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  • 101.
    Henningsson, Marianne
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    SLU.
    Antonson, Hans
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Mikusinski, Grzegorz
    SLU.
    Göransson, Görgen
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    Angelstam, Per
    SLU.
    Folkeson, Lennart
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Jönsson, Sofia
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    Perceived landscape values and public participation in a road-planning process: A case study in Sweden2015In: Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, ISSN 0964-0568, E-ISSN 1360-0559, Vol. 58, no 4, p. 631-653Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Landscape Convention indicates that assessment of different dimensions that exist in landscapes should be taken into account in planning. In this study, we first investigated ecological, cultural and social values as perceived by the local people in a highway-planning process in Sweden. Next, we explored which factors influenced the local people’s participation in the road-planning process. We used questionnaires, planning documents and the Theory of Planned Behavior to investigate the relations between different factors and local people's participation in the planning process. The results showed that people presumed the ecological values in the landscape to be adversely affected by the new road, while the social values would remain the same. Landowners had heard of the participatory-process, but few participated. Those who lived within 300 m of the road were more active in the planning process than people living further away. The findings suggest that people living within a few hundred metres of the road should be treated as key stakeholders in the planning process. The involvement of other stakeholders, and when in the public participation process stakeholders should be involved, is also discussed.

  • 102.
    Henriksson, Per
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Yahya, Mohammad-Reza
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Användning av personbilar ägda av juridiska personer: jämförelse av registrerings- och stationeringskommun2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a demand among Swedish municipalities for vehicle statistics broken down by municipal level. The statistics can be used for estimates of traffic volume or descriptions of the car fleet. Vehicles can, however, be registered in a municipality due to the Swedish Road Traffic Registry but completely or predominantly be located/stationed in another municipality, here referred as stationing municipality. The statistics can then be misleading. This problem is assumed to be greatest for vehicles owned by juridical persons. This study has examined the proportion of the juridical owned passenger cars’ total mileage driven in the municipality they are registered in according to the Road Traffic Registry. A short questionnaire was sent in January 2015 to a sample of 2 000 juridical persons who owned a passenger car. The survey, which also was accessible in a web version, also contained questions about stationing municipality (if the car was stationed anywhere else than in the registration municipality) type of car ownership and its use. The response rate was 52 percent.

  • 103.
    Janhäll, Sara
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Review on urban vegetation and particle air pollution: Deposition and dispersion2015In: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 105, p. 130-137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban vegetation affects air quality through influencing pollutant deposition and dispersion. Both processes are described by many existing models and experiments, on-site and in wind tunnels, focussing e.g. on urban street canyons and crossings or vegetation barriers adjacent to traffic sources. There is an urgent need for well-structured experimental data, including detailed empirical descriptions of parameters that are not the explicit focus of the study.

    This review revealed that design and choice of urban vegetation is crucial when using vegetation as an ecosystem service for air quality improvements. The reduced mixing in trafficked street canyons on adding large trees increases local air pollution levels, while low vegetation close to sources can improve air quality by increasing deposition. Filtration vegetation barriers have to be dense enough to offer large deposition surface area and porous enough to allow penetration, instead of deflection of the air stream above the barrier. The choice between tall or short and dense or sparse vegetation determines the effect on air pollution from different sources and different particle sizes.

  • 104.
    Janhäll, Sara
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Vegetationens inverkan på luftmiljön2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Vegetation impacts the local air quality both positively and negatively. The positive effect is that air pollution concentration can be reduced by deposition on the vegetation surface and the air filtered. The total amount of air pollution is thus reduced. The negative effect is the ability of vegetation to act as windbreaks reducing the wind speed, which reduces the dilution of local emissions and can increase the levels in the surrounding area. In dense urban environments where dilution already without vegetation may be limited, such as in narrow street canyon with traffic emissions, this is a big risk. Vegetation can also be placed as a barrier between the emission sources (often major traffic routes) and the population, so that the transport of pollution from the source to the population may be limited, and the air is filtered on its way. This report describes the research in the area at present, and is mainly based on the scientific literature. It is at present difficult to describe vegetation in a way that simply relates to its effect on air quality. An example is the vegetation density can be measured in several ways, and best describes the effect either on wind movement or on deposit. The particle size of the pollution is of major importance to the processes, while chemical effects have been omitted in the description. Vegetation-curtains and different types of street canyon are studied with references to all the studies that is reported. The recommendations, explained in detail in the report, are: • place the vegetation near the source of air pollution, where the concentrations are high, increasing the ability to filter out pollution or redirect the polluted air, • ensure that the vegetation does not reduce the dilution of pollutants, for example avoiding close planting of dense trees in narrow and busy street canyons, where pollution is not easily diluted, • use vegetation barriers between transport and population, to introduce a deposit surface and control of the air movements, but preferably low hedges if dilution is limited at the site, • wall and roof vegetation in dense urban environments increases the deposition surface and has a limited restriction of ventilation compared to free-standing vegetation, • plan the vegetation from the start in view of all the effects of vegetation that can occur in a complex urban environment, and level different environmental effects against each other.The result has also been published scientifically in Janhäll (2015) “Review on urban vegetation and particle air pollution – deposition and dispersion” in the journal Atmospheric environment, 105, 130–137.

  • 105.
    Janhäll, Sara
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Carlson, Annelie
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Möjligheter till minskade koldioxidutsläpp genom trafikledning: en förstudie2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Traffic management can affect the emissions of greenhouse gases, mainly through traffic exhaust emissions, but, to some extent, also since efficient traffic management can delay or avoid new investment in transportation infrastructure by streamlining the use of the existing structure.

    This project compiles existing literature evaluating the effects of traffic managements on climate gas emissions, i.e. how the management can alter traffic flows and how road users adapt to the information and how these changed traffic flows are reflected on emissions of climate gases. Some difficulties have been revealed, and further studies are recommended.

    Quantifying and evaluating the effects of climate gas emissions is heavily dependent on the emission models and assumptions used. Some development in this area is proposed, especially in driving behavior related to congestion situations. There is also a large habituation regarding road user effort to find and use traffic information which leads to increased opportunities for activities that affect emissions. Also, changes in behavior and technological advances should be taken into account if older investigations are used for decision making.

    The authors see great opportunities for VO traffic management and traffic information to reduce climate gas emissions from traffic by a conscious climate mitigation.

  • 106.
    Janhäll, Sara
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Carlson, Annelie
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Larsson, Pontus
    Uppdatering EVA-kalkylen: nya emissionsfaktorer beräknade med PHEM2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The current European emission model, HBEFA, specifies emission factors for different driving patterns and vehicle types. This model does not study the example of individual intersections. This study utilizes the same microscopic model, PHEM (www.tugraz.at), as HBEFA to calculate also intersection emissions and emissions of links without intersections. With PHEM the release of four vehicle types (cars fueled by diesel or petrol and trucks with and without trailers) calculated for several different road classes according to the division still used in the models EVA and CAPCAL. To illustrate the emissions of intersections calculations for emissions for a quick stop to rest and then the withdrawal of the original speed is also presented.

    In addition to a description of the method of how the new emissions have been calculated in the new tables also include suggestions of future updating of the model. In addition, reported the conclusion of tests and comparisons to facilitate the transition from the current basic model VETO to PHEM. The calculations show that previous assumptions about the significantly lower emissions of vehicles have not been met, and that the vehicle speed impact on emissions has changed., We suggest that more vehicle types will be included in the model at the next update.

