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  • 101.
    Rengefors, Karin
    et al.
    Lund university, Sweden.
    Legrand, Catherine
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Broad allelopathic activity in Peridinium aciculiferum (Dinophyceae)2007In: European journal of phycology, ISSN 0967-0262, E-ISSN 1469-4433, Vol. 42, no 4, p. 341-349Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The dinoflagellate Peridinium aciculiferum forms blooms underneath the ice in temperate lakes and has previously been shown to have an allelopathic effect on a natural competitor as well as being haemolytic. Hence, we investigated whether P. aciculiferum is allelopathic towards a wide range of different freshwater phytoplankton species. We also tested the hypothesis that nutrient (N and P) deficiency enhances its allelopathic effect. In addition, we explored how target cell density affected the extent of the allelopathic effect. Our findings showed that P. aciculiferum had a negative effect (mortality through lyses) on Synura petersenii (Chrysophyceae), Peridinium inconspicuum (Dinophyceae), Cyclotella sp. (Bacillariophyceae), Cryptomonas sp. and Rhodomonas lacustris (Cryptophyceae). Only Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Chlorophyceae) cells were not negatively affected. In semi-continuously grown nutrient deficient cultures, we detected no allelopathic activity, in contrast to the findings for batch cultures. Finally, we found that, at donor-target cell ratios above 6:1, the algicidal effect of P. aciculiferum did not increase. We concluded that the allelopathic activity of P. aciculiferum has a wide span of action due to either a single chemical or a cocktail of allelochemicals, but that allelopathic activity is highly variable depending on growth conditions.

  • 102.
    Roberts, EC
    et al.
    Swansea University, UK.
    Legrand, Catherine
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, NV.
    Steinke, Michael
    Wootton, Emma
    Mechanisms underlying chemical interactions between predatory planktonic protists and their prey2011In: Journal of Plankton Research, ISSN 0142-7873, E-ISSN 1464-3774, Vol. 33, no 6, p. 833-841Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Predatory protists use chemical recognition to increase feeding efficiency by responding to point sources of prey chemoattractants and through adhering to the cell surface of their prey. In response, their prey possess a multitude of chemical- based antipredator strategies. Given that these chemical interactions play a key role in driving aquatic food webs, we emphasize the need for a better knowledge of the associated underlying mechanisms. As the mechanisms underpinning such chemi- cal interactions have been intensively researched for certain non-planktonic model protists, we highlight that studies on these model organisms can help elucidate the mechanisms involved in planktonic predator–prey interactions. A related future challenge will be to interpret the evolutionary and ecological consequences of these chemical interactions within planktonic communities, and here this will be dis- cussed in relation to coevolutionary arms races and costs.

  • 103.
    Roberts, EC
    et al.
    Swansea University, UK.
    Legrand, Catherine
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Steinke, Michael
    University of Essex, UK.
    Wootton, Emma
    Swansea University, UK.
    Mechanisms underlying chemical interactions between predatory planktonic protists and their prey2011In: Journal of Plankton Research, ISSN 0142-7873, E-ISSN 1464-3774, Vol. 33, no 6, p. 833-841Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Predatory protists use chemical recognition to increase feeding efficiency by responding to point sources of prey chemoattractants and through adhering to the cell surface of their prey. In response, their prey possess a multitude of chemical- based antipredator strategies. Given that these chemical interactions play a key role in driving aquatic food webs, we emphasize the need for a better knowledge of the associated underlying mechanisms. As the mechanisms underpinning such chemi- cal interactions have been intensively researched for certain non-planktonic model protists, we highlight that studies on these model organisms can help elucidate the mechanisms involved in planktonic predator–prey interactions. A related future challenge will be to interpret the evolutionary and ecological consequences of these chemical interactions within planktonic communities, and here this will be dis- cussed in relation to coevolutionary arms races and costs.

  • 104.
    Rosenlund, Joacim
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Legrand, Catherine
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Algaepreneurship as academic engagement: being entrepreneurial in a labcoat2020In: Industry & higher education, ISSN 0950-4222, E-ISSN 2043-6858, article id IHE-20-0004.R1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are many ways in which scientists can engage in entrepreneurial activities. The context of this paper is a Swedish research group in marine ecology which became increasingly involved in entrepreneurial activities. The paper focus on the what, why and how of entrepreneurship as part of an academic role. The study was conducted as an interactive research process, involving activities as well as interviewing participants in the project. Theories of identity work, role identity and passion were used to analyse this context. Two distinct but simultaneous processes were identified: first, when scientists engage in commercial entrepreneurial activities and react by reaffirming their roles as academics and, second, when scientists engage in entrepreneurial activities in a broad sense, fulfilling environmental and social goals (this is compatible with their scientific passion connected to their academic role identity). The paper shows that scientists can be entrepreneurial while working with social and environmental responsibility with no conflict between their entrepreneurial activity and their role as an academic.

  • 105.
    Rosenlund, Joacim
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Legrand, Catherine
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    The circular economy business model of Algoland2018In: Book of abstracts: Linnaeus ECO-TECH '18, 2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 106.
    Rosenlund, Joacim
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Legrand, Catherine
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    The Circular Economy Business Model of Algoland2019In: Iranica Journal of Energy and Environment / Iranian Journal of Energy and Environment (IJEE), ISSN 2079-2115, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 33-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the Algoland project, microalgae are used to clean water and air from industry. This is built on a long standing collaboration between research, industry and society. In this way Algoland supports the transition to a circular economy by turning pollution into biomass and potential products. This paper evaluates the potential for microalgae as an ecosystem service in industries from a circular economy perspective. The business model canvas was used in a workshop with stakeholders and researchers to discuss the challenges and opportunities for an industrial platform. Results showed that the established canvas model needs to be complemented by circular models; in order to be able to include ecosystem services. In this paper a circular canvas model is developed to be used in similar approaches.

