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  • 101.
    Arvidsson, Madelene
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Sellström, Sandra
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Sjuksköterskans stöd till personer med psykiska funktionsnedsättningar i utövandet av fysisk aktivitet och dess hälsoeffekter Litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It has been researched a lot of physical activity beneficial effects on the human

    body physically. Previously, there has been a natural part of treatment in psychiatry, which

    made the authors curious about how it can be highlighted in the care of people with mental

    disabilities.

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to describe the health benefits of physical activity for

    people with mental disabilities and nurse support through tutoring.

    Methodology: During the compilation of the results revealed that nurses can provide

    support through the Motivational Interviewing (MI) was of central importance. When the

    patient heard and build up their goals to be measurable with trained medical staff, but also

    through support of patient self-education and knowledge of the physical activity's positive

    impact on mental health.

    Conclusion: The nurse's approach to support and motivate people with mental disabilities to

    exercise physical activity was found to be several. Then it was important to the ruled and

    knew the different ways to motivate people with mental disabilities. Other important

    approaches were good care relationship, individualized exercise programs, and support and

    training in the health benefits that physical activity gave.

  • 102.
    Arvidsson, Malin
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Hanspers, Jennie
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Nutritionsomvårdnad hos den äldre människan: Sjuksköterskans omvårdnadsansvar - en litteraturstudie2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka kunskapsnivån gällande nutritionsarbete hos sjuksköterskor samt att undersöka vilka omvårdnadsåtgärder sjuksköterskor kan vidta som ansvariga för nutritionsarbetet. Metoden som användes var en litteraturstudie där 15 artiklar granskades. Att sjuksköterskor har bra kunskaper inom nutritionsomvårdnaden framkom i några studier. Sjuksköterskor ansåg till exempel att nutritionsplaner och dokumentationer av nutritionsomvårdnad var viktiga. De ansåg även att kosten var viktig för en god hälsa. Sjuksköterskor bedömde sig själva ha tillräckligt med kunskaper om vikten av en adekvat nutrition. Dock framkom även i många studier att nutritionsomvårdnaden brister. Trots att sjuksköterskor ansåg att kosten var en viktig del i omvårdnaden prioriterades den inte. Sjuksköterskor deltog sällan vid måltiderna och hade därför svårt att utföra ett gott nutritionsarbete. Dokumentationen visade sig i många studier vara bristfällig. Det visade sig även att sjuksköterskor inte ansåg sig själva ha tillräckligt med kunskap i nutritionsomvårdnaden. De omvårdnadsåtgärder som visat sig ge goda resultat var utbildningar till personalen angående nutritionsomvårdnad. Om sjuksköterskor är mer involverade i matserveringen får de bättre insikt i hur patienter äter och kan assistera, vilket bidrar till högre energiintag. Även patienterna kan med fördel involveras mer i sin nutrition vilket visat sig leda till ökat energiintag.

  • 103.
    Arvidsson, Malin
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Jansson, Susanne
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Stress hos sjuksköterskor och utövandet av personcentrerad vård: En litteraturöversikt2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Working person-centered is an important part of the profession as a nurse, not least because the nurse's ethical rules suggest that, but also because every person is unique, and that care should therefore be adapted to each individual. As part of this degree project, the person-centered care and the work environment in hospitals has been overlooked for how the person centered care is affected by the nurse's experience of stress.

    Aim: The aim is to describe how stress in the nurse's work environment affects the personcentered care of patients in hospitals.

    Methods: The degree project was conducted as a literature review based on 17 scientific articles with publication between 2009 and 2018. The database used was Cinahl.

    Results: The results show that despite a stressful working environment for the nurse, the emotional part does not affect the patient's care. However practical care may cause damage, which in turn can affect patient safety. The result also shows that management has a major responsibility in setting up guidelines for person-centered care, as well as preventing burnout of the nurse and patient safety.

    Conclusion: There is a clear link between the working environment and the psychologist's nurse, despite this, the nurses do not receive the opportunity to participate in decisions made by the management. More studies need to be done about the work environment and the impact on the nurse in terms of stress and burnout. The concept of person-centered care is wide and extensive, therefore, clear guidelines for the practice of person-centered care need to be made in practice to ensure the results of how the work environment affects person-centered care.

  • 104.
    Arvidsson, Therese
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Hedwall, Christine
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Att leva med långvarig smärta vid fibromyalgi: Upplevelser, hantering och omvårdnad2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna litteraturstudie var att beskriva hur människor med fibromyalgi upplever att leva med långvarig smärta, hur denna hanteras i det dagliga livet samt vilka omvårdnadshandlingar som upplevs betydelsefulla av fibromyalgidrabbade. Litteratursökningen genomfördes via Högskolan Dalarnas databaser ELIN, Blackwell Synergy och EBSCO HOST med hjälp av sökord i olika kombinationer. Tre artiklar söktes manuellt. Inklusionskriterierna var att artiklarna skulle vara vetenskapliga och skrivna på engelska, svenska, norska eller danska samt vara publicerade mellan 1997-2007. Artiklarna (n=16) kvalitetsgranskades med hjälp av granskningsmallar och de artiklar som var av hög eller medelhög kvalitet inkluderades. I resultatet framkom att den långvariga smärtan vid fibromyalgi upplevdes dominera medvetandet vilket kunde leda till känslor av ilska, hjälplöshet, frustration, irritation, desperation och utmattning. Flera delar av, eller i vissa fall hela kroppen, engagerades av smärtan. Exempel på strategier för att hantera smärtan var att använda sig av fysiska aktiviteter, avslappningsövningar, självdistrahering, alternativmedicinska behandlingar och att ha en positiv attityd. Den viktigaste formen av psykologiskt stöd var att bli lyssnad till och att få uttrycka sig utan att känna sig dömd. Vidare var praktiskt stöd, såsom assistans med hushållssysslor av stor betydelse. Att erhålla adekvat information om sjukdomstillståndet och prognosen upplevdes vara viktigt av fibromyalgidrabbade.

  • 105.
    Arwidson, Helena
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Pettersson, Rose-Marie
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Patientens upplevelse av att leva med Multipel Skleros och hur sjuksköterskan kan stödja dessa patienter.: En litteraturöversikt2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med denna litteraturstudie var att belysa patientens upplevelse av att

    leva med Multipel Skleros, samt hur sjuksköterskan kan stödja dessa patienter.

    Metod: Studien genomfördes som en litteraturöversikt och artiklarna söktes i

    databaserna CINAHL och PubMed. Vi hittade 14 artiklar som utgjorde grund för

    resultatet. 6 kvantitativa och 8 kvalitativa artiklar. Resultat: Sjukdomen MS

    upplevdes av patienterna som en förlust av sin friska identitet. En rädsla och oro

    inför framtiden. Trötthet var det som ofta påverkade det dagliga livet. Patienterna

    ville ha mer information om sjukdomen och en bra kommunikation med

    sjuksköterskan. Slutsats: Att leva med MS gav stora förändringar psykiskt och

    fysiskt. Trötthet gav minskad energi att klara vardagen. Patienterna kände skuld,

    nedstämdhet och oro. Informationen och kunskapen från sjuksköterskan var

    bristfällig.

  • 106.
    Asp, Caroline
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Eriksson, Annica
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Patientens upplevda smärta i samband med en höftfraktur: En litteraturstudie2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In Sweden, approximately 18,000 people suffer from hip fractures each year. Suffering from a hip fracture is often a painful experience and great suffering for the patient, not only at the time of injury but also during the care taking period as well as during the rehabilitation and in the recovery phase.

    Aim: The purpose was to illustrate the patient's experience of pain in association with hip fracture.

    Method: This study was conducted as a literature review where the databases CINAHL, PubMed and PsycINFO were used in the article searches. The searches resulted in 16 articles, 11 qualitative and five with mixed method studies.

    Results: Patients had different ways of describing and putting words on experienced pain. The pain affected their thoughts and sleep and was evident in connection with displacement/ movement. It was found that patients expected to have pain after the hip operation. They tried to find a balance between pain and painkillers, as side effects negatively affected many patients. The patients had a positive experience despite the pain through the professional approach of the healthcare staff, as well as encouragement of participation and communication during the care period. During the rehabilitation phase, the patients experienced pain and that the rehabilitation took longer than expected. There was also the fear of going home, as they felt uncertain how they would handle the pain at home and in everyday life.