    The model simulates the CO2, SO2, fuel consumption, HC / VOC, CO, NOx, NO2 and exhaust particles, but the report only presents fuel consumption. However, all other parameters can be obtained directly from the authors. The report first provides a brief description of the different emission models, how the calculations are done up to now and then how adaptations and updates led to the resulting emission factors.

  • 107.
    Janhäll, Sara
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Genell, Anders
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Trafikinformation och miljöeffekter: beräkningar av omledningseffekter2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This project aims at calculating the environmental impact of traffic with a new computational model. A list of possible measures to reduce environmental effects using traffic information is given, aiming at improving energy efficiency, air quality, noise, and environmental impact. The use of traffic information to control traffic is growing, especially in urban environments where congestion impacts trafficability, while alternative routes are available. In the road sector The Swedish Transport Administration usually informs the traveller directly, while in the rail sector information is directed to the train companies who then inform travellers/drivers. This affects the ability to manage traffic, and creates problems for the intermodal information. This report focuses on the urgent environmental impact of traffic, although a review of long-term effects are included. Only the change in traffic and driving style affects the calculations. Many environmental impacts are affected by traffic, such as air pollution, noise, greenhouse gas emissions, but also the barrier effects, light pollution, water pollution and soil disturbance in sensitive areas. Calculations with the model show how emissions are affected by driving mode, and how the population exposure is affected. The existing models are highly simplified and development in emission modeling, exposure, effects of exposure, and model implementation is essential.

  • 108.
    Janhäll, Sara
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Andersson, Karl
    Järlskog, Ida
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Lindström, Thomas
    Utvärdering av städmaskiners förmåga att reducera vägdammsförrådet i gatu- och tunnelmiljöer i Trondheim2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To avoid exceeding the environmental air quality standards for particulate matter (PM10) Norwegian Public Roads Administration Directorate of Public Roads (Statens vegvesen Vegdirektoratet) in Trondheim, Norway, has implemented an attempt to clean a road tunnel and a stretch of road with three different cleaning machines to reduce the amount of dust of the road. A large number of other tests is presented in the main report, while the present report focuses on how large the road dust depot has been before and after cleaning with different machines in the different environments.

    The results show that two of the three different machines will reduce the road dust depot efficiently in the street environment, while the road dust depot increases of cleaning in the tunnel environment. One theory might be that this may be due to the fact that even the walls and ceiling are cleaned in the tunnel environment, which could lead to the cleaning moves particles from the ceiling and walls to the road surface. Tunnel cleaning is carried out with the cleaning solution, which gives a different chemical environment, which can dissolve way the dust further down in the texture and make it for the sampler.

  • 109.
    Johansson, Christer
    et al.
    Department of Applied Environmental Science ITM, Stockholm University.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Bennet, Cecilia
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    NORTRIP - Non-exhaust road traffic induced particle emissions: development of a model for assessing the effect on air quality and exposure2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The PM10 concentrations exceed the EU limit values in almost all countries in Europe. Especially, in many Nordic cities, non-exhaust particle emissions are the main reason for high PM10 levels along densely trafficked roads. This is connected to the use of studded tyres and winter time road traction maintenance, e.g. salting and sanding. The ultimate aim of the project has been to develop a process based emission model, that can be applied in any city without site specific empirical factors, for management and evaluation of abatement strategies and that is able to describe the (non-exhaust) emissions on an hourly or at least daily basis with satisfactory accuracy. The model is built upon existing road dust emission models, combined with field and laboratory measurements. The major features of the model are:

    • Road dust and salt loading is calculated based on a mass balance equation
    • Production of road dust, and subsequent emissions, are based on the total wear of road, brakes and tyres
    • Maintenance activities (e.g. salting, sanding, cleaning, ploughing) contribute to the mass balance as well as processes such as drainage and splash/spray
    • Retention of road surface dust is dependent on the surface moisture content
    • The road surface moisture is calculated based on a mass balance equation for surface water and ice
    • Evaporation is based on energy balance modelling of the road surface
    • Maintenance activities (e.g. cleaning, ploughing, salt solutions) and processes (e.g. drainage, splash/ spray) are included in the moisture mass balance
    • The impact of salting on both dust retention and melt temperature is considered
  • 110. Joumard, Robert
    et al.
    Gudmundsson, Henrik
    Technical University of Denmark.
    Folkeson, Lennart
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Framework for assessing indicators of environmental impacts in the transport sector2011In: Transportation Research Record, ISSN 0361-1981, E-ISSN 2169-4052, Vol. 2242, p. 55-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The following questions were addressed in this study: How can environmental impacts of transport be identified? How can the impacts be represented by operational indicators? How can several indicators be considered jointly? How can indicators be used in planning and decision making? First, a definition of the phrase "indicator of environmental impacts in the transport sector" was derived. The concept of a chain of causality between a source and a final target was developed as a common reference for indicators and their assessment. Criteria and methods for the assessment and selection of indicators were derived in terms of measurement, monitoring, and management. Finally, examples of the application of the criteria for individual indicators of seven chains of causality and for selected aggregated indicators were developed and are presented in this paper.

  • 111.
    Jägerbrand, A.K.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Ny vägbelysning: hur väljer man & hur miljövänlig är den?2014In: REV bulletinen, Vol. 1, p. 16-17Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 112.
    Jägerbrand, A.K.
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Alatalo, Juha M.
    Campus Gotland, Uppsala Universitet.
    Native roadside vegetation that enances soil erosion control in boreal Scandinavia2014In: Environments, ISSN 2076-3298, Vol. 1, p. 31-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focused on identifying vegetation characteristics associated with erosion control at nine roadside sites in mid-West Sweden. A number of vegetation characteristics such as cover, diversity, plant functional type, biomass and plant community structure were included. Significant difference in cover between eroded and non-eroded sub-sites was found in evergreen shrubs, total cover, and total above ground biomass. Thus, our results support the use of shrubs in order to stabilize vegetation and minimize erosion along roadsides. However, shrubs are disfavored by several natural and human imposed factors. This could have several impacts on the long-term management of roadsides in boreal regions. By both choosing and applying active management that supports native evergreen shrubs in boreal regions, several positive effects could be achieved along roadsides, such as lower erosion rate and secured long-term vegetation cover. This could also lead to lower costs for roadside maintenance as lower erosion rates would require less frequent stabilizing treatments and mowing could be kept to a minimum in order not to disfavor shrubs.                                                                                                             

  • 113.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Anpassning av vägmiljö och vegetation som åtgärd mot viltolyckor2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Wildlife accidents are a global problem that causes human fatalities as well as physical and economic damage. Current preventive measures do not seem sufficient enough to achieve a reduction in wildlife accidents. The road environment may be modified so as to reduce the attractiveness of resources in the road area. Modifications may be directed towards the maintenance (e.g. adjustment of mowing practices) or the structure or composition of the vegetation. This report presents an overview of the current knowledge about how the road area, and to some extent also the adjacent areas, can be made less attractive to wildlife through road environment and vegetation changes. The report deals with relationships between wildlife presence/wildlife accidents and the surrounding environment as well as road operation and maintenance. Studies of wildlife collisions and the surrounding environment reveal complex relationships between wildlife collisions and landscape features (e.g. forest or open landscape), species and/or habitat diversity. How crucial these characteristics are for wildlife collisions largely depends on which game animals are studied. Mowing and clear-cutting activities, as well as adjacent land use may influence the roadside attraction for wildlife, sometimes in unknown ways. The list of plants that should be unattractive to grazing should be evaluated and developed further.