  • 107. Skovgaard, Alf
    et al.
    Legrand, Catherine
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Observation of live specimens of Pseudotontonia cornuta (Ciliophora : Oligotrichida) reveals new distinctive characters2005In: Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, ISSN 0025-3154, E-ISSN 1469-7769, Vol. 85, no 4, p. 783-786Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A large planktonic ciliate, Pseudotontonza cornuta, was observed during a cruise in the North Sea, Denmark, in summer 2001. Live cells as well as fixed and protargol-stained specimens were studied. The species possessed the characteristic tail of Tontoniidae, somatic cillature classifying it as a Pseudotontonia, and cell proportions and oral ciliature corresponding to P cornuta. Observation of live cells, however, revealed distinctive features as chloroplast- containing tentacles emerging just below the apical membranelles and an S-shaped proximal rim of the left margin of the oral cavity. These characters are eye-catching in live specimens, but have passed unnoticed till now because all previous studies on P cornuta have been made on fixed samples.

  • 108. Skovgaard, Alf
    et al.
    Legrand, Catherine
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Hansen, PJ
    Granéli, Edna
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Effects of nutrient limitation on food uptake in the toxic haptophyte Prymnesium parvum2003In: Aquatic Microbial Ecology, ISSN 0948-3055, E-ISSN 1616-1564, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 259-265Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The haptophyte PrymnesiuM parvum Carter is toxic and frequently responsible for harmful algal blooms in coastal waters. It is a mixotrophic species having the capability to feed on various planktonic microorganisms. It is frequently suggested that mixotrophic algae may obtain inorganic nutrients through phagotrophy and that nutrient depletion should then lead to increased food uptake. To study this, we investigated the feeding activity of P. parvum in semi-continuous, nutrient-limited cultures, using the cryptophyte Rhodomonas baltica as prey. P. parvum showed to be an active predator under all conditions investigated. After 2 h of incubation with prey, 40% of P. parvum cells were either feeding or contained recently formed food vacuoles. However, under the conditions used, no difference in feeding activity was found between treatments. On the contrary, the feeding activity was similar in P. parvum cultures that had been grown under N-limiting, P-limiting, N- and P-limiting, as well as under nutrient-replete conditions. It cannot be excluded that P. parvum under limiting nutrient conditions may acquire nutrients to be used in photosynthetic growth through phagotrophy. It is evident, however, that the species also feeds when inorganic nutrients are present in concentrations sufficient to support maximum phototrophic growth.

  • 109. Sopanen, S
    et al.
    Koski, M
    Uronen, P
    Kuuppo, P
    Lehtinen, S
    Legrand, Catherine
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Tamminen, T
    Prymnesium parvum exotoxins affect the grazing and viability of the calanoid copepod Eurytemora affinis2008In: Marine Ecology Progress Series, ISSN 0171-8630, E-ISSN 1616-1599, Vol. 361, p. 191-202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The calanoid copepod Eurytemora affinis from the northern Baltic Sea was exposed to cell-free filtrates of the toxic haptophyte Prymnesium parvum as well as to cell mixtures of P. parvum and Rhodomonas salina. To test the effects of P. parvum exudates and allelopathy on selective grazers, copepods were incubated (1) in increasing concentrations of cell-free filtrates of P. parvum in the presence of good food (R, salina), (2) in 1:1 cell mixtures at 2 cell concentrations of P. parvum and R. salina and (3) in R. salina cell suspension, which was used as a control for good-quality food. P. parvum cultures were grown in nutrient-balanced (+NP) or limited (-N or -P) media to obtain different levels of toxicity. Survival, ingestion, faecal pellet production rates and egg production were measured over 3 d, together with measurements of P. parvum toxicity (hemolytic activity) (HA). Most of the copepods incubated in high-filtrate concentrations died or became severely impaired, although (HA) in filtrates was under the detection limit. Further, the ingestion and faecal pellet production rates were suppressed in the highest filtrate concentrations in nutrient-limited treatments. Higher cell density in cell mixtures resulted in significantly lower faecal pellet production, although survival remained high. Our results show that HA is not a good overall indicator of the total harmful effects of P. parvum on grazers. Besides monospecific P. parvum diets, filtrates and cell mixtures have negative effects on grazers, and these effects are stronger under nutrient-depleted conditions; however, the presence of good-quality food lowers harmful effects for copepods. The negative effects caused either by direct intoxication or by food limitation following from strong allelopathic effects of P. parvum on other components of nano- and microplankton suggest that P. parvum blooms have a realistic potential to be deleterious for copepod secondary production, irrespective of the presence of alternative food sources.

