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  • 101.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    The Human Sustainable Development Index2018In: Routledge Handbook of Sustainability Indicators / [ed] Simon Bell and Stephen Morse, Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge, 2018, p. 284-293Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 102.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies. Coll Carlo Alberto, Turin, Italy.
    The Human Sustainable Development Index: New calculations and a first critical analysis2014In: Ecological Indicators, ISSN 1470-160X, E-ISSN 1872-7034, Vol. 37, p. 145-150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Human Sustainable Development Index (HSDI) has been proposed as a way to amend the United Nations’ Human Development Index (HDI) by adding an environmental dimension. Despite some attention in the media, the HSDI remained largely ignored by the scientific community. This paper aims at overcoming this issue by presenting an updated version of the index, based on recently available UN data, including a complete description of the procedure leading to its calculation and a critical assessment of its relation with some established environmental indicators. We found that, while the HSDI represents a step ahead from the HDI, it remains insufficient in its representation of environmental sustainability. A better equilibrium between social, economic and environmental goals is needed to reach a true index of sustainable development.

  • 103.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    The human sustainable development index: The 2014 update2015In: Ecological Indicators, ISSN 1470-160X, E-ISSN 1872-7034, Vol. 50, p. 258-259Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 104.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Farjam, Mike
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Prospects and Challenges for the Computational Social Sciences2017In: Journal of universal computer science (Online), ISSN 0948-695X, E-ISSN 0948-6968, Vol. 23, no 11, p. 1057-1069Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Computational social sciences (CSS) refer to computer-enabled investigations of human behaviour and social interaction. They include three main components - (i) computational modelling and social simulation, (ii) the analysis of digital traces of online interactions, (iii) virtual labs and online experiments - and allow researchers to perform studies that were even hard to imagine a few decades ago. Moreover, CSS favour a more systematic test of theories and increase the possibility of study replication, two factors holding the potential to help social sciences reach a higher scientific status. Despite the huge potential of CSS, we follow previous works in identifying several impediments to a larger adoption of computational methods in social sciences. Most of them are linked with the humanistic attitude and a lack of technical skills of many social scientist. Significant changes in the basic training of social scientist and in the relation patterns with other disciplines and departments are needed before the potential of CSS can be fully exploited.

  • 105.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Farjam, Mike
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Moreno, Francisco Grimaldo
    University of Valencia, Spain.
    Birukou, Aliaksandr
    Springer Nature, Germany.
    Squazzoni, Flaminio
    University of Brescia, Italy.
    Hidden connections: Network effects on editorial decisions in four computer science journals2018In: Journal of Informetrics, ISSN 1751-1577, E-ISSN 1875-5879, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 101-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to examine the influence of authors’ reputation on editorial bias in scholarly journals. By looking at eight years of editorial decisions in four computer science journals, including 7179 observations on 2913 submissions, we reconstructed author/referee-submission networks. For each submission, we looked at reviewer scores and estimated the reputation of submission authors by means of their network degree. By training a Bayesian network, we estimated the potential effect of scientist reputation on editorial decisions. Results showed that more reputed authors were less likely to be rejected by editors when they submitted papers receiving negative reviews. Although these four journals were comparable for scope and areas, we found certain journal specificities in their editorial process. Our findings suggest ways to examine the editorial process in relatively similar journals without recurring to in-depth individual data, which are rarely available from scholarly journals.

  • 106.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies. DISA; CSS.
    Farjam, Mike
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies. DISA; CSS.
    Nikolaychuk, Olexandr
    Solving climate dilemmas is a trivial task (on MTurk)2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 107.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Grimaldo, Francisco
    Univ Valencia, Spain.
    Lopez-Inesta, Emilia
    Univ Valencia, Spain.
    Mehmani, Bahar
    Elsevier,Netherlands.
    Squazzoni, Flaminio
    Univ Milan, Italy.
    The effect of publishing peer review reports on referee behavior in five scholarly journals2019In: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 10, article id 322Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To increase transparency in science, some scholarly journals are publishing peer review reports. But it is unclear how this practice affects the peer review process. Here, we examine the effect of publishing peer review reports on referee behavior in five scholarly journals involved in a pilot study at Elsevier. By considering 9,220 submissions and 18,525 reviews from 2010 to 2017, we measured changes both before and during the pilot and found that publishing reports did not significantly compromise referees' willingness to review, recommendations, or turn-around times. Younger and non-academic scholars were more willing to accept to review and provided more positive and objective recommendations. Male referees tended to write more constructive reports during the pilot. Only 8.1% of referees agreed to reveal their identity in the published report. These findings suggest that open peer review does not compromise the process, at least when referees are able to protect their anonymity.

  • 108.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Laitinen, Mikko
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Levin, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Löwe, Welf
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM), Department of Computer Science.
    Petersson, Göran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Big Data in Cross-Disciplinary Research: J.UCS Focused Topic2017In: Journal of universal computer science (Online), ISSN 0948-695X, E-ISSN 0948-6968, Vol. 23, no 11, p. 1035-1037Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 109.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Pardalis, Georgios
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Mainali, Brijesh
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Physical vs. Aesthetic Renovations: Learning from Swedish House Owners2019In: Buildings, ISSN 2075-5309, E-ISSN 2075-5309, Vol. 9, no 1, article id 12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we identify the socio-economic attributes and attitudes that have influencedhouse owners in renovating their homes in the past. Our study is based on responses to an onlinequestionnaire survey of 971 house owners living in Kronoberg County in Sweden. Results showedthat the interest and willingness of the house owners to perform a renovation varied dependingon their demographic background and the age of the house. The latter positively affected pastrenovations, only when combined with the residence time. Furthermore, the age of house ownersstrongly and positively affected the probability of performing aesthetic type of renovations, becauseof a long time of residence in the house. Younger, town living, and highly educated house ownersseem to be more concerned regarding saving energy, which motivated them to perform physicalrenovations on their house. Our results also suggest that income, level of education, and place ofresidence have an effect on renovation decisions only through their effect on the energy concern ofhouse owners, and a varied effect on renovation decisions, when combined with the time of residencein the house.

  • 110.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies. Collegio Carlo Alberto, Moncalieri, Italy.
    Squazzoni, Flaminio
    University of Brescia, Italy.
    Exit, punishment and rewards in commons dilemmas: An experimental study2013In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 8, article id e69871Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Commons dilemmas are interaction situations where a common good is provided or exploited by a group of individuals so that optimal collective outcomes clash with private interests. Although in these situations, social norms and institutions exist that might help individuals to cooperate, little is known about the interaction effects between positive and negative incentives and exit options by individuals. We performed a modified public good game experiment to examine the effect of exit, rewards and punishment, as well as the interplay between exit and rewards and punishment. We found that punishment had a stronger effect than rewards on cooperation if considered by itself, whereas rewards had a stronger effect when combined with voluntary participation. This can be explained in terms of the `framing effect', i.e., as the combination of exit and rewards might induce people to attach higher expected payoffs to cooperative strategies and expect better behaviour from others.

