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  • 101.
    Agüero, Juan C.
    et al.
    The University of Newcastle, Australia.
    Rojas, Cristian R.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Hjalmarsson, Håkan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Goodwin, Graham C.
    The University of Newcastle, Australia.
    Accuracy of linear multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) models obtained by maximum likelihood estimation2012In: Automatica, ISSN 0005-1098, E-ISSN 1873-2836, Vol. 48, no 4, p. 632-637Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we study the accuracy of linear multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) models obtained by maximum likelihood estimation. We present a frequency-domain representation for the information matrix for general linear MIMO models. We show that the variance of estimated parametric models for linear MIMO systems satisfies a fundamental integral trade-off. This trade-off is expressed as a multivariable 'water-bed' effect. An extension to spectral estimation is also discussed.

  • 102.
    Ahlberg, Jesper
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Modelling of Ice Storms and their Impact on a part of the Swedish Transmission Network2006Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this master thesis a weather model to simulate an ice storm is developed. Precipitation, wind and movement are modelled by mathematical functions to create a realistic model.

    The weather model is used to calculate wind and ice loads on power lines. Two dierent models for the ice accretion on the power lines are used and compared. Data from two storms in Sweden in 1995 and 1999 are studied. In the simulations, the precipitation is assumed to fall as freezing rain instead of snow. The ice and wind loads are calculated in detail for two power lines in southern Sweden. The calculated loads are compared to what is assumed to be the critical loads for the poles, and the risks of power outages in connection with these storms are discussed.

  • 103.
    Ahlfors, Charlotta
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    On the impact of wind power on CO2 emissions in a power system2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This master thesis is carried out at KTH Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholmthe spring 2017. The project analyses the impact of wind power in a power system.A fictitious power system, created from the Nordic32 test system, is used for theanalysis. The power sources in the test system are hydro power, nuclear power, CHPand wind power, resembling Swedish conditions. The power production planning inthe system is solved as a mixed integer linear programming problem in GAMS withhourly resolution. From the result of the planning problem calculations of CO2emissions are carried out with Monte Carlo simulations. Different cases with differentamounts of wind power installed in the test system are studied via a stochasticMarkov model. The load model in the test system consists of hourly time seriesdata for a specific day. Furthermore, challenges with wind power as a continuouslyvarying power source are studied. These challenges are balance between productionand consumption in the power system, excess of power etc.The results show that increasing the wind power production results in a decreasein CO2 emissions. This can be seen from the different simulations in the project.However, the results show that increasing the wind power production means that thesystem becomes more sensitive to keep the power balance. Moreover, the dischargecapacity and the efficiency of the hydro power plants are important factors in thetest system.

  • 104.
    Ahlin, Adrian
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES).
    Törnblom, Sebastian
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES).
    Automated Control With Collision Avoidance of Multiple Unmanned air Vehicles2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report is a study of the coordination of multipleunmanned air vehicles (UAV). It begins with the model of a flyingvehicle with four fixed propellers, a so called quadcopter. Themodel describes how movement is related to motor speed, vehiclesize and mass distribution. Secondly we evaluate what sensorsare appropriate to use in an autonomous air vehicle system andwhat outputs they create. The model and the sensor outputs areused to perform automated stability control of a quadcopter, forwhich we propose the use of a PID controller. In the third partof the report we examine possible ways for autonomous vehiclesto perform motion planning. We compare the Potential field, A*and RRT algorithms and choose to implement a program whichsimulates UAVs using a potential field algorithm to navigate. Theprogram is two dimensional and randomly generates a chosennumber of flying units and static obstacles. The potential fieldmethod is not error free, sometimes vehicles get stuck when theirgoal is directly behind an obstacle, but the simulation proves theusability of the algorithm if elaborated with a few minor functionsto avoid specific problem cases. In the last part we discuss someexisting and some future applications of UAVs in a smarter urbanenvironment.

  • 105.
    Ahmad Khan, Naveed
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electrical Energy Conversion.
    Power Loss Modeling of Isolated AC/DC Converter2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Several research activities at KTH are carried out related to Isolated AC/DC converters in order to improve the design and efficiency. Concerning the improvement in the mentioned constraints, losses of the elements in the prototype converter are modeled in this thesis work. The obtained loss model is capable of calculating the losses under different circumstances. The individual contribution of losses for each element at different conditions can be obtained, which is further useful in improving the design and therefore, efficiency. The losses in different elements of the converter, including power semiconductor devices, RC-snubbers, transformer and filter inductor at different operating points can be computed by using the obtained model. The loss model is then validated by comparing the analytical results with the measurements. The results based on developed loss model show consistency with the measured losses. The comparison at different conditions shows that, the difference between measured and analytical results ranges between 10% to 20 %. The difference is due to those losses which are disregarded because of their negligible contribution. On the other hand, it is also observed that if the neglected losses are counted, the difference reduces up to 10%.

  • 106.
    Ahmad, Muhammad Bilal
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Networks.
    Macro and Femto Network Aspectsfor Realistic LTE usage scenarios with Interference Management2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 107.
    Ahmadi, Seyed Alireza
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Shames, Iman
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Scotton, Francesco
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Huang, Lirong
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Sandberg, Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Wahlberg, Bo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Towards more efficient building energy management systems2012In: Proceedings - 2012 7th International Conference on Knowledge, Information and Creativity Support Systems, KICSS 2012, IEEE , 2012, p. 118-125Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As a first step towards developing efficient building energy management techniques, in this paper, we first study the energy consumption patterns of heating, ventilation and cooling (HVAC) systems across the KTH Royal Institute of Technology campus and we identify some possible areas where energy consumption can be made less wasteful. Later, we describe a test-bed where wireless sensor networks are used to collect data and eventually control the HVAC system in a distributed way. We present some of the data, temperature, humidity, and CO2 measurements, that are collected by the aforementioned network and compare them with the measurements collected by the legacy sensors already in place. In the end we present a preliminary result on modelling the dynamics of the temperature, humidity, and CO2 using the data gather by the sensor network. We check the validity of the model via comparing the out put of the system with measured data. As a future work we identify the possibility of using the models obtained here for model based control, and fault detection and isolation techniques.

  • 108. Ahmed, J.
    et al.
    Johnsson, A.
    Moradi, F.
    Pasquini, R.
    Flinta, C.
    Stadler, Rolf
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Online approach to performance fault localization for cloud and datacenter services2017In: Proceedings of the IM 2017 - 2017 IFIP/IEEE International Symposium on Integrated Network and Service Management, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2017, p. 873-874Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Automated detection and diagnosis of the performance faults in cloud and datacenter environments is a crucial task to maintain smooth operation of different services and minimize downtime. We demonstrate an effective machine learning approach based on detecting metric correlation stability violations (CSV) for automated localization of performance faults for datacenter services running under dynamic load conditions. © 2017 IFIP.