  • 110. Sopanen, S
    et al.
    Koski, Marja
    Kuuppo, P
    Uronen, P
    Legrand, Catherine
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Tamminen, T
    Toxic haptophyte Prymnesium parvum affects grazing, survival, egestion and egg production of the calanoid copepods Eurytemora affinis and Acartia bifilosa2006In: Marine Ecology Progress Series, ISSN 0171-8630, E-ISSN 1616-1599, Vol. 327, p. 223-232Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nitrogen- and phosphorus-depleted or NP-balanced toxic haptophyte Prymnesium parvum was fed to 2 dominant copepod species of the northern Baltic Sea (Eurytemora affinis and Acartia bifflosa), and their ingestion, egg and faecal pellet production rates and mortality were measured. The copepods were incubated in 5 different cell concentrations of P. parvum for 3 consecutive days; the cryptophyte Rhodomonas salina was used as a control for non-toxic, nutritionally high-quality food. Toxicity (haemolytic activity) of P. parvum was measured before and after the incubations. The haemolytic activity of R parvum was the highest in cultures grown under nutrient deficiency. The toxicity decreased after 1 d incubation in all treatments, in both the presence and absence of copepods. Neither of the copepod species ingested R parvum, irrespective of the nutrient treatment (toxicity) or cell concentration, and the pellet and egg production rates were correspondingly low. Although there was no significant increase in mortality in P. parvum treatments, copepods that were exposed to P. parvum in any concentration or nutrient treatment soon became inactive. It was evident that the toxicity of even nutrient-replete P. parvum had an indirect and sublethal influence on copepods, although this could not be measured as short-term increased mortality. Our results suggest a strong reduction in secondary production of copepods in an event of a P. parvum bloom.

  • 111.
    Sopanen, Sanna
    et al.
    Univ. Helsinki, Finland.
    Uronen, Pauliina
    Univ. Helsinki, Finalnd.
    Kuuppo, Pirjo
    Finnish Environmental Agency, SYKE.
    Svensen, Camilla
    Univ. Tromso, Fisheries, Norway.
    Rhul, Alex
    Univ. Jena, Germany.
    Tamminen, Timo
    Finnish Environmental Agency, SYKE.
    Granéli, Edna
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Legrand, Catherine
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Transfer of nodularin to copepod Eurytemora affinis through the microbial food web2009In: Aquatic Microbial Ecology, ISSN 0948-3055, E-ISSN 1616-1564, Vol. 55, no 2, p. 115-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nodularia spumigena Mertens ex Bornet & Flahault 1886 (Cyanophyceae) frequently forms harmful blooms in the Baltic Sea, and the toxin nodularin has been found in calanoid copepods during the blooms. Although nodularin has been found at higher trophic levels of the food web, no available information exists about the role of the microbial loop in the transfer of nodularin. We followed the transfer of nodularin to the copepod Eurytemora affinis during conditions that resembled initial 'pre-bloom' (Expt 1) and late stationary (Expt 2) phases of a N. spumigena bloom. The experiments were carried out using natural plankton communities spiked with cultured N. spumigena and grown in laboratory mesocosms, and E. affinis, which were isolated from the Baltic Sea and had no prior contact with nodularin. The plankton community was divided into 6 size fractions as follows: <150, <45, <20, <10, <3 and <0.2 pm, in which E. affinis was incubated for 24 h. Ingestion and clearance rates, food selection and faecal pellet production were based on microscopical analyses. Nodularin was measured with HPLC-MS with electrospray ionization in the copepods, as well as in dissolved and particulate fractions before and after incubation. We found that nodularin accumulated in copepods in all the plankton size fractions. The copepods contained nodularin concentrations of 14.3 +/- 11.6 (mean +/- SD) and 6.6 +/- 0.7 pg ind.(-1) after incubation in the < 150 mu m fraction in Expt 1 and Expt 2, respectively, while the range in the smaller size fractions was from 1.3 +/- 2.8 to 5.7 +/- 1.3 pg ind.-1. Nodularin was transferred to the copepods through 3 pathways: (1) by grazing on filaments of small N. spumigena, (2) directly from the dissolved pool, and (3) through the microbial food web by copepods grazing on ciliates, dinoflagellates and heterotrophic nanoflagellates. The relative importance of direct grazing on small N. spumigena filaments varied from moderate to insignificant. The microbial loop was important in nodularin transfer to higher trophic levels. Our results suggest that the importance of the microbial loop in harmful algal bloom (HAB) toxin transfer may be underestimated both in marine and freshwater systems. 

  • 112. Strogyloudi, Evangeli
    et al.
    Giannakourou, A
    Legrand, Catherine
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Ruehl, A
    Granéli, Edna
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Estimating the accumulation and transfer of Nodularia spumigena toxins by the blue mussel Mytilus edulis: An appraisal from culture and mesocosm experiments2006In: Toxicon, ISSN 0041-0101, E-ISSN 1879-3150, Vol. 48, no 4, p. 359-372Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accumulation of Nodularia spumigena toxins by Mytilus edulis was studied during laboratory and mesocosm experiments in order to investigate the possible pathways of nodularin in mussels and calculate toxin budgets. Mussels were exposed to 0.2-15.6 mu g nodularin 1(-1), fed for up to 5 days with Nodularia cells from culture, or blooming in different nutrient-treated seawater. Toxin concentration was monitored with LC-ESI-MS.During different exposures, the amount of nodularin detected in mussels increased linearly with increasing toxin concentration in food and attained 0.28-13.8 mu g of nodularin g dw(-1) of the mussel whole body tissue after 12h. The digestive gland was found to be the tissue with the highest toxin concentration. Nodularin concentration in faeces was not proportional to faeces production or to toxin concentration in food; however, it seemed to be mostly related to food quality as well as to food availability. The percentage of nodularin taken up by the mussels, relative to the amount contained in the offered food, varied from 10% to 20%, depending on food quality. During a 5-day toxin accumulation experiment, the acute reduction of the toxin in mussel tissues the second day and the following stabilization, showed that probably mussels maintain low toxin levels via efficient elimination and/or toxin metabolism. After a 72 h depuration period, mussels showed 75% reduction in their toxin content.