  • 111.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Squazzoni, Flaminio
    University of Brescia, Italy.
    Takács, Károly
    Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Hungary.
    Intermediaries in Trust: Indirect Reciprocity, Incentives, and Norms2015In: Journal of Applied Mathematics, ISSN 1110-757X, E-ISSN 1687-0042, Vol. 2015, p. 1-12, article id 234528Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Any trust situation involves a certain amount of risk for trustors that trustees could abuse. In some cases, intermediaries exist whoplay a crucial role in the exchange by providing reputational information. To examine under what conditions intermediary opinioncould have a positive impact on cooperation, we designed two experiments based on a modified version of the investment gamewhere intermediaries rated the behaviour of trustees under various incentive schemes and different role structures. We found thatintermediaries can increase trust if there is room for indirect reciprocity between the involved parties. We also found that the effectof monetary incentives and social norms cannot be clearly separable in these situations. If properly designed, monetary incentivesfor intermediaries can have a positive effect. On the one hand, when intermediary rewards are aligned with the trustor’s interest,investments and returns tend to increase. On the other hand, fixed monetary incentives perform less than any other incentiveschemes and endogenous social norms in ensuring trust and fairness. These findings should make us reconsider the mantra ofincentivization of social and public conventional policy.

  • 112.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies. Coll Carlo Alberto, I-10024 Moncalieri, Italy.
    Vallino, Elena
    University of Torino, Italy.
    Cerutti, Alessandro K.
    University of Torino, Italy.
    Pairotti, Maria Beatrice
    University of Torino, Italy.
    Alternative scenarios of green consumption in Italy: An empirically grounded model2013In: Environmental Modelling & Software, ISSN 1364-8152, E-ISSN 1873-6726, Vol. 47, p. 225-234Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Any transition towards a more environmentally sustainable world will strongly depend on people’swillingness to adopt the best available practices. We present here the Consumption Italy (CITA) model, anempirically grounded agent-based model designed to represent household consumption in Italy and toestimate the related greenhouse gas emissions under different environmental policy scenarios. Weexplored the effect of a price increase for high impact goods and services (e.g., because of the intro-duction carbon taxes) and of a change of agents’ environmental concern (e.g., because of informationcampaigns). We found that both kind of actions can orient people consumption in the desired direction.However, their target and intensity should be carefully calibrated to produce significant effects at anacceptable cost.

  • 113.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Yantseva, Victoria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Cooperation and conflict in segregated populations2018In: Social science computer review, ISSN 0894-4393, E-ISSN 1552-8286, p. 1-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Humans behavior often varies depending on the opponent’s group membership, with both positive consequences (e.g., cooperation or mutual help) and negative ones (e.g., stereotyping, oppression, or even genocide). An influential model developed by Hammond and Axelrod (HA) highlighted the emergence of macrolevel “ethnocentric cooperation” from the aggregation of microlevel interactions based on arbitrary tags signaling group membership. We extended this model to include a wider set of agents’ behaviors including the possibility of harming others. This allowed to check whether and under which conditions xenophobia can emerge beside or in alternative to ethnocentric cooperation. The model was compared to Swedish data documenting social unrest and proxies of cooperative behaviors at the municipal level. The validation results supported the model predictions on conflict but not the ones on cooperation, casting doubts on HA’s original argument.

  • 114.
    Broo, David
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Discussing the durability of peace: will it prevail in Colombia?2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis contributes to the debate on what makes peace durable by developing an analytical tool that, based on the current research status on what makes peace agreements last, intends to evaluate peace agreements on their capacity to maintain peace. The research was done through a qualitative desk study, using the Colombian peace agreement which was signed in 2016. The agreement, as it is finally negotiated, is according to the analytical framework estimated to have a reasonably good chance to being durable.

  • 115.
    Bruto, Emma
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    När det finns skäl till missnöje: En studie om polisanställdas upplevelser av polisreformen från 20152017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: When there are reasons for dissatisfaction - A study about police employees experiences about the policereform from 2015

    Author: Emma Bruto

     

    This study aims to understand what impact the police reform from 2015 has had on the police work and employees whitin the Swedish police authority. The study is based on a qulitative approach and the empirical material has been sampled through interviews with employees whitin the police authority. Both police and civil employees have been interviewed, a total of seven informants.

     

    The study is based on several theoretical concept. (1) Sennets aspect of the un-free emloyee. (2) Norms. (3) Organizational concept. (4) Work identity. (5) Center and periphery. All concepts help me understand how the employees are affected by the organizational change and how they percieive the changes.

     

    The resulats shows that the work has been affected by reduced resources in terms of fewer employees. This has affected employees in such a way that they can't longer do their work in the same way as they could before. It has also affected the workload in a way that employees must do the same amount of jobs on fewer employees. The results also shows that it has been a centralization in the organization which affects the employees and how they percieive that they can perform their work. Finally, the results shows that leadership and participation in the reform have been significant for the employees and the turnout of the reform.

  • 116.
    Bäck, Sabina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Volunteer Tourism: How the public opinion has changed and how Post-development ideas are shaping the discourse on volunteer tourism2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Volunteer tourism is a globally, popular and well-known field in which anyone may participate. During recent years the industry has increasingly received some criticism, in contrast to the otherwise quite commonly positive view of it. Hence, this thesis is taking a closer look at the industry and the discourse surrounding it and how the public opinion has changed during the last years. It will bring into light the impact volunteer tourism has both on the local communities and the volunteer tourists themselves. This will be done with respect to the following cases; positive, critical and seeing both sides of the discourse. The data derives from secondary and tertiary sources, the majority from articles from four of the world’s biggest newspapers. Post-Development theory will be used to identify the ideas regarding the discourse, which will be done with an approach of structured, focused comparison and critical discourse analysis. Additionally it will aim to identify the pros and cons with volunteer tourism and discuss why one of the perspectives might require more attention than it has had up until now. Significantly though, it will aim to provide the reader with an overall and objective view of the field. 

  • 117.
    Bäckström, Ronja
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Keusch Duvsjö, Jennifer
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Real learning or just school for all? : Discrepancies between enrolment numbers and learning results in India2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As the United Nations Millennium Development Goals, MDGs, are coming closer to the target year of 2015, this study joins the ongoing debate about the achieved results with a focus on India. While India has seen great improvements concerning the second MDG, which is for all children to enrol and complete primary education, the country has for the past years been facing a challenge of decreasing learning results. The focus of this study is the effect that the increased enrolment has on the learning outcomes, measured in arithmetic and reading ability. This paper is based on a field study conducted in the rural southern parts of West Bengal, India. The data primarily originate from semi-structured interviews with teachers, families of school children and field observations. The findings are analysed through Bourdieu’s framework of habitus. By analysing the situation through Bourdieu’s three forms of capital; economic, cultural and social, the study aims to broaden the understanding of the declining learning results in Indian primary schools. The study concludes that one has to look beyond the concept of habitus in order to get the full picture of why the children do not learn as much as they did before. Though habitus can be seen as a contributing factor to the decline, this due to the increased enrolment of children from a weaker habitus; that have different prerequisites for learning, this effect could be enhanced through migration of children with a stronger educational habitus from the public to private school system. However, this paper shows that other factors such as the role of the teachers and lack of focus on the fundamentals for learning might be more important when looking at the lower academic performance.