  • 114.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Dead or alive? Testing the use of C:N ratios and chlorophyll fluorescence in vertical shoot profiles to determine depth of vitality and point of senescence in populations of bryophytes2015In: Lindbergia, ISSN 0105-0761, E-ISSN 2001-5909, Vol. 38, p. 4-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bryophytes with indeterminate growth rarely exhibit clearly identifiable modules or age segments, but can be vertically divided into different physiologically active zones, since physiological activity normally declines vertically along the shoot profile depth. The aim of this study was to investigate whether it is possible to use C:N ratios (C/N)and/or parameters from chlorophyll fluorescence measurements (e.g. Fv/Fm, Fm or qN)to determine if bryophyte tissue is alive, senescent or dead, and at what distance along the shoot segment profile the moss tissue cease to live. Variation in C:N ratios and chlorophyll fluorescence between sites was also examined. This study shows that it is possible to separate alive, senescing and dead parts of the moss shoots in Pleurozium schreberi, and that chlorophyll fluorescence is a good method to use, whereas C/N varies between sites and species (for Hylcomium splendens and Racomitrium lanuginosum)and does not seem to reflect physiological activity to the same degree.

  • 115.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    LED och ekologiska effekter2015In: Ceebel Nyhetsbrev, Vol. 1, p. 1-3Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    LED har olika typer av ekologisk påverkan och kan i vissa fall leda till större effekter än traditionellt använd belysning. Samtidigt har LED potential att kunna utvecklas till en ekologisk neutral belysning. Det finns en rad olika saker man kan tänka på vid inköp av LED-lampor för att minimera ekologisk påverkan, såsom låg effektnivå, använda dimringsteknik, undvika oönskad ljusspridning och att försöka undvika lampor som har höga nivåer av våglängder under 500 nm.

  • 116.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Alatalo, Juha M.
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Effects of human trampling on abundance and diversity of vascular plants, bryophytes and lichens in alpine heath vegetation, Northern Sweden2015In: SpringerPlus, E-ISSN 2193-1801, Vol. 4, no 95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the effects of human trampling on cover, diversity and species richness in an alpine heath ecosystem in northern Sweden. We tested the hypothesis that proximity to trails decreases plant cover, diversity and species richness of the canopy and the understory. We found a significant decrease in plant cover with proximity to the trail for the understory, but not for the canopy level, and significant decreases in the abundance of deciduous shrubs in the canopy layer and lichens in the understory. Proximity also had a significant negative impact on species richness of lichens. However, there were no significant changes in species richness, diversity or evenness of distribution in the canopy or understory with proximity to the trail. While not significant, liverworts, acrocarpous and pleurocarpous bryophytes tended to have contrasting abundance patterns with differing proximity to the trail, indicating that trampling may cause shifts in dominance hierarchies of different groups of bryophytes. Due to the decrease in understory cover, the abundance of litter, rock and soil increased with proximity to the trail. These results demonstrate that low-frequency human trampling in alpine heaths over long periods can have major negative impacts on lichen abundance and species richness. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that trampling can decrease species richness of lichens. It emphasises the importance of including species-level data on non-vascular plants when conducting studies in alpine or tundra ecosystems, since they often make up the majority of species and play a significant role in ecosystem functioning and response in many of these extreme environments.

  • 117.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment. Hokkaido University.
    Alatalo, Juha M.
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Kudo, Gaku
    Hokkaido University.
    Variation in responses to temperature treatments ex situ of the moss Pleurozium schreberi (Willd. ex Brid.) Mitt.originating from eight altitude sites in Hokkaido, Japan2014In: Journal of Bryology, ISSN 0373-6687, E-ISSN 1743-2820, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 209-216Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal acclimatisations are important for the survival and growth of individuals and populations but seldom studied for different populations of bryophytes. The aims of this study were to (I) investigate if responses to temperature treatments were independent of the site sampled or if the intra- and interpopulation variation in responses were larger than the responses to the temperature treatments (control, press, and pulse), and to (II) examine if experimental responses varied, depending on the sampled sites.

    We collected samples of the circumpolar bryophyte species, Pleurozium schreberi (Willd. ex Brid.) Mitt., originating from eight altitude sites on Mt. Oakan in Hokkaido, Japan, and exposed them to three different temperature treatments ex situ for four weeks. Thermal acclimatisation was estimated by measuring responses in growth length increase, biomass increase, number of branches, and the maximum quantum yield of PS II (Fv/Fm). We found that responses to temperature treatments were dependent of the site sampled, and that differences were most pronounced in the length increase. Results also shows that the responses to experimental treatments may differ between sites. Our results therefore raise important concerns regarding the general validity of both ex situ and in situ experiments when performed on a single or a limited number of sites.

  • 118.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Antonson, Hans
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Driving behaviour responses to a moose encounter, automatic speed camera, wildlife warning sign and radio message determined in a factorial simulator study2016In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 86, p. 229-238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a driving simulator study, driving behaviour responses (speed and deceleration) to encountering a moose, automatic speed camera, wildlife warning sign and radio message, with or without a wildlife fence and in dense forest or open landscape, were analysed. The study consisted of a factorial experiment that examined responses to factors singly and in combination over 9-km road stretches driven eight times by 25 participants (10 men, 15 women). The aims were to: determine the most effective animal–vehicle collision (AVC) countermeasures in reducing vehicle speed and test whether these are more effective in combination for reducing vehicle speed; identify the most effective countermeasures on encountering moose; and determine whether the driving responses to AVC countermeasures are affected by the presence of wildlife fences and landscape characteristics. The AVC countermeasures that proved most effective in reducing vehicle speed were a wildlife warning sign and radio message, while automatic speed cameras had a speed-increasing effect. There were no statistically significant interactions between different countermeasures and moose encounters. However, there was a tendency for a stronger speed-reducing effect from the radio message warning and from a combination of a radio message and wildlife warning sign in velocity profiles covering longer driving distances than the statistical tests. Encountering a moose during the drive had the overall strongest speed-reducing effect and gave the strongest deceleration, indicating that moose decoys or moose artwork might be useful as speed-reducing countermeasures. Furthermore, drivers reduced speed earlier on encountering a moose in open landscape and had lower velocity when driving past it. The presence of a wildlife fence on encountering the moose resulted in smaller deceleration.

  • 119.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Antonson, Hans
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Ahlström, Christer
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Speed reduction effects over distance of animal-vehicle collision countermeasures: a driving simulator study2018In: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 10, no 2, article id 40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This study examined if speed reduction effects from animal-vehicle collision (AVC) countermeasures are merely local or do extend to a wider area, and what implications the results have on road planning practice regarding AVCs.

    Methods: Twenty-five drivers drove repeatedly on a 9-km long road stretch in a high-fidelity driving simulator. The development of vehicle speed in the surrounding of an automatic speed camera, a wildlife warning sign and a radio message, were investigated in a full factorial within-subject experiment. The factors wildlife fence (with/without) and forest (dense/open landscape) were also included.