  • 109. Ahmed, J.
    et al.
    Johnsson, A.
    Yanggratoke, Rerngvit
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Networks.
    Ardelius, J.
    Flinta, C.
    Stadler, Rolf
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Networks. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Predicting SLA conformance for cluster-based services using distributed analytics2016In: Proceedings of the NOMS 2016 - 2016 IEEE/IFIP Network Operations and Management Symposium, IEEE conference proceedings, 2016, p. 848-852Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Service assurance for the telecom cloud is a challenging task and is continuously being addressed by academics and industry. One promising approach is to utilize machine learning to predict service quality in order to take early mitigation actions. In previous work we have shown how to predict service-level metrics, such as frame rate for a video application on the client side, from operational data gathered at the server side. This gives the service provider early indications on whether the platform can support the current load demand. This paper extends previous work by addressing scalability issues for cluster-based services. Operational data being generated in large volumes, from several sources, and at high velocity puts strain on computational and communication resources. We propose and evaluate a distributed machine learning system based on the Winnow algorithm to tackle scalability issues, and then compare the new distributed solution with the previously proposed centralized solution. We show that network overhead and computational execution time is substantially reduced while maintaining high prediction accuracy making it possible to achieve real-time service quality predictions in large systems.

  • 110.
    Ahmed, Noman
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electrical Machines and Power Electronics (closed 20110930).
    Haider, Arif
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electrical Machines and Power Electronics (closed 20110930).
    Van Hertem, Dirk
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Zhang, Lidong
    ABB Power Systems, Ludvika.
    Nee, Hans-Peter
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electrical Machines and Power Electronics (closed 20110930).
    Prospects and challenges of future HVDC SuperGrids with modular multilevel converters2011In: Proceedings of the 2011-14th European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications (EPE 2011) / [ed] EPE Association, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to transmit massive amounts of power generated by remotely located power plants, especially offshore wind farms, and to balance the intermittent nature of renewable energy sources, the need for a stronger high voltage transmission grid is anticipated. Due to limitations in AC power transmission the most likable choice for such a grid is a high voltage DC (HVDC) grid. However, the concept of the HVDC grid is still under active development as different technical challenges exist, and it is not yet possible to construct such a DC grid. This paper deals with prospects and technical challenges for the future HVDC SuperGrids. Different topologies for a SuperGrid and the possibility to use modular multilevel converters (M2Cs) are presented. A comprehensive overview of different sub-module implementations of M2C is given. An overview of short circuit behaviour of the M2C is also given, as well as a discussion on the choice between cables or overhead lines and DC-side resonance issues.

  • 111.
    Ahmed, Noman
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electrical Machines and Power Electronics (closed 20110930).
    Haider, Arif
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electrical Machines and Power Electronics (closed 20110930).
    Ängquist, Lennart
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electrical Machines and Power Electronics (closed 20110930).
    Nee, Hans-Peter
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electrical Machines and Power Electronics (closed 20110930).
    M2C-BASED MTDC SYSTEM FOR HANDLING OF POWERFLUCTUATIONS FROM OFFSHORE WIND FARMS2011In: Proceedings of IET RPG-2011 / [ed] IET, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper a modular multilevel converter (M2C) basedmulti-terminal direct current (MTDC) system is proposed forthe connection of offshore wind farms. Each M2C ismodelled with 36 sub-modules per arm with a total of 216sub-modules consisting of half bridges. An open-loopconverter control method is employed for the M2Cs. Powersynchronizationcontrol is used instead of a phase-locked loop(PLL) for synchronization. A voltage controller isimplemented with power-synchronization control as an innerloop. By means of numerical simulations in PSCAD, it isshown that the system is self stabilizing both at steady stateand following power fluctuations of the wind farm.

  • 112.
    Ahmed, Noman
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electrical Energy Conversion.
    Norrga, Staffan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electrical Energy Conversion.
    Nee, Hans-Peter
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electrical Energy Conversion.
    Haider, Arif
    Van Hertem, Dirk
    ESAT/ELECTA, K.U.Leuven, Belgium.
    Zhang, Lidong
    ABB Power Systems HVDC, Ludvika.
    Harnefors, Lennart
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electrical Energy Conversion.
    HVDC SuperGrids with modular multilevel converters - The power transmission backbone of the future2012In: International Multi-Conference on Systems, Signals and Devices, SSD 2012, IEEE , 2012, p. 6198119-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to transmit massive amounts of power generated by remotely located power plants, especially offshore wind farms, and to balance the intermittent nature of renewable energy sources, the need for a stronger high voltage transmission grid is anticipated. Due to limitations in ac power transmission the most likable choice for such a grid is a high-voltage dc (HVDC) grid. However, the concept of the HVDC grid is still under active development as different technical challenges exist, and it is not yet possible to construct such a dc grid. This paper deals with prospects and technical challenges for future HVDC SuperGrids. Different topologies for a SuperGrid and the possibility to use modular multilevel converters (M2Cs) are presented. A comprehensive overview of different submodule implementations of M2C is given as well as a discussion on the choice between cables or overhead lines, the protection system for the dc grid and dc-side resonance issues.

  • 113.
    Ahmed, Noman
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electrical Energy Conversion.
    Ängquist, Lennart
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electrical Energy Conversion.
    Antonopoulos, Antonios
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electrical Energy Conversion. ABB Corporate Research.
    Harnefors, Lennart
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electrical Energy Conversion.
    Norrga, Staffan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electrical Energy Conversion.
    Nee, Hans-Peter
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electrical Energy Conversion.
    Performance of the modular multilevel converter with redundant submodules2015In: IECON 2015 - 41st Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2015, p. 3922-3927, article id 7392712Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The modular multilevel converter (MMC) is the state-of-the-art voltage-source converter (VSC) topology used for various power-conversion applications. In the MMC, submodule failures can occur due to various reasons. Therefore, additional submodules called the redundant submodules are included in the arms of the MMC to fulfill the fault-safe operation requirement. The performance of the MMC with redundant submodules has not been widely covered in the published literature. This paper investigates the performance of the MMC with redundant submodules in the arms. Two different control strategies are used and compared for integrating redundant submodules. The response of the MMC to a submodule failure for the two strategies is also studied. Moreover, the operation of the MMC with redundant submodules is validated experimentally using the converter prototype in the laboratory.