     

     

     

    Key words: India, West Bengal, Primary education, Decrease in learning achievements, Bourdieu, Habitus

  • 118.
    Cabrera, Viktoria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Defining the Roma in the work for Roma inclusion2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 119.
    Carlsson, Isabell
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Conceptualizing environmentally displaced people: A comparative case study of Bangladesh and Tuvalu 2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Despite extensive research on the effects of climate change on the displacement of populations, there is a lack of clarity in how environmentally displaced people should be conceptualized. As yet, there is no legal international definition agreed upon. There is however a broad debate on conceptualization, scholars whom argue that these people can be defined as environmental refugee whereas other scholars criticize the definition of a direct link between environment and displacement. This research explores this debate through a comparative case study that examines the implications of climate related displacement for two countries: (i) Bangladesh and (ii) Tuvalu. The case draws on the theoretical debate around displacement, together with a theoretically derived model of environmental displacement.

     

    The findings consider how climate change will affect Bangladesh and Tuvalu and focuses on the countries’ national efforts to respond - efforts that call out for the international community to help and take responsibility. An analysis of the conceptualization of environmentally displaced people shows the difficulty of defining this status, due to the lack of an established international definition. In particular it means a lack in knowing who has the responsibility to protect these people now, and in the future. In a world where climate change will continue to affect both people and nature it is of importance to clarify these areas. By contributing to the topic of climate related displacement this study therefore brings forward the importance of the need for conceptualizing environmentally displaced people to give them the protection needed. 

  • 120.
    Casey, Jonathan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Understanding High Dropout Rates in Primary School Education in Mozambique2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Mozambique remains one of the poorest countries in the world and has one of the least functional basic education systems. Despite a rapid expansion in access to basic education, the vast majority of pupils fail to complete a full seven year cycle of primary school. This research aims to better understand the characteristics, causes and consequences of children dropping out of primary school among low income families in rural areas. The research is based upon a qualitative fieldwork study in Ribáué, a rural district in the northern province of Nampula.

    Theoretically orientated by the Capabilities Approach, giving a holistic conception of education and development, this research will analyse the findings using the Sustainable Rural Livelihoods (SRL) framework. Such a model enables the analysis to incorporate a diverse range of household, societal and exogenous aspects to give a rich interpretation of the situation.

    Given education’s prominence in many development discourses, particularly in relation to the Millennium Development Goals and the forthcoming post-2015 agenda, this research aims to contribute a deeper understanding of the role of education in such situations, what factors influence the dropout phenomenon, and the consequences of children failing to finish primary school.

    The results indicate that dropouts are characterised by situations of extreme income poverty interacting with exogenous factors which create vulnerable livelihoods and where the quality of education is considered low. The causes of dropouts generally relate to families’ lack of resilience to cope with socio-economic shocks and the paucity of post-school opportunities. The consequences are severe for the individuals, their families and Mozambique, resulting in limited capacity to create sustainable livelihoods. There is also a likely transgenerational effect, with future generations afflicted by persistent vulnerability due to a lack of capabilities and opportunities from not completing school.

  • 121.
    Chahrour, Lajal
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Friberg, Jessica
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Svårigheten med att bryta mönster: En kvalitativ studie om före detta kriminellas livsstilsförändring2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Our study is about how individuals leave their old lifestyle of criminals to be con-criminals. Which results in this question – How can we understand the process which entails to a successful lifestyle change? To get a deeper understanding about the turn-out of the process have we been taking help by four theories, Hirschi, Tilly, Granovetter and Ebaugh. Hirschi’s theory answer the following question “Why don’t people break the law?” This question answers which factors that separates criminals and non-criminals from each other. Tilly’s theory is formed to answer the inequalities origin, development and how it’s constantly reproducing itself. Through this we get an understanding of why it’s difficult to leave a network and through that, we understand which mechanisms binds an individual to a network. By knowing this we can revaluate the knowledge and therefore answer the question which mechanisms are necessary in the network of binding the individual. Granovetter’s network-theory explains how the social relationships may have an impact on the results of the lifestyle change. Ebaugh’s stage-theory about role exit explains how a process against a changed lifestyle seems. The result that we have concluded, through collected empiricism from 10 con-criminals, have different components from mainly the three latter theories. We have been taking help of Hirschi’s theory to understand Granovetter’s network-theory, regarding how a tie develops to a stronger tie. The results that appeared after the interviews from our informants from KRIS (Kriminellas Revansch I Samhället), were that their lifestyle change emerged as a result after an episode in their life made them doubt their own life-situation and lifestyle. Those events were often connected to bad health or to relationships that didn’t have the same value as the previous ones. These events contribute that the individual starts to doubt and search for alternatives paths. To our informants have KRIS been the alternative path and through combining Tilly’sand Granovetter’s theories, we can be able to understand why and how our informants are successful with their lifestyle change. Thanks to our interviews with our informants we can find common factors, even if they came from different contexts, and through components from the different theories we can create us an analysis model that explains a successful lifestyle change.

  • 122.
    Che, Denis Ben
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Livelihood strategies ofrefugees:: A study of NakivaleRefugee Settlement in Uganda2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Every day people are forced by either, war, conflict, natural disasters or other uncontrollable circumstances to either leave their native lands to seek refuge in other nations or they are being displaced within their country. While they may find temporal succour from the disasters that push them out of their country, they are yet faced with other greater challenges as they become highly dependent on the generosity of the international community and the receiving countries for their survival and livelihood. In most cases if not all, the reliance on handouts from the international community and the host government leaves these people of concern more vulnerable and become more dependent on humanitarian assistance. In situations where humanitarian assistance cannot sufficiently provide for the basic needs of displaced persons, they seek alternative ways to negotiate livelihoods. The benefit of social networks has been established to be resourceful to people of this category; however, when positive coping mechanism becomes disenfranchised some indulge in negative coping mechanisms.The sustainable livelihood framework will be applied to understand the vulnerability context of refugees in the settlement. This model looks at the various capital assets available for the refugees and the various possibilities of negotiating a better live in the settlement. The study shows that refugees are entrapped in the settlement with little options to seek alternative means to survive. Refugees are actively adopting survival strategies such as petty trading, farming and labour assistance to the locals among others.This paper explore the various strategies implored by the refugees in negotiating livelihoods and the role of agencies in promoting livelihood options that are impacting the refugees positively within the settlement. These options provides independence to refugees and lessen the burden of host communities.

  • 123.
    Chen, Liwei
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Impact of gender discrimination on workplace gender inequalities in China in the last decade2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    China is confronted with serious issue of gender inequality and discrimination in workplace. There are some key factors leading to gender inequality, such as the lack of laws and regulations and organizations’ goal of maximizing profit. Gender discrimination has serious and negative impact on employers, employees and investment of human capital. More seriously, gender inequality and discrimination have changed in the last decade. Gender discrimination has become more comprehensive and serious, motivating a more detailed investigation.  This research investigates gender inequality issue in workplaces in China during the last decade, using interviews as the methodology. Recent changes and the current situation of gender inequality and discrimination in the workplace in China are analyzed in the research.