    Conclusion: Various factors affected patients' experience of pain in association with a hip fracture. It was shown that good communication created good conditions for the patient to manage the pain. The pain experience also decreased when the nurse created a good care environment when the patient's own experience of ill-health and illness was confirmed, but also when the nurse acted professionally or allowed the patient to participate in their own care.

  • 107. Asplund, Kjell
    et al.
    Castrén, Maaret
    Ehrenberg, Anna
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Farrokhnia, Nasim
    Göransson, Katarina
    Jonsson, Håkan
    Lind, Lars
    Oredsson, Sven
    Rognes, Jon
    SBU om "lean": Processorienterat arbetssätt på akuten ger kortare ledtider2010In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 107, no 17Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 108. Asplund, Kjell
    et al.
    Castrén, Maaret
    Ehrenberg, Anna
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Farrokhnia, Nasim
    Göransson, Katarina
    Jonsson, Håkan
    Lind, Lars
    Oredsson, Sven
    Rognes, Jon
    Triage och flödesprocesser på akutmottagning2010Book (Other academic)
  • 109. Athlin, Elsy
    et al.
    Sörensen Duppils, Gill
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Borch, Ellen
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Danielsson, Agneta
    Sundin Andersson, Christina
    Bensen, Gro
    Hov, Reidun
    Martinsen, Randi
    Grupphandledning i klinisk sjuksköterskeutbildning: Ett samverkanprojekt inom UNISKA mellan Högskolan Dalarna, Högskolan i Gjövik, Högskolan i Hedmark och Karlstads universitet 2004-20082008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I ett samarbetsprojekt finansierat av UNISKA deltog 2 högskolor från Norge, Högskolan Dalarna och Karlstads universitet. Syftet var att stötta kliniska handledare till studenter inom sjuksköterske-program. Sammanlagt 49 sjuksköterskor deltog i grupphandlednng under ett år. Rapporten beskriver och utvärderar projektet.

  • 110.
    Atilgan, Josefine
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Vikström, Nicole
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Faktorer som påverkar sjuksköterskans hälsofrämjande åtgärder vid överviktsproblematik: Litteraturöversikt2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Overweight and obesity are a growing issue, from 1980 to 2014 have the global presence of overweight and obesity more than doubled. People with overweight and obesity have an increased risk of developing sequelae such as high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, even the risk of dying beforehand increases. Aim: The aim was to describe factors that affect the nurses’ health promotion to adult with overweight and obesity in primary and somatic care. Method: The study was conducted as a literature review where data was collected thru the databases CINAHL and Pubmed. The result was based on 14 articles with both quantitative and qualitative approach. Results: The results

    show five categories that affect the nurses health promotion: Lack of time and non-adapted equipment, Knowledge and skills, Attitudes of the nurses, Confidence in the conversation and own ability and The nurses own lifestyle.

    Conclusion: This literature review provides an understanding of what factors that affect the nurses’ work with health promotion towards patients with overweight or obesity. Nurses have good opportunities to work preventively with weight problems and they have a significant role in how patients with overweight and obesity are treated.

  • 111. Atuhairwe, Susan
    et al.
    Byamugisha, Josaphat
    Klingberg-Allvin, Marie
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing. Karolinska institutet.
    Cleeve, Amanda
    Hanson, Claudia
    Tumwesigye, Nazarius Mbona
    Kakaire, Othman
    Danielsson, Kristina Gemzell
    Evaluating the safety, effectiveness and acceptability of treatment of incomplete second-trimester abortion using misoprostol provided by midwives compared with physicians: study protocol for a randomized controlled equivalence trial2019In: Trials, ISSN 1745-6215, E-ISSN 1745-6215, Vol. 20, no 1, article id 376Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: A large proportion of abortion-related mortality and morbidity occurs in the second trimester of pregnancy. The Uganda Ministry of Health policy restricts management of second-trimester incomplete abortion to physicians who are few and unequally distributed, with most practicing in urban regions. Unsafe and outdated methods like sharp curettage are frequently used. Medical management of second-trimester post-abortion care by midwives offers an advantage given the difficulty in providing surgical management in low-income settings and current health worker shortages. The study aims to assess the safety, effectiveness and acceptability of treatment of incomplete second-trimester abortion using misoprostol provided by midwives compared with physicians.

    METHODS: A randomized controlled equivalence trial implemented at eight hospitals and health centers in Central Uganda will include 1192 eligible women with incomplete abortion of uterine size > 12 weeks up to 18 weeks. Each participant will be randomly assigned to undergo a clinical assessment and treatment by either a midwife (intervention arm) or a physician (control arm). Enrolled participants will receive 400 μg misoprostol administered sublingually every 3 h up to five doses within 24 h at the health facility until a complete abortion is confirmed. Women who do not achieve complete abortion within 24 h will undergo surgical uterine evacuation. Pre discharge, participants will receive contraceptive counseling and information on what to expect in terms of side effects and signs of complications, with follow-up 14 days later to assess secondary outcomes. Analyses will be by intention to treat. Background characteristics and outcomes will be presented using descriptive statistics. Differences between groups will be analyzed using risk difference (95% confidence interval) and equivalence established if this lies between the predefined range of - 5% and + 5%. Chi-square tests will be used for comparison of outcome and t tests used to compare mean values. P ≤ 0.05 will be considered statistically significant.

    DISCUSSION: Our study will provide evidence to inform national and international policies, standard care guidelines and training program curricula on treatment of second-trimester incomplete abortion for improved access.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03622073 . Registered on 9 August 2018.

  • 112.
    Avelin, Pernilla
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Erlandsson, Kerstin
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing. Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hälsa, vård och välfärd.
    Hildingsson, Ingegerd
    Mid Sweden University.
    Davidsson-Bremborg, Anna
    Lund University.
    Rådestad, Ingela
    Sophiahemmet University College.
    Make the stillborn baby and the loss real for the sibling: parents' advice on how the siblings of a stillborn baby can be supported2012In: Journal of Perinatal Education, ISSN 1058-1243, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 90-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to investigate parents' advice to other parents on the basis of their own experiences of siblings' taking leave of a stillborn sister or brother. The study was a Web questionnaire study of 411 parents. The thematic content analysis resulted in two categories: "Make the stillborn baby and the loss real for the siblings" and "Take the siblings' resources and prerequisites into account." Parents' advised that siblings should see and hold the stillborn baby and, thus, be invited and included into the leave-taking process with respect to the siblings' feelings, resources, and prerequisites. Based on these findings, professional caregivers can usefully be proactive in their approach to facilitate and encourage the involvement of siblings.

  • 113.
    Avelin, Pernilla
    et al.
    Karolinska institutet.
    Erlandsson, Kerstin
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing. Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hälsa, vård och välfärd.
    Hildingsson, Ingegerd
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Rådestad, Inegla
    Sophiahemmet högskola.
    Swedish parents' experiences of parenthood and the need for support to siblings when a baby is stillborn2011In: Birth, ISSN 0730-7659, E-ISSN 1523-536X, Vol. 38, no 2, p. 150-158Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    It has been argued that having a stillborn baby in the family affects older siblings more than parents realize. The aim of this study was to describe parenthood and the needs of siblings after stillbirth from the parents' perspective.

    Methods:

    Six focus groups were held with 27 parents who had experienced a stillbirth and who had had children before the loss. The discussion concerned parents' support to the siblings, and the sibling's meeting, farewell, and memories of their little sister or brother. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis.

    Results:

    The overall theme of the findings was parenthood in a balance between grief and everyday life. In the analysis, three categories emerged that described the construction of the theme: support in an acute situation, sharing the experiences within the family, and adjusting to the situation.

    Conclusions:

    The siblings' situation is characterized by having a parent who tries to maintain a balance between grief and everyday life. Parents are present and engaged in joint activities around the stillbirth together with the siblings of the stillborn baby. Although parents are aware of the sibling's situation, they feel that they are left somewhat alone in their parenthood after stillbirth and therefore need support and guidance from others.

  • 114.
    Avelin, Pernilla
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Gyllenswärd, Göran
    Psychotherapy and Grief Consultant, Stockholm.
    Erlandsson, Kerstin
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing. School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Mälardalen University, Västerås.
    Rådestad, Ingela
    Sophiahemmet University College, Stockholm.
    Adolescents' experiences of having a stillborn half-sibling2013In: Death Studies, ISSN 0748-1187, E-ISSN 1091-7683, Vol. 38, no 9, p. 557-562Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although there is an increasing interest in siblings' experiences of loss and grief there is limited knowledge of adolescent's own perspectives, especially in a unique situation as after stillbirth in a reconstituted family. The authors interviewed 13 bereaved adolescents. They were sad that their family was not the same and expressed feelings of being inside family grief, yet outside, because they did not have full access in their reconstituted family. An implication of present findings is that it is important to include all the members of the family in the grieving process, even half-siblings of the deceased child.

