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  • 101.
    Johansen, Aleksandra I.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Exnerová, Alice
    Hotová Svádová, Katerina
    Stys, Pavel
    Gamberale-Stille, Gabriella
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Tullberg, Birgitta S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Adaptive change in protective coloration in adultstriated shieldbugs Graphosoma lineatum (Heteroptera:Pentatomidae): test of detectability of two colour formsby avian predators2010In: Ecological Entomology, ISSN 0307-6946, E-ISSN 1365-2311, Vol. 35, no 5, p. 602-610Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Protective coloration in insects may be aposematic or cryptic, and some species change defensive strategy between instars. In Sweden, the adult striated shieldbugs Graphosoma lineatum (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) undergo a seasonal colour change from pale brown and black striation in the pre-hibernating adults, to red and black striation in the same post-hibernating individuals. To the human eye the pre-hibernating adults appear cryptic against the withered late summer vegetation, whereas the red and black post-hibernating adults appear aposematic. This suggests a possibility of a functional colour change. However, what is cryptic to the human eye is not necessarily cryptic to a potential predator.

    2. Therefore we tested the effect of coloration in adult G. lineatum on their detectability for avian predators. Great tits (Parus major) were trained to eat sunflower seeds hidden inside the emptied exoskeletons of pale or red G. lineatum. Then the detection time for both colour forms was measured in a dry vegetation environment.

    3. The birds required a longer time to find the pale form of G. lineatum than the red one. The pale form appears more cryptic on withered late summer vegetation than the red form, not only to the human eye but also to avian predators. The result supports the idea that the adult individuals of G. lineatum undergo a functional change from a cryptic protective coloration to an aposematic one.

  • 102.
    Johansen, Aleksandra I.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Exnerová, Alice
    Svádová, Katerina Hotová
    Pavel, Stys
    Tullberg, Birgitta S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Gamberale-Stille, Gabriella
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Anti-Predatory defences in the shieldbug Graphosoma lineatum (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) differ between life stages and colour forms: an experiment with hand reared great tits (Parus major) as predatorsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Crypsis and aposematism are strategies used to avoid predation. Cryptic coloration helps prey to avoid detection and aposematic coloration signals unpalatability to the predator. In the Swedish populations of striated shieldbug Graphosoma lineatum there is a change in coloration and presumably protective strategy that coincides with a change of season and the natural background in the environment. We have compared effectiveness of warning function of colour patterns and chemical defence of three consecutive instars of G. lineatum: the cryptic fifth-instar larvae, the cryptic pale brown and black pre-hibernation adults and the aposematic red and black post-hibernation adults. In experiments with hand reared great tits (Parus major) we investigated the birds’ initial response, avoidance learning and generalisation between forms. We also noted if bugs used their scent glands on attack and if they survived attacks or not. Birds attacked the larvae faster and to a higher extent than the adults, both in naïve birds and after experience, but we found no difference between the adult colour forms in this regard. However, birds generalised asymmetrically between adults and larvae. Previous experience of adults benefited the larvae, but previous experience with larvae increased attack risk on adults and significantly more on the pale than the red adults. Spraying the defensive secretion increased the survival of adults but not the larvae. We conclude that the life stages of G. lineatum differ in defensive strategy against bird predators so that larvae rely on crypsis and the red adults rely mainly on aposematism, whereas the pale adult form seems to do both.

  • 103.
    Johansen, Aleksandra I.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Tullberg, Birgitta S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Gamberale-Stille, Gabriella
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Motion level in Graphosoma lineatum coincides with ontogenetic change in defensive colorationIn: Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, ISSN 0013-8703, E-ISSN 1570-7458Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Crypsis and aposematism are two different approaches to predation avoidance. Theoretically, the chosen strategy depends on the prevailing possibilities and constraints to the animal. Consequently, insects often change strategy between life stages, but a switch in strategy within a life stage is quite uncommon. In the Swedish shieldbug, Graphosoma lineatum L. (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae), there is a colour change from the pre-hibernating to the post-hibernating adults that alters their protective strategy from effective crypsis to aposematism, although both stages are distasteful to predators. The change in colour occurs as there is a shift of seasons, which alters the environmental background. Here we investigate if there is a change in behaviour in G. lineatum connected to the change in coloration and protective strategy. We therefore measured the motion levels in the two different colour forms of G. lineatum, both in the field and in a more controlled laboratory set up. Our result clearly shows that there is a change in behaviour connected to the change in colour. Thus, we found that the cryptic pre-hibernation form has a significantly lower motion level than the aposematic post-hibernation form, which is in line with the expectation from the fact that motion disrupts crypsis, but not aposematism. 

  • 104.
    Johansen, Aleksandra Irene
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Seasonal change in defensive coloration in a shieldbug2011Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Protective coloration such as aposematism and crypsis occurs in many insects but only a few species alter their defensive strategy during the same instar. We hypothesize the adult shield bug Graphosoma lineatum with an alternating black and non-melanised longitudinal striation exhibit such a change in defensive coloration. In Sweden, the non-melanised stripes of the pre-hibernation G. lineatum are pale brown and cryptic but they change during hibernation to red and aposematic. We have tested the adaptive functions of coloration of the two G. lineatum forms against bird predators. In Paper I we used great tits as predators and measured detection time of the two forms against a background of dry grass and plants, simulating late-summer conditions. We found that the birds took longer time to find the pale than the red form. Thus, the pale form of G. lineatum is more cryptic in a dry environment than the red form. In Paper II and III we used naïve predators and measured attack rate/latency on red and pale adults and fifth-instar larvae (black and brown) to investigate avoidance and generalisation between the stages. In Paper II domestic chicks initially found the red form most intimidating, but both adult forms are more intimidating than the larva. Moreover, there was a broad generalisation among forms. In Paper III naïve great tits did not find the red form significantly more aversive than the pale adult. Neither the chicks nor the tits shoved any difference in the speed of avoidance learning between the two adult colour forms. In Paper IV the shieldbugs themselves were the main focus as we compared activity levels in the different colour forms and found that G. lineatum alters behaviour in accordance to their protective strategy. Thus they were significantly less active during the cryptic phase. Taken together, these experiments suggest that the pale brown adult invests in a cryptic strategy at the cost of reduced protection from aposematism, whereas the red adult benefits from aposematism at the cost of reduced camouflage.    

  • 105.
    Johansson, Alexandra
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Physiological stress and behavioural differences in broiler breeder hens subjected to daily and 5:2 feed restriction regimens2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Feed restriction in the parental stock of meat producing chickens, broiler breeders, is essential in order to decrease the high growth rate that they are genetically selected for. The feed restriction does however lead to chronic hunger and stress. Stress can be measured by counting H/L ratios and the method of manually counting H/L ratios was evaluated. The method was not a good way to ensure reliable individual H/L ratios but still gives an H/L ratio indication on a group level and was therefore still used in the study. Two different feeding regimens were investigated in the study: 5:2 skip-a-day (SKIP) with two fasting days and daily feed restriction (CTRL), with chickens sampled at 9 and 12 weeks of age. There was no significant difference in body mass between the treatments at either age. SKIP chickens had significantly higher H/L ratios compared to CTRL at 12 weeks of age (P=0.020), but both treatments had H/L ratios above the reported limit of stress (0.5). The SKIP group on a feeding day significantly increased plasma glucose levels during the day (10.3 to 11.5 mmol/L, P=0.020) and had significantly higher liver mass and liver glycogen levels compared to the CTRL (P≤0.001). The SKIP group were also less fearful on fasting days and significantly less active than the CTRL (P≤0.050), regardless of age or daily feed differences. The conclusion was that both treatments were stressed but skip-a-day chickens were habituated to their regimen and did not experience worse welfare than daily fed broiler breeders.