    The key findings of the research are as follows. Gender discrimination is found comprehensively in workplaces in China, and results in serious gender inequalities. Causal factors include as well as Employees who suffer from gender inequality, may get fewer working opportunities, unequal treatment, and lower salary. The trend of gender inequality and discrimination has become more general.

    In conclusion, the thesis proposes measures to address the gender inequality and discrimination in workplace in China. The first is to form and implement rules and regulations in the legal and organizational system to strengthen the management of gender inequality issue. Secondly, the organizational cultures should be improved. Finally, professional training is proposed for organizational leadership as well as employees.

  • 124.
    Christian, Nyquist
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Facebookvägrare: ”En studie om den sociala betydelsen av att frivilligt välja att inte använda Facebook”2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 125.
    Cochva, Nicki
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Boesen, Louise
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Vad motiverar motiveraren?: En kvalitativ studie om kontaktmän på en kriminalvårdsanstalt2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The formation of the profession "contact acumen" has its explanation in the development of the 19th century prison and the transition of penalties and sanctions which went from being death- and corporal punishment oriented to become more treatment oriented. The role as contact acumen therefore entails a dual role, consisting of the roles as correctional officers as well as caregivers. The role as caregiver includes motivational work with the clients with the purpose to prevent recidivism.  The complexity of the dual role led us to this studies overall question: "what motivates contact acumen to motivate their clients?". The aim of the study was to investigate how various motivational factors affected contact acumen’s motivation and performance of tasks from their point of view. To answer the aim, we chose to do seven semi-structured interviews with contact acumen at a correctional institution. The result and the analysis highlighted several significant motivational factors. The factors that mainly increased the contact acumens motivation was a variety of tasks, feedback, trust and support between employees as well as working with the clients. The factors that mostly led to demotivation was schedules that led to lack of time for execution of tasks, unclear objectives and guidelines and lastly demotivated clients. The factors that mainly affected the execution of tasks were demotivated clients, lack of time for execution of tasks and unclear objectives and guidelines.   

  • 126.
    Coelho, Rita
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Veganism: Motivations and obstacles2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The interest in vegetarianism and veganism is increasing and the dietary option of abstaining from animal food products is currently a widely discussed and social relevant issue.The present study aims to provide a quantitative overview of the vegan diet, particularly the sociological aspects related to adoption, maintenance and obstacles connected with this diet.

    A web-based survey was conducted on facebook groups related tovegetarianism and veganism. 8531 participants (86.3% females) answered the survey, from those 6761 were vegan. Moral/ethical, animal and environmental protection, and health benefits seem to be the main reasons to adopt a vegan diet. Furthermore, demographic factors seem to have an effect on both the adoption and maintenance of a vegan diet. Younger participants appear to put more relevance on ethical/moral reasons, environmental and animal protection for adopting and maintaining a vegan diet. Living in a vegan household suggests less perceived difficulties and obstacles to the maintenance of a vegan diet and highers the relevance of moral/ethical reasons, environmental and animal protections as main motivations for a vegan diet. Also, being a female seems to higher health benefits as a source of inspiration to start a vegan diet but it also seems to increase the perceived difficulties.

  • 127.
    Dahlqvist, Nike
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Larsson, Samuel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Off-Grid Solar Energy and Its Impacts on Rural Livelihoods : A Case Study on Tanzania2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Energy poverty and lack of access to electricity is a global problem which is recognised in the sustainable development goal 7. Today 1.2 billion people live without access to electricity and most of them are situated in Sub-Saharan Africa where biomass still constitutes the main source of energy. Rural areas are unproportionally affected by this throughout SSA since grid-extension has been slow and most rural dwellers are not connected to any form of electricity grid. Extending the grid to more isolated rural areas may however be economically and politically infeasible which is why off-grid solutions is an attractive solution to close the energy poverty gap. Off-grid solar energy has during recent years been increasingly promoted as viable solution to provide clean, affordable and accessible energy to rural households in SSA. While there is extensive research available on the economic feasibility and socioeconomic impacts of off-grid solar energy, there has been limited research with explicit focus on how livelihoods of rural households in SSA have been impacted from a sustainable livelihood perspective. This case study on Tanzania argues that the sustainable livelihoods perspective is crucial in getting a holistic understanding of how off-grid solar energy has impacted rural households in SSA. Through qualitative interviews with a number of households, businesses and social services in three rural villages located in the Tanga region, this study found that off-grid solar energy overall seemed to have a positive impact on the communities and the livelihoods of individual households. However, some concerns are also raised with the sustainability of off-grid solar energy. While it has great recognised potential and direct impact, some key challenges were identified as issue of energy security for the household and concerns of economic feasibility in the solar energy sector.

  • 128. Dahnsdotter, Nathalie
    et al.
    Ewald, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Det civila samhället och internationellt utvecklingssamarbete: Forskningsöversikt. Samhällsplanering och miljö.2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten gör en översikt av svensk forskning kring civilsamhälle organisationer och deras roll i det internationella utvecklingssamarbetet.

  • 129.
    Dannefjord, Per
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Eriksson, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, The University Administration.
    Punk, klass och karriär2013In: ARKIV. Tidskrift för samhällsanalys, ISSN 2000-6225, E-ISSN 2000-6217, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 97-113Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Punken, musikstilen och ungdomsrörelsen som bröt fram under andra halvan av 1970-talet, är samtidigt både omskriven och svår att ringa in. Med sin undersökning av vad punken betytt som socialt sammanhang för dem som var med, lägger Per Dannefjord och Magnus Eriksson en pusselbit till vår förståelse av denna ökända ungdomskultur. I artikeln jämför de den sociala bakgrunden och den nuvarande klasspositionen för den första generationens punkare i Sverige, aktiva mellan 1978 och 1982. Tvärtemot vad olyckskorpar under ”punkeran” trodde, visar det sig att punkarna lyckats bättre vad gäller både utbildningsnivå och social position jämfört med sin generation som helhet. Dannefjord och Eriksson ger två förklaringar till framgången: dels att punkens socialt brokiga sammansättning skapade en miljö där nya möjligheter blev synliga för framför allt ungdomar med arbetarbakgrund; dels att punken erbjöd läroprocesser som gav resurser som kunde utnyttjas i yrkes- och utbildningskarriärer inom framför allt kultursektorn.

