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  • 101.
    Jaraite, Jurate
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Kazukauskas, Andrius
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    The Effect of Mandatory Agro-Environmental Policy on Farm Fertiliser and Pesticide Expenditure2012In: Journal of Agricultural Economics, ISSN 0021-857X, E-ISSN 1477-9552, Vol. 63, no 3, p. 656-676Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    EU farmers are subject to mandatory cross-compliance measures, requiring them to meet environmental conditions to be eligible for public support. These obligations reinforce incentives for farmers to change their behaviour towards the environment. We apply quasi-experimental methods to measure the causal relationship between cross-compliance and some specific farm environmental performance. We find that cross-compliance reduced farm fertiliser and pesticide expenditure. This result also holds for farmers who participated in other voluntary agro-environmental schemes. However, the results do not support our expectations that farmers who relied on larger shares of public payments had a stronger motivation to improve their environmental performance.

  • 102.
    Jaraite, Jurate
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Kazukauskas, Andrius
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Lundgren, Tommy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    The effects of climate policy on environmental expenditure and investments: evidence from Sweden2014In: Journal of Environmental Economics and Policy, ISSN 2160-6544, E-ISSN 2160-6552, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 148-166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study provides new evidence on the determinants of environmental expenditure and investment. In particular, it investigates how environmental expenditure and investment of Swedish industrial firms responded to climate policies, such as the European Union's Emission Trading System (EU ETS) and the Swedish CO2 tax, directed to mitigate air pollution. Overall, an important conclusion of this analysis is that climate policies, both on the national and international levels, were highly relevant motivations for firm environmental expenditure. However, the findings do not support the expectations that the EU ETS and the Swedish CO2 tax encouraged investment in air pollution abatement.

  • 103.
    Jaraite-Kazukauske, Jurate
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Kazukauskas, Andrius
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Do transaction costs influence firm trading behaviourin the European emissions trading system?2015In: Environmental and Resource Economics, ISSN 0924-6460, E-ISSN 1573-1502, Vol. 62, no 3, p. 583-613Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is one of the first to empirically investigate firm trading behaviour and the importance of permit trading transaction costs, such as information costs and search costs, in the first phase of the European Union’s Emissions Trading System (EU ETS). The signs and significance of our constructed transaction costs proxy variables indicate for a presence of these costs in the initial years of the EU ETS. In particular, this paper shows that ETS firms with the smaller number of installations and with less trading experience were less likely to participate in the European emissions trading market and traded the lower quantities of permits. Furthermore, these firms chose to trade permits indirectly via third parties. This study also supports the concerns that transaction costs could be excessive for smaller participants and firms operating in the new EU member states.

  • 104. Johansson, Maria
    et al.
    Sjöström, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Karlsson, Jens
    Brännlund, Runar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Is Human Fear Affecting Public Willingness to Pay for the Management and Conservation of Large Carnivores?2012In: Society & Natural Resources, ISSN 0894-1920, E-ISSN 1521-0723, Vol. 25, no 6, p. 610-620Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    From an interdisciplinary approach, this study aims at analyzing self-reported animal fear, specifically large carnivore fear, in relation to public willingness to pay to fulfill a governmental policy on large carnivore-induced costs. In a survey in Sweden involving more than 2,000 respondents, it was found that people whose animal fear was directed particularly toward large carnivores were less likely to be willing to pay these costs, or were likely to be willing to pay a lower amount of money. In the prediction of willingness to pay (WTP), the contribution of the fear variable was as equally important as previously addressed socioeconomic factors.

  • 105.
    Johansson, Per-Olov
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Stockholm School of Economics, Sweden.
    Kriström, Bengt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration. SLU-Umeå, Sweden.
    Welfare evaluation of subsidies to renewable energy in general equilibrium: Theory and application2019In: Energy Economics, ISSN 0140-9883, E-ISSN 1873-6181, Vol. 83, p. 144-155Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While support schemes to renewable energy are ubiquitous around the world today, there are few systematic welfare evaluations of their social benefits and costs in an economy-wide setting. We develop a general equilibrium cost–benefit rule to assess changes in quantity based subsidy schemes, “green” certificates, that support renewable electricity generation. An advantage to large-scale numerical models of the same issue is that we can go “into the black box” and uncover key economic mechanisms. We study a second-best economy with distorting taxes and pollution, so that a perturbation of the certificate scheme causes both benefits and costs; these items can be uncovered and estimated using our framework. To this end, we provide a user-friendly approximation for empirical implementation, which means that data requirement is modest relative to a typical computable general equilibrium model. We apply the theory to a currently existing scheme in Sweden taking into account “trickle-down” effects, including e.g. a loss of value-added tax income in the rest of the economy and environmental costs (i.e. externalities from electricity generation not currently internalized). We first present an ex post estimate, i.e. the welfare consequences of having scrapped the existing system 2003–2017 and then an ex ante analysis of extending the system to 2045. The latter includes a systematic sensitivity analysis based on Monte-Carlo simulation. Overall, we find net present value gains from removing the subsidy scheme, taking into account externalities, “trickle-down” and public finance repercussions.