    Results: The radio warning message had the largest influence on vehicle speed with a speed reduction of 8 km/h that lasted beyond 1 km and 2 km after the implementation. Eighty-eight per cent of the drivers reported being made extra aware of AVC due to the radio message, which was also associated with stress, insecurity and unsafety. The warning sign reduced vehicle speed by 1.5 km/h, but speed reductions were not significantly reduced 1 km after the implementation. Only 8 % of the drivers felt insecure/unsafe after passing the wildlife warning sign, explaining its limited impact on speed. There were no main effects of the automatic speed camera on vehicle speed at longer distances after implementation.

    Conclusions: We recommend that AVC countermeasures should be of various design, occur at various segments along the road, and preferably be adaptive and geo-localized to minimize habituation effects on drivers.

  • 120.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Observationer av funktionskonflikter mellan miljö och drift och underhåll av vägar2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this project was to increase the knowledge of functional conflicts between the environment and the operation and maintenance of roads. Functional conflicts may arise for example, when operation and maintenance measures are interfering negatively with land owners’ use of their land.

    The goal of this project was to find new, relatively unknown examples of functional conflicts through observations in the field as well as by using recorded comments and opinions received by the Swedish Transport Administration.

    Following functional conflicts were identified in the field:

    • Reuse of old materials may negatively affect the life-time of roads.
    • •Brush cutting in the roadside may enhance erosion in vulnerable areas.
    • •Forest clear-cutting with easily eroded soil may cause clogging of ditches and culverts.
    • •Culverts that end in the middle of the forest may cause the forest land to become waterlogged.

    To identify more functional conflicts, opinions and comments received by the Swedish Transport Administration in three regions (central region, western region and Stockholm region) were studied.

  • 121.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Carlson, Annelie
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Potential för en energieffektivare väg- och gatubelysning: jämförelser mellan dimning och olika typer av ljuskällor2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to reduce energy use and its accompanying costs, it is important to have as energy-efficient road and street lighting as possible. The objectives of this project were to provide basic data for different energy efficiency measures for road and street lighting and to examine how the use of dimming and various light sources affects visibility. This study shows that there is potential to reduce the energy consumption of several of the existing road lightings by reducing power and still meet the requirements based on traffic safety, because the luminance and the illuminance we measured show that some of the values fall between the recommended classes. This study highlights four different types of dimming schedules based on different conditions in which the savings in kWh/year is between 19-50%. The results from a web survey based on photographs from roads with various lighting show that responses were not conclusive regarding the best visibility between light sources. However, the survey shows that more people (62.4-71.6%) choose ceramic metal halide lighting instead of high-pressure sodium in order to feel most comfortable when driving.

  • 122.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Kollisioner och olyckor med rådjur i Sverige under 10 år (2003–2012): variation i tid, geografi och kostnader2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The goal for this project was to create a 10-year overview of the number of deer collisions in Sweden and accidents variation in time, geography and cost, both in terms of property damage and personal injuries. Accident statistics were gathered from NVR (National Wildlife Accident Council, data on collisions), Strada (fatalities and injuries in Swedish Traffic Accident Data Acquisition) and Ofelia (collisions at railway). The results show that the number of deer collisions has increased over the 10-year period and that the increase has been much greater in the northernmost counties and Gotland. The number of deer collisions is higher during the early summer (May–June) and winter (October–December), whereas the number of fatalities and injury accidents is highest during the summer. The number of deer collisions varies during the day, but most accidents occur in the morning and evening for both property damage and personal injury accidents. For fatalities in accidents with roe deer, there are more than twice as many compared to the officially reported numbers, and the number of serious injuries is 177% higher than the official records. It is likely that the official statistics are also underestimating the number of fatalities and injuries from wildlife accidents caused by moose, deer and wild boar. This study shows that the total cost of roe deer collisions and accidents in 2012 exceeds 1 billion SEK, of which approximately 70% account for the cost of property damage.

  • 123.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    LED (Light-Emitting Diode) road lighting in practice: An evaluation of compliance with regulations and improvements for further energy savings2016In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 9, no 5, article id 357Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Light-emitting diode (LED) road lighting has been widely implemented in recent years, but few studies have evaluated its performance after installation. This study investigated whether LED road lighting complies with minimum regulations in terms of traffic safety and whether improvements for energy efficiency are possible. Average road surface luminance (L), overall luminance uniformity (U0), longitudinal luminance uniformity (U1), power density (PD) and normalised power density (PN) were evaluated for 14 roads (seven designed for vehicular traffic and seven for pedestrians and bicycles). Energy savings were calculated as the percentage reduction to the minimum level of the existing lighting class or a lower lighting class and by applying a dimming schedule. The results showed that LED road lighting for vehicular traffic roads generally fulfilled the requirements, whereas that for pedestrian and bicycle roads generally corresponded to the lowest lighting class for L, and often did not meet the statutory requirements for U0 and UI. By adapting lighting levels to the minimum requirement of the existing lighting class or by dropping to a lower lighting class, vehicular traffic roads could save 6%-35% on L to lighting class M5 and 23%-61% on L to lighting class M6. A dimming schedule could lead to energy savings of 49%. There is little potential for savings on pedestrian and bicycle roads, except by implementing a dimming schedule. Thus, in general, for vehicular, pedestrian and bicycle roads, a dimming schedule can save more energy than can be achieved in general by reducing lighting class. Furthermore, since a dimming schedule can be adjusted to traffic intensity, any potential risk of compromising traffic safety is minimised.

  • 124.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    New Framework of Sustainable Indicators for Outdoor LED (Light Emitting Diodes) Lighting and SSL (Solid State Lighting)2015In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 1028-1063Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Light emitting diodes (LEDs) and SSL (solid state lighting) are relatively  new light sources, but are already widely applied for outdoor lighting. Despite this, there is little available information allowing planners and designers to evaluate and weigh different sustainability aspects of LED/SSL lighting when making decisions. Based on a literature review, this paper proposes a framework of sustainability indicators and/or measures that can be used for a general evaluation or to highlight certain objectives or aspects of special interest when choosing LED/SSL lighting. LED/SSL lighting is reviewed from a conventional sustainable development perspective, i.e., covering the three dimensions, including ecological, economic and social sustainability. The new framework of sustainable indicators allow prioritization when choosing LED/SSL products and can thereby help ensure that short-term decisions on LED/SSL lighting systems are in line with long-term sustainability goals established in society. The new framework can also be a beneficial tool for planners, decision-makers, developers and lighting designers, or for consumers wishing to use LED/SSL lighting in  a sustainable manner. Moreover, since some aspects of LED/SSL lighting have not yet been thoroughly studied or developed, some possible future indicators are suggested.

