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  • 101.
    Tong, Fuguo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Engineering Geology and Geophysics.
    Jing, Lanru
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Engineering Geology and Geophysics.
    Zimmerman, Robert W.
    A 3D FEM simulation of the buffer and buffer-rock interfacebehaviour of the Canister Retrieval Test (CRT) at Äspö HRL: 29 Sep-01Oct 2009, Luxembourg. European Commission2009In: Proceedings Conference of impact of THMC processes on thesafety of underground radioactive waste repositories, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a 3D FEM model for simulating the coupled THM behaviour of the buffer and buffer-rock interface behaviour of the Canister Retrieval Test conducted at the Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory, Sweden. The effect of the interface between the canister and buffer was also included. New numerical techniques were developed for more efficient FEM formulation and equation solution, and for modeling saturated or partially saturated water flow, gas flow and heat transfer in buffer and interfaces. The numerical results compare well with the measured data, and the reasonably good agreement between simulated and measured results indicates that the coupled THM processes of buffer material can be accurately predicted by the newly developed THM model and computer code.

  • 102.
    Tong, Fuguo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Engineering Geology and Geophysics.
    Jing, Lanru
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Engineering Geology and Geophysics.
    Zimmerman, Robert W.
    A fully coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical model for simulating multiphase flow, deformation and heat transfer in buffer material and rock masses2010In: International Journal of Rock Mechanics And Mining Sciences, ISSN 1365-1609, E-ISSN 1873-4545, Vol. 47, no 2, p. 205-217Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a numerical method for modeling coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical processes of geomaterials with multiphase fluid flow. A FEM code has been developed and validated for modeling the behavior of porous geological media, and is equally applicable for modeling coupled THM processes in rocks. The governing equations are based on the theory of mixtures applied to the multiphysics of porous media, considering solid phase deformation, multiphase fluid flow, and heat transport. New numerical techniques have been developed for more efficient FEM formulation and equation solution for modeling saturated or partially saturated water flow, gas flow and heat transfer indeformable porous media, as are commonly encountered in performance and safety assessment of underground radioactive repositories. The code has been validated against an experimental benchmark test, which involves bentonite under laboratory conditions, with good results. Several critical outstanding issues for modeling coupled processes of geomaterials are discussed indepth.

  • 103.
    Tong, Fuguo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Engineering Geology and Geophysics.
    Jing, Lanru
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Engineering Geology and Geophysics.
    Zimmerman, Robert W.
    An effective thermal conductivity model of geological porous media for coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical systems with multiphase flow2009In: International Journal of Rock Mechanics And Mining Sciences, ISSN 1365-1609, E-ISSN 1873-4545, Vol. 46, no 8, p. 1358-1369Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this paper is to present the development of an effective thermal conductivity model for simulation of thermo-hydro-mechanical processes of geological porous media. The Wiener bounds and Hashin-Shtrikman bounds for thermal conductivity of three-phase mixture are introduced first, followed by descriptions of thermal conductivities of gas, water and solid, respectively. The derivation of a new effective thermal conductivity model, in closed form, is then presented. The model considers the combined effects of solid mineral composition, temperature, liquid saturation degree, porosity and pressure on the effective thermal conductivity of porous media, when multiphase flow with phase change is involved. The model strictly obeys the Wiener bounds (for anisotropic media) and Hashin-Shtrikman bounds (for isotropic media) over wide ranges of porosities and saturations, and the predicted results agrees very well with the experimental data for MX80 bentonite, compared with Johansen's method. An experimental benchmark test problem under laboratory conditions for coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical processes of compacted FEBEX bentonite is simulated for validation of the model, and the results show that the model provides improved predictions of the evolution and distribution of temperature, with simpler forms of mathematical functions. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 104. Tsang, C. F.
    et al.
    Jing, Lanru
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Stephansson, O.
    Kautsky, F.
    The DECOVALEX III project: A summary of activities and lessons learned2005In: International Journal of Rock Mechanics And Mining Sciences, ISSN 1365-1609, E-ISSN 1873-4545, Vol. 42, no 5-6, p. 593-610Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Initiated in 1992, the DECOVALEX project is an international collaboration for advancing the understanding and modeling of coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) processes in geologic systems. The project has made important scientific achievements through three stages and is progressing in its fourth stage. It has played a key role in the development of mathematical modeling and in situ testing of coupled THM processes in fractured rock and buffer/backfill materials, a subject of importance for performance assessment of radioactive waste geologic repositories. This paper summarizes studies under the most recent stage of the project, DECOVALEX III (2000-2003). These studies include those of two major field experiments: (a) the FEBEX experiment at Grimsel, Switzerland, investigating coupled THM processes in a crystalline rock-bentonite system, and (b) the Drift Scale Test (DST) experiment at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, investigating coupled THM processes in unsaturated tuff. These are two of the largest multiyear heater tests undertaken to date for the study of coupled THM processes in geological systems. In addition, three so-called benchmark tests are also studied to evaluate the impact of coupled THM processes under different scenarios and geometries. Within the DECOVALEX project, multiple research teams participated in each of the studies, using different approaches and computer codes. Comparisons of results have provided insight into coupled THM processes, which in turn has stimulated further development of our modeling capabilities. Lessons learned from these studies are discussed. The scientific advances and enhanced insight gained through this kind of international cooperation illustrate the effectiveness of the DECOVALEX project.

