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  • 101.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Varghese, Adel
    Evaluating the Impact of Training in Self Help Groups in India2014In: European Journal of Development Research, ISSN 0957-8811, E-ISSN 1743-9728, Vol. 26, no 5, p. 870-885Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article evaluates the impact of widespread training programmes provided by the Self-Help Group (SHG) programme. Indian SHGs are primarily non-governmental organisation (NGO)-formed microfinance groups funded by commercial banks. This article employs evaluation techniques appropriate for current borrowers of a national programme. In addition, the article addresses the double selection issue of membership and training. We correct for membership selection bias using a pipeline method. We then account for training endogeneity with propensity score matching. The results of regression-adjusted matching (which controls for both participation and training selection bias) reveal that specialised training, such as business training, has a greater impact on assets than general training. Furthermore, NGOs should specialise in business training. Sensitivity analyses confirm the robustness of these results.

  • 102.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Varghese, Adel
    Uppsala University.
    Microfinance "Plus": The Impact of Business Training on Indian Self Help Groups2010Report (Other academic)
  • 103.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Varghese, Adel
    Department of Economics, Texas A & M University.
    Microfinance ‘Plus’: The Impact of Business Training on Indian Self Help Groups2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The provision of business training with microfinance leads to a positive impact on assets for the participating households. We correct for membership selection bias and account for potential training endogeneity with propensity score matching, using data from the Self Help Group microfinance program in India.

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  • 104.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Varghese, Adel
    Reassessing the Impact of SHG Participation with Non-experimental Approaches2011In: Economic and Political Weekly, ISSN 0012-9976, Vol. 46, no 11, p. 50-57Article, review/survey (Refereed)
  • 105.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Varghese, Adel
    Reassessing the Impact of SHG Participation with Non-experimental Approaches2011In: Economic and Political Weekly, ISSN 0012-9976, Vol. 46, no 11, p. 50-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper critiques recent work that measures the impact of self-help groups, and explains the biases that result from this assessment. Using survey data, it is shown that the methodologies used yield results that misstate the impact. A categorical breakdown is proposed to improve upon these studies, and a simple alternative procedure, the pipeline method, is then estimated to properly correct for selection bias. The results indicate that SHG participation has an impact on assets, livestock income, and salaries. Applying more advanced methods, training is also found to have a positive impact on assets, and empowerment is found to increase with SHG participation.

  • 106.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Varghese, Adel
    Uppsala University.
    The Impact of Skill Development and Human Capital Training on Self Help Groups2009Report (Other academic)
  • 107.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Varghese, Adel
    The Impact of Skill Development and Human Capital Training on Self Help Groups2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We evaluate the effect of training, in both skill development and human capital, provided by facilitators of self help groups (SHGs). Indian SHGs are unique in that they are mainly NGO-formed microfinance groups but later funded by commercial banks. The results suggest that, in general, training does not impact assets but training can reverse the potentially negative effect of credit on income. Moreover, training is more effective for asset accumulation in villages with better infrastructure. In terms of training delivery, results show that the most effective linkage is when NGOs form groups and banks finance SHGs.

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  • 108.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Wallentin, Fan Yang
    Uppsala University.
    Achieving Sustainable Development Goals: Predicaments and Strategies2020In: International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology, ISSN 1350-4509, E-ISSN 1745-2627, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 96-106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ambitious United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) have been criticized for being universal, broadly-framed, inconsistent and difficult to quantify, implement and monitor. We contribute by quantifying and prioritising the SDGs and their impact on sustainable development. We employ structural equation models (SEM) to investigate, which of the underlying pillars of SDGs (economic, social and environment) are the most effective in achieving sustainable development. Our results reveal that the developed countries, benefit most by focusing on social and environmental factors whereas the developing countries, benefit most by retaining their focus on the economic and the social factors.