  • 115.
    Avelin, Pernilla
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hälsa, vård och välfärd.
    Rådestad, Ingela
    Sophiahemmet Univ Coll.
    Säflund, Karin
    Karolinska Inst.
    Wredling, Regina
    Karolinska Inst.
    Erlandsson, Kerstin
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing. Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hälsa, vård och välfärd.
    Parental grief and relationships after the loss of a stillborn baby2013In: Midwifery, ISSN 0266-6138, E-ISSN 1532-3099, Vol. 29, no 6, p. 668-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: to describe the grief of mothers and fathers and its influence on their relationships after the loss of a stillborn baby.

    Design: a postal questionnaire at three months, one year and two years after stillbirth.

    Setting: a study of mothers and fathers of babies stillborn during a one-year period in the Stockholm region of Sweden.

    Participants: 55 parents, 33 mothers and 22 fathers.

    Findings: mothers and fathers stated that they became closer after the loss, and that the feeling deepened over the course of the following year. The parents said that they began grieving immediately as a gradual process, both as individuals, and together as a couple. During this grieving process their expectations, expressions and personal and joint needs might have threatened their relationship as a couple, in that they individually felt alone at this time of withdrawal. While some mothers and fathers had similar grieving styles, the intensity and expression of grief varied, and the effects were profound and unique for each individual.

    Key conclusions: experiences following a loss are complex, with each partner attempting to come to terms with the loss and the resultant effect on the relationship with their partner.

    Implications for practice: anticipating and being able to acknowledge the different aspects of grief will enable professionals to implement more effective intervention in helping couples grieve both individually and together.

  • 116.
    Axelsson, Anna
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Johansson, Anneli
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Att leva med Myelom: en litteraturöversikt2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna litteraturöversikt var att utifrån tidigare forskning beskriva personers upplevelse av att leva med myelom under olika perioder i sjukdomsförloppet. Artikelsökningen genomfördes via databaserna PubMed och Cinahl och resulterade i 15 vetenskapliga artiklar. I resultatet framkom att myelom för många var en okänd sjukdom vilket gjorde att god individanpassad information ansågs vara betydelsefull. Egenskaper hos vårdpersonalen som exempelvis förmåga att ingjuta hopp, vara empatisk samt ha goda kunskaper om sjukdomen sågs som särskilt önskvärda. Synliga tecken på cancersjukdom som exempelvis håravfall och viktnedgång upplevdes besvärande då känslan av att vara annorlunda i vissa fall bidrog till att personen undvek sociala sammanhang. Kvarstående besvär efter behandling som trötthet och smärta kunde göra att personens förmåga att vara aktiv hämmades. Sjukdomen kunde även medföra kognitiva besvär som exempelvis nedsatt minne och brist på koncentrationsförmåga. Trots att sjukdomen ofta påverkade livet negativt upplevde ändå många positiva förändringar i form av att de uppskattade sina nära relationer i högre grad än tidigare samt insåg hur värdefullt livet var. I resultatet framkom att upplevelserna var individuella men att vissa likheter utmärkte sig under sjukdomens förlopp. Myelom kunde påverka personerna fysiskt, psykosocialt, andligt och ekonomiskt. Denna kunskap kan vara till hjälp för att öka förståelsen för dessa patienter och dess närstående.

  • 117.
    Axelsson, Elin
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Lans, Hanna
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Riskfaktorer för suicid bland ungdomar: En litteraturöversikt2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Close to 800 000 people die by suicide every year worldwide, and that makes suicide a global public health problem. Nearly one-third of all suicides occurs among young people, and suicide is the second leading cause of death globally among adolescents and young adults. It is important to identify individuals with an increased risk of committing suicide in order to reduce the death number due to suicide, which can be done by paying attention to risk factors for suicide.

    Aim: The aim of this literature review is to describe risk factors for suicide among adolescents.

    Method: This study is a literature review where 13 articles have been included in the result. The search for articles was performed in the databases PsycInfo and Cinahl.

    Results: The result showed a wide range of different risk factors for suicide among adolescents. Five categories could be distinguished and these were social situation, mental illness, abuse, substance use and sexual minority. Subcategories were added to these categories. Mental health and social situation among adolescents turned out to be two of the main risk factors for suicide.

    Conclusion: Various risk factors for suicide among adolescents appeared in this literature review. In order to work with suicide prevention the nurse must have knowledge of risk factors for suicide. Furthermore, it is also important that the nurse has a person-centered approach to the patient. In this way, suicide among adolescents can be identified, assessed and prevented.

  • 118. Ayala, Ana
    et al.
    Christensson, Kyllike
    Velandia, Marianne
    Erlandsson, Kerstin
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing. Karolinska Institutet.
    Fathers’ care of the newborn infant after caesarean section in Chile: a qualitative study2016In: Sexual & Reproductive HealthCare, ISSN 1877-5756, E-ISSN 1877-5764, Vol. 8, p. 75-81Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In Chilean hospitals the current model of care after caesarean section is to separate newborn infants from both parents. The care of newborn infants and the parents' experience immediately after caesarean section requires further exploration.

    Aim: To describe fathers' experiences and perceptions of being the primary caregiver to their newborn infant during the first 90 minutes after caesarean section in a public general maternity hospital setting in Santiago de Chile.

    Method: The questionnaire was one part of a larger research programme named: “Caregiving Models after Elective Caesarean Section – Parents' perceptions and effects on infants' wellbeing”. Four open ended questions were used to gather written text on the experiences and perceptions of 95 fathers who were the primary caregiver to their newborn infant. Ethical approval was obtained from the Ethics Committee, Scientific Assessment Metropolitan Health Service South East. Systematic text condensation according to Malterud's description was used for analysis of the written text.

    Findings: Two themes were identified: “understanding the first moment of life” and “shared responsibility for future family life” with each theme divided into six categories.

    Conclusion: This study concludes by arguing that in situations where the mother is unavailable or unable to provide basic care, the father should be supported to care for the newborn infant.

    Clinical implications: Parents should be made aware of the benefits of this caring model especially when mother and baby have been separated after birth.

  • 119. Ayala, Ana
    et al.
    Christensson, Kyllike
    Velandia, Marianne
    Erlandsson, Kerstin
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing. Karolinska institutet.
    Mother’s experiences and perceptions of a continuous caring model with fathers after caesarean section: a qualitative study2015In: Women's Health Open Journal, ISSN 2380-3940, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 63-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In Chile, mothers and newborns are separated after caesarean sections. The caesarean

    section rate in Chile is approximately 40%. Once separated, newborns will miss out on

    the benefits of early contact unless a suitable model of early newborn contact after caesarean

    section is initiated.

    Aim: To describe mothers experiences and perceptions of a continuous parental model of newborn

    care after caesarean section during mother-infant separation.

    Methods: A questionnaire with 4 open ended questions to gather data on the experiences and

    perceptions of 95 mothers in the obstetric service of Sótero Del Rio Hospital in Chile between

    2009 and 2012. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis.

    Results: One theme family friendly practice after caesarean section and four categories. Mothers

    described the benefits of this model of caring. The fathers presence was important to mother

    and baby. Mothers were reassured that the baby was not left alone with staff. It was important

    for the mothers to see that the father could love the baby as much as the mother. This model

    of care helped create ties between the father and newborn during the period of mother-infant

    separation and later with the mother.

    Conclusions: Family friendly practice after caesarean section was an important health care

    intervention for the whole family. This model could be stratified in the Chilean context in the

    case of complicated births and all caesarean sections.

    Clinical Implications: In the Chilean context, there is the potential to increase the number of

    parents who get to hold their baby immediately after birth and for as long as they like. When

    the mother and infant are separated after birth, parents can be informed about the benefits of

    this caring model. Further research using randomized control trials may support biological

    advantages.