  • 105. Tsang, C. -F
    et al.
    Stephansson, O.
    Kautsky, F.
    Jing, Lanru
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Coupled thm processes in geological systems and the decovalex project2004In: Coupled Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical-Chemical Processes in Geo-Systems Fundamentals, Modelling, Experiments and Applications, Elsevier, 2004, no C, p. 3-16Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An overview is given of recent progress in the understanding, monitoring, and modeling of coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) processes in geologic systems, in the context of major practical applications. The progress has been made possible through individual research efforts, as well as international cooperative research projects. As an example of international cooperation, the DECOVALEX project is described. Initiated in 1992, the project has progressed successfully through three major stages. It has played a key role in the development of the field of mathematical modeling and testing of coupled THM processes in fractured rocks and buffer/backfill materials, a subject of importance for performance assessment of a radioactive waste geologic repository. The DECOVALEX project has been supported by a large number of radioactive waste management organizations and regulatory authorities, including those in Canada, Finland, France, Japan, Germany, Spain, Sweden, UK, USA, and EU. This paper presents a summary of the project, including the objectives, scope, problems investigated, scientific achievements and major outstanding issues, with emphasis on the science of the coupled THM processes.

  • 106. Tsang, Chin-Fu
    et al.
    Stephansson, Ove
    Jing, Lanru
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Engineering Geology and Geophysics.
    Kautsky, Fritz
    DECOVALEX Project: from 1992 to 20072009In: Environmental Geology, ISSN 0943-0105, E-ISSN 1432-0495, Vol. 57, no 6, p. 1221-1237Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The DECOVALEX project is a unique international research collaboration, initiated in 1992, for advancing the understanding and mathematical modelling of coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) and thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes in geological systems-subjects of importance for performance assessment of radioactive waste repositories in geological formations. From 1992 up to 2007, the project has made important progress and played a key role in the development of numerical modelling of coupled processes in fractured rocks and buffer/backfill materials. The project has been conducted by research teams supported by a large number of radioactive-waste-management organizations and regulatory authorities, including those of Canada, China, Finland, France, Japan, Germany, Spain, Sweden, UK, and the USA. Through this project, in-depth knowledge has been gained of coupled THM and THMC processes associated with nuclear waste repositories, as well as numerical simulation models for their quantitative analysis. The knowledge accumulated from this project, in the form of a large number of research reports and international journal and conference papers in the open literature, has been applied effectively in the implementation and review of national radioactive-waste-management programmes in the participating countries. This paper presents an overview of the project.

  • 107.
    Vesipa, Riccardo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Engineering Geology and Geophysics.
    Zhao, Zhihong
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Engineering Geology and Geophysics.
    Jing, Lanru
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Engineering Geology and Geophysics.
    Estimating Hydraulic Permeability of Fractured Crystalline Rocks Using Geometrical Parameters2010In: ANALYSIS OF DISCONTINUOUS DEFORMATION: NEW DEVELOPMENTS AND APPLICATIONS / [ed] Ma G; Zhou Y, SINGAPORE: RESEARCH PUBLISHING SERVICES , 2010, p. 685-691Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 108. Vilarrasa, Victor
    et al.
    Koyama, Tomofumi
    Neretnieks, Ivars
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Engineering.
    Jing, Lanru
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Engineering Geology and Geophysics.
    Shear-Induced Flow Channels in a Single Rock Fracture and Their Effect on Solute Transport2011In: Transport in Porous Media, ISSN 0169-3913, E-ISSN 1573-1634, Vol. 87, no 2, p. 503-523Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of mechanical shearing on fluid flow anisotropy and solute transport in rough rock fractures was investigated by numerical modeling. Two facing surfaces of a rock fracture of 194 mm x 194 mm in size were laser scanned to generate their respective digital profiles. Fluid flow through the fracture was simulated using a finite element code that solves the Reynolds equation, while incremental relative movement of the upper surface was maintained numerically to simulate a shearing process without normal loading. The motion of solute particles in a rough fracture undergoing shear was studied using a particle tracking code. We found that shearing introduces anisotropy in fracture transmissivity, with a greatly increased flow rate and particle travel velocity in the direction perpendicular to the shearing direction. Shear-induced channels yield a transport behavior in which advection dominates in the direction parallel with shear and dispersion dominates in the direction perpendicular to shear. The shear-induced flow channels not only increase the flow connectivity, but also the transport connectivity in the direction perpendicular to shear. This finding has an important impact on the interpretation of the results of coupled hydromechanical and tracer transport experiments for measurements of hydraulic and transport properties of rock fractures.