  • 113.
    Sun, Xiaole
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ.
    Olofsson, Martin
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Andersson, Per S.
    Swedish Museum Nat Hist.
    Fry, Brian
    Griffith Univ, Australian Rivers Inst, Nathan, Qld 4111, Australia.
    Legrand, Catherine
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Humborg, Christoph
    Stockholm Univ.
    Morth, Carl-Magnus
    Stockholm Univ.
    Effects of growth and dissolution on the fractionation of silicon isotopes by estuarine diatoms2014In: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, ISSN 0016-7037, E-ISSN 1872-9533, Vol. 130, p. 156-166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies of silicon (Si) isotope fractionation during diatom growth in open ocean systems have documented lower Si isotopic values (delta Si-30) in the biogenic silica of diatom frustules compared to dissolved silicon. Recent findings also indicate that Si isotope fractionation occurs during dissolution of diatom frustules, producing higher delta Si-30 values in the remaining biogenic silica. This study focuses on diatoms from high production areas in estuarine and coastal areas that represent approximately 30-50% of the global marine primary production. Two species of diatoms, Thalassiosira baltica and Skeletonema marinoi, were isolated from the brackish Baltic Sea, one of the largest estuarine systems in the world. These species were used for laboratory investigations of Si isotope fractionation during diatom growth and the subsequent dissolution of the diatom frustules. Both species of diatoms give an identical Si isotope fractionation factor during growth of -1.50 +/- 0.36 parts per thousand (2 sigma) for Si-30, which falls in the range of -2.09 parts per thousand to -0.55 parts per thousand of published data. Our results also suggest a dissolution-induced Si isotope fractionation factor of -0.86 parts per thousand at early stage of dissolution, but this effect was observed only in DSi and no significant Si isotope change was observed for BSi. The growth and dissolution results are applied to a Baltic Sea sediment core to reconstruct DSi utilization by diatoms, and found to be in agreement with the observed DSi uptake rates in the overlying water column during diatom growth.

  • 114.
    Sun, Xiaole
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Olofsson, Martin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Andersson, Per S.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History.
    Fry, Brian
    Griffith Univ, Australia.
    Legrand, Catherine
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Humborg, Christoph
    Stockholm University.
    Morth, Carl-Magnus
    Stockholm University.
    Effects of growth and dissolution on the fractionation of silicon isotopes by estuarine diatoms2014In: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, ISSN 0016-7037, E-ISSN 1872-9533, Vol. 130, p. 156-166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies of silicon (Si) isotope fractionation during diatom growth in open ocean systems have documented lower Si isotopic values (delta Si-30) in the biogenic silica of diatom frustules compared to dissolved silicon. Recent findings also indicate that Si isotope fractionation occurs during dissolution of diatom frustules, producing higher delta Si-30 values in the remaining biogenic silica. This study focuses on diatoms from high production areas in estuarine and coastal areas that represent approximately 30-50% of the global marine primary production. Two species of diatoms, Thalassiosira baltica and Skeletonema marinoi, were isolated from the brackish Baltic Sea, one of the largest estuarine systems in the world. These species were used for laboratory investigations of Si isotope fractionation during diatom growth and the subsequent dissolution of the diatom frustules. Both species of diatoms give an identical Si isotope fractionation factor during growth of -1.50 +/- 0.36 parts per thousand (2 sigma) for Si-30, which falls in the range of -2.09 parts per thousand to -0.55 parts per thousand of published data. Our results also suggest a dissolution-induced Si isotope fractionation factor of -0.86 parts per thousand at early stage of dissolution, but this effect was observed only in DSi and no significant Si isotope change was observed for BSi. The growth and dissolution results are applied to a Baltic Sea sediment core to reconstruct DSi utilization by diatoms, and found to be in agreement with the observed DSi uptake rates in the overlying water column during diatom growth.

  • 115. Svensen, Camilla
    et al.
    Strogyloudi, Evangeli
    Wexels- Riser, Christian
    Dahlmann, Jens
    Legrand, Catherine
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Wassmann, Paul
    Granéli, Edna
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Pagou, Kalliopi
    Reduction of cyanobacterial toxins through coprophagy in Mytilus edulis2005In: Harmful Algae, ISSN 1568-9883, E-ISSN 1878-1470, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 329-336Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An experiment was conducted to follow the fate of the cyanobacterial toxin, nodularin, produced by Nodularia spumigena through ingestion by Mytilus edulis and re-ingestion of faecal material (coprophagy). Mussels were fed with cultures of N. spumigena, and the faeces that were produced were fed to other mussels not previously exposed to N. spumigena. Concentrations of nodularin were measured in the food (N. spumigena), the mussels and in the faeces in order to make a toxin budget. High concentrations of nodularin were found in the mussels and their faeces after 48 h incubation with N. spumigena. When the toxic faeces were fed to new mussels, the toxin content of faeces was reduced from 95 mug nod g(-1) dry weight (DW) to 1 mug nod g(-1) DW through the process of coprophagy. Hence, when toxic faeces were fed to mussels, the nodularin concentration of the resulting faecal material was reduced by 99%. Pseudofaeces were produced when the mussels were grazing on N. spumigena, but not when grazing on faeces. The pseudofaeces contained high concentrations of nodularin and apparently intact N. spumigena cells. However, these cells were growth-inhibited and their potential contribution to seeding a bloom is probably limited. Our data indicate that a large fraction of ingested nodularin in M. edulis is egested with the faeces, and that the concentration of nodularin in the faeces is reduced when faeces are re-ingested.