  • 106.
    Johansson, Alexandra
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Problem solving and seeking assistance in the domestic dog (Canis familiaris)2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When investigating how the domestic dog (Canis familiaris) solves a physical problem we get an insight into the importance of human directed inter-species social behaviors. The aim for this project was to investigate the probability of dogs to “ask for help” from their owner in comparison to an unknown person when faced with an unsolvable problem. It was hypothesized that the dog would ask for help from their owner regardless of age, sex or breed

    A total of 50 pet dogs participated in the experiment, 29 males and 21 females from a total of 28 breeds. The dogs were divided into two age groups ( Nadolescent=14, Nadult=34). When comparing age group differences results showed that adult dogs looked significantly more and longer at the owner than adolescent dogs. Comparison of breed categories showed that companion dogs gazed more at the test leader than other breeds, although no significance was detected. This contradicts the hypothesis and could be due to the high social qualities the breed category of companion dogs hold. Only a tendency was detected when comparing the sexes. There were no significant differences between gazing at the test leader and the owner when comparing all the dogs with each other, regardless of age, breed or sex. It was concluded that most differences was due to individual variation. For future studies it would be favorable to have fewer breeds to compare and a larger sample of dogs to work with in order to get results not solely depending on high variance.

  • 107.
    Johansson, Nathalie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Zoology .
    Teat position and personality in piglets, Sus scrofa2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In order to investigate if difference in personality is depended on the teat positions in piglets, Sus scrofa, 63 piglets, from 21 litters, were studied. The piglets were at an age between 9 and 31 days. 3 piglets in each of the 21 litters, one that suckled at an anterior teat, one at a middle teat, and one at a posterior teat, were studied during lactation, undisturbed activity, and introduction to a novel object respectively to new straw. In total thirteen behaviors were recorded. The only significant difference between the teat position were disputes during suckling (P=0.018). There was a tendency of playing during undisturbed activity (P=0.062) between the teat positions. There were significant differences between the litters for every behavior except for inactive piglet lying alone (P=0.108) and when exploring new straw (P=0.584). There is only evidence for behavioral differences for the frequency of disputes during suckling between piglets at different teat positions. A principal component analysis, which accounted for 64.2 % of the variance, suggested four personality traits: exploration (19.2 %), playfulness (17.5 %), interest in food (14.8 %), and interest in straw (10.9 %). However, no significant differences were found for these components for the different teat positions.

  • 108.
    Jönsson, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The effect of rope and an activation ball on the performance of harmful social behaviors in pigs2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A widespread problem in the housing of captive animals is the occurrence and development of abnormal behaviors. In the pig breeding industry the abnormal behaviors causing the biggest welfare problems are stereotypies such as tail-biting, ear-biting, equipment-biting and belly-nosing. In this study a rope and an activation ball were tested as curative treatments to reduce the performance of these stereotypies by inducing the underlying innate behaviors. A total of 141 pigs spread over 18 pens were used as test-subjects. They were divided into three groups which were introduced to one of the two enrichments or no enrichment at all. Both the enrichments contained characteristics which mostly targeted exploratory and foraging needs and, if functional, were thought to mainly have an effect on tail-biting, ear-biting and equipment-biting. The pigs were observed both at initial contact with the enrichments and after having familiarized with them for three days, and the amount of registered enrichment interaction and performed stereotypies were used to evaluate the effect of the enrichment objects. In both enrichment treatments the enrichments occupied the pigs both on day one and after three days. The presence of equipment-biting was successfully reduced on both day one and day three while the presence of tail-biting and ear-biting only were initially reduced. No effect was found on belly-nosing in either enrichment treatment. This suggests that both enrichments are functional over time and efficient in reducing some types of harmful social behaviors. However, belly-nosing would need to be targeted with a different kind of object.

  • 109. Kaiser, Kristine
    et al.
    Scofield, Douglas G.
    Alloush, Menemsha
    Jones, Robin M.
    Marczak, Susanne
    Martineau, Katherine
    Oliva, Mark A.
    Narins, Peter M.
    When sounds collide: the effect of anthropogenic noise on a breeding assemblage of frogs in Belize, Central America2011In: Behaviour, ISSN 0005-7959, E-ISSN 1568-539X, Vol. 148, no 2, p. 215-232Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many organisms depend on acoustic communication for myriad functions, and have evolved behaviours to minimize effects of naturally occurring acoustic interference. However, as habitats are subject to increased alteration, anthropogenic noise becomes unavoidable, and how animals overcome such interference is not well understood. In most ecosystems, only a subset of frog species is associated with disturbed habitats; the ability of these species to overcome exogenous noise suggests that habitat associations may be related to species' response to noise. We tested the hypothesis that frogs associated with largely undisturbed forest habitat would be less likely to increase call output in response to exogenous noise than would those associated with disturbed or open habitat. While this relationship was not significant, we found a slight trend supporting the hypothesis. We then asked whether anthropogenic noise affects chorus tenure at individual- or at chorus-levels. Male frogs exposed to anthropogenic noise decreased both the number of days present at the chorus and the nightly chorus duration relative to controls. Because females generally join choruses late at night to breed, the effects of noise shown here are likely to substantially decrease frog reproductive success; thus, the acoustic environment may play an important role in shaping population dynamics and in amphibian declines.

  • 110.
    Kallio, Sakari
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Turku, Turku, Finland / Turku Institute for Advanced Studies and Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Koivisto, Mika
    Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Turku, Turku, Finland / Turku Institute for Advanced Studies and Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Kaakinen, Johanna K.
    Turku Institute for Advanced Studies and Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Synaesthesia-type associations and perceptual changes induced by hypnotic suggestion2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, article id 17310Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Are synaesthetic experiences congenital and so hard-wired, or can a functional analogue be created? We induced an equivalent of form-colour synaesthesia using hypnotic suggestions in which symbols in an array (circles, crosses, squares) were suggested always to have a certain colour. In a Stroop type-naming task, three of the four highly hypnotizable participants showed a strong synaesthesia-type association between symbol and colour. This was verified both by their subjective reports and objective eye-movement behaviour. Two resembled a projector-and one an associator-type synaesthete. Participant interviews revealed that subjective experiences differed somewhat from typical (congenital) synaesthesia. Control participants who mimicked the task using cognitive strategies showed a very different response pattern. Overall, the results show that the targeted, preconsciously triggered associations and perceptual changes seen in association with congenital synaesthesia can rapidly be induced by hypnosis. They suggest that each participant's subjective experience of the task should be carefully evaluated, especially when studying hypnotic hallucinations. Studying such experiences can increase understanding of perception, automaticity, and awareness and open unique opportunities in cognitive neuroscience and consciousness research.