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  • 106.
    Karimu, Amin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Essays on Energy Demand and Household Energy Choice2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of four self-contained papers related to energydemand and household cooking energy.Paper [I] examine the impact of price, income and non-economicfactors on gasoline demand using a structural time series model. Theresults indicated that non-economic factors did have an impact ongasoline demand and also one of the largest contributors to changes ingasoline demand in both countries, especially after the 1990s. Theresults from the time varying parameter model (TVP) indicated thatboth price and income elasticities were varying over time, but thevariations were insignificant for both Sweden and the UK. Theestimated gasoline trend also showed a similar pattern for the twocountries, increasing continuously up to 1990 and taking a downturnthereafter.Paper [II] studies whether the commonly used linear parametricmodel for estimating aggregate energy demand is the correctfunctional specification for the data generating process. Parametricand nonparametric econometric approaches to analyzing aggregateenergy demand data for 17 OECD countries are used. The resultsfrom the nonparametric correct model specification test for theparametric model rejects the linear, log-linear and translogspecifications. The nonparametric results indicate that the effect of theincome variable is nonlinear, while that of the price variable is linearbut not constant. The nonparametric estimates for the price variable isrelatively low, approximately −0.2.Paper [III] relaxed the weak separability assumption betweengasoline demand and labor supply by examining the effect of laborsupply, measured by male and female working hours on gasolinedemand. I used a flexible semiparametric model that allowed fordifferences in response to income, age and labor supply, respectively.Using Swedish household survey data, the results indicated that therelationship between gasoline demand and income, age and laborsupply were non-linear. The formal separability test rejects the null ofseparability between gasoline demand and labor supply. Furthermore,there was evidence indicating small bias in the estimates when oneignored labor supply in the model.Paper [IV] investigated the key factors influencing the choice ofcooking fuels in Ghana. Results from the study indicated thateducation, income, urban location and access to infrastructure werethe key factors influencing household’s choice of the main cookingfuels (fuelwood, charcoal and liquefied petroleum gas). The study alsofound that, in addition to household demographics and urbanization,the supply (availability) of the fuels influenced household choice forthe various fuels. Increase in household income was likely to increasethe probability of choosing modern fuel (liquefied petroleum gas andelectricity) relative to solid (crop residue and fuelwood) and transitionfuel (kerosene and charcoal).

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  • 107.
    Karimu, Amin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). University of Ghana Business School, Ghana.
    Adu, George
    Marbuah, George
    Mensah, Justice Tei
    Amuakwa-Mensah, Franklin
    Natural resource revenues and public investment in resource-rich economies in sub-Saharan Africa2017In: Review of Development Economics, ISSN 1363-6669, E-ISSN 1467-9361, Vol. 21, no 4, p. E107-E130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The general policy prescription for resource-rich countries is that, for sustainable consumption, a greater percentage of the windfall from resource rents should be channeled into accumulating foreign assets such as a sovereign public fund as done in Norway and other developed but resource-rich countries. This might not be a correct policy prescription for resource-rich sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries, where public capital is very low to support the needed economic growth. In such countries, rents from resources serve as an opportunity to scale-up the needed public capital. Using a panel data for the period 19902013, we find in line with the scaling-up hypothesis that resource rents significantly increases public investment in SSA and that this tends to depend on the quality of political institutions. Moreover, we also find evidence of a positive effect of public investment on economic growth, which also depends on the level of resource rents.

  • 108.
    Karimu, Amin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Brännlund, Runar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Functional form and aggregate energy demand elasticities: a nonparametric panel approach for 17 OECD countries2013In: Energy Economics, ISSN 0140-9883, E-ISSN 1873-6181, Vol. 36, p. 19-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies whether the commonly used linear parametric model for estimating aggregate energy demand is the correct functional specification for the data generating process. Parametric and nonparametric econometric approaches to analyzing aggregate energy demand data for 17 OECD countries are used. The results from the nonparametric correct model specification test for the parametric model rejects the linear, log-linear and translog specifications. The nonparametric results indicate that the effect of the income variable is nonlinear, while that of the price variable is linear but not constant. The nonparametric estimates for the price variable is relatively low, approximately -0.2. 

  • 109.
    Karimu, Amin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Brännlund, Runar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Lundgren, Tommy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Energy intensity and convergence in Swedish industry: a combined econometric and decomposition analysis2017In: Energy Economics, ISSN 0140-9883, E-ISSN 1873-6181, Vol. 62, p. 347-356Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How to reduce the carbon footprint associated with energy use is still a major concern for most decision-makers. Against this background, a better understanding of energy intensity—the ratio of energy use to output and its convergence could be important in the design of policies targeting the reduction in the carbon footprint related to energy use. This paper analyzes the determinants of energy intensity and tests for energy intensity convergence across 14 Swedish industrial sectors. This analysis builds on a nonparametric regression analysis of an intensity index constructed at the industry sector level as well as indices constructed from a decomposition of this index. The latter isolates two key determinants of changes in energy intensity and convergence patterns: the ef- ficiency channel-fundamental improvement in the use of energy and activity channel-structural shifts in the economy. The empirical analysis relies on a detailed sectorial dataset covering the period 1990–2008. The findings indicate that input prices, including the price of energy, have been significant determinants of energy intensity in the Swedish industrial sectors. This effect can primarily be attributed to the efficiency channel and with a less profound influence from the activity channel. We also find evidence of energy intensity convergence among the industrial sectors, and this primarily stems from the activity channel rather than from the efficiency channel.