  • 116.
    Sörenson, Eva
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Bertos-Fortis, Mireia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Farnelid, Hanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Kremp, Anke
    Finnish Environment Institute, Finland;Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemunde, Germany.
    Kruget, Karen
    Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology, Germany.
    Lindehoff, Elin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Finnish Environment Institute, Finland.
    Legrand, Catherine
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Consistency in microbiomes in cultures of Alexandrium species isolated from brackish and marine waters2019In: Environmental Microbiology Reports, ISSN 1758-2229, E-ISSN 1758-2229, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 425-433Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Phytoplankton and bacteria interactions have a significant role in aquatic ecosystem functioning. Associations can range from mutualistic to parasitic, shaping biogeochemical cycles and having a direct influence on phytoplankton growth. How variations in phenotype and sampling location, affect the phytoplankton microbiome is largely unknown. A high‐resolution characterization of the bacterial community in cultures of the dinoflagellate Alexandrium was performed on strains isolated from different geographical locations and at varying anthropogenic impact levels. Microbiomes of Baltic Sea Alexandrium ostenfeldii isolates were dominated by Betaproteobacteria and were consistent over phenotypic and genotypic Alexandrium strain variation, resulting in identification of an A. ostenfeldii core microbiome. Comparisons with in situ bacterial communities showed that taxa found in this A. ostenfeldii core were specifically associated to dinoflagellate dynamics in the Baltic Sea. Microbiomes of Alexandrium tamarense and minutum, isolated from the Mediterranean Sea, differed from those of A. ostenfeldii in bacterial diversity and composition but displayed high consistency, and a core set of bacterial taxa was identified. This indicates that Alexandrium isolates with diverse phenotypes host predictable, species‐specific, core microbiomes reflecting the abiotic conditions from which they were isolated. These findings enable in‐depth studies of potential interactions occurring between Alexandrium and specific bacterial taxa.

  • 117.
    Theulen, Jan
    et al.
    r Global Environmental Sustainability, HeidelbergCement Group, Germany .
    Legrand, Catherine
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Harvesting CO2 from cement kiln flue gas using micro-algae: valuable biomass production in Sweden2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    presentation
  • 118. Thorén, AK
    et al.
    Legrand, Catherine
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Herrmann, Jan
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Transport and transformation of de-icing urea from airport runways in a constructed wetland system2003In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 48, no 5, p. 283-290Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urea, NH2-CO-NH2, is used as a de-icing agent at Kalmar Airport, southeast Sweden. During 1998-2001, urea contributed on average 30% of the yearly nitrogen (N) transport of 41,000 kg via Tornebybacken stream to the coastal zone of the Baltic Sea. In order to reduce stream transport of N from airport, agricultural and other diffuse sources, a wetland was constructed in 1996. Annual wetland retention of total-N varied in the range of 2,500-8,1100 kg (6-36% of influent) during 1998-2001, according to mass balances calculated from monthly sampling. During airport de-icing, January-March 2001, 660 kg urea-N out of 2,600 kg applied urea-N reached the wetland according to daily sampling. This indicated that 75% of the urea was transformed before entering the wetland. Urea was found to be only a minor part (8%) of total-N in the wetland influent. Calculations of cumulative urea-N loads at the wetland inlet and outlet respectively, showed a significant urea. transformation during February 2001 with approximately 40% of the incoming urea-N being transformed in the wetland system. These results show that significant amounts of urea can be transformed in a wetland system at air temperatures around 0degreesC. 

  • 119. Thorén, AK
    et al.
    Legrand, Catherine
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Tonderski, K
    Temporal export of nitrogen from a constructed wetland: influence of hydrology and senescing submerged plants2004In: Ecological Engineering: The Journal of Ecotechnology, ISSN 0925-8574, E-ISSN 1872-6992, Vol. 23, no 4-5, p. 233-249Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nitrogen export was measured during monthly monitoring in an 18-ha constructed wetland in southeast Sweden 1998-2001. To investigate the influence of increased water flow on wetland nitrogen export, we performed intensive sampling (eight samples per day) of total-N, urea-N, NH4+-N, NO3--N in January-March 2001. Investigations of wetland plant distribution 1997-2001 and submerged plant biomass were combined with investigations of plant nitrogen content 1998-2001, to test the hypothesis that nitrogen export was linked to wetland plant decomposition. Nitrogen was exported from the wetland (3.3 kg N ha(-1) d(-1)), during the end of the intensive sampling period (19 February-12 March), coinciding with increased water flow (from 0.2 to 0.6 m(3) s(-1)). Plant cover expanded rapidly and nitrogen assimilated in the submerged plant community was estimated to be 39 kg ha(-1) in July 2001. After senescence in April the following year, plant biomass was reduced by 75%. We concluded that a significant part (40%) of this wetland nitrogen export might be associated with the release of organic and inorganic nitrogen from the senesced submerged plant community. Moreover, we hypothesize that nitrogen removal in wetlands in cold temperate climate may be limited by temporal nitrogen export induced by high water flow velocity when wetland plants are decomposing.