  • 111. Karczmarski, Leszek
    et al.
    Wursig, Bernd
    Gailey, Glenn
    Larson, Keith W.
    Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge, Pacific Remote Islands NWR Complex, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Honolulu, USA.
    Vanderlip, Cynthia
    Spinner dolphins in a remote Hawaiian atoll: social grouping and population structure2005In: Behavioral Ecology, ISSN 1045-2249, E-ISSN 1465-7279, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 675-685Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris) commonly use inshore island and atoll habitats for daytime rest and social interactions and forage over deep waters at night. In Hawaii, they occur throughout the archipelago. We applied photoidentification mark-recapture techniques to study the population structure of spinner dolphins associated with remote Midway Atoll, far-western Hawaii. At Midway, spinner dolphins live in stable bisexually bonded societies of long-term associates, with strong geographic fidelity, no obvious fission-fusion, and limited contacts with other populations. Their large cohesive groups change little over time and are behaviorally/socially discrete from other spinner dolphin groups. This social pattern differs considerably from the fluid fission-fusion model proposed previously for spinner dolphins associated with a large island habitat in the main Hawaiian Archipelago. These differences correspond to geographic separation and habitat variation. While in the main islands there are several daytime resting places available at each island habitat; in far-western Hawaii, areas of suitable habitat are limited and separated by large stretches of open pelagic waters with potentially high risk of shark predation. We hypothesize that with deepwater food resources in close proximity and other atolls relatively far away for easy (day-to-day) access, it is energetically more beneficial in the remote Hawaiian atolls to remain “at home” than to travel to other atolls, so there is stability instead of variability; there is no fission-fusion effect. Thus, the geographic isolation and small size of remote atolls trigger a process in which the fluidity of the fission-fusion spinner dolphin society is replaced with long-term group fidelity and social stability.

  • 112.
    Karczmarz, Veronika
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Evaluation of live fish as an echolocation enrichment for the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus)2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) kept in zoos and dolphinarias rarely get an outlet for their echolocation abilities as their pool environment is often quite barren. Not much research has been carried out on enrichments promoting echolocation for dolphins in human care. In the present study a setup with live fish was compared to a setup with air-filled floats (providing strong sonar targets, similar to the swim bladders of large fish) and a control setup. A PCL (porpoise click logger) was used to record the echolocation click trains produced by the dolphins and aimed at the three setups. Behavioural data was also collected from video footage. Both the PCL data and all the behavioural observations indicated that the fish setup was more interesting than the float and the control setup, for the dolphins to echolocate towards. However, there were some contradictions with some parameters, where the floats and control seemed to be more interesting. This was probably due to the location of the PCL hydrophone in relation to the floats and fish, and not because the dolphins had a real bigger interest in these setups. To increase the possibility for dolphins to perform more echolocation in human care and increase their welfare, live fish can be recommended as echolocation enrichment.

  • 113.
    Karczmarz, Veronika
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Thermal comfort in young broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) inferred from metabolic expenses.2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The thermoneutral zone (TNZ) curve lies between the ambient temperatures (Ta) where an endothermic animal uses the least amount of energy to maintain a balance between the heat production from the animal’s own metabolism and the heat lost to the environment. If the animal is exposed to Ta’s over the upper critical temperature (UCT), which is the highest temperature that is still in the TNZ, the animals have to use energy to cool down. If they are exposed to temperatures lower than the lower critical temperature (LCT), which is the lowest temperature that is still in the TNZ, the animal have to use energy to warm up. In the present study oxygen consumption was measured at different Ta’s to determine the TNZ in two and three week old broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus). Two different protocols were used and compared, a pseudorandom protocol in which chickens were exposed to seven temperatures in two hour periods for each run and a more typical progressive protocol in which Ta decreased gradually, one or two degrees per hour. The TNZ in two weeks old chickens was between 30.7 ˚C- 36.4 ˚C and between 28.8 ˚C- 32.7 ˚C in the three weeks old chickens. In chickens the TNZ shifts remarkably during the first few weeks of life towards lower temperatures as the animals acquire thermoregulatory competence. The method with a pseudorandom protocol takes more factors, like activity, into consideration than a typical progressive protocol.

  • 114.
    Karlsson, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Correlation between owner-assessed behaviour characteristics and stress behaviour in dogs2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Stress in dogs can contribute to behavioural problems which may lead to rehoming or euthanasia of the dog. The aim of this study was to investigate how dog characteristics correlated to stress, whether it is possible to detect behavioural problems in order to treat the dogs. Twenty-two dogs were evaluated according to their behavioural problem by a veterinarian and a dog trainer. The dogs participated in a behavioural and physiological test, and the results were compared to characteristics gathered by a Canine Behavioural Assessment and Research Questionnaire (C-BARQ), filled in by the dogs’ owners. The result showed that the total amount of stress related behaviour correlated positively to the C-BARQ score for attachment and attention-seeking behaviour and had a tendency of positive correlation to energy level and owner-directed aggression. Both the veterinarian behavioural problem score and trainer behavioural problem score had a tendency of positive correlation to stranger-directed fear. Dogs that, according to the C-BARQ, were found to be very attached and attention-seeking, showed high energy level or owner-directed aggression were likely to show stress related behaviours during the test in my study. By addressing the stress, the behavioural problems may be eased.

  • 115.
    Karlsson, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology.
    The Rowan Ranger Chicken Breed - a Suitable Alternative for the Organic Chicken Meat Industry2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The only available broiler strain to use in organic chicken meat production, until recently, has been conventional fast growing broiler hybrids. The Rowan Ranger is a broiler strain that has a naturally slower growth rate which makes this strain suitable for organic farming, meeting the demands of KRAV without being subjected to a feed restriction. One of the farms in Sweden using Rowan Ranger in their organic production is Bosarp farm in Skåne County where they produce KRAV certified chickens and where the animals used in this study were raised. This study compared differences between a naturally slow growing strain of chicken to a fast growing strain to see whether there were differences in behaviour between the two, if one of the strains was more susceptive to stress than the other and whether they differed in outdoor use and activity level. Regardless of strain, chickens used the outdoor perimeter the same, although the Rowan Rangers did not range as far from the chicken house as Ross 308. Even so, they seem to be more suitable in an organic setting than Ross 308 due to the fact that they seem less hungry and more content, this based on the fact that they perform less feeding behaviour and spend more time laying down. Also, they grow nicely to slaughter weight with a good diet quality whereas Ross 308 need to be qualitative feed restricted to do the same, giving the Rowan Rangers better welfare.

  • 116.
    Katajamaa, Rebecca
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Effects of domestication on social support in chickens (Gallus gallus)2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Social support is thought to give animals benefits from social partners, such as improved coping with challenges. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in social support in the red junglefowl (RJF) and a domestic layer strain, the White Leghorn (WL). A runway test consisting of two compartments with unfamiliar and familiar stimulus animals was used to measure social motivation before and after a stressful experience. Total number of test animals was 56 divided into four groups; male and female WL as well as male and female RJF. Results showed that females preferred to stay close to familiar conspecifics after stress treatment. Before stress treatment there was little difference between either sex of WL while RJF males and females chose different zones. Females preferred familiar conspecifics, indicating that they rely more on familiar social stimuli for social support. Males of the two breeds behaved differently towards stimulus animals. WL males showed aggression towards familiar stimulus animals while RJF males directed aggression towards unfamiliar stimulus animals. Indication of sexual behavioural dimorphism was supported while further research is needed in domestication effects on social support in chickens.