  • 114.
    Ahmed, Noman
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electrical Energy Conversion.
    Ängquist, Lennart
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electrical Energy Conversion.
    Mahmood, Shahid
    Antonopoulos, Antonios
    Harnefors, Lennart
    Norrga, Staffan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electrical Energy Conversion.
    Nee, Hans-Peter
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electrical Energy Conversion.
    Efficient Modeling of an MMC-Based Multiterminal DC System Employing Hybrid HVDC Breakers2015In: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, ISSN 0885-8977, E-ISSN 1937-4208, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 1792-1801Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The feasibility of future multiterminal dc (MTDC) systems depends largely on the capability to withstand dc-side faults. Simulation models of MTDC systems play a very important role in investigating these faults. For such studies, the test system needs to be accurate and computationally efficient. This paper proposes a detailed equivalent model of the modular multilevel converter (MMC), which is used to develop the MTDC test system. The proposed model is capable of representing the blocked-mode operation of the MMC, and can be used to study the balancing control of the capacitor voltages. In addition, the operation of the MMC when redundant submodules are included in the arms can also be studied. A simplified model of a hybrid high-voltage dc breaker is also developed. Hence, the developed test system is capable of accurately describing the behavior of the MMC-based MTDC system employing hybrid HVDC breakers, during fault conditions. Using time-domain simulations, permanent dc-side faults are studied in the MTDC system. In addition, a scheme to control the fault current through the MMC using thyristors on the ac side of the converter is proposed.

  • 115.
    Ahmed, Noman
    et al.
    KTH.
    Ängquist, Lennart
    KTH.
    Mehmood, Shahid
    Antonopoulos, Antonios
    Harnefors, Lennart
    Norrga, Staffan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Nee, Hans-Peter
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Efficient Modeling of an MMC-Based Multiterminal DC System Employing Hybrid HVDC Breakers2016In: 2016 IEEE POWER AND ENERGY SOCIETY GENERAL MEETING (PESGM), IEEE , 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 116.
    Ahmed, Noman
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electrical Energy Conversion.
    Ängquist, Lennart
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electrical Energy Conversion.
    Nee, Hans-Peter
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electrical Energy Conversion.
    Continuous modeling of open-loop control based negative sequence current control of modular multilevel converters for HVDC transmission2013In: Eur. Conf. Power Electron. Appl., EPE, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Negative sequence currents are obtained during ac-side asymmetrical faults of converters in highvoltage direct current (HVDC) transmission systems. Consequently, second order harmonics in the dc-side voltage and current, unbalanced ac-side currents, and power oscillations can be observed. This paper presents a negative sequence current control (NSCC) scheme that eliminates second order harmonic ripples in the voltage and current of the dc-side during unbalanced grid conditions. Controllers for this purpose are investigated using a continuous model of the modular multilevel converter (M2C). The proposed scheme utilizes an open-loop controller for lower level control of the M2C. The continuous model used also has the capability to model blocking and deblocking events which may be used during protective actions. Simulation results reveal that the proposed NSCC scheme is effective in suppressing dc-side voltage and current ripples. Moreover, it keeps the ac-side phase currents balanced during asymmetrical fault conditions.

  • 117.
    Ahmed, Noman
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electrical Energy Conversion.
    Ängquist, Lennart
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electrical Energy Conversion.
    Norrga, Staffan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electrical Energy Conversion.
    Antonopoulos, Antonios
    ABB Corporate Research Center, Sweden.
    Harnefors, Lennart
    ABB Corporate Research Center, Sweden.
    Nee, Hans-Peter
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electrical Energy Conversion.
    A computationally efficient continuous model for the modular multilevel converter2014In: IEEE Journal of Emerging and Selected Topics in Power Electronics, ISSN 2168-6777, Vol. 2, no 4, p. 1139-1148, article id 6840290Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Simulation models of the modular multilevel converter (MMC) play a very important role for studying the dynamic performance. Detailed modeling of the MMC in electromagnetic transient simulation programs is cumbersome, as it requires high computational effort and simulation time. Several averaged or continuous models proposed in the literature lack the capability to describe the blocked state. This paper presents a continuous model, which is capable of accurately simulating the blocked state. This feature is very important for accurate simulation of faults. The model is generally applicable, although it is particularly useful in high-voltage dc applications.

  • 118.
    Ahmed, Noman
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electrical Energy Conversion.
    Ängquist, Lennart
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electrical Energy Conversion.
    Norrga, Staffan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electrical Energy Conversion.
    Nee, Hans-Peter
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electrical Energy Conversion.
    Efficient Modeling of Modular Multilevel Converters in HVDC-Grids Under Fault Conditions2014In: 2014 IEEE PES General Meeting | Conference & Exposition, IEEE Computer Society, 2014, p. 6939166-, article id 6939166Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High-voltage direct current (HVDC) grids using modular multilevel converters (M2Cs) have strongly been considered for the integration of distant renewable energy sources and also as a backbone to the existing ac-grids. The dynamic performance of the M2C is of particular interest in these grids. For electromagnetic transient (EMT) programs, modeling of HVDC-grids using detailed M2C models is unrealistic, as it requires extremely high computational effort and simulation time. In this paper an HVDC-grid test system is developed using a continuous simulation model of the M2C. The model is also capable of describing the blocking events of the M2C. Using time-domain simulations in PSCAD/EMTDC, the dynamic performance of the M2C in HVDC-grids under fault conditions is investigated. Simulation results reveal that the continuous M2C model can efficiently be used to study the dynamic performance of the M2C in HVDC-grids with high computational speed, under different fault conditions.

  • 119.
    Ahmed, Noman
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electrical Energy Conversion.
    Ängquist, Lennart
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electrical Energy Conversion.
    Norrga, Staffan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electrical Energy Conversion.
    Nee, Hans-Peter
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electrical Energy Conversion.
    Validation of the continuous model of the modular multilevel converter with blocking/deblocking capability2012In: AC and DC Power Transmission (ACDC 2012), 10th IET International Conference on, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the continuous model for the Modular Multilevel Converter (M2C). The model operates in two modes, either operating as a voltage source in deblocked mode or as a rectifying diode bridge in blocked mode. The model is validated by comparison with a detailed M2C model having 36 submodules per arm, using different control strategies. The comparison is based on time-domain simulations in PSCAD/EMTDC. The continuous model shows a very good agreement with the detailed model.