  • 120.
    Back, Catharina
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Bruhn, Anette
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Sjuksköterskans omvårdnadsåtgärder för att lindra patientens oro inför operation.2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna litteraturstudie var att undersöka vilka emotionella omvårdnadsbehov patienterna hade innan operation och hur sjuksköterskan på bästa sätt kunde lindra dem. Metoden var en litteraturstudie baserad på vetenskapliga artiklar med dels en kvalitativ ansats (n= 5) och dels en kvantitativ (n= 10). Artikelsökningarna gjordes via sökmotorn ELIN och databaserna CINAHL och PubMED. Artiklarna var etiskt godkända samt publicerade mellan 2000-2010 och skrivna på engelska. De granskades med hjälp av granskningsmallar. Resultaten i studien visade att de emotionella behov som fanns var att lindra rädsla och känslan av övergivenhet. Resultaten visade att sjuksköterskan, kunde lindra dessa emotionella behov genom information, ett gott bemötande, att låta patienterna lyssna på musik, se på film eller video samt ge essentiella oljor.

  • 121.
    Back, Catharina
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Kuoppa, Maria
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Anknytning hos mödrar till prematura barn: En enkätstudie2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The attachment between mother and infant is vital for the newborn. A birth of preterm infant can be stressful for the mother and her attachment to her infant can be affected. It is unclear if the attachment process differs between primiparous and multiparous mothers.

    Objectiv

    e: The objective was to investigate whether there were any differences in the attachment process depending on the mother's parity and whether the degree of prematurity had an effect on the maternal attachment.

    Design / Methods:

    This was a longitudinal study, data was collected through questionnaires, at eight weeks post discharge and at six and 12 month after birth. The Maternal Postnatal Attachment Scale was used. The sample consisted of 493 mothers. Data was analysed with parametric and non-parametric statistics.

    Results:

    The results showed no statistically significant differences in the attachment process between primiparous and multiparous mothers of preterm infants. However, primiparous mothers had a significantly higher degree of satisfaction than multiparous mothers six and 12 months after birth, and multiparous mothers with very preterm infants had significantly lower attachment scores than multiparous mothers with moderately preterm infants.

    Conclusion / Clinical applicability:

    The attachment of primiparous and multiparous mothers of preterm infants did not differ over the first year. However, primiparous mothers had a higher degree of satisfaction with interaction six and 12 months after birth, and multiparous mothers of very preterm infants may have a higher risk for less optimal attachment. Hopefully, the results can help the midwife to support and develop secure attachment between multiparous mothers and their very preterm infants.

  • 122.
    Back, Mariann
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Anhörigas erfarenheter av kommunikation med vårdpersonal i palliativa vård2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In Sweden, the aging population is steadily increasing, and it will be necessary for healthcare professionals to have competence and education that can meet individual needs in palliative care and care in the final stages of life. Good and satisfactory communication between relatives and healthcare professionals will be required as family / relatives are a major resource in palliative care and care in the final stages of life.

    Purpose: The purpose of the study is to describe the family's needs and experiences of communication with healthcare professionals in palliative care.

    Method: A systematic literature study that included in its design qualitative, quantitative studies. The articles were searched in the PubMed. database. This resulted in 15 number of articles.

    Result: The results showed deficiencies regarding effective communication and information towards relatives of palliative patients.

    Conclusion: Relatives in the study articles do not feel that their care meets their wishes regarding communication and information. More training regarding communication and information regarding palliative care also in general departments in health care would be needed.

  • 123.
    Back, Marina
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Westlund Björkén, Elina
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Att belysa patienters erfarenheter av information om sin egenvård vid diabetes typ 22019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease that causes insulin deficiency to cause increased blood sugar levels in the body. Diabetes is increasing rapidly around the world. The increase is associated with increased population, age, changed diet and lifestyle, and increased overweight. Type 2 diabetes should be treated primarily by trying to reduce insulin resistance in the tissues. Self-care is mainly to try to eat healthier, exercise and stop smoking.

    Aim: The aim is to clarify patient’s experiences of information about their self-care in type 2 diabetes.

    Methods: This work is a literature study. For the literature search, the scientific databases were PubMed and Cinahl, where they have used high quality.

    Results: Obstacles with the information about self-care could be due to the age of the patient, if there were other diseases, fears, insecurity and lack of insight. Opportunities with the information on self-care were the patient's desire to learn more about diabetes in depth through the health care system and to take the initiative to search for information on your own and to get knowledge that provided greater insight into the importance of self-care.

    Conclusion: The result shows that patients see more obstacles than opportunities regarding information about self-care. It is important that patients receive information about self-care, but primarily that the patient understands the information and receives support and motivation to be able to change the lifestyle.

  • 124.
    Back, Therese
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Lindberg, Jennie
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Sjuksköterskans upplevelser och erfarenheter av vård i livetsslutskede på sjukhus: En litteraturöversikt2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: End of life care based on relieving suffering and improving the quality of life for the patient´s, which is the nurses basic responsibilities, which are part of the person centered care. Depending on the stage of the disease the patient is in, the helath care needs are affected. The nurse´s faces major challenges and has a definite role in nursing care in the final end of life.Aim: To compile the nurse's experiences about palliative care in hospitalsMethod: A literature review which compiles qualitative and quantitative articles from databases PubMed and CINAHL.Results: The result is based on scientific articles from various parts of the world. The authors have chosen to divide the results into main categories: Emotional responses in nurses, Time and resource shortages to support end-life patients, Impactable aspects of the health environment, Communication between nurses and patients and the need for knowledge and training in palliative care. Nurses experience mixed feelings and shared opinions about caring for patients in the end of life and meeting their needs at the end of life, which is due to the nurse's professional experienceConclusion: Nurses experience emotional responses, lack of time and resources, lack of education, and different levels of experience are factors that complicate their work of care at the end of life, which gave feelings of inadequacy. Nurses also felt that communication was difficult, which was mostly based on the fact that nurses felt insecure in their role in working with patients in the final stages of life while nurses with longer experience and those with higher knowledge had no difficulty in meeting these patients.

  • 125.
    Back Ågren, Jenny
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Möller, Elin
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Patienters upplevelse av att vårdas på enkelrum - en litteraturöversikt2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Today, when new hospitals are being built, the design becomes mostly single

    rooms. The healthcare environment should support patients' health and well-being. That there

    is a link between health and the environment in which patients stay in is established in the

    concept of evidence-based design. When patients are hospitalized today, there are different

    types of hospital rooms. These are multibed rooms that accommodate two or more patients as

    well as single rooms, where only one patient is accommodated. This literature review

    examines the patient's experience of being cared for in a single room. Patient´s experience of

    the care is important for the nurse to be aware of and the person-centered care is the key to the

    experience.

    Purpose: To describe patients' experience of care in single rooms.

    Method:

    The study is a literature review based on eleven scientific articles from two

    continents. The articles were searched in the databases pubmed, cinahl and science direct,

    inclusion year were 2000-2018.

    Results: Reported on the purpose of the study and presented

    in four categories: social support, autonomy &controll, comfort and lonliness & isolation,

    which in turn has subcategories. The categories have been designed based on recurring

    concepts in the articles that underlie the results. The result shows both the advantages and

    disadvantages of the patient's experience of being cared for in single rooms.

    Conclusion:

    Patients' experience of care in single rooms is more complex than the design, and decoration

    of the room. It is also about the age and personalities of the patients. More research on this

    subject will be required before general directives to only introduce single rooms in

    construction of new hospitals.

  • 126.
    Backhans, Sandra
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Jansson, Madelene
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Vedertagna metoder som främjar viktnedgång hosvuxna med fetma och övervikt: - En litteraturöversikt2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Overweight and obesity is an increasing problem in the world. In

    today's society several factors contribute to the increase of overweight in the

    population, for instance an increase of fast food chains and a sedentary lifestyle.

    Overweight and obesity is a risk factor for several diseases such as cardiovascular

    diseases.

    Aim:

    To examine established methods that promote weight loss in overweight and

    obese adults.

    Method:

    The study was conducted as a literature review where 15 different

    articles were used to answer the purpose and research question of the study. The

    searches were made in the databases Cinahl and PubMed.

    Result:

    Weight loss is about changing lifestyle habits such as diet and physical

    activity. Other methods found to promote weight loss are stress management and

    technical tools which helped the individual to self-efficacy. Self-monitoring as

    writing down calorie intake and minutes of physical activity every day helped

    individuals to lose weight. Motivation and education about nutrition and exercise

    were factors which promoted individuals self-efficacy to lose weight.

    Conclusion:

    There are several methods that can help the individual to lose weight,

    to change lifestyle habits is an important basis. Even though overweight and

    obesity is a growing problem worldwide there is still little research about what the

    nurse can do to help those people and therefore more research is needed.