  • 117.
    Katajamaa, Rebecca
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Larsson, Lovisa H.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lundberg, Pauline
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sorensen, Ida
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jensen, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Activity, social and sexual behaviour in Red Junglefowl selected for divergent levels of fear of humans2018In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 9, article id e0204303Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The domesticated phenotype is a set of behavioural, morphological and physiological traits that is common for domesticated species. Previous research has found that selection for tameness only can give rise to correlated selection responses that resemble the domesticated phenotype. It has therefore been suggested that tameness may drive the domesticated phenotype as correlated traits. We selected Red Junglefowl for divergent levels of fear of human for eight generations and assessed possible correlated selection responses in other behaviours in semi-natural settings. Behavioural studies were carried out on birds from generations six to eight, and at different ages, in order to study possible effects on general activity, social behaviour and male courtship behaviour. We found that the differences between selection lines changed with age. Adult low fear birds were generally more active and high fear males showed a more intense courtship behaviour. Our study shows that several behaviours can be modified through correlated selection responses by selection on reduced fear of humans only, emphasising the putative role of tameness as a driver of domestication related phenotypes.

  • 118.
    Kazemi, Baharan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Evolution of Mimicry and Aposematism Explained: Salient Traits and Predator Psychology2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Aposematic species have evolved conspicuous warning signals, such as bright colors and striking patterns, to deter predators. Some edible and harmless species take advantage of this deterrent effect by mimicking their appearance. Mimicry is a great example of how natural selection produces remarkable adaptations. However, while some species evolve a very close similarity to their models to effectively avoid attacks, others are successful in doing so despite an incomplete similarity, i.e. imperfect mimicry. In some cases, it is surprising how such a crude disguise can fool predators. Why and how imperfect mimicry can persist has been much discussed and considered as a problem for the theory of natural selection. It is therefore of great interest to understand what makes it possible.

    Predator psychology is an important factor in the evolution of aposematism and mimicry. In the past decades it has been suggested that certain components of prey appearance are more important to predators than others during prey assessment. We developed this idea by incorporating concepts from associative learning, and presented a new approach to explain imperfect mimicry. Our general hypothesis is that prey traits have different salience to predators. Certain traits are perceived as highly salient and are thus used primarily in the discrimination and generalization of prey, while traits with low salience are overshadowed and not used in the assessment. The salience of a trait can depend on how conspicuous or discriminable it is in the particular context, and can vary due to for example previous predator experience.

    We tested our ideas with wild blue tits and domestic chickens as predators, and artificial and semi-natural prey stimuli. In paper I we found that the trait that was perceived as most salient (color) was the one used to discriminate and generalize between prey. Mimics of that specific trait were highly avoided, despite differences in the other traits. We also found that salience is relative and context dependent (paper II). In a context where two traits were perceived as similarly salient, mimicry of a single trait offered intermediate protection, while mimicry of both offered high protection. In another context, the traits were perceived differently salient, and mimicry of one trait was enough for high protection. In paper III we tested a proposed scenario for the initiation of mimicry evolution in the edible butterfly mimic Papilio polyxenes asterius to its noxious model Battus philenor. The results showed that a partial similarity with the model in the salient black wing color offered intermediate protection from attacks, despite a general dissimilarity.

    This thesis investigates the major questions of imperfect mimicry: the initial step of mimicry evolution, the persistence of imperfect mimicry, and variation in mimic-model similarity. We conclude that mimicry evolution can begin in a non-mimetic species that acquires similarity to a model species in a high-salience trait. When multiple traits have similar salience, multi-trait mimicry is needed for higher protection. Mimicry can remain imperfect if the differences are in traits with low salience, and therefore under low or no selection pressure to change.

    To complete the picture, we showed that predators can have a biased generalization toward a more pronounced version of a salient trait (paper IV). The evolution of aposematism could therefore be explained by gradual enhancement of salient traits.

  • 119.
    Kopsch, Nora Tabea
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology.
    A cooperation experiment in captive white-handed gibbons (Hylobates lar)2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Cooperative behaviours among individuals play a crucial role in social interactions. There is a special interest in investigating the occurrence of cooperation among apes, because this knowledge could as well shed light on evolutionary processes and help understand the origin and development of cooperation in humans and primates in general. Gibbons are phylogenetically intermediate between the great apes and monkeys, and therefore represent a unique opportunity for comparisons. The aim of the present study was to discover whether or not gibbons (Hylobates lar) show cooperative behaviours among each other. In order to test for the respective behaviours, the gibbons were presented with a commonly used experimental cooperative problem-solving task. Additionally, social behaviours were recorded during behavioural observations. The gibbons in this study did not exhibit cooperative behaviours during the problemsolving task. Behavioural observations revealed that the gibbons spent significantly more time ‘out of arm’s reach to everyone’, suggesting that they are less involved in social interactions than other, more cooperative apes. Both findings combined support the “social brain hypothesis”, which predicts that cognitive abilities are constrained by the complexity of the animals’ social life. Based on previous findings of occurrences of cooperative behaviours in two other primate lineages (i.e. New World monkeys and Old World monkeys) it was suggested that cooperation in primates was a matter of a convergent evolutionary processes rather than a homologous trait.

  • 120.
    Kotrschal, Alexander
    et al.
    Department of Ecology & Genetics/Animal Ecology, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Lievens, Eva J. P.
    Dahlbom, Josefin
    Bundsen, Andreas
    Semenova, Svetlana
    Sundvik, Maria
    Maklakov, Alexei A.
    Winberg, Svante
    Panula, Pertti
    Kolm, Niclas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Ethology.
    Artificial selection on relative brain size reveals a positive genetic correlation between brain size and proactive personality in the guppy2014In: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 68, no 4, p. 1139-1149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Animal personalities range from individuals that are shy, cautious, and easily stressed (a reactive personality type) to individuals that are bold, innovative, and quick to learn novel tasks, but also prone to routine formation (a proactive personality type). Although personality differences should have important consequences for fitness, their underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated how genetic variation in brain size affects personality. We put selection lines of large- and small-brained guppies (Poecilia reticulata), with known differences in cognitive ability, through three standard personality assays. First, we found that large-brained animals were faster to habituate to, and more exploratory in, open field tests. Large-brained females were also bolder. Second, large-brained animals excreted less cortisol in a stressful situation (confinement). Third, large-brained animals were slower to feed from a novel food source, which we interpret as being caused by reduced behavioral flexibility rather than lack of innovation in the large-brained lines. Overall, the results point toward a more proactive personality type in large-brained animals. Thus, this study provides the first experimental evidence linking brain size and personality, an interaction that may affect important fitness-related aspects of ecology such as dispersal and niche exploration.

  • 121.
    Kuehrer, Lukas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Biology Education Centre.
    Exposure to the antihistamine diphenhydramine affects thermoregulation and increases righting time in the freshwater snail Planorbarius corneus2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Antihistamines have been shown to degrade poorly, and should be considered as contaminants that may pose risks to the aquatic ecosystem. Diphenhydramine (DPH) is a first generation antihistamine detected up to lower micrograms per litre downstream of wastewater treatment facilities. Freshwater snails like Planorbis corneus are ectotherms and behaviour plays an important role for the regulation of snail body temperature. In a laboratory experiment, it was tested if DPH affects the behavioural traits thermoregulation and righting time in P. corneus. Righting time was measured as the time snails took to right themselves from an upside down position. After a 24 hour exposure to three different sublethal concentrations (nominal concentrations: 10, 100, and 1000 µg/L) of DPH two thermoregulatory experiments (thermal preference (TPref) and maximum critical temperature (CTmax)) and one righting time experiment were performed. CTmax increased significantly from 37.5 °C to 39.7°C after exposure to 949 µg/L DPH. Minimal righting time was significantly increased in the lowest exposure concentration (8.21 µg/L DPH). No significant results were found in the TPref analyses. Collectively these results suggest that exposure to non-lethal concentrations of DPH affect behavioral traits like thermoregulation and righting time in freshwater snails. 