  • 109. Zhao, Z.
    et al.
    Liu, Longcheng
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Engineering.
    Neretnieks, Ivars
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Engineering.
    Jing, Lanru
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Solute transport in a single fracture with time-dependent aperture due to chemically medicated changes2014In: International Journal of Rock Mechanics And Mining Sciences, ISSN 1365-1609, E-ISSN 1873-4545, Vol. 66, p. 69-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In addition to mechanical loading, the transport properties of rock fractures are also affected by chemically mediated changes, such as pressure solution, stress corrosion and free-face dissolution, among others. Based on a time-dependent model of fracture closure under constant normal stresses, the transport behavior of contaminants in a slowly closing fracture is studied using a finite difference scheme. The results show that the contaminant penetrating along the fracture plane gradually becomes slow or almost negligible during the process of fracture closure induced by chemical processes, whereas the matrix diffusion of contaminants is active all the time. This finding indicates that diffusion into the rock matrix perpendicular to the advective flow direction always plays an important role in determining the fate of contaminant in rock fractures. The smaller the fluid flow due to fracture closure and the larger impact the matrix diffusion can further delay the solute transport.

  • 110.
    Zhao, Zhihong
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Engineering Geology and Geophysics.
    Jing, Lannu
    Neretnieks, Ivars
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Engineering.
    Stress effects on nuclide transport in fractured rocks: A numerical study2010In: ROCK MECHANICS IN CIVIL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING, 2010, p. 783-786Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the influence of stresses on radioactive nuclide transport in fractured rocks, based on Discrete Element Method (DEM) and a particle tracking approach. Matrix diffusion was also considered in the transport simulation. The results show that stresses not only influence the particle residence time in fracture network, but also change the particle transport paths significantly.

  • 111.
    Zhao, Zhihong
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Jing, Lanru
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Physics.
    Neretnieks, Ivars
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Engineering.
    Evaluation of hydrodynamic dispersion parameters in fractured rocks2010In: Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1674-7755, Vol. 2, p. 243-254Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A numerical procedure to determine the equivalent hydrodynamic dispersion coefficients and Péclet number (Pe) of a fractured rock is presented using random walk particle tracking method. The geometrical effects of fracture system on hydrodynamic dispersion are studied. The results obtained from the proposed method agree well with those of empirical models, which are the scale-dependent hydrodynamic dispersion coefficients in an asymptotic or exponential form. A variance case is added to investigate the influence of longitudinal hydrodynamic dispersion in individual fractures on the macro-hydrodynamic dispersion at the fracture network scale, and its influence is demonstrated with a verification example. In addition, we investigate the influences of directional flow and stress conditions on the behavior of hydrodynamic dispersion in fracture networks. The results show that the magnitudes of the hydrodynamic dispersion coefficients are relatively smaller when the flow direction is parallel to the dip directions of fracture sets. Compressive stresses significantly reduce hydrodynamic dispersion. However, the remaining questions are: (1) whether the deformed fracture network under high stress conditions may make the scale-dependent hydrodynamic dispersion coefficients have asymptotic or exponential forms, and (2) what the conditions for existence of a welldefined equivalent hydrodynamic dispersion tensor are. They need to be further investigated.

  • 112.
    Zhao, Zhihong
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Engineering Geology and Geophysics.
    Jing, Lanru
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Engineering Geology and Geophysics.
    Neretnieks, Ivars
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Engineering.
    Particle mechanics model for the effects of shear on solute retardation coefficient in rock fractures2012In: International Journal of Rock Mechanics And Mining Sciences, ISSN 1365-1609, E-ISSN 1873-4545, Vol. 52, p. 92-102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Damage on rock fracture surfaces during shear process changes the mechanical and hydrological properties of the fractures, therefore, affects the solute migration in fractured rocks. Laboratory experiments on this issue are rarely reported in literature due to technical difficulties in measuring the asperity damage and gouge generation. To conceptually investigate the effects of rock fracture surface damage on solute sorption during shear, this paper presents, for the first time, a retardation coefficient model considering the wear impacts and a generic numerical evaluation procedure. The particle mechanics model was employed to investigate the effects of gouge generation (abrasive wear) and microcrack development in the damaged zones, on the solute retardation coefficient in rock fractures. The results from demonstration examples show that the shear process significantly increases the retardation coefficients, by offering more sorption surfaces in the factures due to gouge generation (wear), microcracking and crushing of gouge particles. Conceptually three damage zones are classified to characterize the various wear impacts on the solute transport in single fractures. Outstanding issues of the present model and suggestions for future study are also presented.