  • 110.
    Karimu, Amin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). University of Ghana Business School.
    Marbuah, George
    Re-examining the financial development-openness nexus: nonparametric evidence for developing countries2017In: Journal of Applied Economics, ISSN 1514-0326, E-ISSN 1667-6726, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 373-394Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper re-examines the nexus between financial development and openness in developing countries. Specifically, we test whether both financial and trade openness explain financial development and its variations across 44 developing economies. Questioning the functional specifications in previous studies, we propose a fully nonparametric modelling approach to validate the simultaneous openness hypothesis. Our findings from the parametric approach suggest that both openness dimensions positively impact financial development, providing a loose support for the simultaneous openness hypothesis. The results based on the nonparametric approach suggest a negative effect of closed economies (economies with relatively closed trade and capital accounts) on financial development, supporting the strong version of the simultaneous openness hypothesis. Correct model specification test results support the nonparametric model relative to the parametric model as appropriate for the sampled data. Our conclusion is therefore based on the nonparametric finding, which supports the simultaneous openness hypothesis for the selected developing countries.

  • 111.
    Karimu, Amin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Mensah, Justice Tei
    Climate change and electricity consumption in Sub-Saharan Africa: assessing the dynamic responses to climate variability2015In: Opec Energy Review, ISSN 1753-0229, E-ISSN 1753-0237, Vol. 39, no 3, p. 322-345Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electricity consumption in Sub-Saharan Africa has surged over the past two decades, whereas economic fundamentals like growth in gross domestic product (GDP) might have contributed to this trend, the impact of changing climatic conditions cannot be underestimated. This study therefore investigates the dynamics among electricity consumption, temperature variability (a proxy for climate change) and economic growth, while controlling for urbanization within a structural vector error correction model for 11 countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. Findings from the study indicate that a positive shock in temperature variability has a positive permanent effect on electricity consumption for all the countries except Togo, South Africa and Zimbabwe. In the case of Togo we find only transitory effects of positive shocks in temperature variability on electricity consumption. However, these effects are minimal, given the low penetration rate for air conditioners and heating devices in these countries. Moreover the findings further indicate that the effects of a positive shock in temperature variability on real GDP is consistent in terms of the direction of the effects, which is negative, but only vary across the sampled countries in relation to the period(s) the effects of the shocks completely diminished.

  • 112.
    Kazukauskas, Andrius
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Broberg, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Jaraite, Jurate
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    The peer comparison in real time: a field experiment of water and electricity consumption2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A large body of literature shows that the provision of social comparisons can cause households to reduce residential energy and water use. In this paper, we carry out a field experiment that contributes to this literature in two important ways. First, we study a social comparison treatment that is continuous and communicated via pre-installed in-home displays, which are salient and updated in real time. Second, we estimate the effects of provision of social comparisons on two distinguished resources – electricity and water – in the same experimental setting. We find that, on average, our social comparison reduces daily residential energy consumption by 6.7 percent but has no effect on overall residential water use. The electricity savings are impersistent and occur in the evening hours, which only slightly overlap with peak hours. We argue that electricity conservation due to social comparisons is driven by short-run changes in households’ electricity saving behavior

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  • 113.
    Kazukauskas, Andrius
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Newman, Carol
    Trinity College Dublin, Ireland.
    Clancy, Daragh
    Central Bank of Ireland.
    Sauer, Johannes
    University of Kiel, Germany.
    Disinvestment, farm size, and gradual farm exit: the impact of subsidy decoupling in a European context2013In: American Journal of Agricultural Economics, ISSN 0002-9092, E-ISSN 1467-8276, Vol. 95, no 5, p. 1068-1087Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The recent reform of the Common Agricultural Policy, which decouples farm subsidies from production, is expected to impact on farmers' production decisions. We perform a cross-country farm-level empirical analysis of farmers' production responses to these reforms using a panel dataset for the EU15 countries for the period 2001-2007. We apply quasi-experimental empirical methods and find that the probability of a farm disinvesting decreased due to the policy change for most farms. However, the policy change facilitated exit for farms engaged in livestock production and those that were already in the process of leaving the sector.

  • 114.
    Kazukauskas, Andrius
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Newman, Carol
    Trinity College Dublin.
    Sauer, Johannes
    University of Kiel.
    The impact of decoupled subsidies on productivity in agriculture: a cross-country analysis using microdata2014In: Agricultural Economics, ISSN 0169-5150, E-ISSN 1574-0862, Vol. 45, no 3, p. 327-336Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The decoupling of direct payments from production introduced in the reform of the Common Agricultural Policy is expected to make production decisions more market-oriented and farmers more productive. However, ex-post analyses of the productivity of farms have yet to uncover any evidence of a positive impact of the decoupling policy on farm productivity. Using Irish, Danish, and Dutch farm-level data, we identify whether the decoupling policy has contributed to productivity growth in agriculture and farm product adjustment behavior. We find some evidence that the decoupling policy had significant positive effects on farm productivity and behavioral changes related to farm specialization.