  • 122.
    Kvarnström, Josefin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology.
    Consistency and heritability of personality in red junglefowl (Gallus gallus): Applying scientific research methods when teaching biology2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Observations of consistency in behavioural responses in animals suggest that animals have personality, a term previously mainly used when describing humans. The expression of differences in personality, similar to expression of variation in behaviour, is in principle dependent on genetic background, environmental factors and experiences. Therefore, by estimating heritability one can determine to which extent the genes affect the phenotypic expression of behaviour. This has rarely been done for variation in animal personality. The aim of the present study was therefore to estimate the consistency and heritability of personality traits in red junglefowl chicks (Gallus gallus). Consistency of behaviours within individuals (n=100) was determined from their responses to repeated novel arena tests, novel object tests and tonic immobility tests. A comparison between the offspring and the parent generation, both with known personalities, through a linear regression enabled me to estimate heritability of behavioural responses in these birds. The results showed a consistency in exploratory, boldness, risk-taking behaviour, and fearfulness in red junglefowl. Additionally, heritability estimates for exploratory, risk-taking and foraging behaviours were found. Taken together, this shows that in the red junglefowl, similar to in other species, personality have both a heritable and an environmental component. An important aim in biology education is the scientific approach, where hypothesis, experimentation, processing results and discussing the results are in focus. Learning and gaining knowledge through the process is a key factor, and will hopefully increase the interest in science among Swedish pupils. 

  • 123.
    Larson, Keith W.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Hybrid zone dynamics, assortative mating, and migratory programmes in a willow warbler migratory divide2012Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis I will present and contrast the two willow warbler subspecies (Phylloscopus trochilus trochilus and P. t. acredula) or migratory phenotypes in the context of their migratory divide and hybrid zone in central Sweden. In the first paper I investigate the role of population abundance in determining the location of the hybrid zone. Specifically, is there a region of low abundance associated with the hybrid zone? Further, is the hybrid zone located on an environmental gradient which might suggest that breeding ground environmental conditions are responsible for the lower abundance? This lower abundance may reflect the unsuitability of habitats along the environmental gradient for either parental or hybrid offspring. In my second paper, I ask if there are population specific differences in their wintering moult ecology that can be elucidated from diet derived stable isotope patterns in their winter moulted primary flight feathers? The third paper addresses the important question, does assortative mating lead to reproductive isolation or do these very similar subspecies hybridize and produce offspring? In my fourth paper, I ask does local adaptation to environmental conditions, such as temperature extremes and the short growing season, in mountain populations of willow warblers explain the apparent distribution of the ���northern-allele��� for the AFLP derived genetic marker WW1? Finally, in the fifth paper, I conduct a detailed analysis of phenotypic traits at 50 sites across the hybrid zone, including 35 sites visited more than once. Here I ask, does lower abundances in the west of the hybrid zone predict the zone to be wider in the west than in the east? Further, using data from repeated visits to sites across the zone, we predict low repeatabilities for migratory associated traits that would suggest that high annual turn-over in migratory phenotypes occupying the zone. To better understand the hybrid zone dynamics it will be essential to develop genetic markers that allow one to separate each parental migratype, hybrids, and backcrosses. Once markers allow the identification of hybrid offspring, orientation experiments should be conducted to elucidate migratory directional preferences that would support our hypothesis that hybrids take an intermediate migratory direction to their parental migratypes.

  • 124.
    Larsson, Matz
    Örebro University Hospital. The Cardiology Clinic, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden; Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Incidental sounds of locomotion in animal cognition2012In: Animal Cognition, ISSN 1435-9448, E-ISSN 1435-9456, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 1-13Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The highly synchronized formations that characterize schooling in fish and the flight of certain bird groups have frequently been explained as reducing energy expenditure. I present an alternative, or complimentary, hypothesis that synchronization of group movements may improve hearing perception. Although incidental sounds produced as a by-product of locomotion (ISOL) will be an almost constant presence to most animals, the impact on perception and cognition has been little discussed. A consequence of ISOL may be masking of critical sound signals in the surroundings. Birds in flight may generate significant noise; some produce wing beats that are readily heard on the ground at some distance from the source. Synchronization of group movements might reduce auditory masking through periods of relative silence and facilitate auditory grouping processes. Respiratory locomotor coupling and intermittent flight may be other means of reducing masking and improving hearing perception. A distinct border between ISOL and communicative signals is difficult to delineate. ISOL seems to be used by schooling fish as an aid to staying in formation and avoiding collisions. Bird and bat flocks may use ISOL in an analogous way. ISOL and interaction with animal perception, cognition, and synchronized behavior provide an interesting area for future study.

  • 125.
    Lehtonen, Topi K.
    et al.
    Monash University, Australia ; University of Turku, Finland.
    Svensson, P. Andreas
    Monash University, Australia ; Deakin University, Australia.
    Wong, Bob B. M.
    Monash University, Australia.
    Both male and female identity influence variation in male signalling effort2011In: BMC Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1471-2148, E-ISSN 1471-2148, Vol. 11, article id 233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Male sexual displays play an important role in sexual selection by affecting reproductive success. However, for such displays to be useful for female mate choice, courtship should vary more among than within individual males. In this regard, a potentially important source of within male variation is adjustment of male courtship effort in response to female traits. Accordingly, we set out to dissect sources of variation in male courtship effort in a fish, the desert goby (Chlamydogobius eremius). We did so by designing an experiment that allowed simultaneous estimation of within and between male variation in courtship, while also assessing the importance of the males and females as sources of courtship variation. Results: Although males adjusted their courtship depending on the identity of the female (a potentially important source of within-male variation), among-male differences were considerably greater. In addition, male courtship effort towards a pair of females was highly repeatable over a short time frame. Conclusion: Despite the plasticity in male courtship effort, courtship displays had the potential to reliably convey information about the male to mate-searching females. Our experiment therefore underscores the importance of addressing the different sources contributing to variation in the expression of sexually-selected traits.

  • 126.
    Lehtonen, Topi K.
    et al.
    Monash Univ, Australia.
    Svensson, P. Andreas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Monash Univ, Australia.
    Wong, Bob B. M.
    Monash Univ, Australia.
    The influence of recent social experience and physical environment on courtship and male aggression2016In: BMC Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1471-2148, E-ISSN 1471-2148, Vol. 16, article id 18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Social and environmental factors can profoundly impact an individual's investment of resources into different components of reproduction. Such allocation trade-offs are expected to be amplified under challenging environmental conditions. To test these predictions, we used a desert-dwelling fish, the desert goby, Chlamydogobius eremius, to experimentally investigate the effects of prior social experience (with either a male or a female) on male investment in courtship and aggression under physiologically benign and challenging conditions (i.e., low versus high salinity). Results: We found that males maintained a higher level of aggression towards a rival after a recent encounter with a female, compared to an encounter with a male, under low (but not high) salinity. In contrast, male investment in courtship behaviour was unaffected by either salinity or social experience. Conclusion: Together, our results suggest that male investment in aggression and courtship displays can differ in their sensitivity to environmental conditions and that not all reproductive behaviours are similarly influenced by the same environmental context.