  • 113.
    Zhao, Zhihong
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Engineering Geology and Geophysics.
    Jing, Lanru
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Engineering Geology and Geophysics.
    Neretnieks, Ivars
    Shear effects on solute retardation coefficient in rock fractures: Insights from a particle mechanics modelManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 114.
    Zhao, Zhihong
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Jing, Lanru
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Neretnieks, Ivars
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Engineering.
    Moreno, Luis
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Engineering.
    A new numerical method of considering local longitudinal dispersion in single fractures2014In: International journal for numerical and analytical methods in geomechanics (Print), ISSN 0363-9061, E-ISSN 1096-9853, Vol. 38, no 1, p. 20-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The solutions of advection-dispersion equation in single fractures were carefully reviewed, and their relationships were addressed. The classic solution, which represents the resident or flux concentration within the semi-infinite fractures under constant concentration or flux boundary conditions, respectively, describes the effluent concentration for a finite fracture. In addition, it also predicts the cumulative distribution of solute particle residence time passing through a single fracture under pulse injection condition, based on which a particle tracking approach was developed to simulate the local advection-dispersion in single fractures. We applied the proposed method to investigate the influence of local dispersion in single fractures on the macrodispersion in different fracture systems with relatively high fracture density. The results show that the effects of local dispersion on macrodispersion are dependent on the heterogeneity of fracture system, but generally the local dispersion plays limited roles on marodispersion at least in dense fracture network. This trend was in agreement with the macrodispersion in heterogeneous porous media.

  • 115.
    Zhao, Zhihong
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Engineering Geology and Geophysics.
    Jing, Lanru
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Engineering Geology and Geophysics.
    Neretnieks, Ivars
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Engineering.
    Moreno, Luis
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Engineering.
    Analytical solution of coupled stress-flow-transport processes in a single rock fracture2011In: Computers & Geosciences, ISSN 0098-3004, E-ISSN 1873-7803, Vol. 37, no 9, p. 1437-1449Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A closed-form solution is presented for modeling the coupled stress-flow-transport processes along a single fracture embedded in a porous rock matrix. Necessary assumptions were made to simplify the subject into a two-dimensional (2D) problem, considering the changes of fracture aperture and matrix porosity under various stress conditions. The cubic law was assumed to be valid for the fluid flow in the fracture, with an impermeable rock matrix. For transport mechanisms, advective transport along the fracture, longitudinal hydrodynamic dispersion in the flow direction, and the matrix diffusion were considered in three different transport models under constant concentration or constant flux (Danck- werts’) inlet boundary conditions. This analytical solution can be used as a constitutive model, or as an example for validation of similar constitutive models, for modeling the coupled hydro-mechanical- chemical (HMC) processes in fracture networks of crystalline rocks. The influences of stress/deformation processes on different transport mechanisms in a single fracture under different inlet boundary conditions were studied for the first time. The results show that changes of fracture, as controlled by a combination of normal closure and shear dilatancy, have a significant influence on the solute concentration distribution both along the fracture and in the rock matrix, as well as on the solute residence/breakthrough time, especially when shear-induced dilatancy occurs. Under compressions, the decreasing matrix porosity slightly increases the solute concentration along the fracture and in the rock matrix.

  • 116.
    Zhao, Zhihong
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Engineering Geology and Geophysics.
    Jing, Lanru
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Engineering Geology and Geophysics.
    Neretnieks, Ivars
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Engineering.
    Moreno, Luis
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Engineering.
    Numerical modeling of stress effects on solute transport in fractured rocks2011In: Computers and geotechnics, ISSN 0266-352X, E-ISSN 1873-7633, Vol. 38, no 2, p. 113-126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of stress/deformation on fluid flow and contaminant transport in fractured rocks is one of the major concerns for performance and safety assessments of many subsurface engineering problems, especially radioactive waste disposal and oil/gas reservoir fields. However, very little progress has been made to study this issue due to difficulties in both experiments and numerical modeling. The objective of this study is to systematically investigate the influence of stress on solute transport in fractured rocks for the first time, considering different stress and hydraulic pressure conditions. A hybrid approach combining discrete element method (DEM) for stress-flow simulations and a particle tracking algorithm is developed. The impact of matrix diffusion (diffusion of molecular size solutes in and out of the rock matrix, and sorption onto the surface of micropores in rock matrix) is also included. The numerical results show that stress not only significantly changes the solute residence time through the fracture networks, but also changes the solute travel paths. Matrix diffusion plays a dominant role in solute transport when the hydraulic gradient is small, which is often encountered in practice.