  • 120.
    Ahmed, Samy
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES).
    Björk, Joel
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES).
    Autonomous Alignment Between a Single Mode Optical Fiber and a Grating Coupler2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 121. Ahmed, Zakir
    et al.
    Bhardwaj, Krishna
    Krishnan, Ramesh
    Yajnanarayana, Vijaya
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Signal Processing.
    Estimation of Sample Clock Frequency Offset Using Error Vector Magnitude2011Patent (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    A low complexity system and method for operating a receiver in order to estimate an offset between the actual sample clock rate 1/TS' of a receiver and an intended sample clock rate 1/TS. The receiver captures samples of a received baseband signal at the rate 1/TS', operates on the captured samples to generate an estimate for the clock rate offset, and fractionally resamples the captured samples using the clock rate offset. The resampled data represents an estimate of baseband symbols transmitted by the transmitter. The action of operating on the captured samples involves computing an error vector signal and then estimating the clock rate offset using the error vector signal. The error vector signal may be computed in different ways depending on whether or not carrier frequency offset and carrier phase offset are assumed to be present in the received baseband signal.

  • 122. Ahmed, Zakir
    et al.
    Yajnanarayana, Vijaya
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Signal Processing.
    Blind mechanism for the joint estimation of frequency offset and phase offset for QAM modulated signals2010Patent (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    A mechanism for jointly correcting carrier phase and carrier frequency errors in a demodulated signal. A computer system may receive samples of a baseband input signal (resulting from QAM demodulation). The computer system may compute values of a cost function J over a grid in a 2D angle-frequency space. A cost function value J(theta,omega) is computed for each point (theta,omega) in the grid by (a) applying a phase adjustment of angle theta and a frequency adjustment of frequency omega to the input signal; (b) performing one or more iterations of the K-means algorithm on the samples of the adjusted signal; (c) generated a sum on each K-means cluster; and (d) adding the sums. The point (thetae,omegae) in the 2D angle-frequency space that minimizes the cost function J serves an estimate for the carrier phase error and carrier frequency error.; The estimated errors may be used to correct the input signal.

  • 123. Ahmed, Zakir
    et al.
    Yajnanarayana, Vijaya
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Signal Processing.
    Maximizing the Viterbi Winning Path Metric to Estimate Carrier Frequency and Phase Offsets in Continuous Phase Modulated Signals2012Patent (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    A system and method for estimating carrier frequency offset Δf and carrier phase offset φ0 inherent in a received CPM signal. Samples of a continuous phase modulated (CPM) signal are received. A maximum of an objective function J is determined over a two-dimensional region parameterized by frequency offset v and phase offset w. The coordinates vmax and wmax of a maximizing point in the region represent estimates of the carrier frequency offset Δf and the carrier phase offset φ0. To evaluate the objective function J at a point (v, w), apply a frequency shift of amount −v and a phase shift of amount −w to the received samples to obtain modified samples, and perform Viterbi demodulation on the modified samples to obtain a winning path metric value at a final time. The winning path metric value is the objective function value J(v, w). 

  • 124.
    Ahmed, Zakir
    et al.
    Motorola India Electron. Ltd., Bangalore .
    Yajnanarayana, Vijaya
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Signal Processing.
    Sancheti, Nirmal Kumar
    A time domain based efficient block decision algorithm for audio coders2007In: International Symposium on Communications and Information Technologies, 2007. ISCIT '07, IEEE Press, 2007, p. 1077-1081Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In typical audio encoders the block decision is done either using time-domain techniques like energy computation or frequency domain techniques like temporal noise shaping (TNS) [1], [2]. The time-domain energy computation based decisions are less effective for detecting many of the stringent scenarios presented by test cases like castanets and fatboy. The frequency domain based algorithms have better decision making capabilities, however they are inherently complex as they require the computation of the FFT, additionally in case of TNS the computation of LPC (Linear Prediction coding) in the frequency domain. An improved time-domain technique with better block decision capability compared to TNS and with lesser computational complexity is proposed in this paper.

  • 125.
    Ahmed, Zeeshan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering.
    Analysis of Partial Discharge in OIP Bushing Models2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A high voltage bushing is a very important accessory of power transformers. Bushings are used to insulate high voltage conductors where they feed through steel tank of a power transformer. There are different sources of electric stress that may result in degradation of bushing. Partial discharges (PDs) are one of the main sources of electrical degradation. PDs occur due to defects in electrical insulations, and can lead to insulation failure. This thesis is composed of two parts. The first part deals with design of a 145 kV oil impregnated paper (OIP) bushing by using capacitive radial grading technique. In capacitive grading the foils of calculated length are placed at predetermined radial distance between the paper layers in order to distribute voltage and electric field uniformly between high voltage conductor and ground potential. A 145kV OIP bushing was designed according to dimensions of ABB GOE type bushing. After calculations, the 145 kV bushing geometry was modeled in COMSOL Multiphysics in order to analyze the voltage and electric field distribution in the bushing. In the second part of this thesis a scaled down model was designed using the capacitive radial grading technique. After designing, the scale down model was implemented in COMSOL in order to ensure that the voltage and electric field distribution should be similar to the full scale model of bushing. The scaled down bushing test model was made in laboratory by wrapping impregnated papers and foils on conductor tube according to calculated dimensions. These papers were impregnated with mineral oil. The test model was placed in an oil filled tube. Different defects were added in scale down bushing model and model was connected to PD measurement set up. PD inception voltage was measured and PD patterns were recorded on an insulation condition monitoring system (ICM). These patterns are analyzed in order to conclude about the signature of partial discharges in OIP bushings. From the PD pattern, the type and location of PDs can be concluded. PD patterns reveal that the main causes of PDs in OIP bushing can be gas filled cavities and surface discharges from foil edges.

  • 126.
    Ahnlund, Joakim
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Short-circuit Contributions from Fully-rated Converter Wind Turbines: Modeling and simulation of steady-state short-circuit contributions from FRC wind turbines in offshore wind power plants2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years there has been an increase in wind power plants installed out at sea. The generated power of wind turbine generators (WTGs) are collected through numerous subsea cables into a single hub, the offshore platform. Subsequently, this platform is interconnected with the onshore main grid through a further stretch of cable. In the event of a fault, a sudden increase in current, so called short-circuit current, will occur somewhere in the system. The short-circuit current will, depending on the duration and location of the fault, potentially harm the power system. In order to accurately determine the dimensions and rating of the equipment installed in the offshore wind power plant (OWPP), the magnitude of this current needs to be studied. Furthermore, depending on the country in which the OWPP is installed, the transmission system operator (TSO) might pose different low-voltage-ride-through (LVRT) requirements on the system. One such requirement is that the installed turbines should provide voltage regulation through injection of reactive current. A type of generator able to achieve this is a so-called fully-rated converter windturbine generator (FRC WTG). Through a power electronic interface, the reactive and active current components of the generator can be freely controlled. With a high level of reactive current injected during a fault in the OWPP, the short-circuit contribution from these FRC WTGs needs to be evaluated. In this master’s thesis, a method has been developed in order to determine the steady-state short-circuit contribution from multiple FRC WTGs. This methodology is based on an iterative algorithm, and has been implemented in the simulation tool PowerFactory. To evaluate the performance of the method, two case studies were performed. In order to improve simulation times, an already existing WTG aggregation model has been implemented to reduce the number of turbines in the test system. From the results, it is concluded that the method obtains the expected FRC WTG short-circuit currents with sufficient accuracy. Furthermore, the deviation from the expected results are evaluated using a numerical tool. This project was initiated and conducted at ABB in Västerås, Sweden.