  • 120. Uronen, P
    et al.
    Kuuppo, P
    Legrand, Catherine
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Tamminen, T
    Allelopathic effects of toxic haptophyte Prymnesium parvum lead to release of dissolved organic carbon and increase in bacterial biomass2007In: Microbial Ecology, ISSN 0095-3628, E-ISSN 1432-184X, Vol. 54, no 1, p. 183-193Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The haptophyte Prymnesium parvum has lytic properties, and it affects coexisting phytoplankton species through allelopathy. We studied the effect of P. parvum allelo-chemicals on the lysis of the nontoxic and nonaxenic cryptomonad Rhodomonas salina and the consequent release of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Changes in production, cell density, and biomass of associated bacteria were measured over 12 h. Six different combinations of P. parvum and R. salina cultures, their cell-and bacteria-free filtrates, and growth media as controls were used in the experiments. When P. parvum and R. salina cells were mixed, a significant increase in DOC concentration was measured within 30 min. Bacterial biomass increased significantly during the next 6 to 12 h when R. salina was mixed either with the P. parvum culture or the cell-free P. parvum filtrates (allelochemicals only). In contrast, bacterial biomass did not change in the treatments without the allelopathic action (without R. salina cells). Blooms of P. parvum alter the functioning of the planktonic food web by increasing carbon transfer through the microbial loop. In addition, P. parvum may indirectly benefit from the release of DOC as a result of its ability to ingest bacteria, by which it can acquire nutrients during limiting conditions.

  • 121. Uronen, P
    et al.
    Lehtinen, S
    Legrand, Catherine
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Kuuppo, P
    Tamminen, T
    Haemolytic activity and allelopathy of the haptophyte Prymnesium parvum in nutrient-limited and balanced growth conditions2005In: Marine Ecology Progress Series, ISSN 0171-8630, E-ISSN 1616-1599, Vol. 299, p. 137-148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prymnesium parvum (Haptophyceae) was grown in 3 different nutrient treatments in semi-continuous cultures, where the N:P molar ratios were modified to 80:1, 4:1 and 16:1. The nutrient concentrations in the media affected the cellular nutrient content of P parvum. The phosphorus content showed larger flexibility in the cells and determined more the cellular nutrient ratios than nitrogen or carbon. Toxicity was measured as haemolytic activity 14 times during the culturing, All the cultures were toxic during the exponential growth, but toxicity increased in the nutrient limited cultures during semi-continuous dilution. The allelopathic effect of P parvum was examined with low cell densities (final abundance 2 and 5 x 10(3) cells ml(-1)) on cryptomonad Rhodomonas salina. With lower cell density, cell structures of R. salina were damaged in one-third of the cells and the cell density decreased slightly. With higher P. parvum cell density, less than half of the R. salina cells remained in the nutrient limited cultures after 23 h. P. parvum grown in nutrient balanced cultures negatively affected R. salina cells. The cellular N:P ratio, which was scaled to the Redfield ratio, could explain 67 and 75% of the variation in the haemolytic activity and the allelopathic effect, respectively. Our results confirm the hypothesis that nutrient deficiency increases toxicity of P. parvum. The haemolytic activity varied during semi-continuous culturing, but it was significantly dependent on intracellular N:P ratios. Due to the allelopathic effect, formation of a P. parvum bloom may accelerate after a critical cell density is reached when the competing species are eliminated.

  • 122.
    Weissbach, Astrid
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, NV.
    Bechemin, Christian
    French research Institute for the exploitation of the sea (Ifremer), L`Houmeau, France.
    Genauzeau, Sylvie
    French research Institute for the exploitation of the sea (Ifremer), L`Houmeau, France.
    Rudström, Maria
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, NV.
    Legrand, Catherine
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, NV.
    Impact of Alexandrium tamarense allelochemicals on DOM dynamics in an estuarine microbial community2012In: Harmful Algae, ISSN 1568-9883, E-ISSN 1878-1470, Vol. 13, p. 58-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plankton and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) dynamics in fractionated estuarine microbial communities (<150 μm, <60 μm and <20 μm), incubated with allelopathic (lytic) or non allelopathic (non-lytic) Alexandrium tamarense filtrates were investigated over a period of 48 h. Additionally, the amount of dissolved organic matter (DOM) available for bacterial growth in the treatments was measured via bacterial seawater culture experiments immediately and 6 h after addition of A. tamarense filtrates. The lack of effect on DOC concentrations and plankton community composition in lytic treatments indicated that allelochemicals did not inhibit the growth of the microbial community. Nevertheless, bacterial seawater culture experiments provided evidence that lytic filtrate addition provoked the release of bioavailable DOM from the microbial community. Since DOM was only released from the largest seawater fraction, microorganisms >60 μm were probably most sensitive towards allelochemicals.