  • 117.
    Zou, Liangchao
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Cvetkovic, Vladimir
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Jing, Lanru
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Roughness decomposition and effects on fluid flow in single rock fractures2014In: ISRM International Symposium - 8th Asian Rock Mechanics Symposium, ARMS 2014, International Society for Rock Mechanics , 2014, p. 457-465Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rock fractures usually consist of surfaces with different orders or scales of roughness, which have critical effects on the fluid flow behavior inside the fractures. In this paper, a two dimensional representative single rock fracture model was built, based on a laser scanned data of rock surface of granite. The surfaces roughness of the fracture was then quantitively decomposed into several levels of surface roughness by applying the wavelet analysis. A self-developed Finite Volume Method solver was then applied to solve the Navier-Stokes equations for numerical modelling of fluid flow in the fracture models formatted with four levels of decomposed roughness, respectively, with different Reynolds numbers varying from 0.001 to 1000.0. Then, the features of velocity profiles and the effective hydraulic apertures at each level of rough fractures decomposition and Reynolds numbers were calculated and analyzed. The results show that when the Reynolds number is small (less than 10.0), the effective hydraulic aperture slightly increase nearly linearly with the decomposed roughness levels. When the Reynolds number is large, the effective hydraulic apertures decrease dramatically, and the non-linear flow behaviors represented by expansion of the eddy flow regions caused by roughness: The larger extent of high-frequency roughness, the more obvious and complicate eddy flow regions yielded.

  • 118.
    Zou, Liangchao
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Resources, Energy and Infrastructure.
    Cvetkovic, Vladimir
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Resources, Energy and Infrastructure.
    Jing, Lanru
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Ivars, Diego Mas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics.
    Impact of Normal Stress Caused Closure on Fluid Flow and Solute Retention in Rock Fractures2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modeling of coupled hydro-mechanical and chemical (HMC) processes in fractured rocks is an important topic for many geoengineering projects.  Over the past decades, many efforts have been devoted to study the flow and transport in single fractures with consideration of mechanical effects. It is generally known that the mechanical effects, i.e. normal and shear deformation, significantly affect fluid flow and solute transport processes in rough-walled rock fractures since the deformation may largely alter the structure of fracture apertures that directly controls transmissivity. Due to complicated physical processes combined with complexity of geometry structures, many issues remain open questions, such as fracture surface roughness characterization, deformation dependence of transmissivity and advective transport in natural rock fractures. In this work, we attempt to investigate the impact of stress caused closure on fluid flow and solute advective transport in a rough-walled fracture through numerical modeling.  A rough-walled fracture model is created based on a laser-scanned rock surface. The Bandis’s model is used to describe the fracture closure subject to normal stress. The flow is modeled by solving Reynolds equation and the advective transport is simulated through Lagrangian particle tracking. The results show that the normal stress caused fracture closure creates asperity contacts and reduces the mean aperture, which significantly reduces transmissivity, and affects the travel time and transport resistance. With increases of normal stress, the specific surface area reduces nonlinearly due to the nonlinear closure. In practice, especially for important hydrogeological projects, e.g. nuclear waste disposal, it is important to consider the coupled HMC processes in design and risk assessment.

  • 119.
    Zou, Liangchao
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Jing, Lanru
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulation of fluid flow in rock fractures2013In: Rock Characterisation, Modelling and Engineering Design Methods: Proceedings of the 3rd ISRM SINOROCK 2013 Symposium, 2013, p. 437-443Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The process of fluid flow in rock fractures involves complicated dynamical behavior of fluids,and its modeling is a challenge to numerical methods. In this paper, the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics(SPH), a particle method based on Lagrangian formulation, is employed to simulate the fluid flow in rockfractures by solving the Navier-Stokes equations directly. Firstly, the SPH method and the boundary treatmentmethod used in this simulation were introduced and the computer code of SPH was developed and validated bya series of numerical benchmark tests with analytical solutions. Then simulations were carried out to investigatethe fluid flow both in single fractures and intersected fractures, with and without considering effects of surfaceroughness. The results of the simulations are discussed and compared with the analytical solution by using theCubic law derived from the Reynolds equation. The results show that in both of rough single fractures andfracture intersections, although the relationship between mean velocity and the Reynolds number is still linear,the solutions by using Cubic law overestimated the mean fluid velocity with increasing the Reynolds number,indicating possible underestimate of travel time of mass transport in the fracture network models.