  • 127.
    Ahnlund, Joakim
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES).
    Mörée, Gustav
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES).
    Möjligheter och förutsättningar för lokala likströmsnät i hushåll2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 128. Ahnström, Ulrika
    et al.
    Falk, Johan
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Signals, Sensors and Systems.
    Händel, Peter
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Signals, Sensors and Systems. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Wikström, Maria
    Detection and direction-finding of spread spectrum signals using correlation and narrowband interference rejection2003In: Nordic Matlab Conference 2003, 2003Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An algorithm for correlation-based detection of direct sequence spread spectrum signals with direction finding, including direction-filtering and narrow-band interference rejection, is implemented and evaluated in MATLAB. An analog noise-free signal is generated and sampled by a test-bed system. Numerical simulations are run based on data corrupted by mutually uncorrelated white Gaussian noise sequences, and also with recorded noise from two spatially separated HF radio receivers. The simulations and measurements show promising results for detection and direction-finding of covert wideband signals in low SNR and in presence of narrowband interferers. Direction filtering is shown to improve the results.

  • 129. Aiba, N
    et al.
    Giroud, C
    Honda, M
    Delabie, E
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Saarelma, S
    Hillesheim, J
    Pamela, S
    Wiesen, S
    Maggi, C
    Urano, H
    Drewelow, P
    Leyland, M
    Moulton, D
    Menmuir, S
    Diamagnetic MHD Equations for Plasmas with Fast Flow and its Application to ELM Analysis in JT-60U and JET-ILW2016In: 26th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference, 17-22 October 2016, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 130. Aiba, N.
    et al.
    Giroud, C.
    Honda, M.
    Delabie, E.
    Saarelma, S.
    Frassinetti, L
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Lupelli, I.
    Casson, F. J.
    Pamela, S.
    Urano, H.
    Maggi, C. F.
    Numerical analysis of ELM stability with rotation and ion diamagnetic drift effects in JET2017In: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 57, no 12, article id 126001Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stability to the type-I edge localized mode (ELM) in JET plasmas was investigated numerically by analyzing the stability to a peeling-ballooning mode with the effects of plasma rotation and ion diamagnetic drift. The numerical analysis was performed by solving the extended Frieman-Rotenberg equation with the MINERVA-DI code. To take into account these effects in the stability analysis self-consistently, the procedure of JET equilibrium reconstruction was updated to include the profiles of ion temperature and toroidal rotation, which are determined based on the measurement data in experiments. With the new procedure and MINERVA-DI, it was identified that the stability analysis including the rotation effect can explain the ELM trigger condition in JET with ITER like wall (JET-ILW), though the stability in JET with carbon wall (JET-C) is hardly affected by rotation. The key difference is that the rotation shear in JET-ILW plasmas analyzed in this study is larger than that in JET-C ones, the shear which enhances the dynamic pressure destabilizing a peeling-ballooning mode. In addition, the increase of the toroidal mode number of the unstable MHD mode determining the ELM trigger condition is also important when the plasma density is high in JET-ILW. Though such modes with high toroidal mode number are strongly stabilized by the ion diamagnetic drift effect, it was found that plasma rotation can sometimes overcome this stabilizing effect and destabilizes the peeling-ballooning modes in JET-ILW.

  • 131. Aiba, N
    et al.
    Giroud, C
    Honda, M
    Delabie, E
    Saarelma, S
    Lupelli, I
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Maggi, C
    Impact of rotation and ion diamagnetic drift on ELM stability in JET-ILW2016In: 33rd Annual meeting of Japan society of plasma science and nuclear fusion research JSPF, Nov 2016. Japan, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 132. Aiba, N.
    et al.
    Pamela, S.
    Honda, M.
    Urano, H.
    Giroud, C.
    Delabie, E.
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Lupelli, I.
    Hayashi, N.
    Huijsmans, G.
    Analysis of ELM stability with extended MHD models in JET, JT-60U and future JT-60SA tokamak plasmas2018In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 60, no 1, article id 014032Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The stability with respect to a peeling-ballooning mode (PBM) was investigated numerically with extended MHD simulation codes in JET, JT-60U and future JT-60SA plasmas. The MINERVA-DI code was used to analyze the linear stability, including the effects of rotation and ion diamagnetic drift (omega(*i)), in JET-ILW and JT-60SA plasmas, and the JOREK code was used to simulate nonlinear dynamics with rotation, viscosity and resistivity in JT-60U plasmas. It was validated quantitatively that the ELM trigger condition in JET-ILW plasmas can be reasonably explained by taking into account both the rotation and omega(*i) effects in the numerical analysis. When deuterium poloidal rotation is evaluated based on neoclassical theory, an increase in the effective charge of plasma destabilizes the PBM because of an acceleration of rotation and a decrease in omega(*i). The difference in the amount of ELM energy loss in JT-60U plasmas rotating in opposite directions was reproduced qualitatively with JOREK. By comparing the ELM affected areas with linear eigenfunctions, it was confirmed that the difference in the linear stability property, due not to the rotation direction but to the plasma density profile, is thought to be responsible for changing the ELM energy loss just after the ELM crash. A predictive study to determine the pedestal profiles in JT-60SA was performed by updating the EPED1 model to include the rotation and w*i effects in the PBM stability analysis. It was shown that the plasma rotation predicted with the neoclassical toroidal viscosity degrades the pedestal performance by about 10% by destabilizing the PBM, but the pressure pedestal height will be high enough to achieve the target parameters required for the ITER-like shape inductive scenario in JT-60SA.