  • 127.
    Lehtonen, Topi K.
    et al.
    University of Konstanz, Germany ; Monash University, Australia; University of Turku, Finland.
    Wong, Bob B. M.
    Monash University, Australia.
    Svensson, P. Andreas
    Monash University, Australia.
    Meyer, Axel
    University of Konstanz, Germany.
    Adjustment of brood care behaviour in the absence of a mate in two species of Nicaraguan crater lake cichlids2011In: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, ISSN 0340-5443, E-ISSN 1432-0762, Vol. 65, no 4, p. 613-619Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many taxa, parental strategies can vary among individuals. This is especially true in species with biparental care, with males, more often than females, deserting their mates. While there is an abundance of theoretical predictions and empirical data on factors inducing mate abandonment by males, much less is known about what consequences this may have on female behaviour, particularly in the field and in non-avian systems. Here, we compared brood defence rate, behavioural defence types, and brood success of solitary and paired females in two species of Neotropical cichlid fish in their natural habitat. In terms of the rate of territorial aggression towards potential brood predators, solitary females were able to fully compensate in the absence of a male but, in so doing, ended up maintaining smaller territories, which appeared to compromise offspring fitness in at least one of the two species. Hence, our results suggest that even extensive quantitative compensation in parental effort by solitary females may not be enough to ensure adequate qualitative compensation for the lack of male participation, highlighting the importance of distinguishing between these two aspects of compensatory parental care.

  • 128.
    Leimar, Olof
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Ethology.
    Norberg, Ulf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Ethology.
    Wiklund, Christer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Animal Ecology.
    Habitat preference and habitat exploration in two species of satyrine butterflies2003In: Ecography, ISSN 0906-7590, E-ISSN 1600-0587, Vol. 26, p. 474-480Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 129.
    Li, Daoyi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Biology Education Centre.
    Effect of 6OHDA-induced dopaminergic neuron loss on level of astakine 1 cytokine in crayfish brain and blood cells2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Prokineticin 2 has been recently discovered to be up regulated in the mice having the Parkinson's disease. The homologue protein of prokineticin 2 in the crayfish, named astatine 1, has been reported to be highly expressed in crayfish blood cells and have very similar functions with the prokineticin 2. However, the role of astakine 1 in the Parkinson's disease has never been researched. Therefore, in this study 6OHDA which is a compound widely used to induce Parkinson’s disease model organisms such as mice and rats was injected into crayfish. After injection, levels of astakine 1 in crayfish brain and blood cells were examined by the western blot. In addition, the number of blood cells was determined and movement of crayfish was observed.

  • 130. Lim, Ik Soo
    et al.
    Wittek, Peter
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Parkinson, John
    On the Origin of Risk Sensitivity: The Energy Budget Rule Revisited2015In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 110, p. 69-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The risk-sensitive foraging theory formulated in terms of the (daily) energy budget rule has been influential in behavioural ecology as well as other disciplines. Predicting risk-aversion on positive budgets and risk-proneness on negative budgets, however, the budget rule has recently been challenged both empirically and theoretically. In this paper, we critically review these challenges as well as the original derivation of the budget rule and propose a ‘gradual’ budget rule, which is normatively derived from a gradual nature of risk sensitivity and encompasses the conventional budget rule as a special case. The gradual budget rule shows that the conventional budget rule holds when the expected reserve is close enough to a threshold for overnight survival, selection pressure being significant. The gradual view also reveals that the conventional budget rule does not need to hold when the expected reserve is not close enough to the threshold, selection pressure being insignificant. The proposed gradual budget rule better fits the empirical findings including those that used to challenge the conventional budget rule.

  • 131.
    Lind, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution.
    Inget stöd för att kråkfåglar kan resonera2017In: Sans, ISSN 2000-9690, no 3, p. 10-15Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 132.
    Lind, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution.
    Nobelkommittén gjorde inte hemläxan inför medicinpriset2014In: Svenska dagbladet, ISSN 1101-2412, no 22 novemberArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Har Nobelkommittén missat ett sekel av beteendeforskning när de motiverar årets pris med uttalanden om råttors höga intelligens? Den frågar ställer Johan Lind, docent i etologi vid Stockholms universitet.

  • 133.
    Lind, Johan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Ethology.
    Enqvist, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Ethology.
    Insight Learning and Shaping.2012In: Encyclopedia of the Sciences of Learning, Springer Publishing Company, 2012, p. 1574-1577Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 134.
    Lind, Johan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Lönnberg, Sofie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution.
    Persson, Tomas
    Enquist, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Time Does Not Help Orangutans Pongo abelii Solve Physical Problems2017In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 8, article id 161Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many questions in animal intelligence and cognition research are challenging. One challenge is to identify mechanisms underlying reasoning in experiments. Here, we provide a way to design such tests in non-human animals. We know from research in skill acquisition in humans that reasoning and thinking can take time because some problems are processed in multiple steps before a solution is reached (e.g., during mental arithmetics). If animals are able to learn through similar processes their decision making can be time consuming, and most importantly improve if more time to process information is allowed. We tested if performance of two Sumatran orangutans (Pongo abelii) increased in a two-choice experiment when they were allowed extra time before making their decisions, compared to when they were forced to decide immediately. We found that the performance of the orangutans did not depend on the time they were allowed to process the information before making their decisions. This methodology provides a potential avenue for empirical tests of mechanisms underlying reasoning in non-human animals.

  • 135.
    Lindblom, Emelie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The effect of visual barriers, outdoor housing and feeding enrichment on the behaviour of drills (Mandrillus leucophaeus) at Parken Zoo2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Animals are confronted with potential stressors at zoos compared to in the wild, such as visitors and lack of environmental stimulation. This study included two projects conducted on the drills at Parken Zoo in Eskilstuna where I investigated: 1) the effect of visual barriers on the behaviour of the drills and if the visual barriers can moderate the visitor effect on the drills and 2) how outdoor-only access together with feeding enrichment (frozen fruit and tube feeders) affects the behaviour of the drills. 1/0- sampling method was used when observing the behaviours of the drills with 1 minute-intervals. Resting/Sleeping increased, while social agonistic behaviour and stereotypies decreased with visual barriers. A moderated visitor effect was shown in resting/sleeping and social affiliative behaviour in the drills with visual barriers. However, social agonistic behaviour and visitor interaction were still affected by visitors after the installation of the visual barriers, implying that the drills still find visitors stressful to some extent and that further alterations on the observation area viewing the indoor enclosure is recommended for the welfare of the drills. With outdoor-only access together with feeding enrichment, locomotion, foraging/eating and body-shaking increased, while resting/sleeping, social affiliative and agonistic behaviour, stereotypies, visitor interaction, scratching and self-grooming decreased. This suggests that outdoor-only access and feeding enrichment improve the behaviour of the drills and would be a valid option during summer season for the drills at Parken Zoo. 