  • 109.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Wallentin, Fan Yang
    Uppsala University.
    Does Microfinance Empower Women?: Evidence from Self Help Groups in India2007Report (Other academic)
  • 110.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Wallentin, Fan Yang
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Information Science, Statistics.
    Does Microfinance Empower Women?: Evidence from Self Help Groups in India2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Microfinance programs like the Self Help Bank Linkage Program in India have been increasingly promoted for their positive economic impact and the belief that they empower women. However, only a few studies rigorously examine the link between microfinance and women’s empowerment. This paper contributes by arguing that women empowerment takes place when women challenge the existing social norms and culture, to effectively improve their well being. It empirically validates this hypothesis by using quasi-experimental household sample data collected for five states in India for 2000 and 2003. A general structural model is estimated by employing appropriate techniques to treat the ordinal variables in  order to estimate the impact of the Self Help Group (SHG) on women empowerment for 2000 and 2003. The results strongly demonstrate that on average, there is a significant increase in the women empowerment of the SHG members group. No such significant change is observed however, for the members of the control group. The elegance of the result lies in the fact that the group of SHG participants show clear evidence of a significant and higher empowerment, while allowing for the possibility that some members might have been more empowered than others.

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  • 111.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Wallentin, Fan Yang
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Information Science, Statistics.
    Economic or Non-Economic Factors – What Empowers Women?2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Microfinance programs like Self Help Group Bank linkage program (SHG), aim to empower women through provision of financial services. We investigate this further to determine whether it is the economic or the non-economic factors that have a greater impact on empowering women. Using household survey data on SHG from India, a general structural model is adopted where the latent women empowerment and its latent components (economic factors and financial confidence, managerial control, behavioural changes, education and networking, communication and political participation and awareness) are measured using observed indicators. The results show that for SHG members, economic factors, managerial control and behavioural changes are the most significant factors in empowering women.

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  • 112.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Wallentin, Fan Yang
    Uppsala University.
    Economic or Non-Economic Factors: What Empowers Women?2008Report (Other academic)
  • 113.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Wallentin, Fan Yang
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics.
    The impact of microfinance on factors empowering women: Differences in regional and delivery mechanisms in India’s SHG programme 2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine how the impact on women empowerment varies with respect to the location and type of group linkage of the respondent. Using household survey data from five states in India, we correct for selection bias to estimate a structural equation model. Our results reveal that in the southern states of India empowerment of women takes place through economic factors. For the other states, we find a significant correlation between women empowerment and autonomy in women’s decision-making and network, communication and political participation respectively. We do not however find any differential causal impact of different delivery methods (linkage models).

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    fulltext
  • 114.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics. Stockholm School of Economics.
    Wallentin, Fan Yang
    Uppsala University.
    The impact of microfinance on factors empowering women: Differences in regional and delivery mechanisms in India’s SHG programme2017In: Journal of Development Studies, ISSN 0022-0388, E-ISSN 1743-9140, Vol. 53, no 5, p. 684-699Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine how the impact on women empowerment varies with respect to the location and type of group linkage of the respondent. Using household survey data from five states in India, we correct for selection bias to estimate a structural equation model. Our results reveal that in the southern states of India empowerment of women takes place through economic factors. For the other states, we find a significant correlation between women empowerment and autonomy in women’s decision-making and network, communication and political participation respectively. We do not however find any differential causal impact of different delivery methods (linkage models).

  • 115.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Wallentin, Fan Yang
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    The impact of microfinance on factors empowering women: Differences in regional and delivery mechanisms in India's SHG programme2014Report (Other academic)
  • 116.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. MISUM, Stockholm School of Economics, Stockholm, Sweden;Department of Economics, Södertörn University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wallentin, Fan Yang
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics.
    The impact of microfinance on factors empowering women: Differences in regional and delivery mechanisms in India's SHG programme2017In: Journal of Development Studies, ISSN 0022-0388, E-ISSN 1743-9140, Vol. 53, no 5, p. 684-699Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine how the impact on women empowerment varies with respect to the location and type of group linkage of the respondent. Using household survey data from five states in India, we correct for selection bias to estimate a structural equation model. Our results reveal that in the southern states of India empowerment of women takes place through economic factors. For the other states, we find a significant correlation between women empowerment and autonomy in women’s decision-making and network, communication and political participation respectively. We do not however find any differential causal impact of different delivery methods (linkage models).

  • 117.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Yang Wallentin, Fan
    Uppsala University.
    Empowering Women through Microfinance: Evidence from India2008In: Poverty in Focus, no 13, p. 20-21Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 118.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Yang Wallentin, Fan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Information Science.
    Empowering Women through Microfinance: Evidence from Self Help Groups2008In: Poverty in Focus, no 13Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Microfinance programs aim to reduce income poverty while also empowering women. Increasing women’s resources result in increased wellbeing of the family, especially children. The definition and interpretation of women empowerment and its measurement varies across different studies. Robust empirical evidence from India shows significant empowerment impact of a major microfinance program via women’s self-help groups.