  • 133. Aiempanakit, Montri
    et al.
    Aijaz, Asim
    Lundin, Daniel
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Helmersson, Ulf
    Kubart, Tomas
    Understanding the discharge current behavior in reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering of oxides2013In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 113, no 13, p. 133302-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The discharge current behavior in reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) of Ti-O and Al-O is investigated. It is found that for both metals, the discharge peak current significantly increases in the oxide mode in contrast to the behavior in reactive direct current magnetron sputtering where the discharge current increases for Al but decreases for Ti when oxygen is introduced. In order to investigate the increase in the discharge current in HiPIMS-mode, the ionic contribution of the discharge in the oxide and metal mode is measured using time-resolved mass spectrometry. The energy distributions and time evolution are investigated during the pulse-on time as well as in the post-discharge. In the oxide mode, the discharge is dominated by ionized oxygen, which has been preferentially sputtered from the target surface. The ionized oxygen determines the discharge behavior in reactive HiPIMS.

  • 134. Aier, Stephan
    et al.
    Buckl, Sabine
    Franke, Ulrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Gleichauf, Bettina
    Johnson, Pontus
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Närman, Per
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Schweda, Christian M.
    Ullberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    A Survival Analysis of Application Life Spans based on Enterprise Architecture Models2009In: Proc. 3rd International Workshop on Enterprise Modelling and Information Systems Architectures, EMISA 2009, 2009, Vol. P-152, p. 141-154Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern enterprises face the challenge to survive in an ever changing environment. One commonly accepted means to address this challenge and further enhance survivability is enterprise architecture (EA) management, which provides a holistic model-based approach to business/IT alignment. Thereby, the decisions taken in the context of EA management are based on accurate documentation of IT systems and business processes. The maintenance of such documentation causes high investments for enter-prises, especially in the absence of information on the change rates of different systems and processes. In this paper we propose a method for gathering and analyzing such in-formation. The method is used to analyze the life spans of the application portfolio of three companies from different industry sectors. Based on the results of the three case studies implications and limitations of the method are discussed.

  • 135. Aier, Stephan
    et al.
    Ekstedt, MathiasKTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.Matthes, FlorianProper, ErikSanz, Jorge
    Trends in Enterprise Architecture Research and Practice-Driven Research on Enterprise Transformation: 7th Workshop, TEAR 2012, and 5th Working Conference, PRET 2012, Held at The Open Group Conference 2012, Barcelona, Spain, October 23-24, 2012. Proceedings2012Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 136. Aijaz, Asim
    et al.
    Sarakinos, Kostas
    Lundin, Daniel
    Brenning, Nils
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Helmersson, Ulf
    A strategy for increased carbon ionization in magnetron sputtering discharges2012In: Diamond and related materials, ISSN 0925-9635, E-ISSN 1879-0062, Vol. 23, p. 1-4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A strategy that facilitates a substantial increase of carbon ionization in magnetron sputtering discharges is presented in this work. The strategy is based on increasing the electron temperature in a high power impulse magnetron sputtering discharge by using Ne as the sputtering gas. This allows for the generation of an energetic C+ ion population and a substantial increase in the C+ ion flux as compared to a conventional Ar-HiPIMS process. A direct consequence of the ionization enhancement is demonstrated by an increase in the mass density of the grown films up to 2.8 g/cm(3); the density values achieved are substantially higher than those obtained from conventional magnetron sputtering methods.

  • 137. Aikio, A T
    et al.
    Blomberg, Lars
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Alfvén Laboratory. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Marklund, Göran
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Alfvén Laboratory. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Yamauchi, M
    On the origin of the high-altitude electric field fluctuations in the auroral zone1996In: Journal of Geophysical Research, ISSN 0148-0227, E-ISSN 2156-2202, Vol. 101, no A12, p. 27157-27170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intense fluctuations in the electric field at high altitudes in the auroral zone are frequently measured by the Viking satellite. We have made an analysis of the origin of electric and magnetic fluctuations in the frequency range of 0.1 - 1 Hz by assuming four different sources for the signals: (I) spatial structures, (2) spatial structures with a parallel potential drop below the satellite, (3) traveling; shear Alfven waves, and (4) interfering shear Alfven waves. We will shaw that these different sources of the signals may produce similar amplitude ratios and phase differences between the perpendicular electric and magnetic fields. Since the different sources have different frequency dependencies, this can be used as an additional test if the signals are broadband. In other cases, additional information is needed, for example, satellite particle measurements or ground; magnetic measurements. The ideas presented in the theory were tested for one Viking eveningside pass over Scandinavia, where ground-based magnetometer and EISCAT radar measurements were available. The magnetic conditions were active during this pass and several interfering shear Alfven waves were found. Also, a spatial structure with a parallel potential drop below the satellite was identified. The magnitude of the 10-km-wide potential drop was at least 2 kV and the upward field-aligned current 26 mu A m(-2) (value mapped to the ionospheric level). The held-aligned conductance was estimated as 1.3 - 2.2x10(-8) S m(-2).

  • 138.
    Ainomäe, Ahti
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Information Science and Engineering.
    Distributed Detection in Cognitive Radio Networks2017Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the problems with the modern radio communication is the lack of availableradio frequencies. Recent studies have shown that, while the available licensed radiospectrum becomes more occupied, the assigned spectrum is significantly underutilized.To alleviate the situation, cognitive radio (CR) technology has been proposedto provide an opportunistic access to the licensed spectrum areas. Secondary CRsystems need to cyclically detect the presence of a primary user by continuouslysensing the spectrum area of interest. Radiowave propagation effects like fading andshadowing often complicate sensing of spectrum holes. When spectrum sensing isperformed in a cooperative manner, then the resulting sensing performance can beimproved and stabilized.

    In this thesis, two fully distributed and adaptive cooperative Primary User (PU)detection solutions for CR networks are studied.

    In the first part of this thesis we study a distributed energy detection schemewithout using any fusion center. Due to reduced communication such a topologyis more energy efficient. We propose the usage of distributed, diffusion least meansquare (LMS) type of power estimation algorithms with different network topologies.We analyze the resulting energy detection performance by using a commonframework and verify the theoretical findings through simulations.

    In the second part of this thesis we propose a fully distributed detection scheme,based on the largest eigenvalue of adaptively estimated correlation matrices, assumingthat the primary user signal is temporally correlated. Different forms of diffusionLMS algorithms are used for estimating and averaging the correlation matrices overthe CR network. The resulting detection performance is analyzed using a commonframework. In order to obtain analytic results on the detection performance, theadaptive correlation matrix estimates are approximated by a Wishart distribution.The theoretical findings are verified through simulations.