  • 123.
    Weissbach, Astrid
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Bechemin, Christian
    French research Institute for the exploitation of the sea (Ifremer), L`Houmeau, France.
    Genauzeau, Sylvie
    French research Institute for the exploitation of the sea (Ifremer), L`Houmeau, France.
    Rudström, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Legrand, Catherine
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences. Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Germany.
    Impact of Alexandrium tamarense allelochemicals on DOM dynamics in an estuarine microbial community2012In: Harmful Algae, ISSN 1568-9883, E-ISSN 1878-1470, Vol. 13, p. 58-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plankton and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) dynamics in fractionated estuarine microbial communities (<150 μm, <60 μm and <20 μm), incubated with allelopathic (lytic) or non allelopathic (non-lytic) Alexandrium tamarense filtrates were investigated over a period of 48 h. Additionally, the amount of dissolved organic matter (DOM) available for bacterial growth in the treatments was measured via bacterial seawater culture experiments immediately and 6 h after addition of A. tamarense filtrates. The lack of effect on DOC concentrations and plankton community composition in lytic treatments indicated that allelochemicals did not inhibit the growth of the microbial community. Nevertheless, bacterial seawater culture experiments provided evidence that lytic filtrate addition provoked the release of bioavailable DOM from the microbial community. Since DOM was only released from the largest seawater fraction, microorganisms >60 μm were probably most sensitive towards allelochemicals.

  • 124.
    Weissbach, Astrid
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Legrand, Catherine
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Effect of different salinities on growth and intra- and extracellular toxicity of four strains of the haptophyte Prymnesium parvum2012In: Aquatic Microbial Ecology, ISSN 0948-3055, E-ISSN 1616-1564, Vol. 67, no 2, p. 139-149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigates the effect of brackish (7 PSU) and marine (26 PSU) salinity on physiological parameters and intra- and extracellular toxicity in 4 strains of Prymnesium parvum Carter. The different P. parvum strains were grown in batch cultures in 2 trials under different experimental conditions to test the development of intra- and extracellular toxicity during growth. The response of P. parvum toxicity to salinity was validated using 2 protocols. Intra-specific variations in growth rate, maximal cell density (yield) and cell morphology were controlled by salinity. Extracellular toxicity was higher at 7 PSU in all strains, but no correlation was found between intra- and extracellular toxicity. The variation of extracellular toxicity in response to salinity was much greater than that of intracellular toxicity, which indicates that P. parvum may be producing a variety of substances contributing to its various types of 'toxicity'.

  • 125.
    Weissbach, Astrid
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, NV.
    Legrand, Catherine
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, NV.
    Effect of different salinities on growth and intra- and extracellular toxicity of four strains of the haptophyte Prymnesium parvum2012In: Aquatic Microbial Ecology, ISSN 0948-3055, E-ISSN 1616-1564, Vol. 67, no 2, p. 139-149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigates the effect of brackish (7 PSU) and marine (26 PSU) salinity on physiological parameters and intra- and extracellular toxicity in 4 strains of Prymnesium parvum Carter. The different P. parvum strains were grown in batch cultures in 2 trials under different experimental conditions to test the development of intra- and extracellular toxicity during growth. The response of P. parvum toxicity to salinity was validated using 2 protocols. Intra-specific variations in growth rate, maximal cell density (yield) and cell morphology were controlled by salinity. Extracellular toxicity was higher at 7 PSU in all strains, but no correlation was found between intra- and extracellular toxicity. The variation of extracellular toxicity in response to salinity was much greater than that of intracellular toxicity, which indicates that P. parvum may be producing a variety of substances contributing to its various types of 'toxicity'.

  • 126.
    Weissbach, Astrid
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Legrand, Catherine
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Hemolytic activity, allelopathy and growth rates of four strains of Prymnesium parvumManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 127.
    Weissbach, Astrid
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Rudström, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Olofsson, Martin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Bechemin, Christian
    IFREMER, France.
    Icely, John D
    Sagremarisco, Portugal.
    Newton, Alice
    Norwegian Institute for Air Research NIVA.
    Tillmann, Urban
    Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Germany.
    Legrand, Catherine
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Phytoplankton allelochemical interactions change microbial food web dynamics2011In: Limnology and Oceanography, ISSN 0024-3590, E-ISSN 1939-5590, Vol. 56, no 3, p. 899-909Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the effect of filtrates from an allelopathic dinoflagellate, Alexandrium tamarense, onfour microbial food webs that have been manipulated experimentally from natural seawater by modifying theavailability of resources in the form of dissolved organic carbon with additions of peptone, and by altering thegrazing pressure with size fractionation. Bacterial production was generally not affected by allelochemicals, butbacteria showed higher net growth in all food webs when allelochemicals were added, whereas heterotrophicnanoflagellates . 7 mm and ciliates were constrained in all food webs. Allelochemicals had the largest negativeeffects on microbial communities with low grazing pressure. In food webs with high grazing pressure andadditional resources, phytoplankton and small nanoflagellates were positively affected by the addition ofallelochemicals, suggesting that those were interfering with trophic interactions in the microbial communities. Bythe lysis of organisms sensitive towards allelochemicals, resources are made available and grazing pressure oncertain microorganisms is reduced. However, the intensity of these interactions is modulated by both theavailability of resources and the biomass of grazers in the initial food web.