  • 130.
    Dautbegovic, Sanja
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    "Innan var det mer svart, vitt och fyrkantigt": En studie om organisationsförändring och dess inverkan på arbetskultur och struktur2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 131.
    Davidsson, Camilla
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Anderson, Elina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Caught in the twilight zone: Mobile money - one solution to the multiple expectations faced by married women in Mbarara, Uganda2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Women’s subordination in marital relations is a problematic issue causing socio-economic imbalance between spouses. These issues are found within the system of Uganda’s patriarchal society. Mobile money (m-money) is a service that entered the Ugandan market in 2009 that allows transferring and withdrawing money and paying bills with your cellphone without being connected to a formal bank. Earlier research shows positive impact of m-money use for women’s entrepreneurship in a male-privileged society. These realities render interest towards investigating how m-money effects women and if it has any impact on their self esteem in their marital relation.

    The study aims to understand the effect of women’s use of m-money in a marital relation. The field study was carried out in Mbarara using interviews and observations to approach the issue. Ugandan women have a lower position within the marital relation as well as in society in general since it is the man who heads of the family. The study reveals an existing lack of trust between spouses, resulting in the exclusion of one another from their individual finances. This lack of trust becomes an impediment of mutual support within the marriage. Furthermore the study shows that women from a higher strata use m-money as a security line of income and gives leeway to meet both traditional expectations such as care taking of children and modern expectations to be employed within the formal sector. The lower strata of women who use m-money tend to protect the money from their husbands who have different priorities than their wives.

    Through m-money women are given a tool allowing them to circumvent economic confrontations between the spouses and the societal hierarchal structures. The economic security creates a reality where women are less vulnerable because of their independence. The gained independence can however be deemed as a less bad alternative to dependence as it gives them a stronger foundation to manage the combination of the above-mentioned traditional and modern expectations within society. 

  • 132.
    Davila, Diego
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Supporting integration processes with social computing applications. A case of study: Kronoberg, Sweden in 20172019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The widespread diffusion of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) and its integration in our day-to-day activities, has transformed our societies in different ways (Cachia, 2007).  The potential and current application of technology devices and computing applications for improving peoples’ quality life has become an important area of study for different think tanks; and subject of constant regulation and policies by governments and multilateral organizations. Thus, Benton and Glennie (2016) and Cachia et al. (2007) stress on the necessity of conducting studies on the performance of computing applications for improving people`s quality life, and for facilitating integration and inclusion of refugees and asylum seekers, in order to assess the use of ICT technologies for tackling social issues.

     Due to the lack of studies oriented to assess the performance and impact of social computing applications on the integration processes of refugees in Europe; and the current importance of ICT platforms for addressing social issues, this research is designed for contributing on the debate upon the viability of implementing ICT solutions seeking to support integration processes in the region of kronoberg in Sweden.

     The gap identified in the literature upon Information and Communication Technologies for Refugees (ICT4R) and social computing applications for integration, represent an opportunity for contributing with a deeper understanding about the viability and effectivity of these ICT solutions for supporting the integration process of refuges and asylum seekers in Europe. Hence, one of the most important experiences is currently implemented in Sweden, where the Migration Agency and Refugee Tech; “a non-profit organization that works to help new arrivals to orientate themselves in Swedish society” (Swedish Migration Agency, 2016), have jointed efforts to support and to give visibility to all computing applications designed for helping refugees and asylum seekers in the country. 

     

     

  • 133.
    de Brito, August
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    STREET CHILDREN AND THE IMPLEMENTATION OF CHILD PROTECTIONREGULATIONS: COMPARING BRAZIL AND SOUTH AFRICA2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Children are the group of a society that is most vulnerable to the effects of poverty and inequality.Street children, particularly, could represent the ultimate misfortune of poverty and inequality. The problem is enlarged by the indication that the number of street children around the world isincreasing in pace with increasing social inequality.

    This study departs from a rights-based approach of research informed by United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC). The purpose of this study is to compare Brazil and South Africa in their levels of commitment to children's rights, specifically in making internationaland national laws and regulations widely known and enforced in their respective societies, measured through the knowledge and perceptions of NGO-staff not only as professionals, but also as private citizens. The main data sources used were email-surveys and telephone interviews with NGO-staff, alongside with analysis of the CRC and the national child protection regulations in Brazil and South Africa. The main findings of this study represent a step towards covering some of the gaps in the researchliterature concerning street children. These findings are that Brazil and South Africa do not fully cover the contents of the CRC into their national child protection laws. The other finding regards the fact that Brazilian NGOs working with street children do not make consistent use of the national institutions responsible for the protection of children's rights. South African institutions, on theother hand, do make use of the national institutions responsible for the protection of children's rights.

  • 134.
    De Cave, Marco
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Who gives a ‘dam’ about the Omo River in Ethiopia?: Water security and sustainability of the Gibe III dam through a social-ecological analysis2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Large dams represent complex social-ecological systems, perhaps the most complicated projects among large infrastructures. Nowadays, developing and developed countries consider large dams as a viable solution to provide low-cost energy production and flood control for agriculture production. However, the debate about dams is generally focused on technical arrangements, lacking of a holistic perspective of analysis, while their effects may be disruptive for a wider number of factors.

    The present paper proposes to study large dams within the theory of common-pool resources, focusing on the relation between water security and sustainability. The use of a social-ecological framework facilitates a dynamic analysis among different variables of large dams. What is more, it permits a cross-scale analysis, enabling one to understand the extreme complexity of social-ecological changes in a considered system.

    This research will focus on the Ethiopian large dam Gibe III, predicted to start functioning at the end of this year. It is already altering the downstream conditions of Omo River and Lake Turkana, shared by Ethiopia and Kenya, posing a threat to the livelihoods of thousand people. However, the current discussion about it still appears limited to technical solutions to the dam implementation. Arguing the opposite, the social-ecological framework enables one to include information sharing, climate change and collective-choice rules as important elements to be considered to bring the discussion at a broader level of understanding.

    From the analysis of Ethiopia, it is found that large dams cannot alone be the answer to water security if they are not connected to more vast social-economic reforms. The paper argues that the interpretation of large dams must be considered as part of the broader social, ecological and politico-economic situation, transcending from the mere local situation. The overall picture is not whether not to build them or not, as there is not a real choice, but how to foster instruments of analysis that preserve the environment and societies, while defeating poverty.

  • 135. Dehkordi, Molood
    et al.
    Ghorbani, Amineh
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    The role of wealth inequality on collective action formanagement of common pool resource2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 136.
    Delfin, Carl
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences. Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    A Critique on the Use of Statistical Inference in Criminological Research2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The comprehensive over-representation of quantitative methods in criminological research is discussed in relation to the frequent misinterpretations of statistical results and methods. The study leads off with an introduction to essential probability theory together with a historical review of the rise of probability theory and statistics. A number of criminological articles are then examined with respect to their application and interpretation of statistical method and results. A concluding section summarizes the results and offers suggestions for solutions. Metaphysical considerations are discussed cursively throughout the text. 