  • 139.
    Ainomäe, Ahti
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Information Science and Engineering. Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Trump, T.
    Bengtsson, Mats
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Information Science and Engineering.
    Distributed largest eigenvalue detection2017In: 2017 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, ICASSP 2017, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, p. 3519-3523, article id 7952811Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cognitive radio (CR) systems need to detect the presence of a primary user (PU) signal by continuously sensing the spectrum area of interest. Radiowave propagation effects like fading and shadowing often complicate sensing of spectrum holes because the PU signal can be weak in a particular area. Cooperative spectrum sensing is seen as a prospective solution to enhance the detection of PU signals. In this paper we study distributed spectrum sensing, based on the largest eigenvalue of adaptively estimated correlation matrices (CMs) of received signals. The PU signal is assumed to be temporally correlated. In this paper an Combine and Adapt (CTA) least Mean Square (LMS) diffusion based mean vector estimation scheme is proposed. No fusion center (FC) for estimation or detection is used. We analyse the resulting detection performance and verify the theoretical findings through simulations.

  • 140.
    Ainomäe, Ahti
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Signal Processing. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre. Tallinn Univ. of Technol., Tallinn, Estonia.
    Trump, Tõnu
    Tallinn Univ. of Technol., Tallinn, Estonia.
    Bengtsson, Mats
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Signal Processing. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Distributed Diffusion LMS based Energy Detection2014In: Proceedings of 6th International Congress on Ultra Modern Telecommunications and Control Systems and Workshops (ICUMT), 2014, 2014, p. 176-183Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cognitive radio (CR) is seen as a promising technology to make radio spectrum usage more effective by providing an opportunistic access for secondary users to the licensed spectrum areas. CR systems need to detect the presence of a primary user (PU) signal by continuously sensing the spectrum area of interest. Radiowave propagation effects like fading and shadowing often complicate sensing of spectrum holes because the PU signal can be weak in a particular area. Cooperative spectrum sensing is seen as a prospective solution to enhance the detection of PU signals. This paper studies distributed spectrum sensing in a cognitive radio context. We investigate distributed energy detection schemes without using any fusion center. We propose the usage of distributed, diffusion least mean square (LMS) type of power estimation algorithms. In this paper an Adapt and Combine (ATC) diffusion based power estimation scheme is proposed and the performance is compared with the Combine and Adapt (CTA) and ring-around schemes in a common framework. The PU signal is assumed to be slowly fading. We analyse the resulting energy detection performance and verify the theoretical findings through simulations.

  • 141.
    Ainomäe, Ahti
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Signal Processing. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre. Department of Radio and Telecommunication Engineering, Tallinn University of Technology, Tallinn, Estonia .
    Trump, Tõnu
    Tallin University of Technology.
    Bengtsson, Mats
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Signal Processing. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Distributed Recursive Energy Detection2014In: Proceedings of Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC), 2014, IEEE Communications Society, 2014, p. 1242-1247Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies have shown that, while the available licensed radio spectrum becomes more occupied, the assigned spectrum is significantly underutilized. To alleviate the situation, cognitive radio (CR) technology has been proposed to provide an opportunistic access to the licensed spectrum areas. CR systems are able to serve the secondary users for detecting and utilizing so called spectrum holes by sensing and adapting to the environment without causing harmful effects or interference to the licensed primary users (PU). CR systems need to detect the presence of a primary user by continuously sensing the spectrum area of interest. Radiowave propagation effects like fading and shadowing often complicate sensing of spectrum holes because the PU signal can be weak in a particular area. Cooperative spectrum sensing is seen as a prospective solution to enhance the detection of PU signals. This paper studies distributed spectrum sensing in a cognitive radio context. We investigate a distributed energy detection scheme without using any fusion center. Due to reduced communication such a topology is more energy efficient. The PU signal is assumed to be in slow fading. A recursive distributed power estimation and detection scheme is proposed. The theoretical findings are verified through simulations.

  • 142. Airila, M. I.
    et al.
    Aho-Mantila, L.
    Brezinsek, S.
    Coad, J. P.
    Kirschner, A.
    Likonen, J.
    Matveev, D.
    Rubel, Marek
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, Alfvén Laboratory Centre for Space and Fusion Plasma Physics. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Strachan, J. D.
    Widdowson, A.
    Wiesen, S.
    ERO modelling of local deposition of injected C-13 tracer at the outer divertor of JET2009In: Physica Scripta, ISSN 0031-8949, E-ISSN 1402-4896, Vol. T138, p. 014021-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The 2004 tracer experiment of JET with the injection of (CH4)-C-13 into H-mode plasma at the outer divertor has been modelled with the Monte Carlo impurity transport code ERO. EDGE2D solutions for inter-ELM and ELM-peak phases were used as plasma backgrounds. Local two-dimensional (2D) deposition patterns at the vertical outer divertor target plate were obtained for comparison with post-mortem surface analyses. ERO also provides emission profiles for comparison with radially resolved spectroscopic measurements. Modelling indicates that enhanced re-erosion of deposited carbon layers is essential in explaining the amount of local deposition. Assuming negligible effective sticking of hydrocarbons, the measured local deposition of 20-34% is reproduced if re-erosion of deposits is enhanced by a factor of 2.5-7 compared to graphite erosion. If deposits are treated like the substrate, the modelled deposition is 55%. Deposition measurements at the shadowed area around injectors can be well explained by assuming negligible re-erosion but similar sticking behaviour there as on plasma-wetted surfaces.

  • 143. Airila, M. I.
    et al.
    Jarvinen, A.
    Groth, M.
    Belo, P.
    Wiesen, S.
    Brezinsek, S.
    Lawson, K.
    Borodin, D.
    Kirschner, A.
    Coad, J. P.
    Heinola, K.
    Likonen, J.
    Rubel, Marek
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Widdowson, A.
    Preliminary Monte Carlo simulation of beryllium migration during JET ITER-like wall divertor operation2015In: Journal of Nuclear Materials, ISSN 0022-3115, E-ISSN 1873-4820, Vol. 463, p. 800-804Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Migration of beryllium into the divertor and deposition on tungsten in the final phase of the first ITER-like-wall campaign of JET are modelled with the 3D Monte Carlo impurity transport code ERO. The simulation covers the inner wall and the inner divertor. To generate the plasma background for Monte Carlo tracing of impurity particles, we use the EDGE2D/EIRENE code set. At the relevant regions of the wall, the estimated plasma conditions vary around T-e approximate to 5eV and n(e) 2 x 10(17) m(-3) (far-scrape-off layer; more than 10 cm away from the LCFS). We calculate impurity distributions in the plasma using the main chamber source as a free parameter in modelling and attempt to reproduce inter-ELM spectroscopic BeII line (527 nm) profiles at the divertor. The present model reproduces the level of emission close to the inner wall, but further work is needed to match also the measured emission peak values and ultimately link the modelled poloidal net deposition profiles of beryllium to post mortem data.