  • 119.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Yang Wallentin, Fan
    Factors Empowering Women in Indian Self Help Group Program2012In: International review of applied economics, ISSN 0269-2171, E-ISSN 1465-3486, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 425-444Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 120.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Yang Wallentin, Fan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics.
    Factors Empowering Women in Indian Self Help Group Program2012In: International review of applied economics, ISSN 0269-2171, E-ISSN 1465-3486, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 425-444Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We evaluate the impact of economic and non-economic factors on women’s empowerment of Self-Help Group (SHG) members. We estimate a structural equation model (SEM) and correct for ordinality in the data to account for the impact of the latent factors on women’s empowerment. Our SEM results reveal that for the SHG members, the economic factor is the most effective in empowering women. Greater autonomy and social attitudes also have a significant women empowerment impact.

  • 121.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Yang Wallentin, Fan
    Uppsala University.
    The impact of microfinance on factors empowering women: Regional and Delivery Mechanisms in India's SHG Programme2014Report (Other academic)
  • 122.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Yang Wallentin, Fan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics.
    The impact of microfinance on factors empowering women: Regional and Delivery Mechanisms in India’s SHG Programme2014Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine how the impact on women empowerment varies with respect to the location and type of group linkage of the respondent. Using household survey data from five states in India, we correct for selection bias to estimate a structural equation model. Our results reveal that in the southern states of India empowerment of women takes place through economic factors. For the other states, we find a significant correlation between women empowerment and autonomy in women’s decision-making and network, communication and political participation respectively. We do not however find any differential causal impact of different delivery methods (linkage models).

  • 123.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    et al.
    Misum, Stockholm School of Economics and Department of Economics, Södertörn University.
    Yang-Wallentin, Fan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics.
    Achieving sustainable development goals: predicaments and strategies2020In: International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology, ISSN 1350-4509, E-ISSN 1745-2627, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 96-106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ambitious United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) have been criticized for being universal, broadly framed, inconsistent and difficult to quantify, implement and monitor. We contribute by quantifying and prioritising the SDGs and their impact on sustainable development. We employ structural equation models (SEM) to investigate, which of the underlying pillars of SDGs (economic, social and environment) are the most effective in achieving sustainable development. Our results reveal that the developed countries benefit most by focusing on social and environmental factors, whereas the developing countries benefit most by retaining their focus on the economic and the social factors.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 124.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Yang-Wallentin, Fan
    Does microfinance empower women?: Evidence from self-help groups in India2009In: International review of applied economics, ISSN 0269-2171, E-ISSN 1465-3486, Vol. 23, no 5, p. 541-556Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 125.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Yang-Wallentin, Fan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Information Science, Statistics.
    Does microfinance empower women?: Evidence from self-help groups in India2009In: International review of applied economics, ISSN 0269-2171, E-ISSN 1465-3486, Vol. 23, no 5, p. 541-556Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microfinance programmes like the Self Help Bank Linkage Program in India have been increasingly promoted for their positive economic impact and the belief that they empower women. However, only a few studies rigorously examine the link between microfinance and women's empowerment. This article contributes to this discussion by arguing that women's empowerment takes place when women challenge the existing social norms and culture, to effectively improve their well-being. It empirically validates this hypothesis by using quasi-experimental household sample data collected for five states in India for 2000 and 2003. A general model is estimated by employing appropriate techniques to treat the ordinal variables in order to estimate the impact of the Self Help Group (SHG) on women's empowerment for 2000 and 2003. The results strongly demonstrate that on average, there is a significant increase in the empowerment of women in the SHG members group. No such significant change is observed however, for the members of the control group. The elegance of the result lies in the fact that the group of SHG participants show clear evidence of a significant and higher empowerment, while allowing for the possibility that some members might have been more empowered than others.

  • 126.
    Chuan-Zhong, Li
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Growth, Water Resilience, and Sustainability: A DSGE Model Applied to South Africa2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we analyze a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model on how water resilience affects economic growth and dynamic welfare with special reference to South Africa. While water may become a limiting factor for future development in general, as a drought prone and water poorcountry with rapid population growth, South Africa may face more serious challenges for sustainable development. Using the model, we conduct numerical simulations for different parameter configurations with varying discount rate, climate change scenario, and the degree of uncertainty in future precipitation. We find that with sufficient capital accumulation, development may still be sustainable despite increased future water scarcity and decreased long-run sustainable welfare; While stochastic variation in precipitation has a negative effect on water resilience and the expected dynamic welfare, the effect is mitigated by persistence in the precipitation pattern. With heavier time discounting and lower capital formation, however, the current welfare may not be sustained.