  • 137.
    Devadoss, Ruth
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Lessons from Listening: The Aid Effectiveness Agenda: A Critical Systems Heuristics analysis of the Grand Bargain and Paris Declaration for Aid Effectiveness from the perspective of implementers and local practitioners2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Wide debates over the last 15 years have questioned the impact of global initiatives like the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness 2005 and more recently the Grand Bargain 2017 on any real improvements to the development effectiveness agenda. Many also ask to what extent do the initiatives consider the concerns and views of practitioners as stakeholders who implement the objectives and who have valuable experience, contextual insights, specific skill-sets and innovative ideas on how to address complex problems (Sjöstedt 2013). The breadth of literature surrounding the initiatives seems to reflect this, collectively calling for improvements in four common theme areas; greater collaboration, partnership and coordination between actors; instilled mutual accountability and shared responsibility; simplified administrative requirements for implementers; and greater participation and inclusion of stakeholder voices throughout processes. Questions that ask ‘who are the actors and decision-makers?’, and ‘who ought they be?’ can highlight gaps between an ideal situation and the reality, and is characteristic of a Critical Systems Heuristics (CSH) approach to analysing sources of influence in a typical system, or in this case, global initiative. Therefore, this paper analyses the voices of aid and development practitioners who are actively working in the sector, and compares their responses to the four themes from the literature.

    The research was conducted over three (3) months from May to July 2018 and interviewed nineteen (19) participants from a wide variety of development and humanitarian backgrounds and levels.

    The main findings of the research are summed as follows:

    • Definitions of ‘effectiveness’ vary and depend on underlying political influences 
    • Global initiatives like the Paris Declaration and Grand Bargain have had minimal visible impact on changing systems at the implementation level
    • The role of global initiatives is however still important as forums for promoting discussion, defining boundaries and unifying debates
    • Power imbalances and hierarchies within the development sector are structurally embedded and addressing this is crucial to improving effectiveness
    • Real improvements to the effectiveness agenda require both innovative, participative and evidence-based learning, and systems to accept and address the concerns of implementers
  • 138.
    Dietmann, Daniel
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    McHaiter, Rachida
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Etiskt ledarskap: Sociologisk undersökning av det etiska ledarskapet bland första linjens chefer2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 139.
    Douglasdotter, Lydia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Understanding the Security-Development Nexus in Swedish foreign policy: Aid, development cooperation and humanitarian assistance policy frameworks2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Since the end of the Cold War, the concepts of development and security and the rise of the security-development nexus has proven to be important and is increasingly used in policy documents by institutions and states. This thesis aims to provide insight on how security and development concepts and their nexus have been used in governments’ foreign policies. Previous research has been focused on multilateral organizations and aid officials and how they have been influenced by the security-development nexus, but a comprehensive analysis on what drives financial and political support has been limited. Therefore, there is a gap that this thesis aims to fill. Methodologically, this thesis uses a text analysis of policy frameworks published by the government of Sweden regarding aid, development cooperation and humanitarian assistance of the years 2013/14 and 2015/16. An abductive reasoning was made with the help of the chosen analytical frameworks in this study. This study concludes that Swedish policy frameworks are using redefinitions of the concepts security and development which results in more broaden use of the concepts. This use of the concepts creates clear policy frameworks, but the policy frameworks do in some passages not elaborate what kind of security that reinforces what kind of development or what kind of definition of security or development that it is referring to.  This leaves the reader with a great room for interpretation that could eventuate in many different outcomes and versions. Furthermore, security and development are presented as concepts which are mutually reinforcing each other and used in four different narratives, or nexuses, when mapping out the security-development nexus.

  • 140.
    Drvenica, Ivana
    et al.
    Univ Belgrade, Serbia.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Vejmelka, Lucija
    Univ Zagreb, Croatia.
    Dekanski, Aleksandar
    Univ Belgrade, Serbia.
    Nedić, Olgica
    Univ Belgrade, Serbia.
    Peer review of reviewers: the author’s perspective2018In: Publications, E-ISSN 2304-6775, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 1-10, article id 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate the opinion of authors on the overall quality and effectiveness of reviewers' contributions to reviewed papers. We employed an on-line survey of thirteen journals which publish articles in the field of life, social or technological sciences. Responses received from 193 authors were analysed using a mixed-effects model in order to determine factors deemed the most important in the authors' evaluation of the reviewers. Qualitative content analysis of the responses to open questions was performed as well. The mixed-effects model revealed that the authors' assessment of the competence of referees strongly depended on the final editorial decision and that the speed of thereview process was influential as well. In Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) analysis on seven questions detailing authors' opinions, perception ofreview speed remained a significant predictor of the assessment. In addition, both the perceived competence and helpfulness of the reviewerssignificantly and positively affected the authors' evaluation. New models were used to re-check the value of these two factors and it was confirmed that the assessment of the competence of reviewers strongly depended on the final editorial decision.

  • 141.
    Duvinger, Emma
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Ensamkommande flickors migration: En komparativ analys av Afghanistan och Somalia2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden is the country in Europe that receives most applicants from asylum seeking unaccompanied children. The majority of all unaccompanied children are boys and the two biggest sending countries are Afghanistan and Somalia. There is however a big difference between the proportion of unaccompanied girls between the two countries, Somalia with a big proportion of girls and Afghanistan with a low proportion of girls. Previous research has shown that there is a big knowledge gap about unaccompanied girls’ migration. Hence this study seek to examine why the proportion of girls differ so much between Afghanistan and Somalia. It does also explore how the girls’ social networks in their home country effects the girls possibilities to migrate. To explain the aim of this study I have used social network theory. To investigate family structures and girls’ social networks in Afghanistan and Somalia I have collected reports from for example the United Nations, the Swedish Migration Board and other countries´ Migration Boards. My main results are that girls from Somalia have bigger social networks that can assist them arrange and support a flight from Somalia. Girls from Somalia are further subjected to threats from persons outside their social networks that can be met with a strategy on household level, like splitting the household and sending the exposed girl abroad. Girls from Afghanistan on the other hand are much harder bound to the private sphere and lack social networks outside their extended family. The threats against girls in Afghanistan emanate from the girls own family which means she can’t get protection from her social network. My result show that for Somali girls’ social networks work as a resource when it comes to girls migration while Afghan girls social networks on the other hand work as an obstacle. 

  • 142.
    E. Ljungblom, Josefin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    At the expense of children: A study of how orphanage tourism drives child trafficking and how it affects the children.2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study raises the issue of the trafficking of children in favor of voluntourism and orphanage tourism. The phenomenon of tourists who engage in volunteer work during a holiday has increased into a considerable form of tourism and turned in to a profitable business.  This thesis is questioning what factors triggers children to be trafficked and sexual exploited within the phenomenon of orphanage tourism and voluntourism. To conclusion of this thesis will question how the phenomenon affects the children. 

    This study is an abductive, qualitative desk-study with a thematic text analysis. The analysis is based on Braun and Clarke’s (2006) six step model where themes are constructed from the findings. The elements that the children within this phenomenon are affected by were categorized into these themes. The themes were afterwards analyzed individually in order to create a holistic picture of how they impact children. 

    The empirical data are all from secondary and tertiary sources out of both academia and media. The findings have been analyzed with the theoretical framework of Johan Galtung and his definition of presence of violence. Galtung’s concept of structural violence has been applied to analyze what drives children to be trafficked- and sexually exploited in connection to orphanage tourism, as well as how this effected the children. 