  • 127.
    Backlund, Elena
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Ekman, Pia
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Faktorer av betydelse i omvårdnad av personer med Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Föreliggande systematiska litteraturstudie kartlade bemötande och de åtgärder som användes vid omvårdnadsarbetet med personer med irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Från högskolan Dalarnas fulltextdatabas Elin söktes 19 engelskspråkiga artiklar som grund för denna studie. Sökorden Irritable bowel syndrome, understanding, care and information användes. Litteraturvalet gjordes genom att läsa rubrikerna sedan abstrakten och därefter kvalitetgranskades artiklarna enligt särskilda modifierade granskningsmallar efter Forsberg och Wangström (2003) och Willman, Bahtsevani och Stoltz (2006). Resultatet visade att patienter med diagnosen IBS inte erhöll den information dom de behövde för att bemästra sin kroniska sjukdom, vilket ledde till försämrad livskvalitet. Sjukvårdspersonalen hade bristfälliga kunskaper med avseende på saklig och stödjande information till patienterna, vilka ofta ansågs ha en psykisk åkomma istället för en fysisk. Med ökad kunskap om IBS kunde sjuksköterskan öka patienternas förståelse för sin sjukdom samt motivera dessa till egenvård. Studien pekar på omvårdnadsstrategier, vilka kan förbättra livskvaliteten för denna patientgrupp. Resultatet diskuterades utgående från Watsons (1993) omvårdnadsteoretiska referensram med tonvikt på det transpersonella mötet mella patient och sjuksköterska.

  • 128.
    Backlund, Karin
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Hansen Lundqvist, Åsa
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Sjuksköterskans inställning till och upplevelse av att ha anhöriga närvarande vid återupplivning: En litteraturöversikt2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Sjuksköterskor som vårdar akut sjuka patienter hamnar många gånger i

    situationer där närstående önskar närvara vid återupplivning. Det är en del av sjuksköterskans

    arbete att tillgodose såväl patient som anhörigas behov. För anhöriga som närvara under

    återupplivning kan det upplevas både traumatiskt och skrämmande även om anhöriga ofta vill

    närvara enligt flera studier.

    Syfte: Att genom en litteraturöversikt beskriva sjuksköterskans inställning till, och upplevelse

    av att ha patientens anhöriga närvarande vid återupplivningsförsök.

    Metod: Denna studie är en litteraturöversikt som omfattar 15 artiklar med både kvalitativ och

    kvantitativ ansats. Artikelsökningar genomfördes i databaserna PubMed och Cinahl samt

    manuellt.

    Huvudresultat: Studiens resultat redovisas under sju kategorier, Erfarenhet, Arbetsplatsens

    betydelse, Blödning och överlevnad, Personal som tar hand om anhöriga, Anhörigas

    förväntningar, Kommunikation och missförstånd, Stress eller motivation. Resultatet visade på

    en stor variation mellan positiva och negativa upplevelser och inställningar av att ha anhöriga

    närvarande vid återupplivning. Faktorer som påverkade kunde identifieras och handlade bland

    annat om sjuksköterskans erfarenhet och utbildningsnivå, tillgängliga resurser och riktlinjer

    på arbetsplatsen. Många sjuksköterskor upplevde även en oro över hur anhöriga skulle

    reagera.

    Slutsats: Resultatet visade att det fanns en stor variation i påverkande faktorer där negativa

    inställningar och upplevelser kunde kopplas till bland annat organisatoriska brister och oro för

    anhörigas psykiska mående. Anhörig närvaro upplevdes som positivt var när rätt resurser fanns

    att tillgå och bland sjuksköterskor som var vana att arbeta personcentrerat

  • 129.
    Backlund, Linnéa
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Båskman, Jennifer
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Döende patienters upplevelser av palliativ hemsjukvård En litteraturstudie2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to illuminate dying patients experiences of palliative home care.

    Method: The work was conducted as a literature review with 16 scientific articles, 12 of those had a qualitative approach and 4 had a quantitative approach. The data collection was  onducted in the databases CINAHL and PubMed. The same keyword were used in both.

    Main result: The results show that patients were generally satisfied with the care in their homes. By receiving care in the home they experienced a safety and it was valuable to have their next of a kin close. It was important for them to continue to live as normally as possible. The patients had the opportunity to finish projects and figure out feelings in relationships. Patients experience of good palliative care had its fundamental parts in self-determination and trust. The personnel in the palliative home care teams were experienced as professionals and skilled. At the end of life many existential questions occurred and a need for believes came through.

    Conclusion: The development of palliative home care is important because there is a wish for patients to be home at the end of life with support of competent personnel and with their next of a kin by their side.

  • 130.
    Backström, Susanne
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Fagerlund, Angelica
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Patientens osagda ord Sjuksköterskans arbete med patienter som drabbats av afasi efter stroke – en litteraturöversikt2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe the communication barriers and opportunities arising nurse may face in the nursing work with patients with aphasia following stroke.

    Method: The study is based on 15 qualitative scientific articles that have been analyzed and examined with Dalarna University's modified version of William Stoltz and Bahtsevani (2006). Articles were selected for inclusion and exclusion criteria to meet the study objective.

    Results: The result of the literature review is based on the main categories and subcategories. The study revealed that the diagnosis of the kind of aphasic patient suffered is important for nurses to know how he should respond to the patient for the best rehabilitation and patient-centered care, which also needed education and training on aphasia and the different aphasia resorts. Training in communication strategies is essential for nurses to more easily respond to the patient and not get caught up in the communication with the patient.

    Conclusions: The study shows that it is important that patients early received the correct diagnosis which promotes rehabilitation. Even the nurses have need of and training in communication and alternative communication as it showed that the nurses' communication was facilitated by the patient. It also emerged that it is important with patient centered care based on the patient's needs.

  • 131.
    Backström, Susanne
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Imhof, Mathilda
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Skolsköterskans erfarenheter av hälsosamtal med nyanlända elever på gymnasieskola.: En kvalitativ studie2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate and disclose the experiences that school nurses encounter, in regard to health consultations, with newly arrived foreign students. The study had a qualitative design and was composed of semi structured interviews with an applied inductive approach. In total, seven interviews were performed with separate school nurses from the counties of Västernorrland and Stockholm. The interview material was processed through a content analysis. The results from the study indicated a theme of "

    being more than a school nurse" was composed of three main constituents;

    "To be challenged in one´s profession as a school nurse in health consultations"

    "To be enriched in one's profession in regard to health consultations"

    "To be inadequate in the health consultations as a school nurse"

    Based on both positive and negative factors, all school nurses affirmed that the meeting with the newly arrived foreign students, in regard to health consultations, resulted in being more than a school nurse. Health consultations with the students involved different types of challenges that consisted of inadequate guidelines, knowledge, time and resources. In spite of the challenges posed by the findings in this report, the school nurses asserted that they inched forward.

    The school nurses argued that they were enriched in their role in relation to the health consultations, which resulted in a sense of satisfaction and a commitment of wanting to help and be there for these students on a deeper level.

    The nurses reported a feeling of being inadequate during the consultations with the students, which brought forth feelings of insecurity, frustration and helplessness with the nurses. They reported that even their professional disposition had been affected.

    All participants in this study agreed that current high school health consultation guidelines were inadequate and confirmed that they lacked some knowledge in regard to cultural differences. The participants also requested guidance in their work involving newly arrived foreign students.

  • 132. Bajracharya, Kiran
    et al.
    Sapkota, Sabitri
    Erlandsson, Kerstin
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    News & events: A milestone of Midwifery in Nepal2014In: Journal of Asian Midwives (JAM), ISSN 2409-2290, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 2p. 2-4Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 133.
    Balaile, Gunnel
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Kayombo, Jacob
    Ransjö Arvidson, Anna-Berit
    Höjer, Bengt
    Sexuality and Health: A study of Tanzanian men`s experiences of living with HIV/AIDS2008In: African Journal of Reproductive Health, ISSN 1118-4841 , Vol. 12, no 1, p. 35-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to explore Tanzanian men’s experiences regarding their health and sex life after they had been diagnosed with HIV. In-depth interviews were performed with a purposive sample of ten men living in an urban area in Tanzania and who had been HIV positive for more than one year. A phenomenological-hermeneutic approach was used for analyzing the transcribed interviews. Three themes emerged from the texts; “awareness of HIV infection”, “perceived and ideal health”, and “sex life a source of happiness and caring”. Living with HIV meant profound adjustments to daily life activities for the participants. HIV forced them to learn new ways of having sexual intercourse and new ways of acting as a man. The meaning of being a “real man” had changed from being a man with great sexual prowess to being a “caring man” within one relationship. (Afr Reprod Health 2008; 12[1]:35-46).