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  • 127. Floro, Maria
    et al.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    Uppsala University.
    Food Security, Gender and Occupational Choice Among Urban Low-Income Households2010Report (Other academic)
  • 128. Floro, Maria Sagrario
    et al.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    Food Security, Gender, and Occupational Choice among Urban Low-Income Households2013In: World Development, ISSN 0305-750X, E-ISSN 1873-5991, Vol. 42, p. 89-99Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 129. Floro, Maria Sagrario
    et al.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Food Security, Gender, and Occupational Choice among Urban Low-Income Households2013In: World Development, ISSN 0305-750X, E-ISSN 1873-5991, Vol. 42, p. 89-99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines an adaptive strategy using occupational choice that can be undertaken by household members in urban poor areas to help ensure their access to food. Our investigation focuses on self-employed women and men in 14 predominantly slum communities in Bolivia, Ecuador, Philippines, and Thailand. Results of our empirical analysis show that choice of business is associated with household vulnerability to food insecurity, with women in vulnerable households likely to engage in food enterprises. The findings suggest that urban low-income households can mitigate the risk of food shortage through the selection of an enterprise activity that earns money income and is a direct source of food for consumption.

  • 130.
    Gråd, Erik
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Rapanos, Theodoros
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Ranganathan, Shyam
    Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA, USA.
    Nudges, Networks and Social PreferencesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 131.
    Hilding, Per
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    Uppsala University.
    Vidyasagar, R.
    Impact of Technological Change on the Incidence of Child Labour in the Indian Match Industry2011Report (Other academic)
  • 132. Kar, A. K.
    et al.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics. Stockholm School of Economics, Sweden.
    Does financial inclusion improve energy accessibility in Sub-Saharan Africa?2023In: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine the nexus between financial inclusion and energy poverty. Analysing data for 27 energy-poor countries in the Sub-Saharan Africa region over 2004–2021, we employ sequential (two-stage), panel-corrected standard error (PCSE) and two-step dynamic system GMM (generalized method of moments) regression models, and control for endogeneity, CSD, slope heterogeneity as well as stationarity and cointegration patterns of the variables. Our empirical results show that financial inclusion significantly reduces energy poverty in the selected energy-poor countries. The study also finds a positive significant association between energy access and GDP per capita, while oil price and energy intensity are inversely associated with energy access. The results are robust to different control variables, estimation methods and subsamples. These findings have strong policy implications for energy-poor countries and point to the need for appropriate policies to promote financial inclusion for reducing energy poverty.

  • 133. Kar, Ashim
    et al.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    Are Microfinance Markets Monopolistic?2018In: Applied Economics, Vol. 50, no 1, p. 1-14Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 134.
    Kar, Ashim
    et al.
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics. Stockholm School of Economic.
    Competition, performance and portfolio quality in microfinance markets2018In: European Journal of Development Research, ISSN 0957-8811, E-ISSN 1743-9728, Vol. 30, no 5, p. 842-870Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Growing competition in microfinance has been blamed for multiple borrowing, over-indebtedness and loan repayment crisis in recent times. Using the Boone indicator as a proxy for competition, we investigate how competition impacts microfinance institutions’ (MFIs’) outreach, financial performance and quality of loan portfolio in this paper. The analysis is based on data from 568 MFIs in 10 vibrant microfinance markets (Bangladesh, Bolivia, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Nepal, Nicaragua, Peru and Philippines) for the period 2003-2014. We control for potential endogeneity of MFI performance, competition and other covariates by employing the generalized methods of moments (GMM) estimation technique. We find that increased competition leads to higher profitability and better loan portfolio quality of the sampled MFIs, but worsens depth of outreach to the poor, which is an indication of mission drift.   