  • 120.
    Zou, Liangchao
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Jing, Lanru
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Cvetkovic, Vladimir
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Assumptions of the analytical solution for solute transport in a fracture-matrix system2016In: International Journal of Rock Mechanics And Mining Sciences, ISSN 1365-1609, E-ISSN 1873-4545, Vol. 83, p. 211-217Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 121.
    Zou, Liangchao
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Resources, Energy and Infrastructure.
    Jing, Lanru
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Cvetkovic, Vladimir
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Resources, Energy and Infrastructure.
    Effect of sorption on solute transport in a single rough rock fracture2017In: 13th ISRM International Congress of Rock Mechanics, International Society for Rock Mechanics , 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sorption process plays a significant role for solute retardation in rock fractures. In this paper, for the aim to investigate the effect of sorption on solute transport in a single rough fracture, a 2D model of representative single rock fracture was built and its roughness was statistically characterized based on the measured data of rock surface topography by laser scanning. A Finite Volume Method (FVM) code was developed to solve the Navier-Stokes (NS) equations and transport equation for numerical modelling the process of fluid flow and solute transport in the rock fracture model. Two groups of simulations were conducted: with and without the consideration of the sorption process with different average flow velocities. The results show that the surface roughness increased the complexities of flow fields, and the non-linear sorption process plays a significant role in the retardation of solute transport through rock fractures. The sorption process caused an obvious lagging time in both the solute concentration fields (plumes) and corresponding breakthrough curves. This lagging time increases with the distance from the inlet boundary, and relatively decreases with the increase of mean velocities.

  • 122.
    Zou, Liangchao
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Jing, Lanru
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Cvetkovic, Vladimir
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Effects of multi-level surface roughness on solute transport in single rock fractures2016In: The proceeding of International Symposium on Reducing Risks in Site Investigation, Modeling and Construction for Rock Engineering, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Natural rock fractures are consisted of complicate rough surfaces with multi-level surface roughness which causes significant uncertainties in fluid flow and solute transport be-haviors through fractured rocks. In this study, for the aim of investigation the effects of multi-level surface roughness on fluid flow and solute transport in rock fractures, a single rough-walled fracture model was built from a scanned granite rock surface, which was then gradually decomposed and characterized by wavelet analysis and statistics. A verified finite volume method (FVM) code was used to simulate fluid flow and solute transport in the rough fracture models by solving the Navier-Stokes equations (NSE) and advection-dispersion equation (ADE). The simulation results of nonlinear flow and solute breakthrough curves (BTCs) showed that the multi-level surface roughness strongly correlated with the Eddy flows and the solute non-Fickian transport behaviors, represented by the changes of effective advective flow apertures and an empirical function of the BTCs. The results would improve our understanding of solute transport in fractured rocks and may help to reduce the uncertainties and risks in related engi-neering practices.

  • 123.
    Zou, Liangchao
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Jing, Lanru
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Cvetkovic, Vladimir
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Effects of Sorption on Solute Transport in a Single Rough Rock Fracture2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The sorption process plays a significant role in the retardation of solute transport through the fractures. In this paper, based on the measured data of rock surfaces by laser scanning, a 2D geometry model of a representative single rock fracture was built and its roughness was statistically characterized, and a Finite Volume Method (FVM) code was developed and applied to solve the NS equation and transport equation for numerical modelling the process of fluid flow and solute transport. Two groups of simulation were then calculated: with and without the consideration of the sorption process, with different average flow velocities. The effects of sorption on the solute transport process were then analyzed, discussed and followed by concluding remarks on the sorption impact on the understanding of mass transport process in fractured rock masses.

  • 124.
    Zou, Liangchao
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering. KTH.
    Jing, Lanru
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering. KTH.
    Cvetkovic, Vladimir
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering. KTH.
    Invasion flow enhanced solute mixing at rough-walled rock fracture intersectionsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The processes of fluid flow and solute transport through rock fractures are of primary importance in environmental engineering and geosciences. This study presented numerical modeling results of fluid flow and solute transport in a 3D rock fracture-matrix system with an orthogonal intersection of two rough-walled rock fractures. The rough-walled fracture geometry models were built from laser-scanned data of a real rock surface, for a realistic representation of natural rock fracture surface roughness. The fluid flow in the two intersected fractures and solute transport in the fracture-matrix system were simulated by solving the Navier-Stokes equations (NSE) and transport equation in the entire system. The dependence of mixing on Péclet number (Pe), flow directionality and interaction with matrix diffusion were analyzed. The results showed important invasion flow patterns that significantly enhanced the solute mixing process, which cannot be described by traditional complete mixing and streamline routing models. It also cannot be simulated by simplified 2D geometry models ignoring the surface roughness as widely used in previous published studies. The finding of invasion flow and associated impacts on mixing in this study is particularly important in prediction of solute transport in natural fractured rocks, especially when discrete fracture network (DFN) approach is applied.