  • 134. Barenfeld, Emmelie
    et al.
    Dahlin-Ivanoff, Synneve
    Wallin, Lars
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing. Karolinska institutet; Göteborgs universitet.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Promoting aging migrants' capabilities: A randomized controlled trial concerning activities of daily living and self-rated health.2018In: AIMS public health, ISSN 2327-8994, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 173-188Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to evaluate the 6-month and 1-year effects of a person-centered group-based health-promoting intervention on independence in daily activities and self-rated health. The study was an RCT with follow-ups at 6 months and 1 year. A total of 131 independent living people (70+) who have migrated to Sweden from Finland or Western Balkan region were included. Participants were independent in activities of daily living and cognitively intact. They were randomized to an intervention group receiving four weekly group-meetings and a follow-up home visit, or a control group (no intervention). An overall chi-squared test was performed and the odds ratio calculated. A high proportion of the participants maintained independence in activities of daily living and improved or maintained self-rated health. However, no significant differences were found between the groups. The result indicates that the intervention was offered too early in the aging process to be able to detect effects. Methodological challenges were met during both the recruitment and implementation phases. In response to lessons learned, a multicenter design is recommended for future research in order to strengthen the findings. Furthermore, this study has contributed with experiences on both opportunities and challenges in terms of research with and about older people aging in the context of migration, as is discussed.

  • 135. Barenfeld, Emmelie
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Wallin, Lars
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing. Karolinska institutet; Göteborgs universitet.
    Dahlin-Ivanoff, Synneve
    Supporting decision-making by a health promotion programme: experiences of persons ageing in the context of migration.2017In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 12, no 1, article id 1337459Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is part of the Promoting Aging Migrants' Capabilities programme that applied person-centred group meetings and one individual home visit to prolong independence in daily activities among people ≥70 years who had migrated to Sweden from Finland or the Western Balkan region. With the purpose to understand programme outcomes, the study aimed to explore the participants' everyday experiences of using health-promoting messages exchanged during the programme. Using a grounded theory approach, 12 persons aged 70-83 years were interviewed six months to one year after their participation in the programme. The participants experienced how using health-promoting messages was a dynamic process of how to make decisions on taking action to satisfy health-related needs of oneself or others immediately or deferring action. Five sub-processes were also identified: gaining inner strength, meeting challenges in available resources, being attentive to what is worth knowing, approaching health risks, and identifying opportunities to advocate for others. The results suggest that the programme could develop personal skills to support older people who have migrated to overcome health-related challenges. They further demonstrate the importance of supporting their health literacy before personal resources hinder action, and call for research on programmes to overcome environmental barriers to health.

  • 136. Barenfeld, Emmelie
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Wallin, Lars
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing. Karolinska institutet.
    Dahlin-Ivanoff, Synneve
    Understanding the "black box" of a health-promotion program: keys to enable health among older persons aging in the context of migration2015In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 10, article id 29013Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the need to make health services more accessible to persons who have migrated has been identified, knowledge about health-promotion programs (HPPs) from the perspective of older persons born abroad is lacking. This study explores the design experiences and content implemented in an adapted version of a group-based HPP developed in a researcher-community partnership. Fourteen persons aged 70-83 years or older who had migrated to Sweden from Finland or the Balkan Peninsula were included. A grounded theory approach guided the data collection and analysis. The findings showed how participants and personnel jointly helped raise awareness. The participants experienced three key processes that could open doors to awareness: enabling community, providing opportunities to understand and be understood, and confirming human values and abilities. Depending on how the HPP content and design are being shaped by the group, the key processes could both inhibit or encourage opening doors to awareness. Therefore, this study provides key insights into how to enable health by deepening the understanding of how the exchange of health-promoting messages is experienced to be facilitated or hindered. This study adds to the scientific knowledge base of how the design and content of HPP may support and recognize the capabilities of persons aging in the context of migration.

  • 137. Barenfeld, Emmelie
    et al.
    Wallin, Lars
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Björk Brämberg, Elisabeth
    Moving from knowledge to action in partnership: A case study on program adaptation to support optimal aging in the context of migration2019In: Journal of Applied Gerontology, ISSN 0733-4648, E-ISSN 1552-4523, Vol. 38, no 8, p. 1096-1120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This case study explored how a researcher-community partnership contributed to program adaptations when implementing person-centered group-based health promotion services to older people who have migrated to Sweden. The study was conducted over 3 years and various data sources were used: focus groups, individual interviews, documents, and archive material. Findings from different data sources and partners' perspectives were triangulated to an overall case description using an iterative process. Adaptations were shaped through a dynamic process, negotiating toward suitable solutions that culminated in actions taken to adapt or inhibit adaptations. The negotiations were driven by the interplay within and between three reasons to adapt. The partners' opportunities to influence the negotiation process depended on establishing common ground to shape adaptations. Practical implications are provided on how to move from knowledge to action when implementing person-centered group-based health promotion to support optimal aging in the context of migration.

  • 138.
    Bayer, Johanna
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Bohlin, Tore
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Faktorer som kan påverka sjuksköterskestudentersupplevelse av stress samt förekommande copingstrategierbland sjuksköterskestudenter: En litteraturöversikt2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med litteraturöversikten var att belysa de faktorer som kan påverkasjuk-sköterskestudenters upplevelse av stress samt att undersöka vilkacopingstrategier som kan förekomma hos sjuksköterskestudenter vidstresshantering. Metod: Studien genomfördes som en litteraturöversikt.Litteratursökning utfördes i CINAHL with Full Text samt PubMed vilketresulterade i 16 artiklar som representerade sjuksköterskestudenter från 15 länder.Resultat: Utifrån de faktorer som orsakade stress hos sjuk-sköterskestudenteridentifierades tre huvudteman vilka var stressorer relaterade till teoretiskutbildning, stressorer under verksamhetsförlagd utbildning samt personligastressorer. Stressorer under verksamhetsförlagd utbildning var vanligastförekommande. Emotionsfokuserad coping var vanligast förekommande därcopingstrategier som att tala med vänner och familj, positivt tänkande och att ägnasig åt andra aktiviteter användes. Slutsats: Sjuksköterskestudenter upplever stressfrämst från teoretiska utbildningen i form av examinationer och denverksamhetsförlagda utbildningen där relationen till handledaren, vårda patienteroch dödsfall var de vanligast förekommande stressorerna. Sjusköterskestudenternaanvände sig av copingstrategier som kan ha positiv och negativ effektpå hälsan. Emotionsfokuserade och problemfokuserade copingstrategier användesmest frekvent. Undvikande copingstrategier var mer sällan förekommande.

  • 139.
    Begum, Mamotaz
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Khatum, Fazila
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Begum, Shamsunnaher
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Perceived beneficences of and compliance to the content in a mentorship program: A questionnaire baseline survey among nursing and midwifery educators in Bangladesh prior the development of a mentorship program2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Building midwifery educators’ capacity has been identified as an important component to ensure quality midwifery education and a midwifery workforce that can provide quality midwifery and newborn care. With the background of midwifery being recently introduced in colleges/institutions in Bangladesh, the midwifery educators would benefit from a mentorship program. In an attempt to provide recommendations for development of a mentorship program to midwifery faculty this study was conducted.

    Objective:

    To describe perceived beneficences of and compliance to the content in a mentorship program; pedagogic styles, students learning and nursing and midwifery educators’ opinions about their own working situation as midwifery educators in Bangladesh.

    Methods:

    The total number of participants were 59 (n= 59). Data were collected through a structured questionnaire with both open and closed response options, analyzed statistically and through content analysis.

    Result

    : The midwifery faculty finds it beneficial to participate in a mentorship programs because they perceive they can improve their own situation for the best of the country, moving midwifery forward. The most important skill/ability for faculty to teach the midwifery students was critical thinking and an ability to transfer theoretical knowledge into clinical practice, preferably by useing a variety of pedagogic styles. There is complicance among the midwifery faculty to use information technology to impact students’ learning experiences during clinical placement.

    Conclusion:

    Mentorship stands out to be a beneficial method of improving teaching and assessment of students’ performances particularly in clinical settings. Communication technology could be an option for providing support and mentorship to midwifery faculty. Information technology could be one important part of a mentorship program.

    Clinical applicability and suggestions for further research:

    The clinical applicability of this thesis is the provision of up-dated evidence-based information on complicance to modern technology to support the implementation of theoretical knowledge into clinical practice. Continuity of a mentorship program requires attention for sustainable outcome.