  • 135. Kar, Ashim
    et al.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    Uppsala University.
    Interest Rates and Financial Performance of Microfinance Institutions: Recent Global Evidence2014In: European Journal of Development Research, ISSN 0957-8811, E-ISSN 1743-9728, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 87-106Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 136. Kar, Ashim
    et al.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Interest Rates and Financial Performance of Microfinance Institutions: Recent Global Evidence2014In: European Journal of Development Research, ISSN 0957-8811, E-ISSN 1743-9728, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 87-106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent controversies regarding the high interest rates being charged by the microfinance institutions (MFIs) have been justified in the name of financial sustainability. This paper investigates whether MFIs’ high interest rates improve profitability, reduce repayment rates and lead to mission-drift. Within an agency theoretic framework, instrumental variables (IV) estimations have been employed to account for the endogeneity issues using a comprehensive global panel database consisting of 379 MFIs in 71 countries for 6 years—from 2003 to 2008. Results show that real yield on loan portfolio—a frequently-used proxy for interest rates—has positive and highly significant impact on MFIs’ financial performance and loan repayment rates. We further find that loan delivery methods have a significant impact on financial performance. Individual based lenders tend to show a greater profitability but only till a certain level. We also find that individual-based lenders are more prone to mission drift as compared to village banks.

  • 137.
    Kar, Ashim Kumar
    et al.
    Helsinki Center of Economic Research (HECER), University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics. Stockholm School of Economics, Sweden.
    Are microfinance markets monopolistic?2018In: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, Vol. 58, no 1, p. 1-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Do microfinance institutions (MFIs) operate in a monopoly, monopolistic competition environment or are their revenues derived under perfect competition markets? We employ the Panzar–Rosse revenue test on a global panel data to assess the competitive environment in which MFIs of five selected countries operate: Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Peru and Philippines, over the period 2005–2009. We estimate the static and the dynamic revenue tests, with analyses of the interest rate and the return on assets. We control for microfinance-specific variables such as capital-assets-ratio, loans-assets and the size of the MFI. The analyses also account for the endogeneity problem by employing the fixed-effects two-stage least squares and the fixed-effects system generalized method of moments. Our results suggest that MFIs in Peru and India operate in a monopolistic environment. We also find weak evidence that the microfinance industry in Ecuador, Indonesia and Philippines may operate under perfect competition.

  • 138.
    Karimu, A.
    et al.
    University of Cape Town, South Africa; .
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics. Stockholm School of Economics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Implication of electricity taxes and levies on sustainable development goals in the European Union2023In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 177, article id 113553Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current high electricity prices in the European Union (EU) are in part due to the high electricity taxes. United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) Agenda with its global vision of attaining sustainable development especially seeks “to ensure universal access to affordable, reliable and modern energy services” (SDG 7). We investigate the synergy and trade-off effects of electricity taxes on sustainable development goals (SDGs) for the EU. Using panel data and panel vector autoregressive estimation approach, we find that higher household electricity taxes reduce both carbon emission and unemployment. Higher levels of industry electricity taxes, increase responsible production and consumption (SDG12) and reduces unemployment (SDG8). Furthermore, there is evidence for a strong synergy effect between electricity taxes, unemployment and carbon emission but a trade-off between tax and SDG9 (innovation and sustainable infrastructure). The taxes contribute more to the future variation of unemployment and responsible production and consumption in the EU, but these contributions are much larger for the industry as compared to the household sector. Our results confirm the double-dividend hypothesis, which implies that the policymakers can achieve environmental goals with higher electricity taxes, especially on household electricity. In the industrial sector, our findings suggest that there is a need for tax reform, to encourage innovation and adopt production processes that are less polluting to the environment.

  • 139.
    Kumar Kar, Ashim
    et al.
    Helsinki Center of Economic Research (HECER).
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Competition, performance and portfolio quality in microfinance markets2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years growing competition in the microfinance industry has been censured for multiple borrowing, default crises, high interest rates and coercive recovery of loans. Using the Boone indicator as a measure for competition, our paper investigates the impact of competition on microfinance institutions’ (MFIs) outreach, financial performance and quality of loan portfolio. We deal with the potential endogeneity issues by employing the instrumental variable approach using the generalized methods of moments (GMM) estimation technique. Analysing the Microfinance Information Exchange data our empirical results show that increased competition in microfinance sector leads to a larger average loans and a decrease in the financial self-sustainability. The data also supports the view that increased competition in the microfinance industry leads to a decline in the loan portfolio quality.