  • 125.
    Zou, Liangchao
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Jing, Lanru
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Cvetkovic, Vladimir
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Modeling of flow and mixing in 3D rough-walled rock fracture intersections2017In: Advances in Water Resources, ISSN 0309-1708, E-ISSN 1872-9657, Vol. 107, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The processes of fluid flow and solute transport through rock fractures are of primary importance in environmental engineering and geosciences. This study presented numerical modeling results of fluid flow and solute transport in a 3D rock fracture-matrix system with an orthogonal intersection of two rough-walled rock fractures. The rough-walled fracture geometry models were built from laser-scanned data of a real rock surface, for a realistic representation of natural rock fracture surface roughness. The fluid flow in the two intersected fractures and solute transport in the fracture-matrix system were simulated by solving the Navier–Stokes equations (NSE) and transport equation in the entire system. The dependence of mixing on Péclet number (Pe) and flow directionality features were analyzed. The results directly visualized important channeling flow patterns that significantly enhanced the solute mixing process at the rough-walled fracture intersection. The illustrated channeling flow and associated impacts on mixing are particularly important in the prediction of solute transport in natural fractured rocks, especially when discrete fracture network (DFN) approach is applied.

  • 126.
    Zou, Liangchao
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Jing, Lanru
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Cvetkovic, Vladimir
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Modeling of Solute Transport in a 3D Rough-Walled Fracture-Matrix System2017In: Transport in Porous Media, ISSN 0169-3913, E-ISSN 1573-1634, Vol. 116, no 3, p. 1005-1029Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fluid flow and solute transport in a 3D rough-walled fracture-matrix system were simulated by directly solving the Navier-Stokes equations for fracture flow and solving the transport equation for the whole domain of fracture and matrix with considering matrix diffusion. The rough-walled fracture-matrix model was built from laser-scanned surface tomography of a real rock sample, by considering realistic features of surfaces roughness and asperity contacts. The numerical modeling results were compared with both analytical solutions based on simplified fracture surface geometry and numerical results by particle tracking based on the Reynolds equation. The aim is to investigate impacts of surface roughness on solute transport in natural fracture-matrix systems and to quantify the uncertainties in application of simplified models. The results show that fracture surface roughness significantly increases heterogeneity of velocity field in the rough-walled fractures, which consequently cause complex transport behavior, especially the dispersive distributions of solute concentration in the fracture and complex concentration profiles in the matrix. Such complex transport behaviors caused by surface roughness are important sources of uncertainty that needs to be considered for modeling of solute transport processes in fractured rocks. The presented direct numerical simulations of fluid flow and solute transport serve as efficient numerical experiments that provide reliable results for the analysis of effective transmissivity as well as effective dispersion coefficient in rough-walled fracture-matrix systems. Such analysis is helpful in model verifications, uncertainty quantifications and design of laboratorial experiments.

  • 127.
    Zou, Liangchao
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering. KTH.
    Jing, Lanru
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering. KTH.
    Cvetkovic, Vladimir
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering. KTH.
    Modeling of solute transport in a 3D rough-walled fracture-matrix systemManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Fluid flow and solute transport in a 3D rough-walled fracture-matrix system was simulated by directly solving the Navier-Stokes equations for fracture flow and solving the transport equation for the whole domain of fracture and matrix with considering matrix diffusion. The rough-walled fracture-matrix model was built from laser-scanned surface tomography of a real rock sample, by considering realistic features of surfaces roughness and asperity contacts. The numerical modeling results were compared with both analytical solutions based on simplified fracture surface geometry and numerical results by particle tracking based on the Reynolds equation. The aim is to investigate impacts of surface roughness on solute transport in natural fracture-matrix systems, and to quantify the uncertainties in application of simplified models. The results show that fracture surface roughness significantly increases heterogeneity of velocity field in the rough-walled fractures, which consequently cause complex transport behavior, especially the dispersive distributions of solute concentration in the fracture and complex concentration profiles in the matrix. Such complex transport behavior caused by surface roughness are important sources of uncertainty that needs to be considered for modeling of solute transport processes in fractured rocks. The presented direct numerical simulations of fluid flow and solute transport serve as efficient numerical experiments that provide reliable results for the analysis of effective transmissivity as well as effective dispersion coefficient in rough-walled fracture-matrix systems. Such analyses are helpful in model verifications, uncertainty quantifications and design of laboratorial experiments.