  • 115.
    Krishnamurthy, Chandra Kiran B
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Kriström, Bengt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    How large is the owner-renter divide in energy efficient technology? Evidence from an OECD cross-section.2015In: Energy Journal, ISSN 0195-6574, E-ISSN 1944-9089, Vol. 36, no 4, p. 85-104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When the agent making an investment decision is different from the one bearing the costs of the decision, the outcome (energy usage, here) is socially sub-optimal, a scenario known in the energy efficient technology case as "split incentive" effect. Using a sample of households (from a survey conducted in 2011) from 11 OECD countries, this paper investigates the magnitude of the "split incentive" effect between home occupants who are owners and those who are renters. A wide variety of energy-related "technologies" are considered: appliances, energy efficient bulbs, insulation, heat thermostat, solar panels, ground source heat pumps and wind turbines. Mean difference in patterns of access to these technologies are consistent with the "split incentives" hypothesis. Regression results suggest that, even after controlling for the sizeable differences in observed characteristics, owners are substantially more likely to have access to energy efficient appliances and to better insulation as well as to heat thermostats. For relatively immobile investments such as wind turbines and ground source heat pumps, we find no differences between owners and renters.

  • 116.
    Kriström, Bengt
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). SLU, Umeå, Sweden.
    Johansson, Per-Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Stockholm School of Economics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The Infinitely Worried Forest Owner Key Biotopes and Forest Certification in a Faustmann Model2020In: Journal of Forest Economics, ISSN 1104-6899, E-ISSN 1618-1530, Vol. 35, no 1, p. 69-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this note, we consider a case when a forestry property may lose its market value through "political risk", illustrated here by it being classified as containing a key biotope. If a key biotope is found on a forest property in Sweden, the wood is almost impossible to sell. We show how the Faustmann formula is modified in this case and identify a "balance sheet" effect and a shortened rotation period. The theory seems to have some empirical support, given observed changes in bank lending contracts and alleged changes in forester's behavior to reduce the "political risk".

  • 117.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Economic History. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Greening the national accounts: basic concepts and a case study of historical environmental accounting for Sweden2019In: Handbook of green economics / [ed] Sevil Acar & Erinc Yeldan, Academic Press, 2019, p. 1-18Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 118.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Economic History.
    Politiker blundar för orsaken till välfärdens ökade kostnader2018In: Dagens nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447, , p. 1Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Förtroendekrisen för de etablerade partierna bottnar i att långsiktigt stigande kostnader för välfärden ignorerats. Talet om höga skatter för att förbättra välfärden är en skönmålning då de höga skatterna täckt upp för stigande kostnader. Och produktiviteten i välfärden har inte kunnat höjas med marknads­reformer.

  • 119.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Economic History. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Acar, Sevil
    Riders on the storm: how hard did Robert Gordon’s environmental headwind blow in the past?2019In: Handbook of green economics / [ed] Sevil Acar & Erinc Yeldan, Academic Press, 2019, p. 135-151Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 120.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE), Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Acar, Sevil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE), Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden; Istanbul Kemerburgaz University, Department of Economics, Mahmutbey Dilmenler Caddesi, No: 26, Bagcilar, 34217 Istanbul, Turkey.
    Sustainability in the making? A historical estimate of Swedish sustainable and unsustainable development 1850-20002013In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 86, p. 176-187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we estimate the long-rundevelopment of genuine savings in Sweden during the period 1850 to 2000. Bydoing so we are able to present a first analysis of long-run sustainabledevelopment during a single country’s transition to modern economic growth ratesand high income levels. We find that genuine savings may have been negative upuntil c. 1910. This suggests a period of transition to positive genuine savings in conjunction with or even preceding the transition to modern economic rates.Important contributions to the transition were increasing investments in humancapital, improved sanitary conditions, reduced depletion of forests andaccelerated investments in machinery and infrastructure.

  • 121.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Economic History.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Replik: Inte självklart att slopad löneavgift ger högre lönsamhet2018In: Västerbottens-Kuriren, ISSN 1104-0246Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Minskas de delar av arbetsgivaravgiften som egentligen är försäkringspremier dyker premierna i stället upp som fönsterkuvert hos arbetstagarna i stället, som hade krävt motsvarande löneökningar för att ha råd att betala dom. Det skriver två forskare i en replik till Svenskt näringsliv.

  • 122.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Nguyen Thu, Huong
    Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Luleå University of Technology, 971 87 Luleå, Sweden.
    Stage, Jesper
    Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Luleå University of Technology, 971 87 Luleå, Sweden.
    Weak support for weak sustainability: genuine savings and long-term wellbeing in Sweden, 1850–20002018In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 145, p. 339-345Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study genuine savings as an indicator of long-term welfare for Sweden for the period 1850 to 2000. Sweden has developed long series of comprehensive ‘green’ national accounts for this entire period and is, therefore, interesting as a testing ground for the hypotheses linking green accounting and sustainability. We find support for the weakest of the hypotheses in the theoretical literature on weak sustainability and genuine savings, namely that genuine savings are correlated with future economic well-being. However, the stronger hypotheses in this literature are not supported: there is no one-to-one relationship between genuine savings and prosperity, there is no indication that the relationship becomes stronger for longer time horizons, or with more comprehensive savings measures. The findings suggest that genuine savings, at least as currently measured in national accounts and satellite accounts, may not be a good forward-looking indicator of future prosperity.