  • 144. Airila, M. I.
    et al.
    Makkonen, T.
    Järvinen, A.
    Groth, M.
    Brezinsek, S.
    Coad, J. P.
    Jachmich, S.
    Kirschner, A.
    Likonen, J.
    Meigs, A.
    Rubel, Marek
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Widdowson, A.
    Re-deposition dynamics of trace 13C in H-mode divertor conditions2013In: 40th EPS Conference on Plasma Physics, EPS 2013, 2013, p. 629-632Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 145. Akbarzadeh, Sara
    et al.
    Combes, Richard
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Altman, Zwi
    Self-organizing femtocell offloading at the flow level2013In: International Journal of Network Management, ISSN 1055-7148, E-ISSN 1099-1190, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 259-271Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Femtocell technology is expected to be fully self-managed, empowered by self-organizing network functionalities. This paper proposes a solution for self-optimized offloading of macrocell traffic towards open/hybrid-access femtocells. A heterogeneous network comprising macro- and femtocells is modeled as parallel queues. The coverage area of the femtocells is self-optimized by dynamically adapting their pilot powers. A simple update equation for the pilot power is given and its convergence is studied using stochastic approximation techniques. The algorithm balances the load among the cells to improve network capacity. Simulation results illustrate the important performance gains brought about by the proposed scheme, using a dynamic network simulator.

  • 146.
    Akhtar, Malik Usman
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electrical Energy Conversion.
    Variable speed drive as an alternative solution for a micro-hydro power plant2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This diploma work is mainly focused on developing the control strategy for avariable speed drive as an alternative solution to a micro-hydro power plant. The detailed mathematical model for a micro-hydro system including a Kaplan turbine, mechanical shaft and electrical machines is presented and validated through simulations. A control strategy for an autonomous operation of a doubly-fed induction machine-based drive is developed for a wide range of speed. The drive can operate at a unity power factor.The possible applications of the analyzed system are also presented. As a positive side of the system, it is found that the direct interaction between the power electronic converters and the utility grid can be avoided by exploiting the proposed topology, which might lead to a better quality of the produced power in terms of harmonics. This could also lead to removal or reduction of the size of the harmonic filters that are being used in conventional doubly-fed induction generator installations. As regards to the drawbacks of the system, a comparison of converter and generator ratings between the analyzed solution and the conventional solution was performed. While the converters rating remain the same, there is one more electrical machine and the doubly-fed generator rating is slightly increased. Losses are also slightly larger due to the presence of the second machine.

  • 147.
    Akisheva, Yulia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES).
    Farid, Ramin
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES).
    Radiation Dose Analysis of the MIST Satellite2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 148.
    Aktug, Irem
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Theoretical Computer Science, TCS. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Dam, Mads
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Theoretical Computer Science, TCS. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Gurov, Dilian
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Theoretical Computer Science, TCS.
    Provably Correct Runtime Monitoring2009In: Journal of Logic and Algebraic Programming, ISSN 1567-8326, E-ISSN 1873-5940, Vol. 78, no 5, p. 304-339Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Runtime monitoring is an established technique to enforce a wide range of program safety and security properties. We present a formalization of monitoring and monitor inlining, for the Java Virtual Machine. Monitors are security automata given in a special-purpose monitor specification language, ConSpec. The automata operate on finite or infinite strings of calls to a fixed API, allowing local dependencies on parameter values and heap content. We use a two-level class file annotation scheme to characterize two key properties: (i) that the program is correct with respect to the monitor as a constraint on allowed program behavior, and (ii) that the program has a copy of the given monitor embedded into it. As the main application of these results we sketch a simple inlining algorithm and show how the two-level annotations can be completed to produce a fully annotated program which is valid in the standard sense of Floyd/Hoare logic. This establishes the mediation property that inlined programs are guaranteed to adhere to the intended policy. Furthermore, validity can be checked efficiently using a weakest precondition based annotation checker, thus preparing the ground for on-device checking of policy adherence in a proof-carrying code setting.

  • 149.
    Al Alam, Assad
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Optimally Fuel Ecient Speed Adaptation2008Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    An optimal velocity trajectory for a heavy duty vehicle, obtained with the aid of modern GPS and digital map devices, depends on several variables. Curvature speed limitations, road grade, and posted road speed are common constraints imposed by the road travelled. This thesis presents a method for modelling and analysing a switching controller through the use of the former mentioned constraints. A non-linear model for the heavy duty vehicle is derived, enabling suitable control methods to be applied. Pontryagin’s Principal and LQR are discussed to get a profound understanding of how the controller should be designed. It is discovered that a switching controller based on optimal control and engineering experience is most favourable for the problem at hand. The controller is designed to address the main objectives set in this paper of minimising fuel consumption, travelling time, and brake wear.

    Gauss-Newtons’s algorithm for non-linear equations is used to estimate curve radii. Other input parameters are presumed to be available. GPS data error is discussed to perform a sensitivity analysis. An electronic horizon is produced on three road segments, entailed with data of the future road topology. Finally the switching controller is applied to the road segments. Experimental results show that the controller produces a velocity trajectory, which reduces fuel consumption by 5-15% and brake wear by 15-35%, while the travelling time is only increased by 1-2%.

  • 150.
    Al Alam, Assad
    et al.
    Scania CV AB.
    Gattami, Ather
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    An experimental study on the fuel reduction potential of heavy duty vehicle platooning2010In: 13th International IEEE Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSC), 2010, IEEE , 2010, p. 306-311Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vehicle platooning has become important for the vehicle industry. Yet conclusive results with respect to the fuel reduction possibilities of platooning remain unclear. The focus in this study is the fuel reduction that heavy duty vehicle platooning enables and the analysis with respect to the influence of a commercial adaptive cruise control on the fuel consumption. Experimental results show that by using preview information of the road ahead from the lead vehicle, the adaptive cruise controller can reduce the fuel consumption. A study is undertaken for various masses of the lead vehicle. The results show that the best choice with respect to a heavier or lighter lead vehicle depends on the desired time gap. A maximum fuel reduction of 4.7-7.7% depending on the time gap, at a set speed of 70 km/h, can be obtained with two identical trucks. If the lead vehicle is 10 t lighter a corresponding 3.8-7.4% fuel reduction can be obtained depending on the time gap. Similarly if the lead vehicle is 10 t heavier a 4.3-6.9% fuel reduction can be obtained. All results indicate that a maximum fuel reduction can be achieved at a short relative distance, due to both air drag reduction and suitable control.

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