    The thesis suggests that the main factor, which fuels children to be trafficked in this context, is the demand for accessible children. Orphanage tourism has become a profitable business and a loophole for the corrupt to gain money on socially vulnerable families. This by presenting them to tourist who pay money in good faith and dedicate time from their vacation in belief that they are doing good. 

    The thesis addresses how structural violence is present and how it contributes to the phenomenon of orphanage tourism to keep operating by trafficking children in favor of it. It is also shown that psychological stress within various dimensions, which the children are exposed to, lower their actual realization from the potential. The exploitation they live under leaves the children in a disempowered position, without control of their social condition, which is argued to make a significant difference between their potential life expectancy and actual life expectancy.

  • 143.
    E. Ljungblom, Josefin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    The paradox in humanitarian and legislative approaches: A qualitative field study regarding the children of ethnic groups with history of nomadic origin.2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sama Dilaut are a marginalized, ethnic group in Malaysia and are known as seafaring nomads. The group is found in the whole Coral Triangle. Many groups around the world who share a history of nomadic origin, also face marginalization by society. One cannot help but wonder why these different groups face similar repercussions.

     

    In Malaysia, the Sama Dilaut are stateless and considered to be in the country illegally, despite the fact that the group has been documented to live in the area as far back as the 16th Century. The future prospects for the stateless children in the country due Malaysia’s statement to ratify UN Convention for the Rights of Children but not UN Convention for Stateless People. The NGO, PKPMM, Sabah provides formal schooling for marginalized children in the state of Sabah. It thus seems paradoxical that the state aims to provide educational opportunities, while at the same time attempting to arrest and deport members of the Sama Dilaut.  

     

    This study is conducted as a deductive qualitative field study based on semi-structured interviews to collect empirical data. I traveled to Sabah, on Eastern Borneo in Malaysia, to visit PKPKM Sabah. The qualitative tradition of ethnomethodology provided my approach. Furthermore, the analysis is a thematic text analysis which is primary based on the explanations by Monica Dalen in the book Interview as Method (2011).

     

    The theory the Established and the Outsiders, and the Durable Inequality theory provided the base for this research. These two theories have been used as theoretical framework and analytical assistance. With the awareness that the perspective of western sociology could become indistinct to apply globally. Yet, these two theories are most suitable.

     

    The inequality between, the two categories, Sama Dilaut and the majority society is a natural routine and is manifested in most social contacts them between. This also consolidates and legitimizes the situation and the various positions, the members from each category, are in. Furthermore, it is presented how this takes place over generations; individuals are replaced within the categories, but the categorical behavior consistent. The group of Sama Dilaut does not only deviates from the majority society but also lacks a strong cohesion within their own ethnic group (Elias & Scotson 1999:50-51), which can be applied to other marginalized groups who share a similar history of nomadic traditions.

     

    The organization, PKPKM Sabah, which has been working to legalize their operations, can now provide formal education for the underprivileged children of Sama Dilaut. At the same time, the policy pursued by the government towards illegal immigrants, deprives them of their educational rights, which are granted to them by Education for All. Despite the presence of the PKPKM schools and education centers, the children of Sama Dilaut have very little educational opportunities.

  • 144.
    Edlund, Lisa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Någonstans mitt emellan möjlig och omöjlig: En diskursanalys av Socialstyrelsens och Migrationsverkets publikationer om barn som kommer till Sverige och uppges vara gifta2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här uppsatsen granskar hur ensamkommande unga tjejer, som uppges vara gifta, konstrueras i Migrationsverkets och Socialstyrelsens publiceringar om barn som kommer till Sverige och uppges vara gifta. Problematiken kring barnäktenskap har de senaste åren ökat enligt myndigheterna. Fokus i den här studien ligger främst på ensamkommande tjejer, då de i dessa texter får ett visst utrymme medan de i andra sammanhang, inte minst i medierapportering, tenderar att glömmas bort i skuggan av de ensamkommande killarna. Undersökningen av texterna utgår ifrån en diskursanalytisk ansats med fokus på makt, kunskap, subjektspositioner och diskurser, för att synliggöra hur ensamkommande tjejer som uppges vara gifta framställs i publikationerna. Vidare presenteras tre teman som identifierats i läsningen av materialet och som i uppsatsen analyseras; Vilja med förhinder, rasifieringsprocesser och heder, samt tjejer som är och har problem. Studiens främsta slutsatser är att ensamkommande tjejer som uppges vara gifta hamnar mitt emellan omöjlig och möjlig. De framställs som oförmögna till egen vilja, där vuxna bör tala för dem och ge dem rätt information så att de kan skapa förståelse för sin egentliga vilja. De rasifieras utifrån sin kulturella bakgrund där antaganden om kulturella- och traditionella praktiker i relation till äktenskap och heder kopplas samman. Dessutom blir de symboler för gränsen mellan det svenska och icke svenska där de målas ut till problem: för sig själva och för samhället. Information om möjligheter och rättigheter i Sverige skrivs fram som lösning på problemen.

     

  • 145.
    Edvinsson, Denny
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    The Danger of Defending the Environment in Developing Countries: A structured focused comparison study of Honduras and El Salvador2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The environment is taking a larger part of the debate resulting in the creation of UN declarations, domestic and regional laws, public pressure on companies and politicians to take responsibility, and a greater awareness on our increasingly exploited planet. However, the people who are affected the most, poor and often indigenous people, find themselves in an increasingly dangerous position when they try to defend the planet. Previous research lack understanding on which features that facilitates deadly violence against environmentalists. In contemporary time, three environmentalists per week die when they try to defend the planet from environmental harm, making it more than twice as dangerous as being a journalist. This thesis tries to answer - what explains deadly violence against environmentalists in developing countries by using the method of structured focused comparison (SFC).

    Honduras is the deadliest country per capita for environmentalists and they will be compared with El Salvador, which does not experience a high degree of deadly violence against environmentalists. The attributes tested are chosen in accordance with the analytical framework of Limited Access Orders (LAO). LAOs are controlled by elites who create rents to maintain their power, hence decreasing elites power by enforcing open access orders (OAO) in LAO can result in increased violence. Honduras and El Salvador’s differences suggest that environmentalists have been subjected to enhanced dangerous circumstances in Honduras than environmentalists in El Salvador and historical conditions have resulted in the protection of the environment in El Salvador by the wider social movement. Earlier research in Honduras has pointed at the importance to decrease corruption in order to decrease violence against environmentalists. However, the theory of LAO suggests that attempts to abolish corruption, increase access, institute democracy or increase rule of law surge violence. In order to limit deadly violence against environmentalists, this study suggests that Honduras focus should be at: prevent expropriation, limit international corporations access on natural resources, attain consent from the local communities before starting projects, require corporations and organizations to publish public environmental assessment reports before projects starts that can degrade the environment and increase focus on the manufacturing sector instead of extraction of natural resources.