  • 128.
    Zou, Liangchao
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Jing, Lanru
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Cvetkovic, Vladimir
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Roughness decomposition and nonlinear fluid flow in a single rock fracture2015In: International Journal of Rock Mechanics And Mining Sciences, ISSN 1365-1609, E-ISSN 1873-4545, Vol. 75, p. 102-118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the effects of wall surface roughness on fluid flow through rock fractures. A wavelet analysis technique was developed to define a mathematical criterion for decomposing the original wall surface roughness profiles of a fracture into a high-frequency (secondary roughness) profile and a low-frequency (primary roughness) profile, in order to examine their impacts on fluid flow, by solving the Navier-Stokes equations (NSE) without linearization, using a self-developed 2D finite volume method (FVM) code. The results indicate that the high-frequency secondary roughness is the main cause for dynamic evolution of Eddy flow regions in the fracture flow field, besides the Reynolds number (Re). In the original fracture model with the high-frequency secondary roughness, our results show that fluid flow fields are not only generally non-linear, but also with non-stop generation and motions of eddies in the boundary layer regions of rough fractures when the Re = 1000 in this study, which will affect the solute transport processes in fractured rock masses. The complete NSE were solved without removing acceleration and inertial terms, so that the impacts of surface roughness on the nonlinear and dynamic flow behavior of rock fractures were calculated and visualized more accurately, which is important for modeling mass and energy transport processes in fractures and fractured rock masses.

  • 129.
    Zou, Liangchao
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering. KTH.
    Jing, Lanru
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Cvetkovic, Vladimir
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Shear enhanced nonlinear flow in rough-walled rock fracturesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Nonlinear flow in 3D rough-walled rock fracture models are simulated by solving the Navier-Stokes equations in this paper. The emphasis is on the impacts of shear caused aperture changes (variable apertures and asperity contacts) and flow conditions (inertial term) upon nonlinear flow behaviors in 3D rough-walled rock fractures. In order to compare shear effects, two 3D fracture models, with and without shear process, were established with the identical initial rough-walled surfaces tomography of a realistic rock sample. Five groups of simulations with different inflow boundary conditions of flowrates/Reynolds numbers (Re) were conducted to demonstrate shear enhanced nonlinearity of flow fields and limitations of local cubic law (LCL) approach. The flow results clearly show channeling flow along the preferential fluid paths, transverse flow around the contact spots and eddy flows behind contact spots with increasing Re numbers, which cannot be observed in 2D models. The effective transmissivity of the 3D fracture model was calculated from the modeling results of velocity and pressure fields. The results showed that the effective transmissivity is a function of local apertures with important uncertainties even when Re is small (i.e. Re = 0.4 in this study), thus the validity of the transmissivity evaluation using LCL approach for nonlinear flow in 3D rough-walled rock fractures is questionable. The mechanical effects, i.e. stress and shear caused aperture space changes and asperity contacts should be considered for modeling flow and mass/energy transport processes in rough-walled fractures in 3D.

  • 130.
    Zou, Liangchao
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Jing, Lanru
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Cvetkovic, Vladimir
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Resources, Energy and Infrastructure.
    Shear-enhanced nonlinear flow in rough-walled rock fractures2017In: International Journal of Rock Mechanics And Mining Sciences, ISSN 1365-1609, E-ISSN 1873-4545, Vol. 97, p. 33-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nonlinear flow in 3D rough-walled rock fractures is simulated by solving the Navier-Stokes equations. The emphasis is on the impact of shear-caused aperture changes (variable apertures and asperity contacts) and flow conditions (inertial term) upon nonlinear flow behavior. In order to compare shear effects, two 3D fracture models, with and without shear, were established with identical initial rough-walled surfaces topographies of a realistic rock sample. Five groups of simulations with different inflow boundary conditions of flowrates/Reynolds numbers (Re) were conducted to demonstrate shear-enhanced nonlinearity of flow fields and limitations of local cubic law (LCL) approach. The flow results clearly show channeling flow along the preferential paths, transverse flow around the contact spots, and eddy flows behind contact spots with increasing Re, which cannot be observed in 2D models. The effective transmissivity of the 3D fracture model was calculated from the modeling results of velocity and pressure fields. The results showed that the effective transmissivity is a function of local apertures with important uncertainties even when Re is small (i.e. Re = 0.4 in this study), thus the validity of the transmissivity evaluation using LCL approach for nonlinear flow in 3D rough-walled rock fractures is questionable.

123 101 - 130 of 130
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