  • 123.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Olsson Spjut, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    From organic to fossil and in-between: new estimates of energy consumption in the Swedish manufacturing industry during 1800–19132018In: Scandinavian Economic History Review, ISSN 0358-5522, E-ISSN 1750-2837, Vol. 66, no 1, p. 18-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, new estimates of energy consumption in the Swedish manufacturing industry during 1800–1913 are used for interpreting the Swedish industrialisation process from an energy economic perspective. For one we conclude that the revision of previous estimates is substantial when it comes to manufacturing. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the increase of coal consumption, the expansion of the fossil or mineral energy system, to a high degree can be explained by the increased use of steam engines in manufacturing and the transport sector. Finally, we conclude that overall energy intensity patterns is largely determined by assumptions on household firewood consumption. A narrative interpretation of the interplay between energy system transformation and the industrialisation in Sweden concludes the article.

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  • 124.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Vikström, Peter
    Growth and structural change in Sweden and a story of convergence Finland, 1870–1990: a story of convergence2003In: Scandinavian Economic History Review, ISSN 0358-5522, E-ISSN 1750-2837, Vol. 51, no 1, p. 46-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article studies convergence between Finland and Sweden during the 1870-1990 period. Convergence is defined primarily as convergence in income levels and Growth rates, but the article also examines divergence and convergence in economic structure.  It studies both the performance of the total economy and the manufacturing industry sector, the latter with special attention to multifactor productivity as an indicator of technical progress.  The results suggest that  Finnish manufacturing  industry  was  not  obviously  backward  in  comparison  with  its  Swedish  counterpart,  and that convergence, particularly during the post-war period, was influenced by falling profit shares in Swedish manufacturing industry. It is hypothesized that certain Swedish institutions may account for this.

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  • 125.
    Lundberg, Sofia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Marklund, Per-Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Offentlig upphandling eller gröna nedköp?: En ESO-rapport om miljöpolitiska ambitioner2013Report (Refereed)
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    ESO rapport om grön offentlig upphandling
  • 126.
    Lundberg, Sofia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Marklund, Per-Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Strömbäck, Elon
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Is Environmental Policy by Public Procurement Effective?2016In: Public Finance Review, ISSN 1091-1421, E-ISSN 1552-7530, Vol. 44, no 4, p. 478-499Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Advocates of green public procurement (GPP) argue that the public sector can use its purchasing power to influence producers and consumers to reduce their negative impact on the environment. Our aim is to assess GPP as an environmental policy instrument and its ability to lead to the achievement of environmental objectives. Central to our analysis is the extent to which polluting firms choose to adapt to the public sector’s environmental requirements and to invest in greener technologies. Our theoretical finding is that the potential of GPP to function as an objective effective instrument of environmental policy is limited and can actually be counterproductive. From an environmental policy point of view, it is crucial that the GPP aims for an environmental standard beyond the technology of the polluting firms and is designed with reference to defined environmental objectives.

  • 127.
    Lundberg, Sofia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Marklund, Per-Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Strömbäck, Elon
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Sundström, David
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Using public procurement to implement environmental policy: an empirical analysis2015In: Environmental Economics and Policy Studies, ISSN 1432-847X, E-ISSN 1867-383X, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 487-520Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Politicians expect Green public procurement (GPP) to serve as an environmental policy instrument. However, in order for GPP to work as an effective policy instrument it is important to take into consideration potential suppliers’ decisions to participate in the procurement process, the total number of bidders, and the screening of bidders with respect to mandatory green criteria. The aim of this paper is to empirically study GPP in this respect. The analysis presented here is based on data from Swedish cleaning services procurements that are unique in that they contain very detailed information on various environmental standards set by the contracting authorities. We find at best only a weak effect on supplier behavior, and this suggests that the use of GPP in this situation does not live up to its political expectations. 

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  • 128.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    A microeconomic model of CSR2014In: The economics of Corporate Social Responsibility / [ed] Abagail McWilliams, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2014Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 129.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Hållbar utveckling i svensk industri2011In: Hållbar utveckling: från risk till värde / [ed] Lars G. Hassel, Lars-Olle Larsson och Elisabeth Nore, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2011, 1, p. 59-64Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 130.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Cerin, Pontus
    Is the threat to the climate an opportunity to companies?2009In: Climate challenge – the safety's off / [ed] Birgitta Johansson, Stockholm: Forskningsrådet Formas, 2009Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 131.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Cerin, Pontus
    Är klimatförändringarna en möjlighet för företagen?2009In: Osäkrat klimat - laddad utmaning / [ed] Birgitta Johansson, Forskningsrådet Formas, 2009Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 132.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Marklund, Per-Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Assessing the welfare effects of promoting biomass growth and the use of bioenergy2013In: Climate Change Economics, ISSN 2010-0078, E-ISSN 2010-0086, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 1350003-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a growth model that accounts for environmental and climate externalities, we take a closer look at the welfare effects of promoting biomass growth and the use of bioenergy, and especially the role of carbon neutrality. As an illustration, a hypothetical intensive forest cultivation project is simulated. Costs and benefits of the project show that only determining the postive effects of promoting biomass growth and the use of bioenergy, such as substitution away from fossil fuels and carbon sequestration is not sufficient. But more importantly, to achieve a balanced measure of the effects on the climate, we must also incorporate all carbon emissions that are associated with bioenergy. Not doing so will over-estimate the positive climate effects of increasing the use of bioenergy.Read 