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  • 140.
    Kumar Kar, Ashim
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Competition, performance and portfolio quality in microfinance markets2014Report (Other academic)
  • 141.
    Li, Chuan-Zhong
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Royal Swedish Acad Sci, Beijer Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.; Ningbo Univ, Sch Business, Ningbo, Zhejiang, Peoples R China..
    Bali, Ranjula
    Sodertorn Univ, Misum, Stockholm Sch Econ, Huddinge, Sweden.; Sodertorn Univ, Dept Econ, Huddinge, Sweden..
    Growth, Water Resilience, and Sustainability: A DSGE Model Applied to South Africa2016In: Water Economics and Policy, ISSN 2382-624X, E-ISSN 2382-6258, Vol. 2, no 4, article id UNSP 1650022Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we develop a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium (DSGE) model to study how water resilience affects economic growth and dynamic welfare with special reference to South Africa. While water may become a limiting factor for future development in general, as a drought prone and water poor country with rapid population growth, South Africa may face more serious challenges for sustainable development. Analyzing the DSGE model, we conduct numerical simulations for different parameter configurations with varying discount rate, climate change scenario, and the degree of uncertainty in future precipitation. We find that with sufficient capital accumulation, development may still be sustainable despite increased future water scarcity and decreased long-run sustainable welfare. While stochastic variation in precipitation has a negative effect on water resilience and the expected dynamic welfare, the effect is mitigated by persistence in the precipitation pattern. With heavier time discounting and lower capital formation, however, the current welfare may not be sustained.

  • 142. Li, Chuan-Zhong
    et al.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    Uppsala University.
    Growth. Water Resilience and Sustainability: A DSGE Model Applied to South Africa2014Report (Other academic)
  • 143.
    Li, Chuan-Zhong
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Growth. Water Resilience and Sustainability: A DSGE Model Applied to South Africa2015Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 144.
    Li, Chuan-Zhong
    et al.
    Uppsala University / Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences / Ningbo University, China.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics. Stockholm School of Economics.
    Growth, Water Resilience, and Sustainability: A DSGE Model Applied to South Africa2016In: Water Economics and Policy, ISSN 2382-624X, E-ISSN 2382-6258, Vol. 2, no 4, article id 1650022Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we analyze a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model on how water resilience affects economic growth and dynamic welfare with special reference to South Africa. While water may become a limiting factor for future development in general, as a drought prone and water poor country with rapid population growth, South Africa may face more serious challenges for sustainable development. Using the model, we conduct numerical simulations for di¤erent parameter con…gurations with varying discount rate, climate change scenario, and the degree of uncertainty in future precipitation. We fi…nd that with sufficient capital accumulation, development may still be sustainable despite increased future water scarcity and decreased long-run sustainable welfare; While stochastic variation in precipitation has a negative effect on water resilience and the expected dynamic welfare, the e¤ect is mitigated by persistence in the precipitation pattern. With heavier time discounting and lower capital formation, however, the current welfare may not be sustained

  • 145.
    Lin, Xiang
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics. Stockholm School of Economics, Sweden.
    Performance of negatively screened sustainable investments during crisis2024In: International Review of Economics and Finance, ISSN 1059-0560, E-ISSN 1873-8036, Vol. 93, p. 1226-1247Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the market performance of negatively screened environment social and governance (ESG) portfolio or sustainable investments prior to and during crisis. A general and simple method is developed under the ESG Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) framework for the assessment. The novelty is that this method can be employed when the parent portfolio is not a market portfolio. In this situation, both coefficients, alpha and beta, in the reduced form of regression have special interpretations and are informative. This paper examines 24 negatively screened ESG indices from the S&P, DJSI and MSCI data across various regions, firm sizes, and criteria of screening, for 2017 to 2021. Markov Switching Autoregressive (MSAR) model is adopted to identify the crisis regime. Our results show that the negatively screened ESG indices provide positive investors’ surpluses for ESG-motivated investors during the crisis, when the corresponding parent indices are the market portfolios. For ESG investments where market portfolios are not their parent indices, half of ESG indices under consideration still provide positive surplus with similar systematic risks as their parent indices during the crisis. The remaining ESG indices under-performs but has relatively lower systematic risks, implying resilience as compared to the corresponding parent indices during the crisis. Furthermore, we demonstrate the sensitivity analysis of treating a parent index as a market portfolio.