  • 136.
    Lindenfors, Patrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution.
    Om djurs tänkande2017In: Folkvett, ISSN 0283-0795, no 1, p. 62-75Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här artikeln har en historia. Från början skrevs den på uppdrag av Forskning & Framsteg, Sveriges främsta populärvetenskapliga tidskrift. Men eftersom den beskri-ver analyser som går på tvärs med andras forskares verk-samhet uppstod det diskussioner. Tidskriften kom därför fram till att det vore bättre om en neutral journalist skrev artikeln än jag, som är part i målet. Artikeln handlar näm-ligen om ny forskning vid min arbetsplats: Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning vid Stockholms universitet. Ett klokt redaktionellt beslut av Forskning & Framsteg, tveklöst. Men det vore synd om texten hamnade i pap-perskorgen. Här kommer därför en (partisk) skildring av ny forskning kring djurs tänkande.

  • 137.
    Lindenfors, Patrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Animal Ecology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for Cultural Evolution. Institute for Future Studies, Sweden.
    Primate Social Evolution2018In: The International Encyclopedia of Anthropology, John Wiley & Sons, 2018Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Primates display a remarkable diversity of types of social organization—a diversity that, according to the socioecological model of social evolution, is ultimately determined by ecological factors limiting female fitness and the number of matings limiting male fitness. The foremost ecological determinants of female sociality are the degree to which food resources are defendable, either alone or in a group, and the level of protection from predators gained from being part of a group. Further factors that have been proposed are the presence of infanticide, coalitions, and dominance hierarchies; general population density and habitat saturation; whether competition is mainly intra‐ or intergroup; and which sex disperses. Male sociality is instead mainly determined by the spatiotemporal spacing of mating opportunities with females. Some researchers have also proposed that cognitive abilities impose a limit on group size, since primate sociality demands competent navigation of social networks.

  • 138.
    Linderhed, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Marine mammal behavior response to sonars, a review2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decades the problems caused by anthropogenic sound and noise in oceans have been recognized in public, by governments, and military. With the use of active sonar, different choices can be made to minimize the risk of damaging or disturbing marine mammals. For this purpose knowledge of sonar disturbance is crucial. There are methods for time or area planning, i.e. when and where to use active sonars, to avoid marine mammals. The purpose of this work is to find information in literature on marine mammal behaviour reactions to the sound of sonar pings, and to evaluate which of two different behavioural models used in risk assessment programs, the “varying response” model and the “avoidance” model, is more correct to use. Main focus is on sonars and marine mammals residing in Sweden, i.e. the harbour porpoise, grey seal, harbour seal and ringed seal. Behavioral results from other research areas such as bycatch, environmental, and strandings, together with other sound sources than sonars and other species, provide a broader picture of the situation in noisy oceans. For the harbor porpoise the “avoidance” model works well. It is a very shy species, which flees fast and far when it comes in contact with new things. With the seals however the “avoidance” model is probably less good, since their responses to sonar differ rather much. Hence, for these taxa we recommend to use the “various” model that takes into account such varying responses.

  • 139.
    Lundgren, Kristoffer
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology.
    The influence of dopamine on personality in the Mediterranean field cricket (Gryllus bimaculatus)2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    For some behavior there are consistent differences between individuals within a population, which is called animal personality. Across species, ranging from insects to mammals, personality has been described along behavioral gradients like activity, exploration, boldness and aggression. Monoamines such as dopamine have been shown to be essential for modulating animal behavior and could therefore be important also in explaining variation in animal personality. Supporting this, the dopaminergic system affect activity (in Confused flour beetles), and aggression (in Mediterranean field crickets). However, the causality and effect of dopamine on these behaviors, and also other behavioral traits used to describe personality is currently less explored. This study experimentally investigated how increased level of dopamine affects activity, boldness, exploration and aggression in Mediterranean field crickets (Gryllus bimaculatus). I show that dopamine manipulation had no effects on measured behavior. These results indicate that increased dopamine levels do not affect the scored personality traits in Mediterranean field crickets. The causality and generality of the relationship between dopamine and behavior used to score variation in personality is thus not clear in this species.

  • 140.
    Lönnstedt, Oona M.
    et al.
    ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, School of Marine and Tropical Biology, James Cook University, Townsville, Australia .
    McCormick, Mark I.
    Chivers, Douglas P.
    Well-informed prey foraging: damage released alarm cues of injured prey signal quality and size to predators2012In: Oecologia, ISSN 0029-8549, E-ISSN 1432-1939, Vol. 168, no 3, p. 651-658Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 141.
    Løvlie, Hanne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Introduction to animal personality2017In: The Ethology of Domestic Animals / [ed] Per Jensen, CABI Publishing, 2017, 3, p. 104-118Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 142.
    Mack, Jennifer
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE).
    The construction of equality: Syriac immigration and the Swedish City2017Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An industrial city on the outskirts of Stockholm, Södertälje is the global capital of the Syriac Orthodox Christian diaspora, an ethnic and religious minority group fleeing persecution and discrimination in the Middle East. Since the 1960s, this Syriac community has transformed the standardized welfare state spaces of the city’s neighborhoods into its own “Mesopotälje,” defined by houses with Mediterranean and other international influences, a major soccer stadium, and massive churches and social clubs. Such projects have challenged principles of Swedish utopian architecture and planning that explicitly emphasized the erasure of difference. In The Construction of Equality, Jennifer Mack shows how Syriac-instigated architectural projects and spatial practices have altered the city’s built environment “from below,” offering a fresh perspective on segregation in the European modernist suburbs. Combining architectural, urban, and ethnographic tools through archival research, site work, participant observation (among residents, designers, and planners), and interviews, Mack provides a unique take on urban development, social change, and the immigrant experience in Europe over a fifty-year period. Her book shows how the transformation of space at the urban scale-the creation and evolution of commercial and social districts, for example-operates through the slow accumulation of architectural projects. As Mack demonstrates, these developments are not merely the result of the grassroots social practices usually attributed to immigrants but instead are officially approved through dialogues between residents and design professionals: accredited architects, urban planners, and civic bureaucrats. Mack attends to the tensions between the “enclavization” practices of a historically persecuted minority group, the integration policies of the Swedish welfare state and its planners, and European nativism. 

  • 143.
    Madjidian, Josefin A.
    et al.
    Plant Protection Biology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp, Sweden.
    Karlsson Green, Kristina
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    A reply to Perry & Rowe: costs in sexual conflict research2012In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 83, no 4, p. E14-E16Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 144.
    Maj, El sharif
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology.
    Early life stress and its association with epigenetics and immune system response2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Stress can induce prolonged deleterious effects on many characteristics in chickens (Gallus gallus). Particular interest has been paid to early life stress. Social isolation as an early life stressor results in increased plasma corticosterone levels. Moreover, it induces behavioural and physiological changes as well as gene expression modifications in the hypothalamus. In the first part of my study, I aim to inquire into social isolation impacts on the short and long-term. Short and long-term effects were assessed by immune system, behaviour and weight. 82 male chickens were assigned to three groups (stress, control and enrichment). The stress group was exposed to social isolation, the enrichment group was provided with enrichment substrates while the control group was left untreated. According to my knowledge, this is the first study that investigates the effects of social isolation on the interuleikn-6 levels as an indicator of immune system response. My findings suggest that social isolation induces short and long-term effects on immune response as well as on body weight. In the second part of my study, I aim to develop a method investigating effects of early stress on DNA methylation in blood and sperm. For this purpose, two methods GBS (Genotyping by sequencing) and MeDIP (Methylated DNA immuneprecipitation) were f using pooled DNA from all individuals for the first time. Moreover, I developed a protocol for extracting sperm DNA from frozen testis. Combining both methods has many advantages, such as cost effectiveness and the ability to evaluate epigenetic signatures in large number of individuals

  • 145.
    Malmqvist, Ann-Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Use of space within their enclosure in captive Dholes (Cuon alpinus)2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, 12 dholes (Cuon alpinus) at Kolmården Wildlife Park were observed to investigate how they use their enclosure and if they tend to share space with each other. Using scan sampling for every five minutes, the location of the dholes was marked on a hand drawn map with 14 zones. The study lasted for a total of 72 observation hours during three weeks.  The results showed that the dholes had marked preferences for certain zones. Within the zones, attractive areas, so-called hotspots, were found. A hotspot includes the majority of the markings in the zones. The number of observations ranged from 1341 in the most popular zone to 71 in the least popular. Comparisons between data for mornings vs. afternoon and feeding days vs. non-feeding days showed no obvious differences in utilization of the zones. Two frequently used pathways through the enclosure were found. Finally, the results showed that the dholes have a tendency to share space with each other.