  • 133.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Marklund, Per-Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Bioenergy and carbon neutrality2012In: Journal of Forest Economics, ISSN 1104-6899, E-ISSN 1618-1530, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 175-176Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 134.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Department of Forest Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå.
    Marklund, Per-Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Climate Policy and Profit Efficiency2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As widely recognized, human mankind stands before the most challenging problem of preventing anthropogenic climate change. As a response to this, the European Union advocates an ambitious climate policy mix. However, there is no consensus concerning the impact of stringent environmental policy on firms’ competitiveness and profitability. From the traditional ‘static’ point of view there are productivity losses to be expected. On the other hand, the so called Porter hypothesis suggests the opposite; i.e., due to ‘dynamic’ effects, ambitious climate and energy policies within the EU could actually be beneficial to firms in terms of enhanced profitability and competitiveness. Based on Sweden’s manufacturing industry, our main purpose is to specifically assess the impact of the CO2 tax scheme of Sweden on firms’ profit efficiency. The empirical methodology is based on stochastic frontier estimations and, in general, the results suggest we can neither reject nor confirm the Porter hypothesis across industry sectors. Therefore, we do not generally confirm the argument of stringent environmental policies having positive dynamic effects that potentially offset costs related to environmental policy.

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  • 135.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Marklund, Per-Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Climate policy, environmental performance, and profits2015In: Journal of Productivity Analysis, ISSN 0895-562X, E-ISSN 1573-0441, Vol. 44, no 3, p. 225-235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we investigate how firm level environmental performance (EP) affects firm level economic performance measured as profit efficiency (PE) in a stochastic profit frontier setting. Analyzing firms in Swedish manufacturing 1990–2004, results show that EP induced by environmental policy is not a determinant of PE, while voluntary or market driven EP seem to have a significant and positive effect on firm PE in most sectors. The evidence generally supports the idea that good EP is also good for business, as long as EP is not brought on by policy measures, in this case a CO2 tax. Thus, the results provide no general support for the Porter hypothesis.

  • 136.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). SLU.
    Marklund, Per-Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). SLU.
    Economics of biofuels: an overview2013In: Encyclopedia of energy, natural resources and environmental economics: Volume 1 / [ed] Jason F Shogren, Elsevier, 2013, p. 184-187Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biofuels are regarded as energy sources with the potential to solve a series of problems related to the climate and sustainability. Expectations are that pursuing policies supporting biofuels will be beneficial for welfare and sustainability in societies. It is convenient to divide the effects of such policies into four categories: Climate effects, other environmental effects, energy security effects, and net economic effects. Reviewing the literature to date reveals that the effects of converting from fossil fuels to biofuels do not necessarily have positive net welfare effects, and the argument to substitute biofuels for fossil fuels is not as obvious as it initially appears to be. Short-run stringent climate policy objectives are proposed to counteract global warming, and increasing the use of biofuels is promoted as an adequate strategy. One important conclusion drawn from recent studies is that biofuels are not entirely carbon neutral, as is commonly assumed. Therefore, the use of biofuels as an instrument in climate policy must be carefully scrutinized before set into play on a global scale.

  • 137.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Marklund, Per-Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Samakovlis, Eva
    National Institute of Economic Research, Stockholm.
    Wenchao, Zhou
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Carbon prices and incentives for technological development2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    How to significantly decrease carbon dioxide emissions has become one of the largest challenges faced by modern society. The standard recipe prescribed by most economists is to put a price on carbon, either through a tax or through emissions trading. Such measures can reduce emissions cost-effectively and create incentives for technological development. There is, however, a growing concern that the carbon prices generated through the European Union emission trading system (EU ETS) have been too low to create the incentives necessary to stimulate technological development. This paper empirically analyzes how the Swedish carbon dioxide tax and the EU ETS have affected productivity development in the Swedish pulp and paper industry 1998-2008. A Luenberger total factor productivity (TFP) indicator is computed using data envelopment analysis. How the policy measures affect TFP is assessed using a system generalized method of moments estimator. The results show that climate policy had a modest impact on technological development in the pulp and paper industry, and if significant it has been negative. The price on fossil fuels, on the contrary, seems to have created important incentives for technological development. Hence, results suggest that the carbon prices faced by the industry through EU ETS and the carbon dioxide tax have been too low.