  • 146.
    Nerini, Francesco Fuso
    et al.
    KTH.
    Henrysson, Maryna
    KTH.
    Swain, Ashok
    Uppsala university.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Sustainable Development in the Wake of Covid-19Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The ´decade of action´ to achieve the ambitious 17 Sustainable Development Goals by 2030 is off to a very challenging start. With progress on the achievement of most SDGs already lagging behind even before the Covid-19 crisis – our analysis finds that the pandemic negatively affects the achievement of 144 targets (almost 90%) of the SDGs. However, 66 targets (ca. 40%) could potentially benefit from the changes spurred by the crisis, given that the appropriate decisions are made. Holistic response and leadership are needed to ensure an inclusive economic recovery while protecting the environment. Furthermore, our analysis of the literature documents the unprecedented speed of the international community to assess the impacts of the pandemic. Future research should gather data to better understand the impacts of the pandemic locally and globally, and produce long-term analyses to inform the sustainable recovery across all SDGs.

  • 147.
    Nguyen Thi Thu, Phuong
    et al.
    Hanoi Agricultural University, Faculty of Economics and Rural Development.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    Uppsala University.
    Pham Bao, Duong
    Institute of Policy and Strategy for Agriculture and Rural Development, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Access to Rural Credit in Vietnam: A Case Study of Tan Linh Commune, Ba Vi District, Ha Tay Province2008In: Review of Development and Cooperation, ISSN 1906-0920, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 68-86Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 148.
    Nguyen Thi Thu, Phuong
    et al.
    Hanoi Agricultural University, Faculty of Economics and Rural Development.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Pham Bao, Duong
    Institute of Policy and Strategy for Agriculture and Rural Development, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Access to Rural Credit in Vietnam: A Case Study of Tan Linh Commune, Ba Vi District, Ha Tay Province2008In: Review of Development and Cooperation, ISSN 1906-0920, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 68-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Demand for rural credit from formal institutions of developing countries remains unsatisfied due to limited access to credit. Using data from Tan Linh commune in Vietnam, this study investigates the factors affecting the access to credit for rural households in Vietnam. It further examines the demand for credit and the factors affecting the borrowing level of rural households, the lending behavior of the formal lender in rationing credit and the impact of credit on rural household production. The results show that a large demand for formal financial institutions are limited in their outreach and provide limited credit access to households in rural areas.  Factors like dependency ratio, sick family members, farm-owned land, and ownership of Land Use Certificates (LUCs) are factors that influence credit rationing decisions of the financial institutions like Vietnam Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (VBARD).

  • 149.
    Nsabimana, Aimable
    et al.
    University of Rwanda, Kigali, Rwanda.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics. Stockholm School of Economics.
    Surry, Yves
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Ngabitsinze, Jean C.
    University of Rwanda, Kigali, Rwanda.
    Income and food Engel curves in Rwanda: A household microdata analysis2020In: Agricultural and Food Economics, E-ISSN 2193-7532, Vol. 8, no 1, article id 11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Food insecurity and malnutrition are still major challenges for large proportions of households in Sab-Saharan Africa. The empirical literature on food demand, however, suggest mixed evidence on the roles of income and other socio-economic attributes on food demand. This study analyses the food demand amongst households in Rwanda, based on nationally representative household expenditure and demographic (EICV4, 2013/14) survey data. The results show that poor households consume food containing higher carbohydrates and starches. Further, the study finds that majority of rural households spend sparingly on micronutrients from animal products, suggesting that effective targeted food policy interventions for poor and rural households may play important role in reducing incidence of malnutrition through improving food diets.… Read more

  • 150.
    Pädam, Sirje
    et al.
    Tallinn University of Technology, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics. Stockholm School of Economics.
    Attitudes Towards Paying for Environmental Protection in the Baltic Sea Region2017In: Environmental Challenges in the Baltic Region: A Perspective from Economics / [ed] Bali Swain, Ranjula, London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2017, 1, p. 201-220Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter compares public attitudes to environmental protection in Estonia with those in neighbouring Baltic states. Data from the Estonian Environmental Survey (The Chair of Environmental Economics. Tallinn University of Technology, Tallinn, 2010) and ISSP Environment III are compared and analysed using an ordered logit. Support for environmental protection is measured in the form of willingness of individuals to make financial sacrifices through higher prices and higher taxes or accepting a cut in their standard of living, in order to protect the environment. Results show that the demand for the protection of the environment tends to increase with income. There are some differences between public attitudes in terms of willingness to accept cuts in the standard of living and willingness to pay higher taxes and prices. Higher education is another determinant of support for environmental protection, particularly in Estonia.

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