  • 140.
    Begum, Sufia
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Akter, Rehena
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Mapping and Nursing Instructors Suggestions of Acceptable and Feasible Requirements for an accreditation Toolkit for Midwifery Educations in Bangladesh: A Questionnaire Study at Five Institutes/Colleges in Rangpur and Rajshahi Divisions2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    To build the midwifery workforce and maintain quality in midwifery educations, the development of an accreditation system has been initiated in Bangladesh.

    Objective:

    The objectives of this thesis are 1) to map five midwifery education sites in Rangpur and Rajshahi divisions, Bangladesh. The mapping describe the situation at the institutes/colleges and clinical sites in which the midwifery students and teachers are aimed to reach the learning outcomes of the courses in the 3 years diploma midwifery curricula, 2) to provide information to Bangladesh Nursing and Midwifery Council with acceptable and feasible requirements that could feed into an accreditation toolkit for nursing institutes with midwifery education from nursing instructors perspective.

    Methods:

    This questionnaire study includes a mapping of the situation at 5 institutes or colleges in the Rangpur and Rajshahi divisions, and 20 nursing instructors’ perceptions of acceptable and feasible requirements to be included in an accreditation tool for midwifery educations. Data were collected through a semi-structured questionnaire with closed and open response alternatives analyzed descriptive statistics and answers on open questions in text were categorized.

    Results

    : Eighty percent of the collages/institutions accepted the proportion theory 40% in relation to practice 60%. The need for adequately qualified midwifery teachers, clinical preceptors/mentors, skills lab facilities and simulation became obvious. Teacher’s and clinical supervisors’ continuous in-service training and available resources were crucial to deliver the midwifery curriculum. Continuous in-service training could cover skills in antenatal care, maintenance of pantographs, care of the newborn and brief knowledge about breast feeding was suggested. Conclusion: This study illuminates gaps in quality education in Rajshahi and Rangpur divisions that could be solved with continuous in-service trainings of the nursing instructors and midwives supervising midwifery students. The government initiated the initiative to support the development of an accreditation system and toolkit closing the gap between the participants outlined in the curricula and the implementation in clinical practice in Rajshahi and Rangpur division.

    The clinical applicability

    of this thesis is to inform Bangladesh Nursing and Midwifery Council with support from Directorate General of Nursing and Midwifery and supervision of Ministry of Health and Welfare on feasible and acceptable requirements that could be included in an accreditation toolkit for midwifery education in Bangladesh. The thesis findings could be used to inform NGOs and other donor organizations, national and international, on subjects and content when developing in-service trainings.

  • 141.
    Beijer, Martina
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Celander, Tomas
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Riskfaktorer för och omvårdnadsåtgärder vid akut delirium: En litteraturstudie2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med litteraturstudien var att beskriva vilka faktorer som i omvårdnadsforskningen beskrivs som bidragande faktorer till akut delirium. Syftet var vidare att beskriva vilka omvårdnadsåtgärder som omvårdnadsforskningen tar upp som kan minska risken för uppkomst av akut delirium. Resultatet baserades på vetenskapliga artiklar som söktes i följande databaser: Elin@dalarna, BlackwellSynergy, PubMed och EBSCO host. Följande sökord användes: delirium, acute, elderly, nursing, patients, caring, management, confusional state, needs. Artiklarna granskades enligt en granskningsmall med avseende på vetenskaplig kvalité. Betydande riskfaktorer för akut delirium var ålder, flera samtidiga sjukdomar, antalet mediciner och typ av medicin. Förutom att genomgå operation var också många åtgärder, framför allt invasiva åtgärder, tidigt under sjukhusvistelsen riskfaktorer för akut delirium. Även flera rumsbyten var en riskfaktor. Viktiga åtgärder för att förebygga akut delirium var psykiatrisk konsultation, tekniker för att underlätta orientering, emotionellt stöd, patientundervisning och anhörigundervisning, patientorientering, fysisk kontakt med patient samt att upprätta kontakt med kurator.

  • 142.
    Bel Mekki, Veronica
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Fernström, Pia
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Sjuksköterskans uppfattning om omvårdnadsinsatser som främjar livskvalitet vid bipolär sjukdom: En kvalitativ intervjustudie2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Several studies have shown that persons with bipolar disorder have

    a poorer quality of life compared to the rest of the population. As a nurse in

    psychiatric care it is important to have knowledge about the disease in order to

    provide the best possible treatment with the goal to stabilize symptoms, prevent

    relapse and promote quality of life.

    Objective: Based on the nurse's perception, describe the nursing interventions

    promoting quality of life in bipolar disorder.

    Method: A qualitative content analysis based on eight semi-structured interviews.

    Results: The results showed three main themes: Knowledge about the disease: the

    importance of that both the patient and family members gain knowledge about the

    disease; Safety and continuity of care: knowing where and who to contact in care

    was of great importance and Person-centered care: be seen and treated as a unique

    person.

    Conclusion: Patient education which highlights the importance of regular habits,

    to avoid stress and to become aware of early signs can help stabilize symptoms

    and prevent relapse.

  • 143.
    Belostotskaia, Natalia
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Wennergren, Anna
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Unga kvinnors upplevelse av beslutsprocessen vid abort2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Att belysa den unga kvinnans upplevelse av beslutsprocessen vid valet av abort, som underlag för helhetsförståelse vid omvårdnaden av denna. Metod: Litteraturstudie som redovisar resultat från artiklar med kvalitativ- och kvantitativ ansats samt två systematiska litteraturstudier. Datainsamling skedde genom databaserna ElinDalarna, Academic Search Elite (EBSCO) och SveMed+. Sökord som använts är - abortion, psychological aspects, decision-making, experience och omvårdnad. Huvudresultat: I beslutsprocessen präglades kvinnorna av ambivalens. Känslor vid oönskad graviditet skiljde sig inte mycket mellan olika kvinnor. Även kvinnor som var säkra i sitt beslut upplevde ambivalens. Abort som en lösning på oönskad graviditet hade sitt pris hur beslutsam kvinnan var. Ett abortbeslut var för många kvinnor en smärtsam nödvändighet och många kvinnor upplevde ångest vid abortbeslutet. Känslor och erfarenhet som kvinnor upplevde i beslutsprocessen och vid abort påverkde kvinnornas känsloliv resten av deras liv. Kvinnors konsultationsmönster, angående sin oönskade graviditet, är annorluna än vid andra stora händelser i livet. Kvinnor sökte ofta stöd i sitt beslutsfattande. Det var viktigt att sjuksköterskan, i mötet med den abortsökande kvinna, förhåller sig neutral i tal samt använda öppna frågor. Slutsats: Under förespegling att kvinnan har ett fritt val gör hon sitt val av abort. Detta val innehåller allehanda komplexa känslor och paradoxer. Det är viktigt med medvetenhet om detta, bland sjuksköterskor, för att ge adekvat och neutral omvårdnad.

  • 144.
    Bengt, Olsson
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Christina, Boberg
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Kvinnor och Mäns upplevelser av vardagslivet och sjuksköterskans roll efter en hjärtinfarkt.2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion: De hjärtpatienter som lever hemma själva har en sämre livskvalitet både fysiskt och psykiskt oavsett ålder och kön. Att ha en anhörig eller nära vän som hjälp ökar livskvalitet och kortar återhämtningsperioden. Syfte: Syftet är att se hur män och kvinnor upplever livet efter hjärtinfarkt, samt hur sjuksköterskans roll upplevs i kontakten med dessa patienter? Metod: Systematisk litteraturstudie utifrån vetenskapliga artiklar. Resultat: Resultatet diskuteras utifrån fem huvudkategorier samt ur manligt och kvinnligt perspektiv. Dessa huvudrubriker är ”Hälsoproblem”, ”Livsstilsförändringar”, ”Emotionella reaktioner”, ”Arbets och socialt nätverk” och ”Hur upplevs sjuksköterskans roll i omvårdnaden”. Under dessa huvudrubriker har uppsatsförfattarna beskrivit vilket resultat vi funnit i artiklarna om patienters olika upplevelser av vardagslivet efter hjärtinfarkt. Diskussion: Resultatet liknar det som redan finns beskrivet i läroböckerna att män och kvinnor reagerar och upplever smärta på olika sätt. Vilket leder till att upplevelserna i vardagen också kommer att skilja sig åt mellan män och kvinnor. Att båda könen upplever smärta och obehag på olika sätt kan ha att göra med ideal, normer, livsvillkor och förväntningar på vad som är manligt och kvinnligt i samhället. Slutsats: Individen bakom sjukdomen får aldrig förbises vilket skulle kunna ge negativa konsekvenser i omvårdnaden. Det föreligger dessutom en informationsbrist. Denna bör utredas för att höja kvalitén rörande patientinformationen. Anhöriga bör dessutom involveras i vården mer.