  • 125.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Trafiksäkerhets- och trygghetsaspekter i samspelet mellan gatumiljöns utformning och en mer energieffektiv belysning2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The project's aim was to study the traffic safety aspects of new lights and the interaction with the street environment for pedestrians and cyclists. This project investigated the lighting conditions, effects on cyclists, and the interactions between lighting, traffic safety, street environmental conditions and/or other effects such as perceptions of safety for three different light sources (mercury vapour 125W, ceramic metal halide 70W and LED 25W) located in about the same type of street environment on a pedestrian and bicycle path on Kungsholms strand in Stockholm. Results show that the energy consumption of the LED lighting is 28% of the traditional mercury vapour lighting and 49% of ceramic metal halide lighting. This study shows that it is possible to obtain sufficient uniformity levels with LED lighting but that the levels are dependent on the luminaire design, pole design and the number of poles per meter road (in this study the pole spacing was 15.3 m). This study demonstrated no difference in cycle speed for LED lighting between daylight and darkness, or between different types of lighting. It worked well to perform analysis of perception of safety aspects based on simple estimates (through analysis of digital photographs). For example, perceptions of visibility corresponds very well with the measured uniformity.

  • 126.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment. Göteborgs Universitet.
    Alatalo, Juha M
    Jönköpings Universitet.
    Chrimes, Dillon
    University of Tokyo.
    Molau, Ulf
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Plant community responses to 5 years of simulated climate change in meadow and heath ecosystems at a subarctic-alpine site2009In: Oecologia, ISSN 0029-8549, E-ISSN 1432-1939, Vol. 161, no 3, p. 601-610Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change was simulated by increasing temperature and nutrient availability in an alpine landscape. We conducted a field experiment of BACI-design (before/after control/impact) running for five seasons in two alpine communities (heath and meadow) with the factors temperature (increase of ca. 1.5-3.0°C) and nutrients (5 g N, 5 g P per m 2) in a fully factorial design in northern Swedish Lapland. The response variables were abundances of plant species and functional types. Plant community responses to the experimental perturbations were investigated, and the responses of plant functional types were examined in comparison to responses at the species level. Nutrient addition, exclusively and in combination with enhanced temperature increase, exerted the most pronounced responses at the species-specific and community levels. The main responses to nutrient addition were increases in graminoids and forbs, whereas deciduous shrubs, evergreen shrubs, bryophytes, and lichens decreased. The two plant communities of heath or meadow showed different vegetation responses to the environmental treatments despite the fact that both communities were located on the same subarctic-alpine site. Furthermore, we showed that the abundance of forbs increased in response to the combined treatment of temperature and nutrient addition in the meadow plant community. Within a single-plant functional type, most species responded similarly to the enhanced treatments although there were exceptions, particularly in the moss and lichen functional types. Plant community structure showed BACI responses in that vegetation dominance relationships in the existing plant functional types changed to varying degrees in all plots, including control plots. Betula nana and lichens increased in the temperature-increased enhancements and in control plots in the heath plant community during the treatment period. The increases in control plots were probably a response to the observed warming during the treatment period in the region. © Springer-Verlag 2009.

  • 127.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Antonson, Hans
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Kan viltolyckor förebyggas av körsätt?: En körsimulatorstudie utförd av VTI. Slutrapport till Viltvårdsfonden, projekt nr 802-0224-092013Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Projektets syfte har varit att förstå mänskligt förarbeteende i situationer där vilt förekommer utmed vägmiljöer och även att undersöka vilka effekter förebyggande åtgärder har på förarbeteendet. Om det går att förstå förarbeteende bättre, samt undersöka exakt hur de förebyggande åtgärderna som skall förhindra viltkollisioner fungerar på människor, finns både goda möjligheter att reducera antalet viltkollisioner (oavsett viltstammens storlek), och ändra allmänhetens uppfattning av att det enbart är storleken på viltstammarna som gör att man kolliderar med vilt.

    Vi har utfört en körsimulatorstudie i SIM III där det ingick 25 försökspersoner, 10 män och 15 kvinnor. Försökspersonerna fick köra sträckor med en full-faktoriell design innehållande testvariablerna: ATK (hastighetskamera), riktat radiomeddelande, viltvarningsskylt, älg, viltstängsel samt öppet landskap och landskap med tät skog.

    Älgen förefaller vara den variabel som leder till störst reaktioner, även vad gäller stress. Det kan bero på att man inte är van att se älgar längs vägarna. Vi vet inte om det går att vänja sig vid detta, men då reaktionen av älg vid upprepning förefaller mildra effekterna av såväl stress som inbromsning tyder resultaten på att så kan vara fallet.

    Föreliggande studie har identifierat forskningsbehov inom flera områden såsom djupgående studier av att undersöka huruvida effekter av de förebyggande åtgärderna har en ihållande effekt på längre sikt, dvs. efter upprepningar. Annars föreligger en risk att förebyggande åtgärder (radiomeddelande, älg, ATK, varningsskylt), endast har en kortvarig effekt.

  • 128.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Björk, Robert
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Callaghan, Terry
    Seppelt, Rod
    Effects of climate change on tundra bryophytes2011In: Bryophyte ecology and climate change / [ed] Nancy Slack, Zoltan Tuba and Lloyd Stark, Cambridge University Press, 2011, 1, p. 211-236Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 129.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Dickinson, Joanna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Mellin, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Viklund, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport.
    Dahlberg, Staffan
    Stockholm.
    Rebound effects of energy efficiency measures in the transport sector in Sweden2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Rebound effects represent the difference between anticipated or projected energy savings and the real energy saving in relation to, for example, implemented policy measures aimed at improving energy efficiency. Rebound effects in the transport sector may counteract policy measures so that goals related to energy or emissions are not achieved, or achievement is greatly delayed. This comprehensive report examines the presence of rebound effects within the transport sector and while the aim was to provide a full review of the issue, for some transport areas it was not possible to find any studies on rebound effects. Those areas are identified as having knowledge gaps. We summarize the literature for rebound effects for passenger vehicles, technological developments, freight transports, public lighting, aviation, waterborne transports and for indirect, economy-wide effects, and also discuss rebound effects in aspects of environmental awareness and in the transport and community planning. The existing literature suggests that rebound effects exist to varying degrees and that there is a high risk of energy efficiency measures transferring transport energy savings into other transport modes, sectors or energy services. Consequently, rebound effects should be included when calculating whether Sweden will reach its climate and energy goals.

  • 130.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Hellman, Fredrik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Energiutvinning ur vägar och vägmiljöer: en kunskapsöversikt2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The report aims to identify new technologies for energy harvesting and the ability to use them in the road and the surrounding road area. The survey focuses on the materials and methods that may be used in the Swedish (cold) climate. The report can be useful for planning of new infrastructure when you want to make use of renewable energy and wants to reduce the environmental impact. Considering today’s technological conditions, the following techniques may be relevant: photovoltaics, geothermal energy, piezoelectric technology, wind energy or bioenergy. There are, however, many factors holding back the development of new innovative systems for energy production in roads and their environment. Some important factors are for example that maintenance costs will increase or that the maintenance of the road will become more difficult.