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    Carbon prices and incentives for technological development
  • 138.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Marklund, Per-Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Samakovlis, Eva
    Zhou, Wenchao
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Carbon prices and incentives for technological development2015In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 150, p. 393-403Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is concern that the carbon prices generated through climate policies are too low to create the incentives necessary to stimulate technological development. This paper empirically analyzes how the Swedish carbon dioxide (CO2) tax and the European Union emission trading system (EU ETS) have affected productivity development in the Swedish pulp and paper industry 1998-2008. A Luenberger total factor productivity (TFP) indicator is computed using data envelopment analysis. The results show that climate policy had a modest impact on technological development in the pulp and paper industry, and if significant it was negative. The price of fossil fuels, on the contrary, seems to have created important incentives for technological development. Hence, the results suggest that the carbon prices faced by the industry through EU ETS and the CO2 tax have been too low. Even though the data for this study is specific for Sweden, the models and results are applicable internationally. When designing policy to mitigate CO2 emissions, it is vital that the policy creates a carbon price that is high enough otherwise the pressure on technological development will not be sufficiently strong. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 139.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Marklund, Per-Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    zhang, shanshan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Energy Efficiency in Swedish Industry: a Stochastic Frontier Approach2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper estimates firm level energy efficiency and its determinants in 14 sectors of Swedish manufacturing by using stochastic frontier analysis (SFA). We derive energy demand frontiers both from cost minimizing and profit maximizing perspectives. To account for firms’ heterogeneity, Greene’s true random effects model is adopted. Results show that, from both firm behavior perspectives, there is room to improve energy efficiency in all sectors of Swedish manufacturing. The EU ETS seem to have had a moderate or no effect on Swedish firms’ efficient use of energy. Moreover, we found that energy intensity or energy productivity (energy use over production value) is not an appropriate proxy for energy efficiency.

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  • 140.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Stage, Jesper
    Tangerås, Thomas
    Energimarknaden, ägandet och klimatet2013 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
  • 141.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Stage, Jesper
    Tangerås, Thomas P.
    Energimarknaden, ägandet och klimatet2013Book (Other academic)
  • 142.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Zhang, Shanshan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Zhou, Wenchao
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Energy efficiency in Swedish industry: a data envelopement analysis2015Report (Other academic)
  • 143.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Zhou, Wenchao
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Firm performance and the role of environmental management2017In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 203, p. 330-341Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes the interactions between three dimensions of firm performance productivity, energy efficiency, and environmental performance and especially sheds light on the role of environmental management. In this context, environmental management is investments to reduce environmental impact, which may also affect firm competitiveness, in terms of change in productivity, and spur more (or less) efficient use of energy. We apply data envelopment analysis (DEA) technique to calculate the Malmquist firm performance indexes, and a panel vector auto-regression (VAR) methodology is utilized to investigate the dynamic and causal relationship between the three dimensions of firm performance and environmental investment. Main results show that energy efficiency and environmental performance are integrated, and energy efficiency and productivity positively reinforce each other, signifying the cost saving property of more efficient use of energy. Hence, increasing energy efficiency, as advocated in many of today's energy policies, could capture multiple benefits. The results also show that improved environmental performance and environmental investments constrain next period productivity, a result that would be in contrast with the Porter hypothesis and strategic corporate social responsibility; both concepts conveying the notion that pro-environmental management can boost productivity and competitiveness.

  • 144. Ouvrard, Benjamin
    et al.
    Abildtrup, Jens
    Bostedt, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). SLU.
    Stenger, Anne
    Determinants of forest owners attitudes towards wood ash recycling in Sweden: Can the nutrient cycle be closed?2019In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 164, article id 106293Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of biomass, in particular wood, has increased this last decade as a result of the European Union's objectives to reduce the use of fossil energies. This has amplified the use of whole-tree harvesting and the exploitation of forest residues from traditional timber harvest. However, these practices have some ecological consequences because they remove nutrients from the forest, thus potentially reducing soil fertility. To compensate for this nutrient loss, it has been proposed to recycle wood ash to reintroduce the exported nutrients. In this paper, we assess private forest owners' willingness to pay to spread ash in Vastmanland, Sweden, where ash recycling is not widely adopted, though an increasing supply of wood ash. In particular, we take into account behavioural motives that may explain forest owners' willingness to pay (Theory of Planned Behaviour and environmental sensitivity). We conclude that Swedish forest owners generally have a positive willingness-to-pay for wood ash application in their forests, but that this measure is highly dependent on their attitudes. We also show that a forest owner's decision to apply ash to all or a portion of his/her forest is explained by two different characteristics: the landowner's environmental sensitivity and his/her perceived control of wood ash recycling.