  • 146.
    Martorell, José Antonio Gordillo
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Israel Nazarious, Miracle
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Mathanlal, Thasshwin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra (CSIC-UGR), Granada, Spain.
    Zorzano, María Paz
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Madrid, Spain.
    Thurfjell, Magnus
    Porsöskolan, Lulea, Sweden.
    Antich Lunqvist, Margaretta
    Porsöskolan, Lulea, Sweden.
    Metabolizing science from the laboratory to the classroom: The Metabolt Educational Experience2019In: Journal of Engineering Science and Technology, Vol. 2, no 7, p. 9-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present article summarizes a pilot knowledge co-creation process experience done with a group of 15 eleven and twelve years old students of Porsöskolan, a public school near Luleå Tekniska Universitet from September 2018 to January 2019. The experience is based on a true research project of the Group of Atmospheric Science (GAS) called METABOLT, an instrument to investigate the metabolic activity of microorganisms in soils by measuring the electrochemical and gaseous bio signatures. In this paper, we explain how we have designed, developed, applied and evaluated a complete learning and engagement strategy to bring science from the laboratory to the classroom. The experience adapts the scientific method to the primary classroom level, taking as practical case the METABOLT experiment: identification of a problem, hypothesis design, experiment creation to get results, analysis and confrontation with the hypothesis and provisional conclusions to verify or discard them. After the experience a set of surveys were given to all the stakeholders, students, teachers and researchers to evaluate their perception of the effects of the activity. One unexpected result is the difference in perception between the teachers and students on the learning experience. This project demonstrates that professional researchers with the adequate communication strategy, training and tracking can promote a relevant learning process and achieve a social impact in different audiences

  • 147.
    McKay, Kathryn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Biology Education Centre.
    A study of the behavioural responses in AB, Spd and selectively bred strains of zebrafish2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was threefold: to determine if personality is inheritable through selection, to evaluate if discernable differences in behavioral profiles exist between strains and to gauge the effect that chronic stress has on personality development. This investigation was fundamentally a behavioral study, where three behavioral models were used to evaluate these parameters. Specifically, the open field shelter test, Scototaxis model as well the novel dive test were used to compare six lines of zebrafish (Danio rerio). The results from a comparative analysis of these different parameters show that there is a genetic aspect to personality, that variation does exist between the lines and that early life chronic stress may have an influence on personality development. 

  • 148.
    Miemczyk, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology.
    Towards the identification of environmental exposures and epigenetic marks related to the etiology of Autism2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Autism is a complex disorder with possible genetic, epigenetic and environmental components. As the etiology remains uncertain and an increase in incidence is suspected, the involvement of possible environmental risk factors has gained increasing attention. With this thesis, I aim to provide tools for assessing such risk factors. Firstly, I aim to construct a questionnaire for the analysis of an environmental component in the etiology of autism. Secondly, I aim to assess the importance of prenatal exposure to metals in certain diseases and thirdly I aim to construct a methodology enabling the analysis of the mitochondrial epigenome, which is especially interesting in relation to autism as mitochondrial diseases occur more frequently in an autistic population than in the general population. For the creation of the questionnaire the scientific literature was reviewed. The resulting questionnaire contains general, prenatal, neonatal and paternal risk factors. The metal analysis was conducted on the cord blood of patients who later developed autism, antinuclear antibodies positive rheumatoid arthritis or diabetes, which were then compared to healthy control subjects. My findings propose a link between elevated levels of cord blood cadmium or aluminum and rheumatic arthritis. In addition, elevated aluminum levels might be associated with autism. In regards to the analysis of the mitochondrial epigenome, to my knowledge, no standard protocol exists with frozen human whole blood as a source. In this thesis, I succeeded in creating the basis for such a protocol, however still needing several small modifications for an increased overall yield.

  • 149.
    Milton, Ida
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Enclosure utilization and space preference in captive dholes (Cuon alpinus)2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge of how animals utilize their space can be important when they are held in captivity. This is especially true for animals that are on the edge of extinction as such knowledge can possibly help to improve their captive breeding programs. One of these animals is the dhole, Cuon alpinus. The aim for this study was to assess how the dholes at Kolmården zoo utilize their space, if they share space and if they prefer to use specific pathways. The study took place at Kolmården zoo during 12 days and included a total of 72 hours of visual observation. A summarized map, with subdivision into 14 zones, of the dholes’ enclosure was used when recording the dholes’ location. For location recordings scan sampling was used. The dholes showed marked differences in utilization of zones ranging from the most popular zone with 1341 markings to the least popular zone with 71 markings. There was a clear preference for three zones during the whole observation period. No marked differences for utilization of zones were found between feeding vs. non-feeding days and morning vs. afternoon. Furthermore, the dholes showed a tendency for sharing space and utilization of two pathways. This project makes it evident that the dholes at Kolmården zoo prefer certain zones within their enclosure. This is probably due to that the zones preferred provides locations with access to resting, lookout possibilities etc that is important for the dholes to express a natural behavior.

  • 150. Mobley, K. B.
    et al.
    Amundsen, T.
    Forsgren, E.
    Svensson, P. Andreas
    School of Biological Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC 3800, Australia.
    Jones, A.G.
    Multiple mating and a low incidence of cuckoldry for nest-holding males in the two-spotted goby, Gobiusculus flavescens2009In: BMC Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1471-2148, E-ISSN 1471-2148, Vol. 9, p. 1-10, article id 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A major question in behavioural ecology concerns the relationship between genetic mating systems and the strength of sexual selection. In this study, we investigated the genetic mating system of the two-spotted goby (Gobiusculus flavescens), a useful fish model for the study of sexual selection whose genetic mating system remains uncharacterized. We developed four polymorphic microsatellite markers and used them to conduct parentage analyses on 21 nests collected during the breeding season to examine the rates of multiple mating by males and to test for evidence of alternative mating strategies. Results: Results of this study indicate that male G. flavescens mate with multiple females and enjoy confidence of paternity. We detected only one instance of sneaking, so cuckoldry contributed a very small percentage (~0.1%) of the total fertilizations in this population. Nests were nearly full and males that maintain larger nests have higher mating and reproductive success, irrespective of body size. Conclusion: Overall, our investigation shows that G. flavescens is similar to other, related gobies in that the nests of care-giving males often contain eggs from multiple females. However, G. flavescens differs from other gobies in displaying an extremely low rate of cuckoldry. The study of ecological factors responsible for this important difference between G. flavescens and related species should be a fertile area for future work.

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