Strategier och riktlinjer för stadsläkning bör vara översiktliga för hela städer och inte områdesbaserade. Riktlinjer mot segregation måste ges mer handlingsutrymme att genomföra storskaliga åtgärder för att kunna göra skillnad och åtgärderna måste genomföras på flera områden samtidigt för att kunna bidra med en mindre segregerad stad.

  • 143.
    Alsyouf, Imad
    et al.
    Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management, University of Sharjah, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.
    Kumar, Uday
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Al-Ash, Lubna
    Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management, University of Sharjah, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.
    Al-Hammadi, Muna
    Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management, University of Sharjah, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.
    Improving baggage flow in the baggage handling system at a UAE-based airline using lean Six Sigma tools2018In: Quality Engineering, ISSN 0898-2112, E-ISSN 1532-4222Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a real successful implementation of lean six sigma methodology to continuously improve the baggage flow in a baggage handling system (BHS), by identifying the causes of mishandled baggage, and deriving solutions to enhance BHS performance. The results show that the main critical problems were low system reliability and the high number of bags passing through manual-encoding-stations. This research illustrates how to avoid baggage congestion and provides applicable and cost-effective solutions. The success of this project made the organisation aware of the opportunities that the application of lean Six Sigma methodology created in the aviation and airport sector.

  • 144.
    Altgärde, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    Andreasson, Joel
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    En utredning av kommunala markanvisningspolicyer: Påverkan av lag 2014:8992016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det är sedan tidigare tydligt att det funnits problem och delade åsikter kring arbetet med markanvisningar innan lag 2014:899 trädde i kraft. Arbetets syfte var att undersöka om arbetet har förändrats efter att lag 2014:899 trädde i kraft. Målet med arbetet är att utreda de valda kommunernas markanvisningspolicyer och deras erfarenheter av arbetet med dessa. Förbättringsåtgärder föreslås efter att ha belyst svagheter i de markanvisningspolicyer som undersöktes, med utgångspunkt i lag 2014:899 samt punkter specificerade av Caesar et al. (2013). 

    Ett dokument med förslag till vad en markanvisningspolicy bör innehålla har tagits fram. Dokumentet kan underlätta kommuners arbete med markanvisningspolicyer i fortsättningen.

  • 145.
    Althén Bergman, Felix
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Geoinformatics.
    Improving the location of existing recycling stations using GIS2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 146.
    Alverbro, Karin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Environmental and ethical aspects of destruction of ammunition2010Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many decision-making situations today affect the safety of individuals and the environment,for instance hazardous waste management. In practice, many of these decisions are madewithout an overall view and with the focus on either the environment or safety. Now and then the areas of regulation are in conflict, i.e. the best alternative according to environmental considerations is not always the safest way and vice versa.A tool for taking an overall view within the areas of safety and environment would simplify matters and provide authorities and industry with a better basis for their work. This thesis forms part of a project which aims to develop a framework tool giving this overall view and supporting decision-making in which the issues (areas) of environment, safety, ethics and costs are all integrated. By developing a framework tool, different areas of interest could be taken into consideration more easily when a decision is to be made and could also help develop legislation and policy locally (at an industry or company), nationally and internationally. The project also aims to provide knowledge about different destruction/decommission methods, their good and bad points and their consequences, in order to provide different actors with a better basis for decision-making. This thesis focuses on development of the framework. The scope of the studies was restricted to environment, ethics and personnel safety due to the extent of the work and time limitations. In the next part of the project, the areas of costs and evaluation will be studied and a first draft of the framework tool will be presented. In order to develop the framework tool, two case studies were carried out here: an environmental analysis involving a life cycle assessment and an ethical analysis. With the help of these analyses, three different methods of destruction of ammunition were compared: Open detonation, modelled both with and without recovery and recycling of metals; incineration in a static kiln with air pollution control combined with recycling of metals, modelled with two different levels of air emissions; and a combination of incineration with air pollution control, open burning, recovery of some energetic material and recycling of metals, giving a total of five options. Every method of destruction of energetic material, i.e. explosive waste or ammunition, results in environmental impacts in both the short and long term. These environmental impacts have direct or indirect impacts on safety, quality of life, the economy, etc., now and in the future, locally and globally. Life cycle assessment revealed two factors of importance for reducing the environmental impacts: Recycling the metals and air pollution control. As a consequence of controlling these potential negative environmental impacts, safety problems might also be controlled. Ethical analysis revealed that future generations and people in foreign countries will be affected by the destruction of ammunition. When choosing a method for destruction of ammunition, this group (the general public) should thus be given special attention.

     

  • 147.
    Alverbro, Karin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Hochschorner, Elisabeth
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Hagvall, J.
    A life cycle assessment of destruction of ammunition2009In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 170, no 2-3, p. 1101-1109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Armed Forces have large stocks of ammunition that were produced at a time when decommissioning was not considered. This ammunition will eventually become obsolete and must be destroyed, preferably with minimal impact on the environment and in a safe way for personnel. The aim of this paper is to make a comparison of the environmental impacts in a life cycle perspective of three different methods of decommissioning/destruction of ammunition, and to identify the environmental advantages and disadvantages of each of these destruction methods: open detonation; static kiln incineration with air pollution control combined with metal recycling, and a combination of incineration with air pollution control, open burning, recovery of some energetic material and metal recycling. Data used are for the specific processes and from established LCA databases. Recycling the materials in the ammunition and minimising the spread of airborne pollutants during incineration were found to be the most important factors affecting the life cycle environmental performance of the compared destruction methods. Open detonation with or without metal recycling proved to be the overall worst alternative from a life cycle perspective. The results for the static kiln and combination treatment indicate that the kind of ammunition and location of the destruction plant might determine the choice of method, since the environmental impacts from these methods are of little difference in the case of this specific grenade. Different methods for destruction of ammunition have previously been discussed from a risk and safety perspective. This is however to our knowledge the first study looking specifically on environmentally aspect in a life cycle perspective.

  • 148.
    Alverbro, Karin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Sandin, P.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Plant Physiology and Forest Genetics, Uppsala.
    Ethical analysis of three methods for destruction of ammunition2011In: Risk Management: An International Journal, ISSN 1460-3799, E-ISSN 1743-4637, Vol. 13, no 1-2, p. 63-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A comparative ethical analysis of three different methods for destroying ammunition was performed using a three-party model for ethical risk analysis presented by Hermansson and Hansson. The model was also evaluated by applying it for the case of destruction of a 40-mm grenade in Sweden. A general observation is that future generations and people in foreign countries will be negatively affected by the destruction of ammunition, although they quite often receive no benefit or compensation. A number of groups exposed to risks or environmental impacts will have some benefits from the destruction. However, it is difficult to determine the extent of this benefit or the fairness of the distribution of risks and benefits. This highlights some important limitations of the Hermansson and Hansson model.

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    Alverbro, Karin
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    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Nevhage, Björn
    Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI).
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    Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI).
    Methods for risk analysis2010Report (Other academic)
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    et al.
    Stephansson, Ove
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Rock stress and its measurements1997 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
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