  • 145.
    Bengtsson, Anna
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Berglund, Annika
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Virtual Reality som rehabiliteringsmetod för patienter med stroke: En litteraturöversikt2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
  • 146.
    Bengtsson, Hillevi
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Törnqvist, Eva
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    En värdig död: ur ett närståendeperspektiv2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att undersöka vilka omvårdnadsåtgärder närstående uppfattar som viktiga för att deras anhörig ska få en värdig död. Studien genomfördes som en litteraturöversikt och litteratur söktes i databaserna Elin, Cinahl och Pubmed. Femton vetenskapliga artiklar varav både kvalitativa och kvantitativa valdes, granskades och sammanställdes. I resultatet framkom sex kategorier: symtomkontroll, vårdmiljö, kommunikation, delaktighet, efter döden och andlighet. För att befrämja en värdig död var symtomkontrollen av vikt då lidandet skapar stress hos närstående. I vårdmiljön var det viktigt med avskildhet, lugn och ro och möjlighet för närstående att närvara . I kommunikationen var det viktigt att vara tydlig, uppriktig och upprepande . Även vänlighet och engagemang från vårdpersonalen hade stor betydelse. Det var av vikt att närstående och patient var delaktiga i vård och behandling men fick inte belastas med för stort ansvar. Efter döden behövde närstående få god tid att ta farväl. Ett uppföljande möte kunde hjälpa till att reda ut missförstånd som uppkommit under patientens sista tid i livet. Andlig styrka hos närstående kunde innebära att även i sorg och saknad fanns hoppet kvar. Det var av vikt att alla jobbade mot samma mål och att närstående blev delaktig i vården av dess anhörig. För att närstående till en döende eller avliden patient skulle uppleva att döden var värdig behövdes en sammantagen helhet i omvårdnaden.

  • 147.
    Benjamin Benjamin, Jolyana
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Munther, Rebecca
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Mindfulness som metod vid arbetsrelaterad stress hos hälso- och sjukvårdspersonal: En litteraturöversikt2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Health care professionals have a profession with a high workload that risks leading to work-related stress, which in turn can lead to patient care being affected. It also results in high sick leave, extra financial expenses and high staff turnover. The consequence of this is that society and the organization lose both competence and financial resources. In recent years, the use of mindfulness has gained attention in Swedish health care. The research conducted so far suggests that mindfulness can have beneficial effects such as stress reduction, relaxation, and improving the quality of life.

    Aim: The purpose of the literature review was to compile current research on mindfulness as an intervention to manage work-related stress among health care professionals.

    Method: The study was conducted as a literature review which included 15 scientific articles with a quantitative, qualitative and mixed-method. The searches were made through the databases PubMed, CINAHL and PsycINFO. R

    esults: In the result, two categories emerged: Mindfulness-based interventions that can be used to deal with work-related stress and mindfulness impact on work-related stress. The results showed that mindfulness training has a reducing effect on stress, burnout, depression and anxiety, as well as an increase in compassion and conscious presence.

    Conclusion: Mindfulness has a variety of interventions that can be beneficial in reducing the stress of health care professionals. Mindfulness as an intervention has the potential to reduce work-related stress among healthcare professionals effectively. The results of the literature review are relevant to reducing the stress level of health care professionals, which results in reduced healthcare costs and increased conditions for providing good and safe care to the patient.

  • 148.
    Berg, Karolin
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Gunnarsdottir, Moeidur
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Sjuksköterskans copingstrategier vid stress: - En litteraturöversikt2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Coping is the individual's ability to adapt to and handle different

    conditions. In order to handle stress in the nursing profession today, knowledge

    about different coping strategies may be needed. The nursing role and the

    responsibility of nurses has grown and more is required of the nurse. Unhealthy

    working environment can contribute to increased risk of stress at work. A part of

    SOC, a sense of coherence, is manageability, which can mean that a person has the

    resources to meet the demands and stress that she or he or she faces.

    Aim

    The aim of this review of literature was to compile the coping

    strategies nurses use to cope with stress

    Method

    The Literature review is based on 15 articles published between

    2008 and 2018. Databases used were Cinahl, PubMed and Psycinfo.

    Result

    The different coping strategies that were found showed that nurses

    could use

    Asking for help and social support, Positive thinking, Self-control,

    Problem solving, Acceptance, Escape and avoidance, Exercising religion

    and

    Recovery.

    Coping strategies were divided into two categories, Emotion-focused

    coping

    and Problem-focused coping.

    Conclusion

    The result in the literature review shows that nurses use several

    different coping strategies to handle stress. The most common coping strategy was

    to ask for help and social support.

  • 149.
    Berg, L
    et al.
    Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden ; Department of Emergency Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Solna, Sweden.
    Källberg, Ann-Sofie
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing. Karolinska Institutet; Department of Emergency Medicine, Falun Hospital.
    Göransson, K
    Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden ; Department of Emergency Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Solna, Sweden.
    Östergren, J
    Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden ; Department of Emergency Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Solna, Sweden.
    Florin, Jan
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Ehrenberg, Anna
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Interruptions in emergency department work: an observational and interview study2013In: BMJ Quality and Safety, ISSN 2044-5415, E-ISSN 2044-5423, Vol. 22, no 8, p. 656-663Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectiv.e Frequent interruptions are assumed to have a negative effect on healthcare clinicians’ working memory that could result in risk for errors and hence threatening patient safety. The aim of this study was to explore interruptions occurring during common activities of clinicians working in emergency departments.

    Method. Totally 18 clinicians, licensed practical nurses, registered nurses and medical doctors, at two Swedish emergency departments were observed during clinical work for 2 h each. A semistructured interview was conducted directly after the observation to explore their perceptions of interruptions. Data were analysed using non-parametric statistics, and by quantitative and qualitative content analysis.

    Results. The interruption rate was 5.1 interruptions per hour. Most often the clinicians were exposed to interruptions during activities involving information exchange. Calculated as percentages of categorised performed activities, preparation of medication was the most interrupted activity (28.6%). Face-to-face interaction with a colleague was the most common way to be interrupted (51%). Most common places for interruptions to occur were the nurses’ and doctors’ stations (68%). Medical doctors were the profession interrupted most often and were more often recipients of interruptions induced by others than causing self-interruptions. Most (87%) of the interrupted activities were resumed. Clinicians often did not regard interruptions negatively. Negative perceptions were more likely when the interruptions were considered unnecessary or when they disturbed the work processes.

    Conclusions. Clinicians were exposed to interruptions most often during information exchange. Relative to its occurrence, preparation of medication was the most common activity to be interrupted, which might increase risk for errors. Interruptions seemed to be perceived as something negative when related to disturbed work processes.

  • 150. Berg, Lena
    et al.
    Ehrenberg, Anna
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Florin, Jan
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Östergren, Jan
    Göransson, Katarina
    An observational study of activities and multitasking performed by clinicians in two Swedish emergency departments2012In: European journal of emergency medicine, ISSN 0969-9546, E-ISSN 1473-5695, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 246-251Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To explore the type and frequency of activities and multitasking performed by emergency department clinicians.

    Methods: Eighteen clinicians (licensed practical nurses, registered nurses and medical doctors), six from each occupational group, at two Swedish emergency departments were followed in their clinical work for 2 h each to observe all their activities and multitasking practices. Data were analysed using qualitative and quantitative content analysis.

    Results: Fifteen categories of activities could be identified based on 1882 observed activities during the 36 h of observation. The most common activity was information exchange, which was most often performed face-to-face. This activity represented 42.1% of the total number of observed activities. Information exchange was also the most common activity to be multitasked. Registered nurses performed most activities and their activities were multitasked more than the other clinicians. The nurses’ and doctors’ offices were the most common locations for multitasking in the emergency department.

    Conclusion: This study provides new knowledge regarding the activities conducted by clinicians in the emergency department. The most frequent activity was information exchange, which was the activity most often performed by the clinicians when multitasking occurred. Differences between clinicians were found for activities performed and multitasked, with registered nurses showing the highest frequencies for both.

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