  • 131.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Kudo, Gaku
    Hokkaido University.
    Alatalo, Juha M
    Högskolan på Gotland.
    Molau, Ulf
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Effects of neighboring vascular plants on the abundance of bryophytes in different vegetation types2012In: Polar Science, ISSN 1873-9652, E-ISSN 1876-4428, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 200-208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the climate change, vegetation of tundra ecosystems is predicted to shift toward shrub and tree dominance, and this change may influence bryophytes. To estimate how changes in growing environment and the dominance of vascular plants influence bryophyte abundance, we compared the relationship of occurrence of bryophytes among other plant types in a five-year experiment of warming (T), fertilization (F) and T. +. F in two vegetation types, heath and meadow, in a subarctic-alpine ecosystem. We compared individual leaf area among shrub species to confirm that deciduous shrubs might cause severe shading effect. Effects of neighboring functional types on the performance of Hylocomium splendens was also analyzed.Results show that F and T. +. F treatments significantly influenced bryophyte abundance negatively. Under natural conditions, bryophytes in the heath site were negatively related to the abundance of shrubs and lichens and the relationship between lichens and bryophytes strengthened after the experimental period. After five years of experimental treatments in the meadow, a positive abundance relationship emerged between bryophytes and deciduous shrubs, evergreen shrubs and forbs. This relationship was not found in the heath site. Our study therefore shows that the abundance relationships between bryophytes and plants in two vegetation types within the same area can be different. Deciduous shrubs had larger leaf area than evergreen shrubs but did not show any shading effect on H. splendens. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. and NIPR.

  • 132.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Robertson, Kerstin
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Ny kunskap för att underlätta införandet av energieffektivare väg- och gatubelysning2010In: Ceebel nyhetsbrev (centrum för energieffektiv belysning), Vol. 2, no 3, p. 1-1Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 133.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Robertson, Kerstin
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Renewal of street and road lighting in Swedish municipalities2013In: Proceedings of CIE Centenary Conference "Towards a New Century of Light", April 15-16, Paris, France, 2013., CIE, 2013, p. 1009-1015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied planning, responsibilities, and stakeholder’s involvement in 12 Swedish municipalities of different size to identify factors that could constitute barriers for developing more energy efficient street and road lighting (SRL). In this study, small municipalities had the most energy efficient lighting and all stated that energy savings were the main reason for their substitution of mercury lamps. In medium-sized and large municipalities the ecodesign directive was given as the main motive for renewal of the SRL by four municipalities, and the remaining four municipalities stated that their main motive was the need to replace old SRL. Outsourcing of management, operation and maintenance may constitute a barrier for renewal whereas lack of knowledge and costs for renewal does not seem to be any significant barriers. Integration of SRL planning with other strategies, such as energy and economy strategies, seems to be an important factor for a proactive SRL development.

  • 134.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Sjöbergh, Jonas
    Hokkaido University.
    Effects of weather conditions, light conditions, and road lighting on vehicle speed2016In: SpringerPlus, E-ISSN 2193-1801, Vol. 5, no 1, article id 505Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Light conditions are known to affect the number of vehicle accidents and fatalities but the relationship between light conditions and vehicle speed is not fully understood. This study examined whether vehicle speed on roads is higher in daylight and under road lighting than in darkness, and determined the combined effects of light conditions, posted speed limit and weather conditions on driving speed. The vehicle speed of passenger cars in different light conditions (daylight, twilight, darkness, artificial light) and different weather conditions (clear weather, rain, snow) was determined using traffic and weather data collected on an hourly basis for approximately 2 years (1 September 2012–31 May 2014) at 25 locations in Sweden (17 with road lighting and eight without). In total, the data included almost 60 million vehicle passes. The data were cleaned by removing June, July, and August, which have different traffic patterns than the rest of the year. Only data from the periods 10:00 A.M.–04:00 P.M. and 06:00 P.M.–10:00 P.M. were used, to remove traffic during rush hour and at night. Multivariate adaptive regression splines was used to evaluate the overall influence of independent variables on vehicle speed and nonparametric statistical testing was applied to test for speed differences between dark–daylight, dark–twilight, and twilight–daylight, on roads with and without road lighting. The results show that vehicle speed in general depends on several independent variables. Analyses of vehicle speed and speed differences between daylight, twilight and darkness, with and without road lighting, did not reveal any differences attributable to light conditions. However, vehicle speed decreased due to rain or snow and the decrease was higher on roads without road lighting than on roads with lighting. These results suggest that the strong association between traffic accidents and darkness or low light conditions could be explained by drivers failing to adjust their speed to the reduced visibility in dark conditions.

  • 135.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment. Hokkaido University.
    Kudo, Gaku
    Hokkaido University.
    Short-term responses in maximum quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm) to ex situ temperature treatment of populations of bryophytes originating from different sites in Hokkaido, Northern Japan2016In: Plants, ISSN 2223-7747, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 455-465Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is limited knowledge available on the thermal acclimation processes for bryophytes, especially when considering variation between populations or sites. This study investigated whether short-term ex situ thermal acclimation of different populations showed patterns of site dependency and whether the maximum quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm) could be used as an indicator of adaptation or temperature stress in two bryophyte species: Pleurozium schreberi (Willd. ex Brid.) Mitt. and Racomitrium lanuginosum (Hedw.) Brid.

    We sought to test the hypothesis that differences in the ability to acclimate to short-term temperature treatment would be revealed as differences in photosystem II maximum yield (Fv/Fm). Thermal treatments were applied to samples from 12 and 11 populations during 12 or 13 days in growth chambers and comprised: (1) 10/5 °C; (2) 20/10 °C; (3) 25/15 °C; (4) 30/20 °C (12 hours day/night temperature).

    In Pleurozium schreberi, there were no significant site-dependent differences before or after the experiment, while site dependencies were clearly shown in Racomitrium lanuginosum throughout the study. Fv/Fm in Pleurozium schreberi decreased at the highest and lowest temperature treatments, which can be interpreted as a stress response, but no similar trends were shown by Racomitrium lanuginosum.

  • 136.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Robertson, Kerstin
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Andersson, Hans B
    Folkeson, Lennart
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Planering och beslutsprocesser för energieffektivare väg- och gatubelysning i svenska kommuner2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Although there has been considerably more energy-efficient road and street lighting available on the market than the light fixtures that dominate in Swedish municipalities today, there are relatively few investments and re-investments in energy-efficient and modern fixtures. This report summarizes an interview-based study of planning, decision making processes, responsibilities, and stakeholder involvement in 12 Swedish municipalities of different sizes to identify factors that constitute barriers or incentives for more energy efficient road and street lighting. The municipalities have highly variable share of mercury lights remaining. The municipalities differ considerably in how they have organized responsibilities and decision-making and how they work strategically with energy issues. Small municipalities had the most energy efficient lighting and all of them stated that energy savings were the main reason for their substitution of mercury lamps. In medium-sized and large municipalities the European Ecodesign Directive was seen as the main motive for renewal of road and street light equipment by four municipalities, and the remaining four municipalities mentioned technically-based reasons for the replacement of old road and street lights. Outsourcing of management, operation and maintenance may constitute a barrier for renewal whereas costs for renewal and lack of knowledge do not seem to be any significant barriers. From the results of this study, the strategic context–in this case strategic work aiming at energy savings–seems to be of great importance for decisions regarding investment in new road and street lights.

  • 137.
    Järlskog, Ida
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Janhäll, Sara
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Utvärdering av städmaskiners förmåga  att reducera vägdammsförrådet  i gatu- och tunnelmiljöer: En fältstudie i Trondheim 20162017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In May 2016, VTI conducted a field study in Strindheim tunnel and on Haakon VII street on behalf of the Norwegian Road Administration in Trondheim aiming at comparing and evaluating the ability of cleaning techniques to reduce the road dust depot in street and tunnel environments. 