  • 146.
    Edwards, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Building peace in Libya: UK assistance to foreign Security Sector Reform2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Security Sector Reform (SSR) has been established as a powerful tool in achieving sustainable peace in post-conflict countries, a belief which has strengthened since the events of September 11th 2001, and the subsequent war on terror which has seen both the UK and US heavily involved in peacebuilding operations in both Iraq and Afghanistan. However there is a concern that following these experiences, SSR has become little more than a process of building the military capacity of recipient countries in order to meet the immediate security needs of donor states. If this is true, then it could be interpreted as a regression in security thinking, where policy makers are focusing once again on state-centric notions of security as opposed to a new security thinking which considers the human security of all.

    This Master thesis seeks to investigate the current security thinking behind the United Kingdom’s policies with regard to assisting foreign states in their attempts at Security Sector Reform. Research, in the form of a qualitative content analysis within a case study, was conducted in order to gain an understanding of the UK’s overall assistance strategy in a real world context by identifying specific actions carried out by the UK as part of their involvement in the new Libyan Governments SSR process. These findings were then compared to an internationally recognised standard built on a holistic and long-term understanding of SSR in an analytical process in order to make interpretations and draw conclusions.

    In conclusion, the UK’s assistance strategy can be considered holistic and long-term; centred on building strategic influence within the new Libyan Governments security apparatus in order to effectively advocate the implementation of democratic reform and a human rights based approach to future SSR. However, that the UK is actively providing arms to Libya, despite the concerns of potentially fuelling conflict, leaves one to question how far new security thinking has really permeated British policy making.

  • 147.
    Egbewatt Arrey, Lwanga
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    UNDERSTANDING MULTILATERAL COOPERATION IN AFRICAN PEACE OPERATIONS: AN EXAMINATION OF THE UN-AU-EU PEACE SUPPORT TRILATERAL COOPERATION NEXUS2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Literature on peace operations has revealed that since the end of the Cold war, especially since the early 2000s, there has been a rapid increase in the number of peacekeeping missions around the world, accompanied by an increase in multidimensionality. This development is said to have led to the most prominent organization involved in peacekeeping, the UN, along with others like the AU and EU, to experience an overstretch of their resources, thereby making cooperation between these three organizations necessary in this endeavor. However, the asymmetry of resources between these three organizations and the impact it has on convergence and divergence in their cooperation has not been thoroughly analyzed. This study therefore, utilizing resource exchange theory, attempts to understand the implications and actual impact of resource asymmetry between the UN, AU, and EU in their emerging trilateral cooperation nexus in peace operations in Africa. This study is based on Somalia as a case study, whereby, the goal is to understand how resource asymmetry - owing to assumed resource scarcity - has affected convergence and divergence between the UN, AU, and EU, as well as the roles and functions the organizations are playing in the operation. The findings reveal that resource asymmetry has both an enhancing and an impeding effect on convergence and cooperation as it can lead to efficient division of labor and avoidance of duplication and competition, whilst at the same time provoking divergence and invoking challenges by reinforcing dependence, capacity substitution, and mutual suspicion. The study also concludes that resource scarcity and asymmetry, leading to the leveraging of comparative advantages between the three studied organizations, is not the only influence in determining convergence and divergence in cooperation. Other factors such as political, historical, and economic factors play significant roles in determining convergence and divergence in multilateral peace operations.

    Key words: Peace operations, resource asymmetry, Somalia, cooperation, international organization, conflict, UN, AU, EU

  • 148.
    Ehrenstråhle, Ulrika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Understanding the Situation of Afro-Swedes: Inclusion and Distance of a Minority Group in Sweden2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Earlier research have portrayed Afro-Swedes’ situation in mostly negative terms and have often concentrated on just one or a few spheres of society. Success stories are overridden by examples of discrimination. This research aim to contribute to a broader picture and asks how the situation of Afro-Swedes as a minority group in the Swedish society could be understood. This qualitative desk study uses the framework from Hans-Ingvar Roth’s book Mångkulturalismens utmaningar (2005) [Challenges of Multiculturalism], to answer this questions. This research shows that Afro-Swedes experience positive and/or negative distance and/or inclusion within twelve identified spheres of society. Sometimes both positive and negative inclusion/distance is present even in the same sphere. The analysis of this research suggests that Afro-Swedes as a minority is rather distanced than included in the Swedish society, no matter if it is voluntary or not. This research do not neglect the discrimination or racism that many Afro-Swedes witness about, however, it supplements the more often negative picture presented. It does so by showing a more complex image where positive – as well as negative – elements of Afro-Swedes’ situation can be found in the Swedish society. 

  • 149.
    Einarsson, Catrin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Pettersson, Jenny
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    I riktning mot evidensbaserad praktik?: En kvalitativ studie av Polismyndighetens implementering av evidensbaserad praktik. 2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to illustrate how evidence-based praxis is implemented in the police agencies activities with crime prevention work. We asked two questions: a) What actions does the Swedish Police authority take when implementing evidence-based praxis in its operations? and b) What opportunities contra difficulties do the managers, community police officers and teachers at the police institute see with evidence-based praxis? This was investigated through qualitative interviews in order to capture the participants personal opinions and experiences about the subject. Evidence-based policies are practiced through the crime-prevention work that takes place through local cooperations. The role of community police officers constitutes an important strategic role as being cosmopolitan, which ensures that communication between the police and society works, which in turn forms the basis for the crime-prevention work. The result also shows that the police cannot take care of law enforcement on their own initiative; responsibility also rests on individuals, groups and other organizations. We see patterns of a majorly positive attitude within the police, which contradicts previous research. There are not enough evidence-based methods within all working fields of the police, which has emerged as an important factor in order to implement evidence-based praxis. Whilst the police may be positive towards evidence-based methods, they can not solely rely on them. The resources are too lacking in order for the evidence-based praxis to also permeate the police authority's work. In order for the police authority's work to be carried out by evidence-based methods, community police officers need to have a higher status internally. They also need a mandate in the form of being able to make decisions about operative resources. The main contribution of the study´s is that evidence-based praxis needs to be strategically implemented, and the key people who work primarily with evidence-based praxis needs a higher status within the organization.

  • 150.
    Ekholm, David
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Dahlstedt, Magnus
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Rönnbäck, Julia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Problematizing the absent girl: sport as a means of emancipation and social inclusion2019In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 22, no 6, p. 1043-1061Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Absence from sport participation among girls from ethno-cultural minorities is often highlighted as an inclusion policy challenge. Based on 35 interviews with community sports coaches, managers and partners, we explore how the absence of girls is problematized in four Swedish sports-based interventions, focusing on how problems, as well as the means and the ends of social inclusion, are articulated. The girls are assessed as being in need of social change due to their alleged social exclusion. Absence is explained by "patriarchal norms" as well as by the introvert conduct of the girls themselves. Girls-only sports activities performed by female coaches as role models are described as a way for girls to gain social inclusion and to become emancipated from subjugating norms. In conclusion, participation in community sport is highlighted in discourse as crucial for adopting powers of emancipation. A similar discourse could be recognized elsewhere, inside and outside the realm of sport.

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