  • 128.
    Weissbach, Astrid
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Tillmann, Urban
    Legrand, Catherine
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Allelopathic potential of the dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense on marine microbial communities2010In: Harmful Algae, ISSN 1568-9883, E-ISSN 1878-1470, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 9-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The impacts of two strains of the dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense, differing in lytic activity, on the abundance and the composition of microbial communities (<150 μm) were studied in North Sea water during spring with Phaeocystis globosa as a dominant species. Cell-free suspensions (supernatant) of exponentially growing lytic and non-lytic Alexandrium culture were added at different concentrations to natural microbial communities under nutrient rich conditions. The non-lytic strain had a positive impact on diatoms whereas the lytic strain suppressed phytoplankton growth in comparison to the control. P. globosa, present as single cells in the initial community, increased in abundance and formed colonies in all treatments. However, total abundance and number of colonies was low with lytic Alexandriumadditions, whereas shape of the colonies, but not abundance of cells, was affected by non-lytic Alexandrium additions. During the 4-day experiment, bacterial abundance was constantly higher with high lytic additions (highest concentration equivalent to 1000 cells ml−1) whereas nanoflagellate abundance in the same treatments was found to be lower at the end of the experiment. Initial bacterial community composition differed significantly among lytic Alexandrium, non-lyticAlexandrium and North Sea water. However, neither bacterial activity nor composition was significantly affected by the supernatants after 96 h. Our results indicated that Alexandrium allelochemicals do not inhibit growth and production of bacteria in seawater collected during spring in the North Sea.

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  • 129.
    Wells, Mark L.
    et al.
    Univ Maine, USA;Minist Nat Resources, China.
    Karlson, Bengt
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Sweden, Sweden.
    Wulff, Angela
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Kudela, Raphael
    Univ Calif Santa Cruz, USA.
    Trick, Charles
    Western Univ, Canada;Schulich Sch Med & Dent, Canada.
    Asnaghi, Valentina
    Univ Genova DiSTAV, Italy.
    Berdalet, Elisa
    CSIC, Spain.
    Cochlan, William
    San Francisco State Univ, USA.
    Davidson, Keith
    Scottish Assoc Marine Sci, UK.
    De Rijcke, Maarten
    Flanders Marine Inst VLIZ, Belgium.
    Dutkiewicz, Stephanie
    MIT, USA.
    Hallegraeff, Gustaaf
    Univ Tasmania, Australia.
    Flynn, Kevin J.
    Swansea Univ, UK.
    Legrand, Catherine
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Paerl, Hans
    Univ North Carolina Chapel Hill, USA.
    Silke, Joe
    Marine Inst, Ireland.
    Suikkanen, Sanna
    Marine Res Ctr, Finland.
    Thompson, Peter
    CSIRO, Australia.
    Trainer, Vera L.
    NOAA, USA.
    Future HAB science: Directions and challenges in a changing climate2020In: Harmful Algae, ISSN 1568-9883, E-ISSN 1878-1470, Vol. 91, p. 1-18, article id 101632Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is increasing concern that accelerating environmental change attributed to human-induced warming of the planet may substantially alter the patterns, distribution and intensity of Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs). Changes in temperature, ocean acidification, precipitation, nutrient stress or availability, and the physical structure of the water column all influence the productivity, composition, and global range of phytoplankton assemblages, but large uncertainty remains about how integration of these climate drivers might shape future HABs. Presented here are the collective deliberations from a symposium on HABs and climate change where the research challenges to understanding potential linkages between HABs and climate were considered, along with new research directions to better define these linkages. In addition to the likely effects of physical (temperature, salinity, stratification, light, changing storm intensity), chemical (nutrients, ocean acidification), and biological (grazer) drivers on microalgae (senso lato), symposium participants explored more broadly the subjects of cyanobacterial HABs, benthic HABs, HAB effects on fisheries, HAB modelling challenges, and the contributions that molecular approaches can bring to HAB studies. There was consensus that alongside traditional research, HAB scientists must set new courses of research and practices to deliver the conceptual and quantitative advances required to forecast future HAB trends. These different practices encompass laboratory and field studies, long-term observational programs, retrospectives, as well as the study of socioeconomic drivers and linkages with aqua culture and fisheries. In anticipation of growing HAB problems, research on potential mitigation strategies should be a priority. It is recommended that a substantial portion of HAB research among laboratories be directed collectively at a small sub-set of HAB species and questions in order to fast-track advances in our understanding. Climate-driven changes in coastal oceanographic and ecological systems are becoming substantial, in some cases exacerbated by localized human activities. That, combined with the slow pace of decreasing global carbon emissions, signals the urgency for HAB scientists to accelerate efforts across disciplines to provide society with the necessary insights regarding future HAB trends.

  • 130.
    Wolanski, E
    et al.
    Australian Institute of Marine Science, Australia.
    Newton, A
    Universidade do Algarve, Portugal.
    Rabalais, N
    Louisiana Universities Marine Consortium, USA.
    Legrand, Catherine
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Coastal Zone Management2013In: Reference Module in Earth Systems and Environmental Sciences / [ed] Scott A. Elias (editor in chief), Oxford: Elsevier, 2013Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a scientific overview of the processes and the impact of environmental degradation of coastal waters due to human activities on the adjoining land. The direct effects range from eutrophication and harmful algal blooms, to hypoxia and anoxia. The indirect effects are more subtle and can also lead to the collapse of the ecosystem as in the case of coral reefs or seagrass meadows. Engineering solutions alone are not available to prevent this degradation that can only be reversed, or prevented, using a basin-wide ecohydrology approach.

  • 131. Wolanski, E
    et al.
    Rabalais, N
    Newton, A
    Legrand, Catherine
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Ecohydrology of coastal waters, boundaries and limitations2008Other (Other academic)
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