  • 145. Pakrooh, Parisa
    et al.
    Hayati, Babollah
    Pishbahar, Esmaeil
    Nematian, Javad
    Brännlund, Runar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).
    Focus on the provincial inequalities in energy consumption and CO2 emissions of Iran's agriculture sector2020In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 715, p. 1-13, article id 137029Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Analyzing and understanding the driving factors behind CO2 emissions is noticeable due to increasing the awareness about CO2 emissions, and it is a highlight in Iran's agriculture sector because of the increasing amount of CO2 emissions, inefficient government policies, and rising fossil energy consumption in last decade. By considering the regional differences to investigate this aim, the Theil index and Kaya factor used to analysis the provincial inequality in CO2 emissions, energy consumption, and identify the driving factor. Using the Theil approach helps us to find out the inequality trend in CO2 emissions and energy consumption and also inequality across different provinces. In that way, the Kaya identity applied to analyze the factor behind the inequality in CO2 emissions. The empirical result shows some points, primary, according to the criteria and weights in the grouping methodologies, the GDP, due to the lower level of contribution in within-group inequality, is better than the population. Further, by assessing the inequality in the consumption of different forms of energy and CO2 emissions across the provinces, most of the inequality was related to within-group, and the Theil trends are decreasing in gas and electricity; this trend is unclear and fluctuated in petroleum products and increase in CO2 emissions. Secondly, the first and second phases of subsidizing targeting have reduced the consumption and inequality of petroleum products and CO2 emissions in the short term. Still, the inequality in CO2 emissions continues to increase recently. Thirdly, the national inequality in CO2 emission mainly attributed to energy factors across provinces, and an increase in the energy inequalities helps to explain the CO2 inequality increase. (C) 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 146.
    Persson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Incentives underlying tax policies in a decentralized federation with horizontal leadership and transboundary environmental damage2015In: Letters in spatial and resource sciences, ISSN 1864-4031, E-ISSN 1864-404X, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 77-88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper concerns income- and production taxation in a decentralized fiscal federalism model where the ability to commit differs among member countries. It is assumed that the federal government dictates environmental targets to be implemented at the national level, where the horizontal leader has commitment power vis-à-vis the other country (the follower). The results show how incentives underlying the horizontal leader’s tax policies are influenced by the decision structure.

  • 147.
    Persson, Lars
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Brännlund, Runar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Tax or no tax?: preferences for climate policy attributes2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, many countries around the world respond to the global warming and its consequences with various policy instruments such as e.g. taxes, subsidies, emission permit trading, regulations and information campaigns. In the economic literature, policy instruments have typically been analyzed with respect to efficiency, while little effort has been put on public preferences for these instruments. In this paper, an Internet-based choice experiment is conducted where respondents are asked to choose between two alternative policy instruments that both reduce the emissions of CO2 by the same amount. The policy instruments are characterized by a number of attributes; a technology-effect, an awareness-effect, cost distribution, geographic distribution and private cost (presented in more detail in the paper). By varying the levels of each of the attributes, respondents indirectly reveal their preferences for these attributes. Half of the respondents are faced with instruments labeled by ‘tax’ and ‘other’, whereas the other half are faced with unlabeled instruments. As for the label, the results show that people dislike the ‘tax’. The results also show that people prefer instruments with a positive effect on environmentally-friendly technology and climate awareness. A progressive-like cost distribution is preferred to a regressive cost distribution, and the private cost is negatively related to the choice. Finally, the results indicate that Swedes want the reduction to take place in Europe but not necessarily in Sweden.

  • 148.
    Persson, Lars
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Kristina, Ek
    Waldo, Åsa
    Johansson, Maria
    Vindkraft i öppet lanskap, skog, fjäll och hav2013Report (Refereed)
  • 149.
    Riera, Pere
    et al.
    Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona.
    García, Dolores
    Kriström, Bengt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Brännlund, Runar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Manual de economía ambiental y de los recursos naturales2016 (ed. 3)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [es]

    Difícilmente pueden entenderse muchos de los impactos que infringimos al medio ambiente, así como sus soluciones, sin comprender la relación entre economía y medio ambiente. Cómo usamos y cómo podríamos utilizar mejor los recursos, sean estos renovables o no renovables. En cuánto valoramos las personas la protección de determinados espacios naturales o hasta cuánto estamos dispuestos a invertir para gozar de agua de mejor calidad. Cuándo vale la pena construir una carretera a pesar de sus impactos ambientales o cuándo renunciar a ella. Qué consecuencias tiene el que unos países adopten leyes ambientales más estrictas y otros más laxas. En cuánto deberíamos penalizar a aquellas industrias que dañan nuestro entorno. Cómo podemos lograr que se emitan menos gases de efecto invernadero en todo el mundo sin que nos cueste demasiado. Estas son algunas cuestiones que nos pueden preocupar y a las que este manual de economía ambiental y de los recursos naturales puede ayudar a dar respuesta. Los autores, todos ellos doctores de economía y profesores de universidad especialistas en economía del medio ambiente, han trasladado a este libro su experiencia docente y de investigación para que los lectores puedan introducirse a la economía ambiental y de los recursos naturales sin requerir de conocimientos específi cos previos. El libro se dirige no sólo a economistas o estudiantes de economía interesados en el medio ambiente, sino también, y especialmente, a otros estudiantes, profesionales y personas con preocupación ambiental y deseo de conocer lo que la economía puede aportar.

  • 150. Sandorf, Erlend
    et al.
    Persson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Broberg, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Using an integrated choice and latent variable model to understand the impact of “professional” respondents in a stated preference survey2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet panels are increasingly used for stated preference research, and members of such panels receive compensation for each completed survey. One concern is that over time this creates professional respondents who answer surveys to receive the monetary compensation. We identify professional respondents using data on panel tenure, survey response frequency, completion rates and total number of completed surveys. We find evidence of two types of professional respondents: “hyperactives” who answer surveys frequently and “experienced” who have long panel tenure and a large number of completed surveys. Using an integrated choice and latent variable model in a stated preference survey, we find that “hyperactive” respondents are less likely to choose the ’status quo’ and have a more stochastic choice process as seen from the econometrician’s point of view, whereas “experienced” respondents have a relatively more deterministic choice process. Our results show that “hyperactive” respondents significantly impact estimated values.

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