    The result showed that after a first cleaning effort in the tunnel with the BEAM rotorclean (roadway only), a larger dust load was detected than before cleaning. This is believed to be due to the flushing of dust from the edge of the road or the removal of dust cemented in the road surface texture. After a second cleaning effort, where the walls and ceilings are cleaned and the road is cleaned again, a reduction in dust load could be distinguished, but only in the roadway, not near the edge.

    On Haakon VII street, two different cleaning machines, Disa Clean and Val’Air rotor cleaner were used, the former being a dry vacuum sweeper and the latter using rotary high pressure washing combined with vacuum. Sampling was conducted in six fields. The result showed that greatest effect was achieved with Disa Clean in combination with high pressure rinsing as well as with Val’Air rotor cleaner at a driving speed of 3 kilometer per hour. In both cases there were significant differences in dust storage before and after cleaning.

  • 138.
    Kalantari, Zahra
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE) Mark- och vattenteknik .
    Folkeson, Lennart
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE) Mark- och vattenteknik .
    Road drainage in Sweden: current practice and suggestions for adaptation to climate change2011Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 139.
    Kalantari, Zahra
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Jansson, Per-Erik
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE).
    French, Helen K
    Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås, Norway.
    Folkeson, Lennart
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Sassner, Mona
    DHI Sverige AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Stolte, Jannes
    Norwegian Insitute for Agricultural and Environmental Research, Bioforsk, Soil and Environement division, Ås, Norway.
    Evaluating the effects of simulated land use changes on peak discharge of a catchment adjoining a road2011Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 140.
    Kalantari, Zahra
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik, Miljöbedömning och -förvaltning) (Miljöbedömning och -förvaltning och Biogeofysik.
    Jansson, Per-Erik
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE).
    Stolte, Jannes
    Norwegian Insitute for Agricultural and Environmental Research, Bioforsk, Soil and Environement division, Ås, Norway.
    Folkeson, Lennart
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    French, Helen K
    Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås, Norway.
    Sassner, Mona
    DHI Sverige AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Usefulness of four hydrological models in simulating high-resolution discharge dynamics of a catchment adjacent to a road2011Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 141.
    Kalantari, Zahra
    et al.
    KTH.
    Lyon, Steve
    Stockholms universtitet.
    Jansson, Per-Erik
    KTH.
    Stolte, Jannes
    Norwegian Institute for Agricultural and Environmental Research.
    Folkeson, Lennart
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    French, Helen
    Norwegian University of Life Sciences.
    Sassner, Mona
    DHI Sverige AB .
    Modeller subjectivity and calibration impacts on hydrological model applications: an event-based comparison for a road-adjacent catchment in South-East Norway2015In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 502, p. 315-329Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Identifying a ‘best’ performing hydrologic model in a practical sense is difficult due to the potential influences of modeller subjectivity on, for example, calibration procedure and parameter selection. This is especially true for model applications at the event scale where the prevailing catchment conditions can have a strong impact on apparent model performance and suitability. In this study, two lumped models (CoupModel and HBV) and two physically-based distributed models (LISEM and MIKE SHE) were applied to a small catchment upstream of a road in south-eastern Norway. All models were calibrated to a single event representing typical winter conditions in the region and then applied to various other winter events to investigate the potential impact of calibration period and methodology on model performance. Peak flow and event-based hydrographs were simulated differently by all models leading to differences in apparent model performance under this application. In this case-study, the lumped models appeared to be better suited for hydrological events that differed from the calibration event (i.e., events when runoff was generated from rain on non-frozen soils rather than from rain and snowmelt on frozen soil) while the more physical-based approaches appeared better suited during snowmelt and frozen soil conditions more consistent with the event-specific calibration. This was due to the combination of variations in subsurface conditions over the eight events considered, the subsequent ability of the models to represent the impact of the conditions (particularly when subsurface conditions varied greatly from the calibration event), and the different approaches adopted to calibrate the models. These results indicate that hydrologic models may not only need to be selected on a case-by-case basis but also have their performance evaluated on an application-by-application basis since how a model is applied can be equally important as inherent model structure.

  • 142.
    Karlsson, Robert
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Carlson, Annelie
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Dolk, Ellen
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Energy use generated by traffic and pavement maintenance: decision support for optimization of low rolling resistance maintenance treatments2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    VTI has investigated the role of rolling resistance on total traffic energy use and if road maintenance treatments can be a viable option to reduce total traffic energy use. The purpose of the study is to enable road management to better consider the total energy used on roads when managing the road network. The objective is to derive meaningful and simple instruments for decision making situations such as when selecting and designing maintenance treatments, in which total energy use is considered in a multiple criteria analysis. Total energy includes both traffic and maintenance induced energy use. The report focuses on how road management can reduce traffic energy by lowering rolling resistance of pavement surfaces by decreased macro texture and increased evenness. Total energy use is a result of a complex web of parameters in which pavement managers can make a contribution to minimizing total energy, but the complexity implicates that the assessment of consequences of different maintenance options is a challenging task. In order to calculate total energy this report uses the VETO model and a life cycle approach. In this report, two case studies were undertaken in which the energy use for traffic and pavement manager induced actions were investigated in detail. The findings in these two cases were analysed to identify more general relationships that can be used for decision making planning and design of pavement maintenance.

  • 143.
    Kharrazi, Sogol
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Bruzelius, Fredrik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization.
    Sandberg, Ulf
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Performance based standards for high capacity transports in Sweden: FIFFI project 2013-03881: final report2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Project “Performance Based Standards for High Capacity Transports in Sweden” started at the end of 2013 to investigate applicability of PBS in Sweden, and ended in Autumn 2017. The purpose of the project was to propose a performance based regulation of HCT vehicles and their access to the road network; under a PBS approach to regulation, standards would specify the performance required from the vehicle, rather than mandating prescriptive length and weight limits. In this project, all the three domains of safety, infrastructure and environment were addressed, but the focus has been on safety for which extensive testing, simulations and analysis were performed. This report gathers the outcomes of the project.

  • 144.
    Korpelainen, Helena
    et al.
    University of Helsinki.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    von Cräutlein, Maria
    University of Helsinki.
    Genetic structure of mosses Pleurozium schreberi (Willd. ex Brid.) Mitt. and Racomitrium lanuginosum (Hedw.) Brid. along altitude gradients in Hokkaido, Japan2012In: Journal of Bryology, ISSN 0373-6687, E-ISSN 1743-2820, Vol. 34, no 4, p. 309-312Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 145.
    Lahti, Eva
    et al.
    Volvo Car Corporation.
    Genell, Anders
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Fors, Carina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    SleepNoise2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well known that sleepiness is an important contributor to crashes. The drivers are influenced by circadian low, hours slept or being awake. There is also reason to believe that variations in interior road noise may be a contributing factor. Up to now the road noise models in simulators are not very mature and not validated.

    The aim of the technical part of the SleepNoise project was to develop the road noise model for the ViP simulation infrastructure, including individual vehicle types driving on individual road types. The goal was a sound model, close enough to the original real world setting as to be approved by vehicle noise experts. The resulting modelled interior sound spectrum should not deviate more than a few decibels from the corresponding recorded sound.

  • 146.
    Larsson, Jörgen
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Yahya, Mohammad-Reza
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Bältesanvändning i Sverige 20142015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    VTI has observed seat belt use in a number of towns in southern Sweden since 1983. The observations in 2014 were made over a total of ten days in August–September 2014. In total, approximately 57,200 passenger cars, 1,300 taxi cars and 9,700 other vehicles, e.g. trucks were observed. During the whole survey period, 1983–2014, seat belt use among drivers and front seat passengers has been at a considerably higher and more uniform level than among back seat passengers. At the beginning of the surveys, 84–86 per cent of drivers and front seat passengers already wore a seat belt. Today, the levels are 96–97 per cent, a slight decline from the previous year. When VTI commenced the surveys in 1983, seat belt use by adult back seat passengers was at a modest 10 per cent. When the law requiring all adult occupants to wear seat belts in passenger cars came into force on 1 July 1986, the figure quickly increased to 60 per cent. According to the latest observations, approximately 81 per cent of all adult back seat passengers wear a seat belt, which is lower than the level 2013 (84 per cent). In the back seat, children have always had a much higher belt use than the adults, which also applies to 2014, when slightly more than 95 per cent of children in the back seat were belted. This is a slight decline compared to last year.

  • 147.
    Linder, Astrid
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Svedberg, Wanna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Occupant safety assessment in European regulatory tests: review of occupant models, gaps and suggestion for bridging any gaps2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are two parts to the aim of this study. The first part was to review how adult men and women are represented in regulatory tests conducted to assess adult occupant safety in vehicles. Based on the results of the review an outline for how to better represent the adult population in regulatory tests was suggested. The second part of the aim, described as emancipatory knowledge of interest, included highlighting the values declared in the Treaty on European Union and the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (hereinafter referred as "the Treaties"). This means that the purpose of the knowledge is to recognize the legal values of equality between women and men, as well as non-discrimination on which the Union is founded, article 2 of the Treaty on European Union. as expressed in the above-mentioned Treaties. In addition to that to contribute to women's and men's liberation and to the development of society.

  • 148.
    Linder, Astrid
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Svedberg, Wanna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Review of average sized male and female occupant models in European regulatory safety assessment tests and European laws: Gaps and bridging suggestions2019In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 127, p. 156-162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are two parts to the aim of this study. The first part comprised reviewing how men and women are represented in regulatory tests conducted to assess adult occupant safety in vehicles in Europe. This part also contains an overview of some differences between females and males that may influence dynamic responses in a crash. Based on the results of the review an outline for how to better represent the adult population in regulatory tests has been suggested. The second part was to reflect on these issues from a specific critical legal perspective, that is from a Gender Legal Studies point of view, focusing on the European legal framework that governs the tests of adult occupant safety in vehicles in Europe. Since the beginning of the 1970s legal scholars have shown in several areas of law that there is a gap between superior legislation and practice, but also between gender equality as a superior legal principle and subordinate legal rules that govern safety requirements. The same pattern can be discerned in the area of Transportation Law.

    The results of the review of the ECE regulations shows that the average sized male represents the adult population and that the average sized female has been excluded from regulations assessing the protection of adult vehicle occupants. The fundamental values, on which the Union is founded, including the overarching goals of the Union, seem to be rendered invisible in the laws and critically impact the safety of women in everyday life. According to the gender system theory, the interests and priorities of men are continuing to shape the law. Consequently, the law neglecting the safety of women on roads has implications on the development of society. The lack of legal provisions that demand female crash test dummies representing the female part of the population, means that there is no incentive for car manufacturers, authorities or other stakeholders to develop test methods and female crash test dummies in ways that promote political objectives expressed in legal form, i.e., the legal values expressed in general provisions and principles stated in the Treaty on European Union and the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, such as gender equality between women and men as well as non-discrimination This study highlights the undeniable gap between the legal framework and legal requirements with regard to occupant safety for the whole adult population. It would be attainable to bridge this particular gender gap by providing equal representation for the female part of the population with regard to vehicle safety, as that males benefit from.

  • 149.
    Little, Chelsea J
    et al.
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Molau, Ulf
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Alatalo, Juha M
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Community and species-specific responses to simulated global change in two subarctic-alpine plant communities2015In: Ecosphere, ISSN 2150-8925, E-ISSN 2150-8925, Vol. 6, no 11, article id 227Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Long-term observational studies have detected greening and shrub encroachment in the subarctic attributed to current climate change, while global change simulations have showed that community composition and productivity may shift drastically in arctic, subarctic, and alpine tundra plant communities in the future. However, responses to global change can be highly species- and contextdependent. We examined community-level and species-specific responses to a six-year factorial temperature and nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus) amendment experiment in two alpine plant communities in northern Sweden: a species-poor dwarf shrub heath, and a more species-rich meadow. We hypothesized that abundance responses to global change would be variable within commonly defined vascular plant functional groups (e.g., forbs, evergreen shrubs, deciduous shrubs) and that new species would appear in experimental plots over time due to the ameliorated growing conditions. We found that within most functional groups, species were highly individualistic with respect to the global change simulation, particularly within the forbs, whereas within the shrubs, responses were neutral to negative and widely variable in magnitude. In the heath community the response of the graminoid functional group was driven almost entirely by the grass Calamagrostis lapponica, which increased in abundance by an order of magnitude in the combined temperature and nutrient treatment. Furthermore, community context was important for species' responses to the simulations. Abundance of the pan-arctic species Carex bigelowii and Vaccinium vitis-idaea responded primarily to the temperature treatment in the meadow community whereas the nutrient treatment had stronger effects in the heath community. Over six growing seasons, more new species appeared in the experimental plots than in control plots in the meadow community, whereas in the heath community only one new species appeared. Our results from two closely situated but different plant communities show that functional groups do not predict individual species responses to simulated global change, and that these responses depend to a large extent on pre-existing physical conditions as well as biotic interactions such as competition and facilitation. It may be difficult to apply general trends of global change responses to specific local communities. Copyright: © 2015 Little et al.

  • 150.
    Lundberg, Joacim
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment. KTH.
    Non-Exhaust PM10 and Road Dust2018Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Non-exhaust PM10 is an issue in the urban environment linked to health issues. Emissions of non-exhaust PM10 is relatable to pavement properties. Also of importance is resuspension of road dust stored from surfaces. This depends on the traffic and metrological conditions. Given this, the purpose of the thesis was to give an overview limited to Sweden and the Nordic countries regarding non-exhaust PM10 emissions and road dust.

    The overview includes how particles are related to human health. Also included is the principle of how particles are emitted from road surface and tyre interaction, both directly and through resuspension of road dust. This thesis also includes an overview of how the use of studded tyres impact on asphalt surfacings and how the properties of the materials used impact on the abrasion wear. This is then linked to the emissions of non-exhaust particles. Further described is how measurements can be done of ambient particles and road dust, followed on two major models for road abrasion wear and non-exhaust PM prediction. Also included is how road operation, e.g. traction sanding and dust binding, influence the particle emissions together with other options to reduce the emissions through, e.g. limiting the use of studded tyres.

    One special issue discussed in this thesis is the lack of holistic view regarding the environmental problems in the urban environment with focus on particle emissions and road noise emissions, both from the road surface and tyre interaction. Currently the most problematic issue is prioritized and the resulting solution to that specific problem might increase other problems.

    This thesis shows that much knowledge is available regarding non-exhaust PM10 emissions and road dust, but also that several knowledge gaps exists. Several suggestions on further studies is given together with a brief overview on the continued work forward from this thesis.

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